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Sample records for health association acha

  1. The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

  2. "Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

  3. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco." The…

  4. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu).

    PubMed

    Jideani, I A; Jideani, V A

    2011-06-01

    Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.

  5. Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Laabes, Emmanuel P.; Presley, Jack M.; Schulze, John; Andrews, Ronnee; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Lu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 μg/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. PMID:26635994

  6. Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health…

  7. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  8. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  9. Traditional and possible technological uses of Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu): a review.

    PubMed

    Jideani, I A

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this article is the traditional and technological uses of two tropical cereal grains: Digitaria exilis (acha) and D. iburua (iburu); with emphasis on their carbohydrate and protein components. Some useful attributes of the grains emanating from present knowledge are discussed. The major classes of traditional foods from these grains are thick and thin porridges; steam cooked products, e.g. couscous; and nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The proteins in these grains are not easily extractable; however, the digestibility of the proteins are better than those of sorghum and millet. The high levels of residue protein in them may have important functional properties. Technologically, acha and iburu can be utilized in ways similar to rice. The two grains require minimal processing due to grain size and location of constituents. Whole acha and iburu grains are now used for quick cooking, non-conventional food products including weaning foods of low bulk density and breakfast cereal with good fiber content. The grains could be used in a wide variety of other products. Cookies, crackers, and popcorn, made in an almost endless array of forms are examples. The breeding of acha and iburu cultivars with good kernel properties is critically important to their utilization potential.

  10. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50 °C for 4 h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and then dried at 50 °C for 6 h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 % ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10 min), aged (4 °C for 6 h), cut, toasted (120 °C for 1 h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48 h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71 ± 0.06 to 6.11 ± 0.05, crude fibre from 36.62 ± 0.01 to 46.18 ± 0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50 ± 0.18 to 2.71 ± 0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29 ± 0.04 to 13.27 ± 0.22, ash from 1.41 ± 0.17 to 6.36 ± 0.17 and crude protein from 30.32 ± 0.21 to 33.53 ± 0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12 h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24 h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36 h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48 h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability

  11. A scope-of-practice survey leading to the development of standards of practice for health promotion in higher education.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christine G; Hill, Martin H; Sonnad, Subhash R

    2003-05-01

    To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and Education in Institutions of Higher Education and mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of 600 ACHA member institutions, as well as to 97 key "best-practice health promotion leaders". The larger sample produced a 75.3% response rate, and 90.7% of the key informants returned usable surveys. The authors report selected findings from both groups that chronicle the state of health promotion practice in higher education at the close of the 20th century. The task force used the findings to establish a data-driven framework for the Year 2001 Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education.

  12. Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha (Digitaria exilis) flours.

    PubMed

    Obizoba, I C; Anyika, J U

    1994-09-01

    The baobab milk and fermented baobab/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented flours served as controls. The standard assay methods of AOAC were selected for use for the analysis of the nutrients and the antinutrients. The mixtures were composed of 70% acha and 30% baobab flours (70:30 protein basis). The baobab milk contained more protein (1.5%) and minerals (Fe, 17.8 mg; Ca 134.2 mg) than those of human milk (protein, 1.3%, Fe, 0.2 mg, Ca 30 mg) and cow milk (Fe, 0.1 mg; Ca 1.20 mg) and most leading national commercial infant formulas e.g. cerelac (Fe, 10.0 mg). The composite flours contained more nutrients than the baobab or the acha flour alone. The BF96 had greater advantage over other BF flours as a supplement to acha. The mixtures are within the reach of lower income group and can be incorporated into their diets.

  13. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Public Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Climate Change Gun Violence Environmental Health Health Equity Health Reform ... to AJPH Public Health Newswire April 14 news: Climate change, mumps outbreak in Texas, type 2 diabetes in ...

  14. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  15. American College Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... that support the health and well-being of college students and their campus communities… Learn more » Education ... for ... informed knowledge on issues impacting the health of college students and their campus communities... Learn more » Skip breadcrumb ...

  16. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Join Donate NRHA Connect Partners search-opener Search for: Experience the best health care climate Learn from rural health leaders by the beach in sunny San Diego NRHA's Annual Rural Health Conference is May 9-12 NRHA Partners Program Support ...

  17. American Health Care Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... preferred... Read More Executive Director | Dogwood Village of Orange County US - VA - Orange, Executive Director Dogwood Village of Orange County Health and Rehabilitation and Senior Living, a ...

  18. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infectious Diseases has a new Spanish language website! https://t.co… RT @CDCgov: Know when you need ... Together we can fight antibiotic resistance. Be #AntibioticSmart. https://t.… RT @AMJPublicHealth: Whiteness of the #opioidepidemic is ...

  19. Nosocomial (Health Care-Associated) Legionnaire's Disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shanu; Abell, Virginia; File, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    Nosocomial Legionnaire's disease is most frequently associated with presence of the organism in hospital water systems. Patients are often susceptible as a result of age, underlying comorbidities, or immunosuppression. Prevention focuses on reducing the reservoir within water systems and includes super heating, ultraviolent light, chlorination, silver-copper ionization, and distal filtration. This article reviews the epidemiology of health care-associated Legionnaire's disease, reviews characteristics of several health care-associated outbreaks, and discusses strategies to prevent health care-associated infection.

  20. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  1. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body.

  2. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  3. Evaluation of a Child Health Associate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungy, Claiborne I.; Sander, Daryl L.

    1977-01-01

    The staff of the University of Colorado Child Health Associate Program critically reviewed the effectiveness of the program's structure and content during an intensive two-day seminar. Focus was on basic and clinical sciences, psychosocial skills, and proficiency testing, and the evaluations were used to improve the program. (Editor/LBH)

  4. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  5. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction.

  6. Varicella Immunization Requirements for US Colleges: 2014-2015 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Jessica; Marin, Mona; Leino, Victor; Even, Susan; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information on varicella prematriculation requirements in US colleges for undergraduate students during the 2014-2015 academic year. Participants: Health care professionals and member schools of the American College Health Association (ACHA). Methods: An electronic survey was sent to ACHA members regarding school…

  7. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  8. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  9. Does health care associated pneumonia really exist?

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alejandra; Amaro, Rosanel; Polverino, Eva

    2012-07-01

    The most recent ATS guidelines for nosocomial pneumonia of 2005 describe a new clinical category of patients, Health Care-Associated Pneumonia which includes a number of very heterogeneous conditions possibly associated with a high risk of multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections and of mortality. This paper aims at reviewing the current literature on HCAP and examines the controversial issues of HCAP etiology and outcomes, underlining the need of a profound revision of the HCAP concept in the face of the poor and contrasting scientific evidence supporting its basis.

  10. Mental Health Disorders Associated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-11-01

    Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are

  11. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report From an NHLBI/ACHA Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S; Daniels, Curt J; Fuller, Stephanie M P N; Honein, Margaret A; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Mahle, William T; Mann, Douglas L; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W; Pearson, Gail D; Starling, Randall C; Tringali, Glenn R; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C; Califf, Robert M

    2016-04-26

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary working group to identify high-impact research questions in adult CHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease, and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single-ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy.

  12. Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  13. Association of Parental Health Literacy with Oral Health of Navajo Nation Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is "the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale…

  14. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Chapters Individual & Business Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Conferences 2017 AAOHN National Conference 2017 AAOHN ... Careers AAOHN Career Center Certification Occupational & Environmental Health Nurse Career Resource Guide Compensation & Benefits Study OHN Career ...

  15. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archives learn more » For Patients Your health care choices matter. Whether you're anticipating a surgical procedure, ... 853.9028 E: info@aaahc.org About Us Careers News & Resources Surveyors Find a Health Care Organization ...

  16. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Release Archives learn more » For Patients Your health care choices matter. Whether you're anticipating a surgical ... certificate of accreditation is a sign that a health care organization meets or exceeds nationally-recognized Standards. Learn ...

  17. Government Spending In Health And Nonhealth Sectors Associated With Improvement In County Health Rankings.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J Mac; Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-11-01

    There is little evidence to demonstrate the impact on local health outcomes of spending that occurs outside the health care sector. We leveraged novel data from the US Census Bureau to measure the independent impact of a community's health and nonhealth expenditures on a broad measure of overall health-the County Health Rankings-over time. Using lagged longitudinal models that accounted for correlations of health outcomes and expenditures within counties, we found significant positive associations between expenditures and County Health Rankings for seven of the fourteen expenditure categories examined: community health care and public health, public hospitals, fire protection, K-12 education, corrections, libraries, and housing and community development. These areas of social spending have modest but detectable positive associations with population health, whether or not they primarily target health. Achieving improved health outcomes through a culture-of-health ethos should involve the consideration of public expenditures in both health and other social service areas.

  18. The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Musich, S; Napier, D; Edington, D W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between health risks and workers' compensation (WC) costs. The 4-year study used Health Risk Appraisal data and focused on 1996-to-1999 WC costs among Xerox Corporation's long-term employees. High WC costs were related to individual health risks, especially Health Age Index (a measure of controllable risks), smoking, poor physical health, physical inactivity, and life dissatisfaction. WC costs increased with increasing health risk status (low-risk to medium-risk to high-risk). Low-risk employees had the lowest costs. In this population, 85% of WC costs could be attributed to excess risks (medium- or high-risk) or non-participation. Among those with claims, a savings of $1238 per person per year was associated with Health Risk Appraisal participation. Addressing WC costs by focusing on employee health status provides an important additional strategy for health promotion programs.

  19. Association between cultural distance and migrant self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Detollenaere, Jens; Baert, Stijn; Willems, Sara

    2017-03-24

    We study whether migrant health in Europe is associated with the cultural distance between their host country and country of origin. To this end, we run multilevel regression models on data merging self-rated health and social background of ≥3800 migrants from the European Social Survey with an index of cultural distance based on country differences in values, norms and attitudes measured in the World Values Survey. We find that higher levels of cultural distance are associated with worse migrant health. This association is comparable in size with the negative association between health and female (compared with male) gender but less important than the association between health and education level. In addition, this association is less significant among second-generation than first-generation migrants.

  20. Upgrading the Association for the Advancement of Health Education's Health Resources Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education (AAHE) and Academic Programs for Health Science, George Mason University (Virginia), have collaborated in upgrading AAHE's Health Resources Information System. The process involved updating the health resources information on file. This information, which represents addresses and telephone…

  1. Factors associated with self-reported health: implications for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mortality, suggesting that self-reported health (SRH) may be useful in screening-level community assessments. This paper evaluates whether SRH is an appropriate surrogate indicator of health status by evaluating relationships between SRH and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health care factors as well as serological indicators of nutrition, health risk, and environmental exposures.METHODS: Data were combined from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1372 nonsmoking 20-50 year olds. Ordinal and binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of reporting poorer health based on measures of nutrition, health condition, environmental contaminants, and sociodemographic, health care, and lifestyle factors.RESULTS: Poorer SRH was associated with several serological measures of nutrition, health condition, and biomarkers of toluene, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Race/ethnicity, income, education, access to health care, food security, exercise, poor mental and physical health, prescription drug use, and multiple health outcome measures (e.g., diabetes, thyroid problems, asthma) were also associated with poorer SRH.CONCLUS

  2. Studying Associations in Health Care Research.

    PubMed

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Flannelly, Laura T; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses some of the types of relationships observed in healthcare research and depicts them in graphic form. The article begins by explaining two basic associations observed in chemistry and physics (Boyles' Law and Charles' Law), and illustrates how these associations are similar to curvilinear and linear associations, respectively, found in healthcare. Graphs of curvilinear associations include morbidity curves and survival and mortality curves. Several examples of linear relationships are given and methods of testing linear relationships with interval and ratio data are introduced (i.e., correlation and ordinary least-squares regression). In addition, 2 × 2 contingency tables for testing the association between categorical (or nominal) data are described. Finally, Sir Austin Bradford Hill's eight criteria for assessing causality from research on associations between variables are presented and explained. Three appendices provide interested readers with opportunities to practice interpreting selected curvilinear and linear relationships.

  3. Health care-associated pneumonia: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Russell T; Frei, Christopher R

    2011-08-01

    Health care-associated pneumonia is a relatively new classification of pneumonia that includes community-dwelling pneumonia patients having contact with the health care system. Current data indicate that health care-associated pneumonia patients present with more severe disease, are more likely to be infected with drug-resistant pathogens, and suffer increased mortality compared with community-acquired pneumonia patients. Guidelines recommend that these patients receive empiric antibiotics similar to those recommended for nosocomial pneumonia; however, it is not currently known if outcomes are improved when health care-associated pneumonia patients are treated with these therapies. In addition, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors are based on limited data and are a poor predictor of patients likely to be infected with drug-resistant pathogens. Many questions remain on how to most appropriately care for this growing group of pneumonia patients. This review is an evidence-based discussion of current health care-associated pneumonia data, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors, and limitations and additional considerations for the health care-associated pneumonia classification system.

  4. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  5. Health Literacy Associations Between Hispanic Elderly Patients and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cesar H.; Espinoza, Sara E.; Lichtenstein, Michael; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing health literacy levels of older patients and their caregivers is important because caregivers assist patients in the administration of medications, manage daily health care tasks, and help make health services utilization decisions. The authors examined the association of health literacy levels between older Hispanic patients and their caregivers among 174 patient-caregiver dyads enrolled from 3 community clinics and 28 senior centers in San Antonio, Texas. Health literacy was measured using English and Spanish versions of the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy Assessment and categorized as “low” or “adequate.” The largest dyad category (41%) consisted of a caregiver with adequate health literacy and patient with low health literacy. Among the dyads with the same health literacy levels, 28% had adequate health literacy and 24% had low health literacy. It is notable that 7% of dyads consisted of a caregiver with low health literacy and a patient with adequate health literacy. Low health literacy is a concern not only for older Hispanic patients but also for their caregivers. To provide optimal care, clinicians must ensure that information is given to both patients and their caregivers in clear effective ways as it may significantly affect patient health outcomes. PMID:24093360

  6. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…

  7. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Anderson, E.L. )

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 {times} 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 {times} 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  8. Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881

  9. Improving Children's Heart Health: A Report from the American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidding, Samuel S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed at the 1994 American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference to promote cardiovascular health in children, particularly regarding public health, lifestyle, and behavior. The recommendations cover the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco, providing suggestions for schools,…

  10. 78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting Entity for the Accreditation... Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized accrediting entity for the purposes of fulfilling the... Exchange. \\3\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health...

  11. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  12. [Simulation for the announcement of health care-associated harm].

    PubMed

    Cluzel, Franck; Lopes, Rosa; Guévara, Francisco; Delport, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    A participative pedagogical tool, simulation aids the transfer of competencies in relation to the complex situation of announcing health care-associated harm. The aim is to reinforce patient safety and to improve the quality of communication with patients and between health professionals.

  13. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  14. Polity and health care expenditures: the association among 159 nations.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Leah E; Gregorio, David I

    2013-03-01

    This paper hypothesized that democratic nations, as characterized by Polity IV Project regime scores, spend more on health care than autocratic nations and that the association reported here is independent of other demographic, health system or economic characteristics of nations. WHO Global Observatory data on 159 nations with roughly 98% of the world's population were examined. Regime scores had significant, direct and independent associations with each of four measures of health care expenditure. For every unit increment in a nation's regime score toward a more democratic authority structure of governance, we estimated significant (p<0.05) increments in the percent of GDP expended on health care (+0.14%), percent of general government expenditures targeted to health care (+0.25%), total per capita expenditures on health (+34.4Int$) and per capita general government expenditures (+22.4Int$), while controlling for a population's age distribution, life expectancy, health care workforce and system effectiveness and gross national income. Moreover, these relationships were found to persist across socio-economic development levels. The finding that practices of health care expenditure and authority structures of government co-vary is instructive about the politics of health and the challenges of advancing global health objectives.

  15. Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Backer, L C; Niskar, A S; Rubin, C; Blindauer, K; Christianson, D; Naeher, L; Rogers, H S

    2001-10-01

    Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure to the toxins produced by microorganisms present in oceans and estuaries. One of these organisms is Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, a dinoflagellate found in estuaries along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the United States. There have been reports of both human illness associated with occupational exposures to concentrated laboratory cultures of P. piscicida and massive fill kills associated with the presence of the organism in rivers and estuaries. These reports, and anecdotal reports from people who worked on rivers where the organism has been found, generated concern that environmental exposures to P. piscicida, similar organisms, or perhaps a toxin or toxins produced by the organism(s), could cause adverse human health effects. To begin to evaluate the public health burden associated with P. piscicida, investigators from the National Center for Environmental Health at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health agencies from states along the Atlantic coast collaborated to develop a passive surveillance system for collecting, classifying, and tracking public inquiries about the organism. Specifically, the group developed exposure and symptom criteria and developed data collection and reporting capabilities to capture the human health parameters collectively referred to as possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS). The surveillance system was implemented in six states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) beginning in June 1998. From 1 June 1998 through 30 June 2001, the six state health

  16. Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, L C; Niskar, A S; Rubin, C; Blindauer, K; Christianson, D; Naeher, L; Rogers, H S

    2001-01-01

    Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure to the toxins produced by microorganisms present in oceans and estuaries. One of these organisms is Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, a dinoflagellate found in estuaries along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the United States. There have been reports of both human illness associated with occupational exposures to concentrated laboratory cultures of P. piscicida and massive fill kills associated with the presence of the organism in rivers and estuaries. These reports, and anecdotal reports from people who worked on rivers where the organism has been found, generated concern that environmental exposures to P. piscicida, similar organisms, or perhaps a toxin or toxins produced by the organism(s), could cause adverse human health effects. To begin to evaluate the public health burden associated with P. piscicida, investigators from the National Center for Environmental Health at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health agencies from states along the Atlantic coast collaborated to develop a passive surveillance system for collecting, classifying, and tracking public inquiries about the organism. Specifically, the group developed exposure and symptom criteria and developed data collection and reporting capabilities to capture the human health parameters collectively referred to as possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS). The surveillance system was implemented in six states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) beginning in June 1998. From 1 June 1998 through 30 June 2001, the six state health

  17. Is Personality Associated with Health Care Use by Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bruce; Veazie, Peter J; Chapman, Benjamin P; Manning, Willard G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Context The patterns of health care utilization in the United States pose well-established challenges for public policy. Although economic and sociological research has resulted in considerable knowledge about what influences the use of health services, the psychological literature in this area is underdeveloped. Importantly, it is not known whether personality traits are associated with older adults’ use of acute and long-term care services. Methods Data were collected from 1,074 community-dwelling seniors participating in a Medicare demonstration. First they completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the “Big Five” personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. During the next two years, the participants maintained daily journals of their use of health care services. We used regression models based on the Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization to test for associations. Findings Our hypothesis that higher Neuroticism would be associated with greater health care use was confirmed for three services—probability of any emergency department (ED) use, likelihood of any custodial nursing home use, and more skilled nursing facility (SNF) days for SNF users—but was disconfirmed for hospital days for those hospitalized. Higher Openness to Experience was associated with a greater likelihood of custodial home care use, and higher Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness with a higher probability of custodial nursing home use. For users, lower Openness was associated with more ED visits and SNF days, and lower Conscientiousness with more ED visits. For many traits with significant associations, the predicted use was 16 to 30 percent greater for people high (low) versus low (high) in specific traits. Conclusions Personality traits are associated with Medicare beneficiaries’ use of many expensive health care services, findings that have implications for health services research and

  18. Women's cardiovascular health. An official position statement of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric & Neonatal Nursing.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) maintains that nurses and other clinical professionals should include routine cardiovascular health screening,provide education, and promote awareness at health care visits for women across the lifespan.Advocacy for preventive measures should begin early, and adolescent girls and young women should be encouraged to adopt heart-healthy habits. For adult and senior women, nurses should work to increase patient awareness about risk factors,symptoms and treatment options associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk.Efforts should extend to women of every age and health status.

  19. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Shanahan, Danielle F; Hudson, Hannah L; Fuller, Richard A; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J

    2017-02-09

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  20. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Daniel T. C.; Shanahan, Danielle F.; Hudson, Hannah L.; Fuller, Richard A.; Anderson, Karen; Hancock, Steven; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a) nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space) and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover) of nature exposure and (b) health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare. PMID:28208789

  1. County workforce, reimbursement, and organizational factors associated with behavioral health capacity in health centers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily; Ku, Leighton; Smith, Shelagh; Lardiere, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This study describes on-site behavioral health treatment capacity in health centers in 2007 and examines whether capacity was associated with health center characteristics, county-level behavioral health workforce, and same-day billing restrictions. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Area Resource File and Uniform Data System were linked with data on Medicaid same-day billing restrictions. Mental health treatment capacity was common; almost four in five health centers provided on-site mental health services. Additional services such as crisis counseling (20 %), treatment from a psychiatrist (29 %), and substance abuse treatment were offered by fewer health centers (51 % provide on-site services and only 20 % employ substance abuse specialists). In multivariate analysis, larger health centers, health centers located in counties with a larger behavioral health workforce per capita, and those located in the West and Northeast were more likely to have behavioral health capacity. Same-day billing restrictions were associated with lower odds of substance use treatment capacity and providing 24 hr crisis counseling services.

  2. Home Foreclosure, Health, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Individual, Aggregate, and Contextual Associations

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health. Methods and Findings I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%]) concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations. Conclusions Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits. PMID:25849962

  3. Family characteristics and parents' and children's health behaviour are associated with public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Mäki, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to establish whether family characteristics and the health behaviour and illnesses of parents and children are associated with public health nurses' (PHNs') concerns about children's physical health and psychosocial development in the context of health examinations. Factors affecting children's health and well-being should be identified as early as possible to provide children and families appropriate support. In 2007-2009, a cross-sectional study in Finland collected information about PHNs' concerns, children's health and well-being as well as the background factors affecting them during health examinations of preschool-age children and school-aged children (n = 4795). Associations between family characteristics, parents' and children's behaviour and diseases, and PHNs' concerns were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overweight in children, the long-term illnesses of both children and parents, and parental smoking were the factors most strongly associated with PHNs' concerns about a child's physical health whereas non-nuclear family types, the father's low educational level and unemployment, the child's lack of sleep, and bullying were associated with concerns about the child's psychosocial development. The connections found demonstrate that health examinations should address factors that affect the whole family's well-being so as to comprehensively promote children's health, growth and development.

  4. Characteristics of Local Health Departments Associated with Implementation of Electronic Health Records and Other Informatics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Williams, Karmen S.; Luo, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessing local health departments' (LHDs') informatics capacities is important, especially within the context of broader, systems-level health reform. We assessed a nationally representative sample of LHDs' adoption of information systems and the factors associated with adoption and implementation by examining electronic health records, health information exchange, immunization registry, electronic disease reporting system, and electronic laboratory reporting. Methods We used data from the National Association of County and City Health Officials' 2013 National Profile of LHDs. We performed descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression for the five implementation-oriented outcome variables of interest, with three levels of implementation (implemented, plan to implement, and no activity). Independent variables included infrastructural and financial capacity and other characteristics associated with informatics capacity. Results Of 505 LHDs that responded to the survey, 69 (13.5%) had implemented health information exchanges, 122 (22.2%) had implemented electronic health records, 245 (47.5%) had implemented electronic laboratory reporting, 368 (73.0%) had implemented an electronic disease reporting system, and 416 (83.8%) had implemented an immunization registry. LHD characteristics associated with health informatics adoption included provision of greater number of clinical services, greater per capita public health expenditures, health information systems specialists on staff, larger population size, decentralized governance system, one or more local boards of health, metropolitan jurisdiction, and top executive with more years in the job. Conclusion Many LHDs lack health informatics capacity, particularly in smaller, rural jurisdictions. Cross-jurisdictional sharing, investment in public health informatics infrastructure, and additional training may help address these shortfalls. PMID:26957662

  5. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  6. Why Are Reading Difficulties Associated with Mental Health Problems?

    PubMed

    Boyes, Mark E; Leitao, Suze; Claessen, Mary; Badcock, Nicholas A; Nayton, Mandy

    2016-08-01

    A growing literature indicates that children with reading difficulties are at elevated risk for mental health problems; however, little attention has been given to why this might be the case. Associations between reading difficulties and mental health differ substantially across studies, raising the possibility that these relationships may be ameliorated or exacerbated by risk or resilience-promoting factors. Using socio-ecological theory as a conceptual framework, we outline four potential lines of research that could shed light on why children with reading difficulties are at risk of mental health problems and identify potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Environmental Health in the 21st Century: A Role for the National Environmental Health Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the public health ramifications of environmental management and how the National Environmental Health Association should play a role in addressing the issues on the Earth Summit agenda and the National Agenda for Environmental Quality. Explores the link between ecological ills, national and international trade, and related consumption of…

  8. Substance Use and Associated Health Conditions throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Marya T.; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2016-01-01

    A life stage perspective is necessary for development of age-appropriate strategies to address substance use disorders (SUDs) and related health conditions in order to produce better overall health and well-being. The current review evaluated the literature across three major life stages: adolescence, adulthood, and older adulthood. Findings 1) Substance use is often initiated in adolescence, but it is during adulthood that prevalence rates for SUDs peak; and while substance involvement is less common among older adults, the risk for health complications associated with use increases. 2) Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and, increasingly, prescription medications, are the most commonly misused substances across age groups; however, the use pattern of these and other drugs and the salient impact vary depending on life stage. 3) In terms of health outcomes, all ages are at risk for overdose, accidental injury, and attempted suicide. Adolescents are more likely to be in vehicular accidents while older adults are at greater risk for damaging falls. Adulthood has the highest rates of associated medical conditions (e.g., cancer, sexually transmitted disease, heart disease) and mental health conditions (e.g., bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Conclusion Prolonged heavy use of drugs and/or alcohol results in an array of serious health conditions. Addressing SUDs from a life stage perspective with assessment and treatment approaches incorporating co-occurring disorders are necessary to successfully impact overall health.

  9. Associations of eHealth Literacy With Health Behavior Among Adult Internet Users

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis

  10. Methylobacterium and Its Role in Health Care-Associated Infection

    PubMed Central

    Degener, John E.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2014-01-01

    Methylobacterium species are a cause of health care-associated infection, including infections in immunocompromised hosts. The ability of Methylobacterium species to form biofilms and to develop resistance to high temperatures, drying, and disinfecting agents may explain the colonization of Methylobacterium in the hospital environment in, e.g., endoscopes. Due to its slow growth, it can be easily missed during microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing. The purpose of this minireview is to present an overview of documented infections and cross-contaminations with Methylobacterium related to endoscopic procedures and to illustrate the health care-associated relevance of this slow-growing bacterium. PMID:24430456

  11. Psychological Distress Among Older Prisoners: Associations With Health, Health Care Utilization, and the Prison Environment.

    PubMed

    Baidawi, Susan; Trotter, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Physical and functional health issues among older prisoners may be difficult to address in an environment designed for younger inmates. This article investigates the relationships between older prisoners' health, their experiences of the prison environment and health services, and their levels of psychological distress. One hundred and seventy-three older prisoners (aged 50 years and older) from eight Australian prisons were interviewed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, with additional information collected from prisoner interviews and correctional health files. Distress scores were significantly associated with measures of physical health, functional independence, and health care utilization. However, a hierarchical regression analysis determined that physical difficulties in the prison environment and issues accessing prison health care explained a significant proportion of the variation in older prisoners' distress scores.

  12. Associations between chlorophyll a and various microcystin health advisory concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Kreakie, Betty J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects that stem mostly from the presence of cyanotoxins. To help protect against these impacts, several health advisory levels have been set for some toxins. In particular, one of the more common toxins, microcystin, has several advisory levels set for drinking water and recreational use. However, compared to other water quality measures, field measurements of microcystin are not commonly available due to cost and advanced understanding required to interpret results. Addressing these issues will take time and resources. Thus, there is utility in finding indicators of microcystin that are already widely available, can be estimated quickly and in situ, and used as a first defense against high levels of microcystin. Chlorophyll a is commonly measured, can be estimated in situ, and has been shown to be positively associated with microcystin. In this paper, we use this association to provide estimates of chlorophyll a concentrations that are indicative of a higher probability of exceeding select health advisory concentrations for microcystin. Using the 2007 National Lakes Assessment and a conditional probability approach, we identify chlorophyll a concentrations that are more likely than not to be associated with an exceedance of a microcystin health advisory level. We look at the recent US EPA health advisories for drinking water as well as the World Health Organization levels for drinking water and recreational use and identify a range of chlorophyll a thresholds. A 50% chance of exceeding one of the specific advisory microcystin concentrations of 0.3, 1, 1.6, and 2 μg/L is associated with chlorophyll a concentration thresholds of 23, 68, 84, and 104 μg/L, respectively. When managing for these various microcystin levels, exceeding these reported chlorophyll a concentrations should be a trigger for further testing and possible management action. PMID:27127617

  13. Associations between chlorophyll a and various microcystin health advisory concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Jeffrey W; Kreakie, Betty J

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects that stem mostly from the presence of cyanotoxins. To help protect against these impacts, several health advisory levels have been set for some toxins. In particular, one of the more common toxins, microcystin, has several advisory levels set for drinking water and recreational use. However, compared to other water quality measures, field measurements of microcystin are not commonly available due to cost and advanced understanding required to interpret results. Addressing these issues will take time and resources. Thus, there is utility in finding indicators of microcystin that are already widely available, can be estimated quickly and in situ, and used as a first defense against high levels of microcystin. Chlorophyll a is commonly measured, can be estimated in situ, and has been shown to be positively associated with microcystin. In this paper, we use this association to provide estimates of chlorophyll a concentrations that are indicative of a higher probability of exceeding select health advisory concentrations for microcystin. Using the 2007 National Lakes Assessment and a conditional probability approach, we identify chlorophyll a concentrations that are more likely than not to be associated with an exceedance of a microcystin health advisory level. We look at the recent US EPA health advisories for drinking water as well as the World Health Organization levels for drinking water and recreational use and identify a range of chlorophyll a thresholds. A 50% chance of exceeding one of the specific advisory microcystin concentrations of 0.3, 1, 1.6, and 2 μg/L is associated with chlorophyll a concentration thresholds of 23, 68, 84, and 104 μg/L, respectively. When managing for these various microcystin levels, exceeding these reported chlorophyll a concentrations should be a trigger for further testing and possible management action.

  14. Factors associated with preferences for health system goals in Japan: a pilot study of the World Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Hoshi, Keika; Sato, Yasuto; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2011-09-01

    Preferences among people for health system goals are important determinants in developing health policy. The aim of this study was to determine preferences for health system goals and their associations with sociodemographic characteristics in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the general population in 5 prefectures and were asked to rank 5 health system goals in order of preference: health, health inequality, responsiveness, responsiveness inequality, and fair financing. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and preferences for health system goals were examined using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A total of 4936 persons responded to this study. Health system goals in order of preference were health inequality (37.6%), responsiveness inequality (20.9%), health (18.4%), responsiveness (16.0%), and fair financing (7.1%). Sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, age, family status, education completed, and usage of health care services were associated with the preferred health system goal. Health policy makers should take these associations into account when developing prospective policy.

  15. Neighbourhood social capital: measurement issues and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes.

  16. Factors associated with parent capability on child's oral health care.

    PubMed

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Laovoravit, Vorawee; Vanichanuwat, Vittawat; Charatchaiwanna, Attakorn; Charatchaiwanna, Attakrit; Bunpradit, Weerapol; Arunakul, Malee

    2012-01-01

    We investigated parental attitudes and behavior affecting their ability to care for their children's oral health among Thais who reside in or near Bangkok and to develop a Thai version of a factor analysis questionnaire in order to assess the risk of developing early childhood caries. There were 241 participants, 48.1% were aged 20-to-30 years, 86.3% were married and 48% had two children. Thirty-seven percent of subjects had a monthly income between 10,001 and 30,000 Baht. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between parental education levels, monthly incomes and attitudes and behaviors. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between parental education levels, careers and causes of stress that affected care of their child's oral health. Factors that affected their ability to care for their child's oral health were from most to least was lack of time, lack of knowledge about brushing, stress from work, not raising their child by themselves, economics problems and being a single parent. Parental attitudes and behavior in regard to their child's oral health were associated with their education levels and monthly income. Factors that affected their ability to care for their child's oral health were their education levels and their careers. These factors should be considered when giving oral hygiene education to improve their parenting capabilities.

  17. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  19. Health risks associated with swimming at an inland river

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swimming exposure to fecally-contaminated oceans and lakes has been associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness. Although treated and untreated sewage are often discharged to rivers, the health risks of swimming exposure on rivers has been less frequently ...

  20. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Long-Term Association between Developmental Assets and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleck, Jennifer; DeBate, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on internal and external assets, the positive youth development approach aims to increase the capacity among adolescents to overcome challenges as they transition to adulthood. Developmental assets have been found to be positively associated with academic achievement, a variety of health promoting behaviors, and improved…

  2. The durability of beneficial health effects associated with expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Denise M; Feinstein, Brian A; Marx, Brian P

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the durability of benefits associated with expressive writing. Sixty-eight college undergraduates completed measures of physical and psychological health at the beginning of their first year and were then randomized to either an expressive writing or a control writing condition. Changes in physical health, psychological health (i.e., depression, stress, and anxiety), and academic performance were assessed two, four, and six months later. Findings indicated that participants assigned to the expressive writing condition reported less depression symptom severity at the two-month follow-up assessment relative to participants assigned to the control condition. However, these symptom reductions were not observed at any of the subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant changes were reported for physical health complaints, stress symptoms,anxiety symptoms, or academic performance. These findings suggest that,among first-year college students, expressive writing may provide some shortterm relief for certain symptoms.

  3. The Israeli Medical Association's discourse on health inequity.

    PubMed

    Avni, Shlomit; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    The present paper analyses the emergence and characteristics of Israeli Medical Association (IMA) discourse on health inequality in Israel during the years 1977-2010. The IMA addressed the issue of health inequality at a relatively late stage in time (2000), as compared to other OECD countries such as the UK, and did so in a relatively limited way, focusing primarily on professional or economic interests. The dominant discourses on health inequalities within the IMA are biomedical and behavioral, characterized by a focus on medical and/or cultural and behavioral differences, the predominant use of medical terminology, and an individualistic rather than a structural conceptualization of the social characteristics of health differences. Additionally, IMA discourses emphasize certain aspects of health inequality such as the geographical and material inequities, and in doing so overlook the role played by class, nationality and the unequal structure of citizenship. Paradoxically, by disregarding the latter, the IMA's discourse on health inequality has the potential to reinforce the structural causes of these inequities. Our research is based on a textual critical discourse analysis (CDA) of hundreds of documents from the IMA's scientific medical journal, the IMA's members journal and public IMA documents such as press-releases, Knesset protocols, publications, and public surveys. By providing knowledge on the different ways in which the IMA, a key stakeholder in the health field, de-codifies, understands, explains, and attempts to deal with health inequality, the article illuminates possible implications on health policy and seeks to evaluate the direct interventions carried out by the IMA, or by other actors influenced by it, pertaining to health inequality.

  4. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  5. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  6. The Denture-Associated Oral Microbiome in Health and Stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baochen; Wu, Tingxi; McLean, Jeffrey; Edlund, Anna; Young, Youngik; He, Xuesong; Lv, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuedong; Shi, Wenyuan; Li, Huiying; Lux, Renate

    2016-01-01

    While investigation of the microbiome on natural oral surfaces has generated a wealth of information, few studies have examined the microbial communities colonizing dentures and their relationship to oral health. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the bacterial community associated with dentures and remaining teeth in healthy individuals and patients with denture stomatitis. The microbiome compositions of matched denture and tooth plaque samples of 10 healthy individuals and 9 stomatitis patients were determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The microbial communities colonizing dentures and remaining teeth in health and disease were very similar to each other. Matched denture and tooth samples from the same individuals shared a significantly higher percentage of identical phylotypes than random pairs of samples from different study participants. Despite these overall similarities, several bacterial phylotypes displayed discrete health- and stomatitis-associated denture colonization, while others were distinct in health and disease independently of the surface. Certain phylotypes exhibited differential colonization of dentures and teeth independently of denture health status. In conclusion, denture and natural tooth surfaces in health and stomatitis harbor similar bacterial communities. Individual-related rather than surface-specific factors play a significant role in the bacterial phylotype composition colonizing dentures and teeth. This individual-specific mutual influence on denture and tooth surface colonization could be an important factor in maintaining oral health in denture wearers. Discrete differences in colonization patterns for distinct genera and phylotypes warrant further studies regarding their potential involvement or utility as specific indicators of health and disease development in denture-wearing individuals. IMPORTANCE Denture stomatitis is a prevalent inflammatory condition of the mucosal tissue in denture wearers that is

  7. The Denture-Associated Oral Microbiome in Health and Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baochen; Wu, Tingxi; McLean, Jeffrey; Edlund, Anna; Young, Youngik; He, Xuesong; Lv, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuedong; Shi, Wenyuan; Li, Huiying

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While investigation of the microbiome on natural oral surfaces has generated a wealth of information, few studies have examined the microbial communities colonizing dentures and their relationship to oral health. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the bacterial community associated with dentures and remaining teeth in healthy individuals and patients with denture stomatitis. The microbiome compositions of matched denture and tooth plaque samples of 10 healthy individuals and 9 stomatitis patients were determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The microbial communities colonizing dentures and remaining teeth in health and disease were very similar to each other. Matched denture and tooth samples from the same individuals shared a significantly higher percentage of identical phylotypes than random pairs of samples from different study participants. Despite these overall similarities, several bacterial phylotypes displayed discrete health- and stomatitis-associated denture colonization, while others were distinct in health and disease independently of the surface. Certain phylotypes exhibited differential colonization of dentures and teeth independently of denture health status. In conclusion, denture and natural tooth surfaces in health and stomatitis harbor similar bacterial communities. Individual-related rather than surface-specific factors play a significant role in the bacterial phylotype composition colonizing dentures and teeth. This individual-specific mutual influence on denture and tooth surface colonization could be an important factor in maintaining oral health in denture wearers. Discrete differences in colonization patterns for distinct genera and phylotypes warrant further studies regarding their potential involvement or utility as specific indicators of health and disease development in denture-wearing individuals. IMPORTANCE Denture stomatitis is a prevalent inflammatory condition of the mucosal tissue in denture wearers that

  8. Association between Municipal Health Promotion Volunteers’ Health Literacy and Their Level of Outreach Activities in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between health literacy and levels of three types of core activities among health promotion volunteers (developing a healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community members). Study Design A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-administered postal survey of registered health promotion volunteers in the Konan area in Shiga Prefecture in Japan, conducted in January 2010. The study sample was 575 registered health promotion volunteers. Methods The survey collected data on health literacy, gender, age, education, self-rated health, perceptions about the volunteer organization, and perceptions of recognition in the community. The level of engagement in health promotion activities was measured by the extent to which the participants engaged in seven healthy behaviors and promoted them to family members and the community. The authors compared the health literacy level and other characteristics of the participants by core health promotion activities, using a chi-squared test, to examine the associations between demographic and other variables and the three core activities (healthy lifestyle, outreach to family, and outreach to community).Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between the degree to which the volunteers engaged in core activities (“healthy lifestyle,” “outreach to family,” “outreach to community”) and the levels of health literacy (low, medium, high) among health promotion volunteers, controlling for the effects of age, gender, health condition, education which may also have an impact on volunteers’ outreach activities. Results Four hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned, a 79.0% response rate. Excluding 16 cases with missing values on health literacy or the degree of health promotion activities, 438 research subjects were included in the analysis (valid response rate: 76.2%). Health literacy and a few demographic and other characteristics of the

  9. 86(th) Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report.

    PubMed

    Smith, Selina A; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The 86(th) annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 13-14, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12(th)) and post-conference (April 14(th)) Executive Board meetings. As Georgia's leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (1929-1936); during World War II (1941-1943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this year's conference. These included a "move and groove" physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health. Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy, Georgia's response to the

  10. 86th Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The 86th annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 13–14, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12th) and post-conference (April 14th) Executive Board meetings. As Georgia’s leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (1929–1936); during World War II (1941–1943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this year’s conference. These included a “move and groove” physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health. Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy

  11. 78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an...\\ Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To...

  12. Association of financial and health literacy with cognitive health in old age.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A; Boyle, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that higher financial and health literacy is associated with better cognitive health in 755 older persons who completed a literacy measure (M = 67.9, SD = 14.5) and then had annual clinical evaluations for a mean of 3.4 years. In proportional hazards models, higher literacy was associated with decreased risk of developing incident Alzheimer's disease (n = 68) and results were similar for financial and health literacy subscales and after adjustment for potential confounders. In mixed-effects models, higher literacy was related to higher baseline level of cognition and reduced cognitive decline in multiple domains. Among the 602 persons without any cognitive impairment at baseline, higher literacy was associated with a reduced rate of cognitive decline and risk of developing incident mild cognitive impairment (n = 142). The results suggest that higher levels of financial and health literacy are associated with maintenance of cognitive health in old age.

  13. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

  14. Characteristics Associated with Hospital Health IT Vendor Switching and Dropping

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Eric J.; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    While a growing body of research has investigated the diffusion of health IT among providers, no empirical research has yet focused on health IT vendor switching by hospitals. Vendor switching is one indicator of a competitive commercial vendor market, and competition among vendors can spur innovations which contribute to better products over time. This study examines the interaction of hospitals with commercial vendors in the recent past to serve as a baseline for future investigations into how the federal health IT incentive program influences changes in the vendor market and vendor-provider relationships. We find that there has been considerable switching between vendors by hospitals, including some hospitals switching away from automated systems all together. Furthermore, our descriptive cross-sectional analysis reveals various hospital characteristics which are associated with vendor switching and dropping, including lower constraints on hospitals’ financial resources, nonprofit ownership, and having some form of integrated arrangement with physicians. PMID:22195131

  15. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  16. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  17. The role of health professional associations in the promotion of global women's health.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, André B; Menendez, Hector; Perron, Liette

    2010-11-01

    Health professional associations, especially those from countries with the highest maternal death burden, have vital roles to play in improving maternal and newborn health and in achieving the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Possessing the knowledge, skills, and influence to positively impact practice at the service delivery level, they can also advocate for change at the policy level and lobby for higher priority and greater investment in the maternal and newborn health field at the national level. The ability of professional associations to assume this leadership is nevertheless contingent on their institutional capacities to achieve planned goals and objectives in support of their organizational mission and strategic priorities. Since 1998, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) has been supporting the capacity development efforts of peer professional associations in low-resource countries. SOGC's work in this specific area has led it to develop and pilot an Organization Capacity Improvement Framework (OCIF) that guides professional associations, incrementally, in successive cycles of capacity development. Building on capacity developed within previous capacity-building cycles, this article summarizes and reports on the recent outcomes of the Asociación de Gynecoloígia y Obstetricia de Guatemala's (AGOG) organizational development efforts and the impact they have had in positioning the association as an important contributor in national efforts to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in the country.

  18. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  19. Association of Job Insecurity with Health Risk Factors and Poorer Health in American Workers.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2017-04-01

    Perceived job insecurity and health risk factors have not been well studied in the United States (US) workforce. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of specific health risk factors and morbidities with perceived job insecurity in a large national random sample of working adults in the US. The National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed for this study. We computed the prevalence of perceived job insecurity by demographic characteristics and tested the relative association between perceived job insecurity and selected health risk factors using logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratios (AORs). A total of 17,441 working adults were included in the study: 75 % Whites, 51.5 % females, 73.3 % worked for a private company, and 82.6 % were 25-64 years of age. One in three (33 %) workers perceived their job to be insecure. Those who reported job insecurity had significantly higher odds of: being obese, sleeping less than 6 h/day, smoking every day, having work loss days >2 weeks, and worsening of general health in the past year. Job insecure individuals had a likelihood of serious mental illness within the past 30 days almost five times higher than those who were not job insecure. In addition, job insecure individuals were significantly more likely to report pain conditions (i.e. headaches, neck pain, and low back pain), and lifetime histories of having ulcers, diabetes, hypertension, angina pectoris, and coronary heart diseases. Job insecurity is associated with poor health and health risk behaviors in American adults. Potential interventions to address job insecurity and improve the health and well-being of working adults have been discussed based on study findings.

  20. Understanding the association between maternal education and use of health services in Ghana: exploring the role of health knowledge.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Emily Smith; Leon, Juan; Baker, David P

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers' education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women's health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers' years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers' health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services.

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL EDUCATION AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES IN GHANA: EXPLORING THE ROLE OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE

    PubMed Central

    GREENAWAY, EMILY SMITH; LEON, JUAN; BAKER, DAVID P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers’ education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women’s health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers’ years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers’ health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services. PMID:22377424

  2. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Eva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors.

  3. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C.; Welk, Gregory J.; Franke, Warren D.; Lee, Duck-chul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. Methods Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8–27.6), 10.1 (6.2–16.3), and 13.8 (8.5–22.4), respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p<0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (B: 2.1 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), and sedentary time (B: -1.4 hours, p<0.001). Participants with a health club membership of >1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06), compared to non-members. Conclusions Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences. PMID:28107459

  4. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

  5. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-12-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years.

  6. Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gouthro, Trina Johnena

    2009-11-01

    Negative and stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental health nursing discredit the valuable contributions of mental health nurses, but more importantly, these beliefs discredit the needs of people who access mental health care. The stigma associated with mental health nursing, however, has received little attention in the literature. In this article, the author explores the stigma associated with mental health nursing from a critical lens. Recommendations are proposed to address the stigma associated with mental health nursing and mental illness, concurrently, within nursing education.

  7. Reproductive and other health outcomes in Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans using VA health care: Association with mental health diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Beth E.; Maguen, Shira; Bertenthal, Daniel; Shi, Ying; Jacoby, Vanessa; Seal, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of women serve in the military and are exposed to trauma during service that can lead to mental health problems. Understanding how these mental health problems affect reproductive and physical health outcomes will inform interventions to improve care for women veterans. Methods We analyzed national VA data from women Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from 10/7/2001 through 12/31/2010 (N=71,504). We used ICD-9 codes to categorize veterans into 5 groups by mental health diagnoses (MH Dx), those with: no MH Dx, PTSD, depression, comorbid PTSD and depression, and MH Dx other than PTSD and depression. We determined the association between mental health category and reproductive and other physical health outcomes defined by ICD-9 codes. Categories included sexually transmitted infections, other infections (e.g. urinary tract infections), pain-related conditions (e.g. dysmenorrhea and dsypareunia), and other conditions (e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, sexual dysfunction). Models were adjusted for sociodemographics and military service factors. Results 31,481 (44%) received at least one mental health diagnosis. Women veterans with any mental health diagnosis had significantly higher prevalences of nearly all categories of reproductive and physical disease diagnoses (p <.0001 for adjusted prevalences). There was a trend of increasing prevalence of disease outcomes in women with PTSD, depression, and comorbid PTSD and depression (p for trend <.0001 for all outcomes). Conclusions Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans with mental health diagnoses had significantly greater prevalences of several important reproductive and physical health diagnoses. These results provide support for VA initiatives to address mental and physical health concerns and improve comprehensive care for women veterans. PMID:22944901

  8. Brazilian municipalities and their own expenditures on health: some associations.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carmem Emmanuely Leitão; Gonçalves, Guilherme Quaresma; Machado, José Angelo

    2017-03-01

    In a context that combines decentralization and underfunding of public health policy, Brazilian municipalities expressively extend their spending in this sector, allocating a proportion of their own revenues (direct taxation added to the mandatory intergovernmental transfers from the Union and the states) at levels above the ones that are constitutionally determined. However, there have been incipient studies investigating the expenditure composition on health in these federative units, in order to describe its main characteristics and explanations. In order to contribute to eliminating this gap, this article explores some associations between attributes of the municipalities (population size, region of the country, the proportion of older adults, child mortality, hiring private services and SUS transfer) and health expenditure implemented with the municipalities' own recipes. The study used descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions in order to investigate such associations with data for 2010. The results point to tax inequities in the sector when comparing municipalities of different population groups and socioeconomic conditions, including the perception of important differences in terms of per capita spending on the analyzed expenditure items.

  9. Cisplatin-Associated Ototoxicity: A Review for the Health Professional

    PubMed Central

    Paken, Jessica; Govender, Cyril D.; Pillay, Mershen

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective drug used in the treatment of many cancers, yet its ototoxic potential places cancer patients, exposed to this drug, at risk of hearing loss, thus negatively impacting further on a patient's quality of life. It is paramount for health care practitioners managing such patients to be aware of cisplatin's ototoxic properties and the clinical signs to identify patients at risk of developing hearing loss. English peer-reviewed articles from January 1975 to July 2015 were assessed from PubMed, Science Direct, and Ebscohost. Seventy-nine articles and two books were identified for this review, using MeSH terms and keywords such as “ototoxicity”, “cisplatin”, “hearing loss”, and “ototoxicity monitoring”. This review provides an up-to-date overview of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity, namely, its clinical features, incidence rates, and molecular and cellular mechanisms and risk factors, to health care practitioners managing the patient with cancer, and highlights the need for a team-based approach to complement an audiological monitoring programme to mitigate any further loss in the quality of life of affected patients, as there is currently no otoprotective agent recommended routinely for the prevention of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity. It also sets the platform for effective dialogue towards policy formulation and strengthening of health systems in developing countries. PMID:28115933

  10. Health and safety hazards associated with subways: a review.

    PubMed

    Gershon, R R M; Qureshi, K A; Barrera, M A; Erwin, M J; Goldsmith, F

    2005-03-01

    Subway systems are key components in mass transportation networks worldwide, providing rapid and affordable transportation to urban communities in 58 different countries. The benefits afforded by subway transit are numerous and mainly derived from the reduction in automobile use, thereby limiting environmental and health hazards associated with exhaust-air emissions. Additionally, by limiting congestion and providing vital transportation links within a city, subways also improve the overall quality of life of urban communities. However, to best maximize the positive impact on the urban environment, subway systems need to provide a safe and healthy environment for both passengers and subway transit workers. Periodically, safety concerns are raised, most recently in relation to the vulnerability of subways to terrorist attacks. To examine this issue more carefully, we conducted a structured review of the literature to identify and characterize potential health and safety hazards associated with subways. A secondary goal was to identify various risk management strategies designed to minimize the risk of these hazards. This information may be helpful to urban communities, urban planners, public health specialists, and others interested in subway safety.

  11. Factors associated with mental health, general health, and school-based service use for child psychopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, G E; Daskalakis, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify factors associated with service use for child psychopathology in three settings: mental health, general health, and school. METHODS: Subjects were 2519 children, 6 to 11 years of age, assessed in two cross-sectional Connecticut surveys in the late 1980s. Three groups of variables (sociodemographics, child's illness profile, and parental attitudes) were examined through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Most sociodemographics showed moderate associations with all settings, although some previously reported effects (e.g. birth order, sibship size) were not observed. Of the illness profile measures, only Child Behavior Checklist total scores predicted use in the final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3). Health problems were associated with increased use in all settings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.9), while academic problems were associated only with increased school service use (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 7.0). Parental belief that the child needed help was most strongly associated with service use (common OR for all settings = 5.3, 95% CI = 4.1, 6.8). CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics, parental attitudes, and children's illness profiles independently influence service use for psychopathology in school-aged children. PMID:9314794

  12. Health economics and the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    PubMed

    Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment.

  13. Factors associated with sense of community among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Haar, Mindy; Scanlan, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in online education in the health professions, as well as growing recognition that teamwork and collaboration are essential to success. While the impact of students' sense of community on factors such as course satisfaction and retention has been studied among college enrollees in general, there is little research exploring this concept among allied health students. To address this shortcoming, a convenience sample of students enrolled in a large northeastern school of health-related professions was surveyed to gather information on their demographics, curriculum and selected course attributes, perceived instructor teaching perspectives, and sense of community. Univariate analysis indicated that entry-level students experienced a greater sense of community than post-professional students. Multivariate analysis revealed that instructor-determined factors of encouraging discussion, encouraging expression of opinions, and specifying response times best predicted sense of community. With all other variables controlled, perceptions of community were significantly lower in online courses, among students for whom English was their second language, and in courses where instructors were perceived as focused primarily on content delivery. This study supports promoting selected course and instructor-related attributes associated with sense of community in allied health education, with a particular focus on both non-native English speakers and post-professional students. Enhancement of online courses with strategies that increase instructor presence, better engage students, and facilitate interaction also are warranted.

  14. Associations between comorbid health conditions and the use of mental health services among adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined to what extent the number of comorbid health conditions was associated with various mental health service utilization among people with bipolar disorder. The results of logistic regression models indicate that a greater number of comorbid medical conditions were associated with higher odds of using specialty mental health service, while they were not associated with utilization of services provided by general health care providers. The type of bipolar disorder, functional impairment, and marital status were found to be associated with the use of a specialty service, while ethnicity was the only covariate significantly related to general health care use.

  15. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harland, E.; Griffith, J.; Lu, H.; Erickson, T.; Magsino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174) and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment) and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one’s body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  16. Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P < 0.01) and more physical activity (P < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, higher self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term.

  17. The Associations Among Individual Factors, eHealth Literacy, and Health-Promoting Lifestyles Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background eHealth literacy is gaining importance for maintaining and promoting health. Studies have found that individuals with high eHealth literacy are more likely to adopt healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. In addition, previous studies have shown that various individual factors (eg, frequency of seeking information on health issues, degree of health concern, frequency of eating organic food, and students’ college major) are associated with eHealth literacy and health-promoting lifestyles. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles among college students. Moreover, there is a lack of studies that focus on eHealth literacy as a predictor of psychological health behaviors. Objective To examine the associations among various individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Methods The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. The Health-promoting Lifestyle Scale is a 23-item instrument developed to measure college students’ self-actualization, health responsibility, interpersonal support, exercise, nutrition, and stress management. A nationally representative sample of 556 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to gather the respondents’ background information, including the frequency of seeking information on health issues, the frequency of eating organic food, the degree of health concern, and the students’ major. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health-promoting lifestyles. Results The study found that factors such as medical majors (t550=2.47-7.55, P<.05) and greater concern with health (t550=2.15-9.01, P<.05) predicted college students’ 4-6 health-promoting lifestyle dimensions and the 3 dimensions

  18. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Find an Academic Program Discover Discover Overview Public health protects and improves the health of individuals, families, ... Services and Natural Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools ...

  19. Interoperability of electronic health records and personal health records: key interoperability issues associated with information exchange.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Simone; Lippitt, Alex

    2009-01-01

    As patients receive medical care, their clinical history may be tracked and recorded by multiple electronic systems developed by independent vendors. Medical providers might use electronic health record (EHR) software tailored to the needs of trained medical personnel, whereas patients may interact with personal health records (PHR). The purpose of this essay is to identify the key interoperability issues associated with the information exchange between these two types of systems and offer an approach for enhancing interoperability. This article is part of a series of unpublished essays titled A Community View on How Personal Health Records Can Improve Patient Care and Outcomes in Many Healthcare Settings, a collaborative project of Northern Illinois Physicians For Connectivity and the Coalition for Quality and Patient Safety of Chicagoland. For further information on how you can obtain copies of the complete work, contact the principle Dr. Stasia Kahn at Stash5@sbcglobal.net.

  20. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  1. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions.

  2. Styrene-Associated Health Outcomes at a Windblade Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    McCague, Anna-Binney; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Harney, Joshua M.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Edwards, Nicole; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Health risks of using styrene to manufacture windblades for the green energy sector are unknown. Methods Using data collected from 355 (73%) current windblade workers and regression analysis, we investigated associations between health outcomes and styrene exposure estimates derived from urinary styrene metabolites. Results The median current styrene exposure was 53.6 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range: 19.5–94.4). Color blindness in men and women (standardized morbidity ratios 2.3 and 16.6, respectively) was not associated with exposure estimates, but was the type previously reported with styrene. Visual contrast sensitivity decreased and chest tightness increased (odds ratio 2.9) with increasing current exposure. Decreases in spirometric parameters and FeNO, and increases in the odds of wheeze and asthma-like symptoms (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.2, respectively) occurred with increasing cumulative exposure. Conclusions Despite styrene exposures below the recommended 400 mg/g creatinine, visual and respiratory effects indicate the need for additional preventative measures in this industry. PMID:26305283

  3. Is Dental Utilization Associated with Oral Health Literacy?

    PubMed Central

    Burgette, J.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Baker, A.D.; Vann, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of association between dental utilization and oral health literacy (OHL). As part of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project, clients in the Women, Infants, and Children’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program completed a structured 30-min in-person interview conducted by 2 trained interviewers at 9 sites in 7 counties in North Carolina. Data were collected on clients’ OHL, sociodemographics, dental utilization, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge. The outcome, OHL, was measured with a dental word recognition test (30-item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry). Descriptive and multiple linear regression methods were used to examine the distribution of OHL and its association with covariates. After adjusting for age, education, race, marital status, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge, multiple linear regression showed that dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL. PMID:26567035

  4. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence.

  5. [Mental health and psychiatry: role and issues of the Geneva mental health associations' network].

    PubMed

    León, C; Benitez, C; Dupanloup, A; Saloukvadze, G; Zinder, A; de Marsano-Ernoult, G; Krummenacher, T

    2009-09-16

    The psychosocial Geneva-based associations provide ongoing support to people suffering from mental disorders and their families. This network gives psychological care and works towards social inclusion. This approach is an alternative as well as a complement to medical care. The services offered by the associations are varied: mutual self-help, providing a place to live and a space dedicated to specific activities, family support, counselling, therapy, etc. They have two central issues: improving quality of life and promoting the rights of patients. Collaboratively, they are in constant dialogue with the psychiatric institutions in the canton, leading to joint activities and furthering the thinking on patient health and rehabilitation.

  6. [Family cohesion associated with oral health, socioeconomic factors and health behavior].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima

    2013-08-01

    Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health.

  7. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  8. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence--Associated Health Problems, Healthcare Expenditure, and Continuity in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jeppesen, Pia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were assessed in 1886 Danish 11-12 year old children (48 % boys) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) together with information on socio-demographics and the child's somatic and mental status and healthcare expenditure. Non-parametric statistics and regression analysis were used to compare groups with low (n = 184), intermediate (n = 1539), and high (n = 161) HA symptom scores. The association between HA symptoms assessed at age 5-7 years and HA symptoms at ages 11-12 years was examined by Stuart-Maxwell test. HA symptoms were significantly associated with emotional disorders and unspecific somatic complaints, but not with chronic physical conditions. In regression analyses controlling for gender and physical comorbidity, healthcare expenditure peaked in children with the highest HA symptom score, that is these children used on average approximately 150 Euro more than children with the lowest score during the 2-year period preceding inclusion. HA symptoms at age 5-7 years were significantly associated with HA symptoms at age 11-12 years. We conclude that HA symptoms, including hypochondriacal fears and beliefs, were non-trivial in preadolescents; they showed continuity from early childhood and association with emotional disorders, unspecific somatic complaints, and increased healthcare expenditure. Further research in the clinical significance of childhood HA is required.

  9. Associations of Health-Risk Behaviors and Health Cognition With Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents in School

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939

  10. Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Septimus, Edward J; Schweizer, Marin L

    2016-04-01

    Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection. Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs). This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant. Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy. Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida. Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and topical

  11. The American Medical Association stake in the future of US health care: the American Medical Association plan for reform of the US health care system.

    PubMed

    Plested, William G

    2009-02-01

    This article discusses the need for health care reform. The American Medical Association has devised a plan that would allow all Americans to obtain health care coverage. This article discusses that plan and advocates for physicians and patients to demand meaningful health care reform from lawmakers.

  12. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Lei, Meng; Zhang, Lun; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants.

  13. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Meng; Zhang, Lun; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants. PMID:26713315

  14. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  15. [Possible health effects associated with Pre-Columbian metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-09-01

    In the Old World, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. This hypothesis was evaluated for three Pre-Columbian metallurgy traditions: Central Andes, Intermediate Area, and West Mexico. The metal artifacts from the Central Andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the Old World (0.5%-1.0%). In the Intermediate Area the values were smallest; however, in West Mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). In Central Andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the Inca Empire. Osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among Moche individuals from Central Andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among Pre-Columbian populations. In conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the New World, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys.

  16. Health-care-associated infection in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Ellis, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection (HAI) in Africa. Methods Three databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the WHO regional medical database for Africa) were searched to identify studies published from 1995 to 2009 on the epidemiology of HAI in African countries. No language restriction was applied. Available abstract books of leading international infection control conferences were also searched from 2004 to 2009. Findings The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review were met by 19 articles, only 2 of which met the criterion of high quality. Four relevant abstracts were retrieved from the international conference literature. The hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varied between 2.5% and 14.8%; in surgical wards, the cumulative incidence ranged from 5.7% to 45.8%. The largest number of studies focused on surgical site infection, whose cumulative incidence ranged from 2.5% to 30.9%. Data on causative pathogens were available from a few studies only and highlighted the importance of Gram-negative rods, particularly in surgical site infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Limited information is available on the endemic burden of HAI in Africa, but our review reveals that its frequency is much higher than in developed countries. There is an urgent need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention, surveillance and control in Africa. PMID:22084514

  17. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  18. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  19. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  20. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  1. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  2. Health resource utilization and cost associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms in a large United States health plan.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jyotsna; Wang, Hongwei; Fryzek, Jon P; Iqbal, Sheikh Usman; Mesa, Ruben

    2014-10-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) may lead to bone marrow fibrosis. Because the disease course of ET and PV are long and the disease course of MF may be fatal, healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated costs of these neoplasms are especially important to understand. We used a large US health insurance claim database to describe the costs of these diseases. Compared to age-gender matched comparisons without myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), all aspects of HRU that we examined, including inpatient, outpatient and emergency room visits and pharmacy, as well as overall healthcare expenditures, were significantly higher in patients with MF, PV and ET (e.g. MF total costs = $54 168 vs. $10 203; PV = $14 903 vs. $7913; ET = $29 553 vs. $8026) than in matched comparisons. In order to reduce the burden of illness associated with these diseases, continued efforts in the development of more efficacious treatments for these disorders are needed.

  3. Factors associated with mobile health information seeking among Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Leanne; Chiuan Yen, Ching; Xue, Lishan; Choo Tai, Bee; Chuan Chan, Hock; Been-Lirn Duh, Henry; Choolani, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    This study examined effects of age and social psychological factors on women's willingness to be mobile health information seekers. A national survey of 1,878 Singaporean women was conducted to obtain information on women's mobile phone usage, experiences of health information seeking, and appraisals of using mobile phones to seek health information. Results showed that young, middle-aged, and older women exhibited distinct mobile phone usage behaviors, health information-seeking patterns, and assessments of mobile health information seeking. Factors that accounted for their mobile information-seeking intention also varied. Data reported in this study provide insights into mobile health interventions in the future.

  4. Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

  5. 77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing CMS Approval of Its... Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition as a national accrediting... by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of approval for their ASC...

  6. Individual health care system distrust and neighborhood social environment: how are they jointly associated with self-rated health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A; Shoff, Carla

    2011-10-01

    Americans' distrust in the health care system has increased in the past decades; however, little research has explored the impact of distrust on self-rated health and even less is known about whether neighborhood social environment plays a role in understanding the relationship between distrust and self-rated health. This study fills these gaps by investigating both the direct and moderating associations of neighborhood social environment with self-rated health. Our analysis is based on the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's household survey and neighborhood-level data. Findings from multilevel logistic regression show that after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, distrust is directly and adversely related to self-rated health, and that neighborhood social affluence and stability are directly and negatively associated with the odds of reporting poor/fair health. Neighborhood disadvantage and crime rates are not directly related to self-rated health, but increase the odds of having poor/fair health via distrust. Overall, our results suggest that macro-level actions can alter individual's perception of residential environment and lead to improved health. To improve the public health in an urban setting, rebuilding confidence in the health care system is integral, and the policies that help establish safe and cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the adverse effect of distrust on self-rated health.

  7. Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1β (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

  8. Association between social capital, health-related quality of life, and mental health: a structural-equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Ghaem, Haleh; Kassani, Aziz; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the association(s) between demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES), social capital, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and mental health among residents of Tehran, Iran. Methods The pooled data (n = 31 519) were extracted from a population-based survey Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool-2 (Urban HEART-2) conducted in Tehran in 2011. Mental health, social capital, and HRQoL were assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), social capital questionnaire, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), respectively. The study used a multistage sampling method. Social capital, HRQoL, and SES were considered as latent variables. The association between these latent variables, demographic factors, and mental health was determined by structural-equation modeling (SEM). Results The mean age and mental health score were 44.48 ± 15.87 years and 23.33 ± 11.10 (range, 0-84), respectively. The prevalence of mental disorders was 41.76% (95% confidence interval 41.21-42.30). The SEM model showed that age was directly associated with social capital (P = 0.016) and mental health (P = 0.001). Sex was indirectly related to mental health through social capital (P = 0.018). SES, HRQoL, and social capital were associated both directly and indirectly with mental health status. Conclusion This study suggests that changes in social capital and SES can lead to positive changes in mental health status and that individual and contextual determinants influence HRQoL and mental health. PMID:26935615

  9. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  10. Patient characteristics associated with aggression in mental health units.

    PubMed

    Podubinski, Tegan; Lee, Stuart; Hollander, Yitzchak; Daffern, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Aggression in mental health units is a significant and pervasive problem. However, the characteristics of patients associated with increased aggression propensity remain unclear and there are few attempts to expand understanding of these characteristics by drawing upon contemporary aggression theory. This study assessed the influence of interpersonal (hostile-dominance) and personality (psychopathy), General Aggression Model-specified (aggressive script rehearsal, attitudes towards violence, and trait anger), and clinical (psychiatric symptoms) factors on aggression during psychiatric hospitalization in 200 inpatients (132 men and 68 women; 19-64 years, M=38.32 years, S.D.=11.13 years). Patient characteristics were assessed on admission using structured interviews and self-report psychological tests. Patients' files were reviewed and nurses were interviewed after patients were discharged to establish whether patients were aggressive during their hospital stay. Results of univariate analyses showed that higher levels of interpersonal hostile-dominance, psychopathy and aggressive script rehearsal, positive attitudes towards violence, trait anger, and disorganized and excited type psychiatric symptoms all predicted aggression. In the final multivariable logistic regression model, only hostile-dominance remained as a significant predictor of aggressive behavior. This important personality characteristic should be considered in violence risk assessments and aggression prevention strategies.

  11. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    PubMed

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  12. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  13. A novel approach to measuring residential socioeconomic factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual-level characteristics, including socioeconomic status, have been associated with poor metabolic and cardiovascular health; however, residential area-level characteristics may also independently contribute to health status. In the current study, we used a novel applica...

  14. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-14

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  15. Suitability of the National Health Care Surveys to Examine Behavioral Health Services Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ninive

    2016-12-13

    The National Institutes of Health, Office of Disease Prevention, has described polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a major public health problem for women in the USA. This study examines the suitability of the National Health Care Surveys, collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to understand patient demographics and behavioral health services associated with PCOS-related medical visits. Data were from the 2005-2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. PCOS-related medical visits were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 256.4. Items on mental health and health education ordered or provided did not meet the National Center for Health Statistics criteria necessary to produce reliable national estimates (i.e., at least 30 unweighted records and a relative standard error <30%). Findings underscore the need to strengthen national surveillance to further understand behavioral health care for patients with PCOS.

  16. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

  17. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  18. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-07-09

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes.

  19. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  20. Associations Among Health Behaviors and Time Perspective in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that time perspective relates to health behavior; however, researchers have frequently employed inconsistent operational definitions and have often used projective or unpublished measures. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was created to provide a sound, objective measure of five distinct time perspective components. We examined the independent prediction of both risky and protective health behaviors from future, hedonistic, and fatalistic time perspective in 1,568 undergraduates using the ZTPI. Health behaviors included alcohol, drug, tobacco, and seat belt use, sex behaviors, and exercise. Future time perspective was related to increased protective and decreased risky health behaviors, whereas hedonism exhibited an opposite pattern though was a stronger predictor; fatalism was related only to health-destructive behaviors. Gender interactions reveal that hedonism is a stronger predictor of risky health behaviors for females. PMID:16421652

  1. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  2. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  3. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  4. Increased Service Use Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Associated With Mental Health Parity Law.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; McGinty, Emma E; Kalb, Luther; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H; Gibson, Teresa B; Goldman, Howard; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-02-01

    Health care services for children with autism spectrum disorder are often expensive and frequently not covered under private health insurance. The 2008 Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act was viewed as a possible means of improving access by eliminating differences between behavioral health and medical/surgical benefits. We examined whether the legislation was associated with increased use of and spending on mental health care and functional services for children with autism spectrum disorder compared to the period prior to implementation of the law. We used nationwide health insurance commercial group claims data to examine trends in service use and spending among children with autism spectrum disorder before and after implementation of the law. For such children, implementation was associated with increased use of both mental health and non-mental health services. These increases in use were not associated with higher out-of-pocket spending, which suggests that the law improved financial protection for families.

  5. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health.

  6. Mental Health and Associated Sexual Health Behaviours in a Sample of Young People Attending a Music Festival in Melbourne, Victoria.

    PubMed

    Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C

    2016-11-01

    Poor mental health has previously been associated with risky sexual health behaviours among young people internationally and in clinical samples, but little is known about this relationship in non-clinical settings. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a convenience sample of 1345 Australians aged 15-29. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sexual health behaviours independently associated with recent poor mental health including contraception use, STI testing, sexting and age at first sexual intercourse. Recent poor mental health was reported by 29.7 % of participants and independently associated with female gender (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.4-2.4), not identifying as heterosexual (OR 3.0; 95 % CI 2.1-4.4) and young age at first sexual intercourse among female participants (OR 1.4; 95 % CI 1.0-2.0). Results suggest mental health is largely driven by variables other than sexual health behaviours, although youth mental health services should consider inclusion of sexual health promotion within the scope of their services.

  7. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  8. Summary review of health effects associated with naphthalene: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute hemolytic anemia and has been associated with cataract formation. There are no available dose-response data. In laboratory animals, two principal target tissues have been identified: non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells and eye tissue. The metabolite(s) responsible for Clara cell damage is unknown. There are no published studies involving inhalation exposure. Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, and one mouse strain. Animal strains with pigmented eyes develop cataracts faster and more severely than albino strains. The likely causative agent is polyphenol oxydase, found only in pigmented eyes, that catalyzes the formation of 1,2-naphthoquione which binds to lens tissue. Negative results have been reported for gene mutations (Salmonella), unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and microneuclei in mouse bone marrow. Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. In a single dose (300 mg/kg) study in mice, both maternal and fetal toxicity were reported.

  9. Associations of family-centered care with health care outcomes for children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dennis Z; Bird, T Mac; Tilford, J Mick

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association of family-centered care (FCC) with specific health care service outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The study is a secondary analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Receipt of FCC was determined by five questions regarding how well health care providers addressed family concerns in the prior 12 months. We measured family burden by reports of delayed health care, unmet need, financial costs, and time devoted to care; health status, by stability of health care needs; and emergency department and outpatient service use. All statistical analyses used propensity score-based matching models to address selection bias. FCC was reported by 65.6% of respondents (N = 38,915). FCC was associated with less delayed health care (AOR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.66), fewer unmet service needs (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.60), reduced odds of ≥1 h/week coordinating care (AOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.93) and reductions in out of pocket costs (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96). FCC was associated with more stable health care needs (AOR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21), reduced odds of emergency room visits (AOR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99) and increased odds of doctor visits (AOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.37). Our study demonstrates associations of positive health and family outcomes with FCC. Realizing the health care delivery benefits of FCC may require additional encounters to build key elements of trust and partnership.

  10. Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on associations and foundations active in health care field in Poland, on the basis of a review of research done by Klon/Jawor Association and the Central Statistical Office. The article also applies to the issue of cooperation between NGOs and governmental adminstration in the health area and identifies lacking information that is necessary for better planning of national health policy. In Poland there are about three thousand associations and foundations whose main focus is the health care. In 2010, they accounted for about 7% of all non-governmental organizations. Results of representative nationwide surveys from 2008 and 2010 indicate that the NGO's active in the field of health care have, in most cases, legal form of associations. Almost half of the organizations declared national or international scope of action. Headquarters of most organizations were mainly in the cities, and only, one in twenty in the village. Most organizations were located in the mazowieckie province and a significant fraction of them was in Warsaw itself. Organizations were stood out by a relatively large number of personnel on the background of the entire NGO sector. Half of the organizations employed paid workers, the majority also collaborated with volunteers who were not members of the organization. More than a third of organizations dealt with the rehabilitation, therapy and long-term care, and about 1/3 dealt with prevention, health promotion and education, and blood donations. World Health Organization indicates the need for systematic collection of data about the role of the nongovernmental sector in health. In Poland, legal regulations require the public institutions and organizations to cooperate with NGOs to achieve health objectives. In spite of relevant data on NGOs in the field of health care in Poland, the necessary information to assess their potential are still lacking. Recognition of the capacity and limitations ofNGOs could enable better

  11. American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: patient cards.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    In its simplest form, a patient card is a credit card sized record made of paper or plastic that contains identification information. A card may contain additional information, such as insurance or limited health information. Of the many technologies available, chip cards and optical cards are best suited for use in healthcare. If their expense can be justified and nation-wide standards established, cards could help improve timely access to basic health information such as demographic, insurance, and basic medical information needed for emergency treatment. Technology may permit a patient's entire longitudinal (lifetime) health history to be maintained on a card, but this should not be the only source of the longitudinal record. To assure its accessibility to legitimate users throughout the healthcare system, the longitudinal health record must be a computer-based patient record maintained on a controlled access network.

  12. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  13. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  14. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  15. American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

    2012-01-01

    The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

  16. Association between mental health and fall injury in Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mo, Frank; Yi, Qilong; Morrison, Howard; Mao, Yang

    2013-10-01

    The study was to determine the association between mental health and the incidence of injury among Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants. We used data from 15,405 individuals aged 12 years or more, who were living in British Columbia, Canada, and participated in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We calculated a 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury based on self-reporting. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association of the 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury with immigration status and mental health before and after adjustment for covariates. The results show that self-reported mood and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with an increased incidence of fall injury. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.38) for mood disorder and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.13) for anxiety disorder. Immigrant status was a significant effect modifier for the association between mental health and fall injury, with stronger associations in immigrants than in non-immigrants especially in elderly people. People with poor self perceived health were more likely to have a fall injury. Both mental health and general health were related to fall injury. There was a stronger association between mental health and fall injury in immigrants compared with non-immigrants in the elderly. More attention should be paid to mental health in immigrants associated with fall injury.

  17. Associations between Major Domains of Personality and Health Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    lead to more effective, efficient health behavior modification programs. Aeoesson 7or ITI GRA&I DTIC TAB5 Unnnnoanced 5 SJu~ti:Icrti or D31tt ’bu𔃿iOn...further study, however, these barriers might be overcome by designing health behavior modification programs in which participants were assigned to... behavior modification programs matched to their personality predispositions. References Aho, W. R. (1979a). Participation of senior citizens in the

  18. Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

  19. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-03

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health.

  20. Changes in health behaviors and their associations with depressive symptoms among Israelis aged 50 +

    PubMed Central

    Khalaila, Rabia; Litwin, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between changes in health behaviors and depression, and to determine the mediating effect of health characteristics on this association. Method Based on the first and second waves of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)-Israel, depressive symptoms of 1,524 Israelis aged 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Changes in physical activity and body weight are associated with depressive symptoms after adjusting for confounders. However, after adding measures of health, the respective correlations of weight gain and commenced physical activity with depression disappear, and the correlation between continued activity and depression is reduced. Discussion Changes in health behaviors are related to mental health in late life, but their effect is mediated by physical and functional health. Future interventions should nevertheless target older individuals who stop physical activity and those who remain inactive to lessen the risk of depression. PMID:24401321

  1. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

  2. Health functioning impairments associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, and depression.

    PubMed

    Zayfert, Claudia; Dums, Aricca R; Ferguson, Robert J; Hegel, Mark T

    2002-04-01

    Although anxiety disorders have been associated with impairments in self-reported health functioning, the relative effect of various anxiety disorders has not been studied. We compared health functioning of patients with a principal diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with PTSD and MDD were equally impaired on overall mental health functioning, and both were significantly worse than patients with PD and GAD. PTSD was associated with significantly worse physical health functioning relative to PD, GAD, and MDD. Hierarchical regression showed that the association of PTSD with physical health functioning was unique and was not caused by the effects of age, depression, or comorbid anxiety disorders. Both PTSD and comorbid anxiety accounted for unique variance in mental functioning. These results highlight the association of PTSD with impaired physical and mental functioning and suggest that effective treatment of PTSD may affect overall health.

  3. Mobile Health Insurance System and Associated Costs: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Primary Health Centers in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Lalit; Eze, Godson

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria contributes only 2% to the world’s population, accounts for 10% of the global maternal death burden. Health care at primary health centers, the lowest level of public health care, is far below optimal in quality and grossly inadequate in coverage. Private primary health facilities attempt to fill this gap but at additional costs to the client. More than 65% Nigerians still pay out of pocket for health services. Meanwhile, the use of mobile phones and related services has risen geometrically in recent years in Nigeria, and their adoption into health care is an enterprise worth exploring. Objective The purpose of this study was to document costs associated with a mobile technology–supported, community-based health insurance scheme. Methods This analytic cross-sectional survey used a hybrid of mixed methods stakeholder interviews coupled with prototype throw-away software development to gather data from 50 public primary health facilities and 50 private primary care centers in Abuja, Nigeria. Data gathered documents costs relevant for a reliable and sustainable mobile-supported health insurance system. Clients and health workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires on services provided and cost of those services. Trained interviewers conducted the structured interviews, and 1 client and 1 health worker were interviewed per health facility. Clinic expenditure was analyzed to include personnel, fixed equipment, medical consumables, and operation costs. Key informant interviews included a midmanagement staff of a health-management organization, an officer-level staff member of a mobile network operator, and a mobile money agent. Results All the 200 respondents indicated willingness to use the proposed system. Differences in the cost of services between public and private facilities were analyzed at 95% confidence level (P<.001). This indicates that average out-of-pocket cost of services at private health care facilities is significantly

  4. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  5. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.

  6. The Association of Patients’ Oral Health Literacy and Dental School Communication Tools: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A.; Richards, Jessica K.; Holtzman, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients’ ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school’s general dental clinic during 2012–13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects’ oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults’ oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients’ ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146

  7. Community-acquired, health care-associated, and ventilator-associated pneumonia: three variations of a serious disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Susan S; Kardos, Cynthia B

    2012-09-01

    Pneumonia affects millions of people every year in the United States. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50%. Pneumonia is classified according to where it was acquired or by the infecting organism. This article explores the similarities and differences in three types of pneumonia seen routinely in the intensive care unit: community-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and health care-associated pneumonia.

  8. Bone health and associated metabolic complications in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Nanette C; Hache, Lauren P; Clemens, Paula R

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed, focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies both to determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD.

  9. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martín-Madrazo, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  10. Factors Associated with Providers’ Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia’s Family Health Strategy, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Pinto, Rogerio M.; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS—psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers’ perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs’ skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  11. Date Violence and Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…

  12. Associations Between Cardiovascular Health and Health-Related Quality of Life, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing; Zack, Matthew; Moore, Latetia; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association established 7 cardiovascular health metrics as targets for promoting healthier lives. Cardiovascular health has been hypothesized to play a role in individuals’ perception of quality of life; however, previous studies have mostly assessed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on quality of life. Methods Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey of adults 18 years or older (N = 347,073). All measures of cardiovascular health and health-related quality of life were self-reported. The 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics were normal blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, not having diabetes, not smoking, being physically active, and having adequate fruit or vegetable intake. Cardiovascular health was categorized into meeting 0–2, 3–5, or 6–7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics. Logistic regression models examined the association between cardiovascular health, general health status, and 3 measures of unhealthy days per month, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and annual income. Results Meeting 3 to 5 or 6 to 7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a 51% and 79% lower adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of fair/poor health, respectively (aPR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47–0.50], aPR = 0.21, 95% CI [0.19–0.23]); a 47% and 72% lower prevalence of ≥14 physically unhealthy days (aPR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.51–0.55], aPR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.26–0.20]); a 43% and 66% lower prevalence of ≥14 mentally unhealthy days (aPR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.55–0.60], aPR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.31–0.37]); and a 50% and 74% lower prevalence of ≥14 activity limitation days (aPR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.48–0.53], aPR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.23–0.29]) in the past 30 days. Conclusion Achieving a greater number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics may be associated with less impairment in health-related quality of life. PMID:27468158

  13. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed.

  14. The association between health anxiety and disgust reactions in a contamination-based behavioral approach task.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Amy R; Lee, Han-Joo; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that disgust is an important affective process related to health anxiety. The present study sought to determine the contribution of health anxiety symptoms in the prediction of disgust and behavioral avoidance in a large, nonclinical sample (N=156). Regression analyses showed that overall health anxiety symptoms predicted disgust on a behavioral approach task independent of gender, negative affect, and fear of contamination. Particularly, health anxiety-related reassurance seeking was found to be uniquely associated with disgust and behavioral avoidance after controlling for the aforementioned covariates. In addition, the interaction between health anxiety and contamination fear was tested, and remained significant when controlling for gender and negative affect. These results suggest that heightened contamination fear is associated with elevated disgust reactions such that high levels of health anxiety leads even those low in contamination fear to be disgusted during a behavioral task. These results are in line with previous research on the role of disgust in health anxiety.

  15. Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health.

  16. The Association between Insomnia Severity and Healthcare and Productivity Costs in a Health Plan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Khaled; Kalsekar, Anupama; Swindle, Ralph; Foley, Kathleen; Walsh, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a chronic condition with significant burden on health care and productivity costs. Despite this recognized burden, very few studies have examined associations between insomnia severity and healthcare and productivity costs. Design: A retrospective study linking health claims data with a telephone survey of members of a health plan in the Midwestern region of the United States. Participants: The total healthcare costs study sample consisted of 2086 health plan members who completed the survey and who had complete health claims data. The productivity costs sample consisted of 1329 health plan members who worked for pay—a subset of the total healthcare costs sample. Measurements: Subjects' age, gender, demographic variables, comorbidities, and total health care costs were ascertained using health claims. Insomnia severity and lost productivity related variables were assessed using telephone interview. Results: Compared with the no insomnia group, mean total healthcare costs were 75% larger in the group with moderate and severe insomnia ($1323 vs. $757, P < 0.05). Compared with the no insomnia group, mean lost productivity costs were 72% larger in the moderate and severe insomnia group ($1739 vs. $1013, P < 0.001). Chronic medical comorbidities and psychiatric comorbidities were positively associated with health care cost. In contrast, psychiatric comorbidities were associated with lost productivity; while, medical comorbidities were not associated with lost productivity. Conclusions: Health care and lost productivity costs were consistently found to be greater in moderate and severe insomniacs compared with non-insomniacs. Factors associated with lost productivity and health care costs may be fundamentally different and may require different kinds of interventions. Future studies should focus on better understanding mechanisms linking insomnia to healthcare and productivity costs and to understanding whether developing targeted

  17. Association Among Sociodemograhic Factors, Work Ability, Health Behavior, and Mental Health Status for Young People After Prolonged Unemployment.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Kirsi; Manninen, Pirjo; Räsänen, Kimmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of prolonged unemployment, health, and work ability among young workers using data from the 2008-2010 Occupational Health Counselling project in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. The total sample for this study was 190 young unemployed adults. The questionnaire included the Work Ability Index (WAI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the Occupational Health Counselling Survey. Multivariate analyses revealed that men had a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment than women. Using drugs for purposes other than treatment was associated independently with an increased prevalence of prolonged unemployment. Low WAI scores were associated with a higher prevalence of prolonged unemployment. This study showed that attention should be paid to male workers, those who have poor or moderate work ability and workers who use drugs. Young unemployed workers should be recognized at an early stage. A comprehensive, flexible network of community resources is essential to support young unemployed adults.

  18. From midlife to early old age: Health trajectories associated with retirement

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Chandola, Tarani; Shipley, Martin J.; Head, Jenny; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies report contradictory findings regarding health effects of retirement. This study examines longitudinally the associations of retirement with mental health and physical functioning. Methods The participants were 7584 civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study aged 39-64 years at baseline and 54-76 years at the last follow-up. Self-reported mental health and physical functioning were assessed using the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and the scales were scored as T-scores (Mean [SD] =50 [10]). Retirement status and health were assessed with six repeated measurements over a 15-year period. Results The associations between retirement and health were dependent on age at retirement, reason for retirement, and length of time spent in retirement. Compared with continued employment, statutory retirement at age 60 and early voluntary retirement, respectively, were associated with 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.7 to 2.8) and 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7) points higher mental health and with 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5) and 1.1 (0.8 to 1.4) points higher physical functioning. Retirement due to ill health was associated with poorer mental health (-0.7 points [-1.62 to 0.2]) and physical functioning (-4.5 points [-5.1 to -3.9]). Within-subject analyses suggested a causal interpretation for statutory and voluntary retirement, but health selection for retirement due to ill health. Conclusions Longitudinal analyses of repeat data suggest that health status improves after statutory and voluntarily retirement, although the improvement appears to attenuate over time. By contrast, the association between retirement due to ill health and subsequent poor health seems to reflect selection rather than causation. PMID:20220519

  19. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  20. Neuroscience of Exercise: Association Among Neurobiological Mechanisms and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience is an emergent research field that comprises many multidisciplinary investigations, searches for explanations about the relationship between the body and the brain. Here, we will give a little summary of this field showing the main current findings. We discuss the lack of consistent data about the relationship among exercise for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, sports performance and rehabilitation, and therefore, the difficult to describe cause-effect associations or to describe in detail the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations.

  1. WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network: a university--community partnership in occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J A; Walkner, L; Mikulski, M

    2001-01-01

    The WORKSAFE IOWA Occupational Medicine Associates Network is a unique health care model for dispensing regional occupational medicine services in the state of Iowa, USA. WORKSAFE IOWA is an educational, informational, and consultation service of the College of Public Health at The University of Iowa. WORKSAFE IOWA includes a fee-for-service industrial hygiene program, the Occupational Medicine Associates Network, and educational and informational services. The Associates Network provides education, information, and consultation in exchange for an annual fee paid by each Associate to the university-based network. The Associates clinics provide comprehensive occupational medicine services to up to 1,500 clients through 66,000 annual clinic visits in their respective communities. The Associates Network has been financially self-sustaining over a period of 10 years, and has proven to provide valuable services to the community-based Associates, and to provide excellent training opportunities for the University students in several occupational safety and health disciplines.

  2. Expansion of health insurance in Moldova and associated improvements in access and reductions in direct payments

    PubMed Central

    Hone, Thomas; Habicht, Jarno; Domente, Silviu; Atun, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Background Moldova is the poorest country in Europe. Economic constraints mean that Moldova faces challenges in protecting individuals from excessive costs, improving population health and securing health system sustainability. The Moldovan government has introduced a state benefit package and expanded health insurance coverage to reduce the burden of health care costs for citizens. This study examines the effects of expanded health insurance by examining factors associated with health insurance coverage, likelihood of incurring out–of–pocket (OOP) payments for medicines or services, and the likelihood of forgoing health care when unwell. Methods Using publically available databases and the annual Moldova Household Budgetary Survey, we examine trends in health system financing, health care utilization, health insurance coverage, and costs incurred by individuals for the years 2006–2012. We perform logistic regression to assess the likelihood of having health insurance, incurring a cost for health care, and forgoing health care when ill, controlling for socio–economic and demographic covariates. Findings Private expenditure accounted for 55.5% of total health expenditures in 2012. 83.2% of private health expenditures is OOP payments–especially for medicines. Healthcare utilization is in line with EU averages of 6.93 outpatient visits per person. Being uninsured is associated with groups of those aged 25–49 years, the self–employed, unpaid family workers, and the unemployed, although we find lower likelihood of being uninsured for some of these groups over time. Over time, the likelihood of OOP for medicines increased (odds ratio OR = 1.422 in 2012 compared to 2006), but fell for health care services (OR = 0.873 in 2012 compared to 2006). No insurance and being older and male, was associated with increased likelihood of forgoing health care when sick, but we found the likelihood of forgoing health care to be increasing over time (OR = 1

  3. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People.

    PubMed

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician's and nurse's ratings. We conclude that professionals' health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person's mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research.

  4. Type D personality is associated with maladaptive health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Julie; Williams, Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Type D personality (the combination of negative affect and social inhibition) is associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between Type D and health-related behaviours. In a cross-sectional study, 200 healthy participants completed measures of Type D personality, and health-related behaviours. The results showed that Type D individuals engaged in more unhealthy behaviours including smoking, poor diet and lack of physical activity than non-Type D individuals. The association between Type D personality and maladaptive health behaviours may represent one mechanism to explain the link between Type D and ill-health.

  5. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  6. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  7. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

  8. THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

  9. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non‐estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age‐related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence‐based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD‐LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up‐to‐date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J‐shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle‐aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45‐64 age group, the per‐capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  10. Impediments to Academic Performance of Bisexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; Dudley, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate health-related impediments to academic success for bisexual college students. Participants: Respondents to the Fall 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey who self-identified as bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. Methods: Secondary analyses of the…

  11. The Effect of College Student Spirituality on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Non Faith-Based Institutional NCHA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    College-aged individuals have a significant impact on national health. People in this age group have the highest rates of engagement in many risky health behaviors, such as binge drinking, substance use, and engaging in unprotected sexual activity. The American College Health Association (ACHA) has been actively involved in the study of college…

  12. Associations among stress, gender, sources of social support, and health in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Dik, Bryan J

    2016-10-20

    This study aimed to examine how sources of social support intersect with stress and health by testing two theoretical models. Three relationship-specific sources of social support (family, friends, and romantic partners) and two health indicators (self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms) were investigated. The sample consisted of 636 emerging adults attending college (age range: 18-25). Results suggest that only support from family was a stress-buffer, in that it buffered the adverse association between stress and depressive symptoms. Holding stress constant, only support from family was related to self-rated physical health and only support from friends or romantic partners was associated with depressive symptoms. There were no gender differences in the mean levels of self-rated physical health and depressive symptoms. However, gender moderations were found, in that the positive relationship between friends support and physical health was observed only in women, that the association between friends support and depressive symptoms was greater in men than in women, and that family support buffered the negative relationship between stress and physical health only in men. Findings of this study suggest that the associations among stress, social support, and health vary by the sources of support, the health outcome, and gender.

  13. Sources of Discrimination and Their Associations With Health in Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults.

  14. State high-risk pools: an update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Lynn A; Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E

    2011-02-01

    State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the "uninsurable." In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform.

  15. Campus Violence White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) Executive Committee issued a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The statement called for all campus health professionals to become…

  16. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  17. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.

  18. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  19. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  20. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.

  1. Large Reductions In Amenable Mortality Associated With Brazil's Primary Care Expansion And Strong Health Governance.

    PubMed

    Hone, Thomas; Rasella, Davide; Barreto, Mauricio; Atun, Rifat; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Strong health governance is key to universal health coverage. However, the relationship between governance and health system performance is underexplored. We investigated whether expansion of the Brazilian Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF; family health strategy), a community-based primary care program, reduced amenable mortality (mortality avoidable with timely and effective health care) and whether this association varied by municipal health governance. Fixed-effects longitudinal regression models were used to identify the relationship between ESF coverage and amenable mortality rates in 1,622 municipalities in Brazil over the period 2000-12. Municipal health governance was measured using indicators from a public administration survey, and the resulting scores were used in interactions. Overall, increasing ESF coverage from 0 percent to 100 percent was associated with a reduction of 6.8 percent in rates of amenable mortality, compared with no increase in ESF coverage. The reductions were 11.0 percent for municipalities with the highest governance scores and 4.3 percent for those with the lowest scores. These findings suggest that strengthening local health governance may be vital for improving health services effectiveness and health outcomes in decentralized health systems.

  2. Fear by Association: Perceptions of Anti-Immigrant Policy and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Edward D; Sanchez, Gabriel R; Juárez, Melina

    2017-02-17

    The United States is experiencing a renewed period of immigration and immigrant policy activity as well as heightened enforcement of such policies. This intensified activity can affect various aspects of immigrant health, including mental health. We use the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (n = 1,493) to examine the relationship between immigration and immigrant policy and Latino health and well-being. We estimate a series of categorical regression models and find that there are negative health consequences associated with Latinos' perceptions of living in states with unfavorable anti-immigration laws, including reporting poor health and problems with mental health. This article builds on the work of public health scholars who have found a link between this heightened policy environment and the mental health of immigrants, yet expands on this research by finding that the health consequences associated with immigration policy extend to Latinos broadly, not just immigrants. These findings are relevant to scholars of immigration and health policy as well as policy makers who should consider these negative effects on the immigrant community during their decision-making process.

  3. Association between educational level and health related quality of life in Spanish adults

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, E.; Barrio, G.; de la Fuente, L.; Domingo, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Alonso, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse differences in health by educational level in Spanish adults by comparing the health dimensions of the SF-36 Heath Survey. DESIGN: Data were taken from the National Survey on Drug Use carried out in February 1996. The information was collected by home personal interview. In addition to measuring the use of legal and illegal drugs and their associated health risks, the health status of the Spanish population was analysed using the Spanish version of the SF- 36 Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Absolute and standardised differences between mean score on each dimension of the SF-36 Health Survey in each educational group with respect to the group with the highest educational level. RESULTS: Perceived health status declines with decreasing educational level, except in women with second level education who have a higher mean rating than women with third level education on various health dimensions. The absolute differences in perceived health between the different categories of educational level and the reference category become larger with increasing age. The greatest differences by educational level in both men and women were found in mental health and general health among persons 25 to 44 years of age, and in physical function and general health among those 45 to 64 years. In persons aged 65 or older, the greatest differences are seen in physical function and vitality in men, and in bodily pain and emotional role in women. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of educational level on the different dimensions of perceived health may vary by sex.   PMID:10396467

  4. Working at sea and psychosocial health problems Report of an International Maritime Health Association Workshop.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tim

    2005-05-01

    Many of the recognised risk factors for psychosocial health problems impact on seafarers because of the nature and organisation of their work. The consequences are serious because of the safety critical nature of many of the tasks at sea and because of the level of health required to continue working remote from care. There is relatively little relevant research on the scale of psychosocial health problems in seafarers and so the justification for taking preventative action is not secure. The workshop was convened to develop a consensus on how psychosocial risks at sea can best be characterised, their consequences in terms of health, well being and performance and the steps which can be taken to provide better information on risks and on the validity of various forms of intervention. A number of interim measures have been proposed in advance of more definitive research results.

  5. Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

    2009-07-01

    A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP.

  6. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  7. The American Heart Association and Heart Health Education in the Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevis, Betty

    1979-01-01

    Several of the American Heart Association's education programs are described. The newest program is Heart Health Education in the Young, designed to stress the importance of early risk factor education. (JMF)

  8. Presentation: Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation was given by Dr. James Johnson at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  9. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

  10. Modification of the American Public Health Association procedure for counting yeast and mold in cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Powers, E M; Ay, C C; Eckfeldt, G A; Rowley, D B

    1971-01-01

    The American Public Health Association method for counting low numbers of yeast and mold in cottage cheese was unsatisfactory due to altered pH of the culture medium. A modification of this method is presented.

  11. [Quality management is associated with high quality services in health care].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tenna Hassert; Riis, Allan; Mainz, Jan; Jensen, Anne-Louise Degn

    2013-12-09

    In these years, quality management has been the focus in order to meet high quality services for the patients in Danish health care. This article provides information on quality management and quality improvement and it evaluates its effectiveness in achieving better organizational structures, processes and results in Danish health-care organizations. Our findings generally support that quality management is associated with high quality services in health care.

  12. Safety, Health and Environmental Hazards Associated with Composites: A Complete Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    responsibility and recycling evolution. 12 Areas of Concern As previously discussed, a safety, health , and environmental hazard analysis of composites must be...safety, health , and environmental perspective within specific areas of concern facilitates organization and prioritization. Once the complexities are...8217 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NIMBERS Safety, Health and Environmental Hazards Associated with Composites: A Complete Analysis 16. AUTHOR(S) Lt

  13. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials.

  14. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Poirier, C; Meyer, F M

    1986-01-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water. PMID:3706597

  15. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

    1986-06-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

  16. Associations between Chlorophyll a and various microcystin-LR health advisory concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects that stem mostly from the presence of cyanotoxins. To help protect against these impacts, several health advisory levels have been set for some toxins. In particular, one of the ...

  17. PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

  18. Health Outcomes in Adolescence: Associations with Family, Friends and School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melissa; McGee, Rob; Taylor, Barry; Williams, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. Methods: A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high…

  19. Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum with Increased Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating…

  20. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  1. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  2. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  3. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

  4. Associations between Finnish 9th Grade Students' School Perceptions, Health Behaviors, and Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilona, Haapasalo; Raili, Valimaa; Lasse, Kannas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between students' perceptions of the psychosocial school environment, health-compromising behaviours, and selected family factors. The analyses were based on data provided for the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2006). Design/methodology/approach: The data were obtained…

  5. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  6. Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

    The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.

  7. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  8. The association between childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression in justice-involved boys.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Colins, Olivier F; Mulder, Eva A; Loeber, Rolf; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the association between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression in boys in juvenile justice facilities (N = 767) and examined the contribution of mental health problems to this relationship. Data on childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression were collected by means of self-report measures and structural equation models were used to test mediation models. We found that mental health problems mediated the link between maltreatment and aggression. Results demonstrated different pathways depending on the type of aggression examined. The association between childhood maltreatment and reactive aggression was fully mediated by a variety of mental health problems and for proactive aggression the association was partially mediated by mental health problems. We also found that reactive and proactive aggression partially mediated the association between maltreatment and mental health problems. These findings suggest that a transactional model may best explain the negative effects of childhood trauma on mental health problems and (in particular reactive) aggression. In addition, our findings add to the existing evidence that reactive and proactive aggression have different etiological pathways.

  9. Diabetes and bone health: the relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis-associated fractures.

    PubMed

    Kurra, Salila; Siris, Ethel

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The relationship between diabetes and bone disease is less well defined but recent data seem to suggest that diabetes and the complications associated with it can be detrimental to bone health. Furthermore, it appears that thiazolidinediones, medications used in the treatment of diabetes, can also cause bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. This article will review the relationship between diabetes and bone health.

  10. The Association Between Shift Work and Health Behavior: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Myung-Ji; Shin, Jin-Young; Choi, Bo-Young; Keum, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift workers are increasing worldwide, and various negative health effects of shift work have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between shift work and health behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 11,680 Korean adults (6,061 men and 5,619 women) aged ≥20 years old who participated in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between shift work and health behavior after adjusting for covariates. Results In men, shift work was associated with an increased risk of inadequate sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.40) compared to day work. In women, shift work was associated with an increased risk of smoking (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.22) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47) compared to day work. In an age-stratified subgroup analysis, female shift workers aged ≥50 years old demonstrated an increased risk of smoking (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 3.60 to 8.55), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.23), and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.05) compared to female day workers. Conclusion Shift work is associated with worse health behavior, and this is most evident in women aged ≥50 years. Targeted strategies to reduce the negative health effects of shift work should be implemented, with consideration of shift workers' demographic characteristics. PMID:28360984

  11. Weight Stigma Mediates the Association Between BMI and Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Jeffrey M.; Major, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Weight stigma is pervasive in the United States. We tested the hypothesis that stigma may be a mechanism through which obesity negatively affects self-reported health. Two studies examined whether perceived weight-based discrimination and concerns over weight stigma mediated the association between BMI and self-reported psychological health (Study 1) and physical health (Study 2). Method In two online studies, adult community members completed measures of stigma-relevant mediators (perceived weight discrimination, weight stigma concerns) and provided their height and weight. In Study 1 (N = 171) participants also completed measures of psychological health (depression, self-esteem, quality of life), whereas participants in Study 2 (N = 194) also completed a measure of self-reported physical health. Process modeling was used to simultaneously test for mediation through perceived discrimination and stigma concerns independently as well as for serial mediation through both variables. Results Across both studies, we hypothesized and found support for serial mediation such that BMI was indirectly related to poorer self-reported health through its effect on perceived discrimination and concerns about stigma. Additionally, concerns about stigma mediated the association between BMI and health independent of perceived discrimination. Conclusion Weight stigma is an important mediator of the association between BMI and self-reported health. Furthermore, results indicate that concerns about facing stigma in the future mediate the link between perceived past experiences of discrimination and psychological and physical health. PMID:25133837

  12. Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more

  13. Association of Community Health Nursing Educators: disaster preparedness white paper for community/public health nursing educators.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sandra W; Frable, Pamela; Qureshi, Kristine; Strong, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) has developed a number of documents designed to delineate the scope and function of community/public health nursing educators, researchers, and practitioners. In response to societal issues, increased emphasis on disaster preparedness in nursing and public health, and requests from partner organizations to contribute to curriculum development endeavors regarding disaster preparedness, the ACHNE Disaster Preparedness Task Force was appointed in spring 2007 for the purpose of developing this document. Task Force members developed a draft of the document in summer and fall 2007, input was solicited and received from ACHNE members in fall 2007, and the document was approved and published in January 2008. The members of ACHNE extend their appreciation to the members of the Emergency Preparedness Task Force for their efforts: Pam Frable, N.D., R.N.; Sandra Kuntz, Ph.D., C.N.S.-B.C. (Chair); Kristine Qureshi, D.N.Sc., C.E.N., R.N.; Linda Strong, Ed.D., R.N. This white paper is aimed at meeting the needs of community/public health nursing educators and clarifying issues for the nursing and public health communities. ACHNE is committed to promotion of the public's health through ensuring leadership and excellence in community and public health nursing education, research, and practice.

  14. Healthcare-associated infections: challenges to public health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Padoveze, Maria Clara; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a critical evaluation of the scientific literature related to this subject, aiming to assess the policies and administrative issues regarding the prevention and magnitude of healthcare-associated infections and discuss the challenges for their prevention in Brazil. The topics discussed included historical and administrative issues, challenges imposed by the characteristics of the healthcare system and the territorial dimension, laboratorial support limitations, costs, institutional culture, professional qualification, and patient engagement. It is urgent to hold a nationwide discussion among government representatives, institutions, and healthcare workers and users to overcome these challenges. PMID:26039403

  15. A Panel Analysis of the Strategic Association Between Information and Communication Technology and Public Health Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sarah Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this exploratory research, we use panel data analysis to examine the correlation between Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and public health delivery at the country level. Objective The goal of this exploratory research is to examine the strategic association over time between ICTs and country-level public health. Methods Using data from the World Development Indicators, we construct a panel data set of countries of five different income levels and look closely at the period from 2000 to 2008. The panel data analysis allows us to explore this dynamic relationship under the control for unobserved country-specific effects by using a fixed-effects estimation method. In particular,, we examine the association of five ICT factors with five public health indicators: adolescent fertility rate, child immunization coverage, tuberculosis case detected, life expectancy, and adult mortality rate. Results First, overall ICTs’ factors substantially improve a country’s public health delivery on the top of wealth effect. Second, among all the ICTs’ factors, accessibility is the only one that is associated with improvements in all aspects of public health delivery, while the contributions from the usage, quality, and applications are negligible. ICTs’ accessibility factor is associated with a considerable extension to life expectancy and reduced adult mortality rate. Third, all entity-specific factors are significant in each model, indicating that countries’ economic development level does influence their public health delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate that ICT accessibility has a strong association with effective delivery of public health. There are others, but the key strategic applications are eHealth and mHealth. The findings of this study will help government officials and public health policy makers to formulate strategic decisions regarding the best ICT investments and deployment. For example, the study shows that providing

  16. Oral health-related quality of life and associated factors in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kari Elisabeth; Wang, Nina J; Skau, Irene; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate associations between oral health-related quality of life assessed with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 and demographic factors, number of teeth present, dental visits, dental health behaviour and self-rated oral health in a representative sample of 20-80-year-old Norwegians. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted in a stratified random sample of 3538 individuals. Questionnaires including questions on demographic factors, number of remaining teeth, dental visits, dental health behaviour, self-rated oral health and OHIP-14 were mailed to the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS. The response rate was 69%. The mean OHIP-14 score was 4.1 (standard deviation = 6.2). No problem was reported by 35% of the respondents. The most frequently reported problems were: physical pain (56%), psychological discomfort (39%) and psychological disability (30%). When the effect of all independent variables was analysed in multivariate analysis, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the prevalence of having problems and frequent problems. Self-rated oral health had the strongest association with having problems [odds ratio (OR) 4.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-6.0] and with having frequent problems (OR 4.0; 95% CI 2.7-5.8). Dental health behaviour, use of floss and toothpicks and oral rinsing were not associated with having problems related to oral quality of life in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION. In this Norwegian adult sample, self-rated oral health, frequency of dental visits, number of teeth, age and sex were associated with having problems as estimated using the OHIP-14.

  17. Positive childhood experiences and ideal cardiovascular health in midlife: Associations and mediators.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Chen, Ying; Guida, Jennifer L; Albert, Michelle A; Williams, David R

    2017-04-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association introduced a new conceptual framework to encourage a focus on primary prevention and provided a definition for "ideal cardiovascular health". In this study we examined the relationship between positive childhood experience and ideal cardiovascular health in mid-life, and the extent to which education, depression, and social support mediate this association. Data are from participants in the Midlife and Aging in the United States study who completed a clinic-based assessment of health (N=1255, aged 34-84years, 2004-2005). We created a positive childhood experiences index based on retrospective report of eight childhood experiences, and calculated a continuous ideal cardiovascular health score for each participant following the American Heart Association's definition of ideal, intermediate and poor cardiovascular health across seven health metrics (analyses conducted in 2015-2016). Positive childhood experiences were associated with ideal cardiovascular health: compared to individuals in the lowest quartile, respondents in the second, third, and fourth quartile of positive childhood experiences scored 0.42 (standard error (SE)=0.18), 0.92 (SE=0.18) and 1.04 (SE=0.18) units higher on ideal cardiovascular health, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Respondent's education, depression status, and social support fully mediated the direct effect of positive childhood experiences on ideal cardiovascular health, with the largest indirect effect for education. These results suggest that positive childhood experiences are associated with ideal cardiovascular health in midlife. Strategies to promote cardiovascular wellbeing may benefit from a focus on social interventions early in life; educational attainment, major depression, and social support may represent key points of intervention.

  18. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  19. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants’ health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants’ social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3–6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health

  20. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WOMEN'S HEALTH CARE DECISION-MAKING AUTONOMY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Osamor, Pauline; Grady, Christine

    2017-02-10

    Women's decision-making autonomy has been poorly studied in most developing countries. The few existing studies suggest that it is closely linked to women's socio-demographic characteristics and the social settings in which they live. This study examined Nigerian women's perceived decision-making autonomy about their own health care using nationally representative data from the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. The study sample consisted of 27,135 women aged 15-49 years who lived with their husbands/partners. Responses to questions about who usually makes decisions about the respondent's health care were analysed. Factors associated with women's health care decision-making were investigated using logistic regression models. Only 6.2% of the women reported making their own decisions about health care. For most women (61.1%), this decision was made by their husband/partner alone and 32.7% reported joint decision-making with their husband/partner. Factors independently associated with decision-making by the woman included: geographical region, rural/urban residence, age, education, religion, wealth index, occupation, home ownership and husband's occupation. A strong association between women making their own health care decision was seen with region of residence (χ 2=3221.48, p<0.0001), even after controlling for other factors. Notably, women from the South West region were 8.3 times more likely to make their own health care decisions than women from the North West region. Factors that were significantly associated with joint health care decision-making were also significantly associated with decision-making by the woman alone. The study found that individual-level factors were significantly associated with Nigerian women's decision-making autonomy, as well as other factors, in particular geographic region. The findings provide an important perspective on women's health care decision-making autonomy in a developing country.

  1. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations.

  2. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  3. Association between health literacy and hypertension management in a Chinese community: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Di; Li, Jiangbo; Wang, Yong; Wang, Si; Liu, Kai; Shi, Rufeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2017-03-16

    Low health literacy is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The relationship between literacy and blood pressure (BP) has been inconsistent. We investigated the determinants of health literacy and the potential relationship between health literacy and hypertension management. We conducted a retrospective cohort trial of 360 hypertensive patients. Scale measurements, physical examination, and laboratory tests were performed based on a standard protocol. To determine factors associated with health literacy, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed and the discriminatory power of the scale score for hypertension control was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve. After adjusting for potential confounders, our findings show that the level of education, home blood pressure measurement, regular medication, and systolic blood pressure are significantly associated with health literacy. Moreover, patients with high health literacy have better hypertension control, a lower risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD), lower brachial ankle pulse wave velocity values, and better health-related quality of life. In addition, our study also demonstrates that we can identify the health literacy level of hypertensive patients using the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Hypertension. At a cut-off value of 13.5, we predict that patients will achieve long-term hypertension control. Adequate health literacy is a contributing factor to better blood pressure (BP) control and better perceived quality of life in hypertensive patients. Low health literacy increases the 10-year risk of ICVD and incidence of artery stiffness in hypertensive patients. Improving health literacy should be considered an important part of the management of hypertension.

  4. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p < 0.05) to health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p < 0.05) to various aspects of physical or mental health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  5. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal health literacy and vaccination status independently in each site. For both sites, adjusted models considered maternal age, maternal and paternal education, child sex, birth order, household religion and wealth quintile. Rural analyses used multilevel models adjusted for service delivery characteristics. Urban analyses represented cluster characteristics through fixed effects. Results The rural analysis included 1170 women from 60 villages. The urban analysis included 670 women from nine slum clusters. In each site, crude and adjusted models revealed a positive association between maternal health literacy and DTP3. In the rural site, the adjusted OR was 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.21, p=0.010) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=1.30 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.91, p=0.172) for those with high health literacy. In the urban site, the adjusted OR was 1.10 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.88, p=0.705) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=2.06 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.99, p=0.032) for those with high health literacy. Conclusions In these study settings, maternal health literacy is independently associated with child vaccination. Initiatives targeting health literacy could improve vaccination coverage. PMID:25827469

  6. Perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption among Russian consumers.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Heleen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn J

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge about differences in consumer perceptions of health risks and benefits related to fish consumption is important for the development of targeted health interventions associated with dietary choice. The purpose of this study is to identify individual differences in Russian consumers according to their perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption. By application of a cluster analysis on perceptions of personal risks and benefits associated with the consumption of fish, four groups of Russian consumers were classified as: very positive; positive; moderately positive; and 'high risk-high benefit' about the healthiness of fish consumption. Differences in perceptions of personal risks and benefits across consumers were related to self-reported fish consumption, optimism about personal risks and benefits, and optimism about personal knowledge about risks and benefits. Implications for the development of targeted health interventions to influence perceptions of risks and benefits associated with fish consumption, and ultimately fish consumption, are discussed. It is concluded that optimism regarding perceptions and knowledge of health risks, and health benefits should be taken into account when developing interventions aimed at consumer health.

  7. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Cornelius B; Wright, Davene R; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed.

  8. Challenges associated with privacy in health care industry: implementation of HIPAA and the security rules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young B; Capitan, Kathleen E; Krause, Joshua S; Streeper, Meredith M

    2006-02-01

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with privacy in health care in the electronic information age based on the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Security Rules. We examine the storing and transmission of sensitive patient data in the modem health care system and discuss current security practices that health care providers institute to comply with HIPAA Security Rule regulations. Based on our research results, we address current outstanding issues that act as impediments to the successful implementation of security measures and conclude the discussion and offer possible avenues of future research.

  9. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  10. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P = .002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  11. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  12. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stressors among students at nine Libyan universities.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-11-25

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%-60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64-2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population.

  13. The association between physical environment and health: indicating the direction of effects using German panel data

    PubMed Central

    Romppel, Matthias; Igel, Ulrike; Brähler, Elmar; Grande, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has identified an association between health and physical residential environmental characteristics. However, the direction of effects remains unclear, and further research is needed to determine whether the residential environment influences health. Objectives To specify the direction of the association between environmental disadvantage and self-reported health. Methods Longitudinal data were obtained from the German Socioeconomic Panel and were examined at two points in time. Participants were grouped by relocation status assessed across a five-year period. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effect of baseline environmental disadvantage on baseline health and on health five years later. Results In both groups, environmental disadvantage was cross-sectionally correlated with poor health. Only among people who did not relocate was baseline environmental disadvantage significantly related to health five years later in bivariate analyses. Results from the structural equation model found that environmental disadvantage was no longer significantly related to poor health five years later within the group of non-movers (β = -.02, p = .052). In addition, there was no effect in this direction within the group of movers (β = .02, p = .277). Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of a weak contextual effect as group differences in longitudinal associations indicated the direction of ecological effects. PMID:27078172

  14. The association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Zergani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Job satisfaction is one of the most challenging organizational concepts, and it is the basis of management policies to increase productivity and efficiency of the organization. The general health rate may affect job satisfaction in several ways. This study aimed to determine the association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study population of this cross-sectional research included 100 employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. The data collection instruments were the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA statistical tests in SPSS software. Results The mean general health was calculated as 26.19 ± 11.04, which indicated a positive psychiatric condition. Job satisfaction with a mean score of 89.67 ± 23.3 was deemed to be relatively dissatisfied. A medium negative and significant association was observed between job satisfaction and general health and its subscales (physical health, anxiety, social, and depression). Conclusions General health subscales and job satisfaction are associated. Some actions must be planned to cope with the negative factors in general health in order to increase employees’ satisfaction in university educational hospitals. PMID:27280002

  15. Work profile and associated health hazards among nursing students at Mansoura University, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elwafa, Hala S; Khashaba, Eman O; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Abd El-Raouf, Samar

    2017-03-30

    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. The objectives of this study are to estimate its prevalence, factors associated, and possible health hazards. A cross-sectional study was conducted of nursing students using a questionnaire that included sociodemographic and employment data, reasons for working, possible health hazards in the workplace, and perceived effects on academic performance. The prevalence of student paid employment was found to be 23.3%. Being male and belonging to a low social class were independently associated with the likelihood of working while studying. Financial support was the main reason for student employment. Workplace hazards included noise, temperature extremes and psychosocial stressors. Sleep disorders were the most frequent health effects followed by musculoskeletal complaints. Nursing students are at risk from many deleterious health effects which are not covered by occupational health and safety programmes.

  16. Early puberty is associated with mental health problems in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-09-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents.

  17. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation

    PubMed Central

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Methods A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Results Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (P<.05) were found between frequency and duration of site visits and patient activation, social relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, P<.05). Experienced users with diabetes surfed more than those with other illnesses and had significantly higher PAM scores (mean, M=69.3, standard deviation, SD=19.1, PAM level 4; Z=−4.197, P<.001) than new users (M=62.8, SD=18.7, PAM level 3). Disease knowledge directly predicted PAM for all users (β=.26 and .21, respectively). Frequency and duration of social health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM

  18. Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome and Associated Factors Among Rural Health Workers (Behvarzes) in South Khorasan

    PubMed Central

    Bijari, Bita; Abassi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential primary health care is delivered through the public health center PHC network by public health workers (Behvarzs). Health workers are exposed to different types of stresses while working. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among rural health workers in the health centers of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods All rural health workers of health centers under the coverage of the Birjand University of Medical Sciences selected through census sampling participated in this cross-sectional study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, GHQ-12 questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ2), t-test, and ANOVA test. Results A total of 423 health workers participated in this study, and their mean age was 39 ± 8.4 years. Among the participants, 34.5% had moderate to severe levels of burnout. About 31.4% of the subjects had abnormal scores in emotional exhaustion, 16.8% in depersonalization, and 47% in the personal accomplishment subscales. The rate of abnormal mental health among the participants was 36.68%. The prevalence of mental disorders was 24.5% in subjects with low burnout or without burnout against 60.4% of subjects with moderate or severe burnout (P = 0.001). Age, education level, number of children, and years of employment were found to have a significant association with the burnout level of the participants (P < 0.05). Conclusions Burnout was prevalent among health workers. Based on the high level of burnout among health workers, reducing job ambiguity/conflict, participating in planning new programs, and improving interaction with health authorities may help them to overcome their job-related pressure and to give a more desirable performance. PMID:28180014

  19. The Association of Minority Self-Rated Health with Black versus White Gentrification.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Joseph; Barton, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    There exists controversy as to the impact gentrification of cities has on the well-being of minorities. Some accuse gentrification of causing health disparities for disadvantaged minority populations residing in neighborhoods that are changing as a result of these socioeconomic shifts. Past scholarship has suggested that fears of displacement and social isolation associated with gentrification lead to poorer minority health. However, there is a lack of research that directly links gentrification to minority health outcomes. We address this gap with individual data from the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey and census tract data from the 2000 Decennial Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. We implement logistic multilevel models to determine whether and how a resident's self-rated health is affected by gentrification of their neighborhoods. We find that while gentrification does have a marginal effect improving self-rated health for neighborhood residents overall, it leads to worse health outcomes for Blacks. Accounting for racial change, while gentrification leading to increases in White population has no measurable effect on minority health, "Black gentrification" leads to marginally worse health outcomes for Black respondents. These results demonstrate the limitations that improvements of neighborhood socioeconomic character have in offsetting minority health disparities.

  20. Eliminating LGBTIQQ Health Disparities: The Associated Roles of Electronic Health Records and Institutional Culture.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Edward J; Hazarian, Shea; Yarborough, Mark; Sánchez, John Paul

    2014-09-01

    For all humans, sexual orientation and gender identity are essential elements of identity, informing how we plan and live our lives. The historic invisibility of sexual minorities in medicine has meant that these important aspects of their identities as patients have been ignored, with the result that these patients have been denied respect, culturally competent services, and proper treatment. Likely due to historic rejection and mistreatment, there is evidence of reluctance on the part of LGBT patients to disclose their sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity (GI) to their health care providers. There is some perception of risk in sharing SO and GI for many patients who have had bad prior experiences. Despite these risks, we argue that we can improve the quality of care provided this population only by encouraging them to self-identify and then using that information to improve quality of care. One strategy both to prompt patient self-identification and to store and use SO and GI data to improve care centers on the use of electronic health records. However, gathering SO and GI data in the EHR requires a workforce that knows both how to obtain and how to use that information. To develop these competencies, educational programs for health professionals must prepare students and educators to elicit and to use sexual orientation and gender identity information to improve care while simultaneously ensuring the safety of patients, trainees, and staff and faculty members as SO and GI become openly discussed and integral parts of ongoing medical discussion and care. As determination of SO and GI demographics becomes more common in health research, we will more fully understand the health risks for all the LGBTIQQ populations.

  1. Social network types among older Korean adults: Associations with subjective health.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung Yun; Joo, Won-Tak; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Se Joo; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Yeong-Ran; Lee, Eun

    2017-01-01

    With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies. The aims of this study were to identify social network types among older adults in South Korea and to examine the relationship of these social network types with self-rated health and depression. Data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project were analyzed. Model-based clustering using finite normal mixture modeling was conducted to identify the social network types based on ten criterion variables of social relationships and activities: marital status, number of children, number of close relatives, number of friends, frequency of attendance at religious services, attendance at organized group meetings, in-degree centrality, out-degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between the identified social network types and self-rated health and depression. The model-based clustering analysis revealed that social networks clustered into five types: diverse, family, congregant, congregant-restricted, and restricted. Diverse or family social network types were significantly associated with more favorable subjective mental health, whereas the restricted network type was significantly associated with poorer ratings of mental and physical health. In addition, our analysis identified unique social network types related to religious activities. In summary, we developed a comprehensive social network typology for older Korean adults.

  2. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others.

  3. Combinations of social participation and trust, and association with health status-an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Ronan, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    A limited number of studies have examined the 'miniaturization of community' model which is based on belief that 'new' individualistic, and narrower forms of social participation, do not promote generalized trust in others. Little is known about miniaturization of community and self-reported health, physical health and psychological health in Australia. Data from a 2009 computer-assisted-telephone-interview survey was used to investigate generalized trust, social participation and health-related quality of life in a regional Australian population (n = 1273; mean age 51.2 years). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between generalized trust, social participation and poor self-reported health (global self-rated, psychological and physical), and included four social participation/trust categories. A majority (67%) reported high generalized trust of others, 54% were categorized as high social participators. Miniaturization of community was a risk factor for poor self-rated psychological health across genders, and a risk factor for poor self-rated health for males. For women, low social participation (irrespective of trust level) was associated with poor self-reported health. Given current and previous findings, there is a need for further research in a range of contexts which explores the underlying concept of miniaturization of community, that is, the changes in social participation and social networks which may negatively impact community health.

  4. Eating disorders and associated mental health comorbidities in female veterans

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Rasmusson, Ann; Bartlett, Brooke; Gerber, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) remain understudied among veterans, possibly due to perceptions that this primarily male population does not suffer from EDs. However, previous research suggests that male and female veterans do experience EDs. The high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obesity observed among veterans may make this group vulnerable to disordered eating. Retrospective chart review was used to obtain data from 492 female veterans who presented to a women’s primary care center at a large, urban VA medical center between 2007 and 2009. A total of 2.8% of this sample had been diagnosed with an ED. In bivariate analyses, presence of PTSD and depression were significantly associated with having an ED diagnosis. However, when these two disorders were included in a multivariate model controlling for age, only depression diagnosis and lower age were significantly related to ED status. In sum, the rate of EDs in this sample is comparable to prevalence estimates of EDs in the general population. Current findings underscore the importance of assessing for EDs among VA patients and the need for further research among veterans. PMID:25015710

  5. Health Care Costs Associated With Child Maltreatment: Impact on Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Derek S.; Fang, Xiangming; Thompson, Hope F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the increased Medicaid expenditures associated with child maltreatment. METHODS: Data on child maltreatment were collected from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative sample of cases investigated or assessed by local Child Protective Services agencies between October 1999 and December 2000. Medicaid claims data for 2000 to 2003 were obtained from the Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX). Children from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being who had Medicaid were matched to the MAX data by Social Security number or birthdate, gender, and zip code. Propensity score matching was used to select a comparison group from the MAX data. Two-part regression models were used to estimate the impact of child maltreatment on expenditures. Data with individual identifiers were obtained under confidentiality agreements with the collecting agencies. RESULTS: Children who were identified as maltreated or as being at risk of maltreatment incurred, on average, Medicaid expenditures that were >$2600 higher per year compared with children not so identified. This finding accounted for ∼9% of all Medicaid expenditures for children. CONCLUSIONS: Child maltreatment imposes a substantial financial burden on the Medicaid system. These expenses could be partially offset by increased investment in child maltreatment prevention. PMID:23821692

  6. Association between weight status and men's positive mental health: The influence of marital status.

    PubMed

    de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Meunier, Sophie; Cyr, Caroline; Coulombe, Simon; Tremblay, Gilles; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Gaboury, Isabelle; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie

    2016-12-19

    The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the association between weight status and men's positive mental health, defined as the presence of symptoms of emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and (2) evaluate the moderating effect of marital status. A total of 645 men aged between 19 and 71 years self-reported their height and weight and answered a questionnaire measuring their emotional, psychological, and social well-being. Analysis of variance revealed that mean levels of emotional, psychological, and social well-being did not significantly differ according to men's weight status. Moderation analyses indicated that, for men in a relationship (married or living common-law), there were no significant associations between overweight, obesity, and the three components of positive mental health. However, for single men, overweight was marginally associated with higher emotional well-being, while obesity was associated with lower psychological well-being and marginally associated with lower social well-being. Results of the present study suggest that health professionals and researchers should take the characteristics (such as marital status) of men with obesity and overweight into account when working with them. Mental health researchers may need to examine men in each weight category separately (e.g. obesity vs. overweight), since the association with positive mental health can differ from one category to another.

  7. Health effects associated with measured levels of contaminants in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Weihe, Pál; Debes, Fróði; Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Muckle, Gina; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Dudarev, Alexey; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Grandjean, Philippe; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The Human Health Assessment Group has over the past decade recommended that effect studies be conducted in the circumpolar area. Such studies examine the association between contaminant exposure in the Arctic populations and health effects. Because foetuses and young children are the most vulnerable, effect studies are often prospective child cohort studies. The emphasis in this article is on a description of the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The main topics addressed are neurobehavioural, immunological, reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine and carcinogenic effect. For each topic, the association between exposure and effects is described, and some results are reported for similar studies outside the Arctic. PMID:27974137

  8. The association between earlier marijuana use and subsequent academic achievement and health problems: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Stimmel, Matthew A; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between marijuana use over a period of 13 years and subsequent health problems at age 27. A community sample of 749 participants from upstate New York was interviewed at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Marijuana use over time was significantly associated with increased health problems by the late twenties, including respiratory problems, general malaise, neurocognitive problems, and lower academic achievement and functioning. Effective prevention and intervention programs should consider the wide range of adverse physiological and psychosocial outcomes associated with marijuana use over time.

  9. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  10. Associations Between Discrimination and Cardiovascular Health Among Asian Indians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dulin-Keita, A.; Salas, C.; Kanaya, A. M.; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2016-01-01

    Asian Indians (AI) have a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The study investigated associations between discrimination and (1) cardiovascular risk and (2) self-rated health among AI. Higher discrimination scores were hypothesized to relate to a higher cardiovascular risk score (CRS) and poorer self-rated health. Asian Indians (n = 757) recruited between 2010 and 2013 answered discrimination and self-reported health questions. The CRS (0–8 points) included body-mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels of AI. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate relationships between discrimination and the CRS and discrimination and self-rated health, adjusting for psychosocial and clinical factors. There were no significant relationships between discrimination and the CRS (p ≥ .05). Discrimination was related to poorer self-reported health, B = −.41 (SE = .17), p = .02. Findings suggest perhaps there are important levels at which discrimination may harm health. PMID:27039100

  11. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination.

  12. Volunteering is Prospectively Associated with Health Care Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Konrath, Sara H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Although observational and experimental studies have shown that volunteering is linked with better mental health, physical health, and health behaviors, no studies have examined whether volunteering is associated with patterns of health care use. Objective The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether volunteering was associated with a greater use of preventive health care services, but fewer doctor visits and nights spent in the hospital. Methods Participants (n=7,168) were drawn from the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 51, and tracked for one wave (2 years). Logistic regression and generalized linear models were used for analyses. Results. In analyses that adjusted for sociodemographic factors and baseline health, volunteers were 30% more likely to receive flu shots (OR=1.30, 95% CI=1.16–1.47), 47% more likely to receive cholesterol tests (OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.24–1.74); female volunteers were 53% more likely to receive mammograms/x-rays (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.28–1.83) and 21% more likely to receive Pap smears (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03–1.41); male volunteers were 59% more likely to receive prostate exams (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.29–1.95). In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, volunteers spent 38% fewer nights in the hospital (RR=0.62, 95% CI=0.52–0.76), however volunteering was not associated with frequency of doctor visits (RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.87–1.02). The association between volunteering and number of nights spent in the hospital was minimally affected after adjusting for potential confounding (baseline health) and explanatory variables (health behaviors, social integration, stress, positive psychological factors, personality). Conclusion This is the first known study to examine the association between volunteering and health care use. If future studies replicate these findings, the results may be used to inform the development of new

  13. Association between socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors: The 2008–2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094–1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286–3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559–2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734–6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk

  14. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

    2013-04-01

    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  15. Postdischarge Falls and Readmissions: Associations with Insufficient Vision and Low Health Literacy among Hospitalized Seniors.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, Ethan G; Arora, Vineet M; Matthiesen, Madeleine I; Hariprasad, Seenu M; Meltzer, David O; Press, Valerie G

    2016-01-01

    The role of patient-level risk factors such as insufficient vision has been understudied. Because insufficient vision may interfere with health literacy assessments, the full impact of low health literacy among older patients with impaired vision is unknown. We sought to determine whether senior inpatients' insufficient vision and low health literacy are associated with adverse outcomes postdischarge, specifically falls and readmissions. We conducted an observational study of adult medicine inpatients at an urban hospital. Visual acuity and health literacy were screened at bedside. Outcomes data were collected by telephone 30 days postdischarge. Among 1,900 participants, 1,244 (65%) were reached postdischarge; 44% had insufficient vision and 43% had low health literacy. Insufficient vision was associated with postdischarge falls among participants ≥65 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-8.05), but not among participants <65 years (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 0.89-2.32). Low health literacy was associated with readmissions among participants ≥65 years (AOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.61), but not among participants <65 years (AOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.56-1.09). The results suggest the need to implement screening for older inpatients' vision and health literacy. Developing effective interventions to reduce these risks is critical given national priorities to reduce falls and readmissions.

  16. Concurrent and longitudinal associations of basal and diurnal cortisol with mental health symptoms in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J

    2008-11-01

    Recent biosocial theories postulate that both biological risk and the social context influence the development of mental health problems [Boyce and Ellis (2005) Development and Psychopathology, 17(2), 271-301]. Guided by this framework, we examined whether basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm were associated with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. Because cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations sometimes reveal different cortisol-mental health associations, we examined the association both concurrently and longitudinally when children transition to middle school, a time which entails a major change in social context from single to multiple teachers, classrooms, and sets of classmates. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day (waking, afternoon, and bedtime) across 3 days when adolescents were 5th graders. Mental health was measured when adolescents were in 5th and 7th grades, just before and after the transition to middle school. To deal with the substantial comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at this developmental stage, mental health measures distinguished overall symptom severity from the preponderance of internalizing versus externalizing symptoms (i.e., directionality). A three-level Hierarchical Linear Model was used to extract basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm separate from the day-to-day and within-the-day fluctuations in cortisol in response to daily experiences. Results were specific to symptom severity, suggesting that cortisol is a nonspecific risk factor for mental health symptoms in young adolescents. At 5th grade, low basal cortisol was associated with concurrent symptom severity. However, longitudinally, it was adolescents with high cortisol at 5th grade who were at risk for increasing mental health symptoms by 7th grade. Flat diurnal rhythms in 5th grade were related to levels of symptom severity at both 5th and 7th grades. Considering the change in social context, as defined by the transition to

  17. Out-of-Pocket Expenditures on Complementary Health Approaches Associated with Painful Health Conditions in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Nahin, Richard L.; Stussman, Barbara J.; Herman, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    National surveys suggest that millions of adults in the United States use complementary health approaches such as acupuncture, chiropractic manipulation, and herbal medicines to manage painful conditions such as arthritis, back pain and fibromyalgia. Yet, national and per person out-of-pocket (OOP) costs attributable to this condition-specific use are unknown. In the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, use of complementary health approaches, reasons for this use, and associated OOP costs were captured in a nationally representative sample of 5,467 adults. Ordinary least square regression models that controlled for co-morbid conditions were used to estimate aggregate and per person OOP costs associated with 14 painful health conditions. Individuals using complementary approaches spent a total of $14.9 billion (S.E. $0.9 billion) OOP on these approaches to manage these painful conditions. Total OOP expenditures seen in those using complementary approaches for their back pain ($8.7 billion, S.E. $0.8 billion) far outstripped that of any other condition, with the majority of these costs ($4.7 billion, S.E. $0.4 billion) resulting from visits to complementary providers. Annual condition-specific per-person OOP costs varied from a low of $568 (SE $144) for regular headaches, to a high of $895 (SE $163) for fibromyalgia. PMID:26320946

  18. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Setting Global project. Participants Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. Primary and secondary outcome measures The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. Results The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries’ level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (p<0.05). Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. Conclusions It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement

  19. Positive Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness with Cardiovascular Health: the New England Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Britton, Willoughby B.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness (the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is receiving substantial interest as a potential determinant of health. However, little is known whether mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health. Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness is associated with cardiovascular health. Method Study participants (n=382) were from the New England Family Study, born in Providence, RI, USA, with mean age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Cardiovascular health was assessed based on American Heart Association criteria. Cross-sectional multivariable-adjusted log binomial regression analyses were performed. Results Analyses demonstrated that those with high vs. low MAAS had prevalence ratio (PR) for good cardiovascular health of 1.83 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 3.13), adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. There were significant associations of high vs. low mindfulness with non-smoking (PR=1.37, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.76), body mass index <25 kg/m2 (PR=2.17, 95 % CI 1.16, 4.07), fasting glucose <100 mg/dL (PR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.06, 2.04), and high physical activity (PR = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.04, 2.35), but not blood pressure, total cholesterol, or fruit/vegetable consumption. Exploratory mediation analyses suggested that sense of control and depressive symptomatology may be mediators. Conclusion This study demonstrated preliminary cross-sectional evidence that dispositional mindfulness is positively associated with cardiovascular health, with the associations particularly driven by smoking, body mass index, fasting glucose, and physical activity. If in future research mindfulness-based practices are found to consistently improve cardio-vascular disease risk factors, such interventions may have potential to strengthen effects of cardiovascular health promotion programs. PMID:25339282

  20. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  1. Neurocognitive Impairment is Associated with Lower Health Literacy Among Persons Living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Cattie, Jordan E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:25008384

  2. Neurocognitive impairment is associated with lower health literacy among persons living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cattie, Jordan E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection.

  3. The association between parent’s health and the educational attainment of their children

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

  4. Association between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Qi, Huajin; Li, Feng; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Yang, Chengjian; Wang, Ling; Shui, Kedong; Wang, Yaping; Qiang, Dongchang; Yun, Jingting; Weng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The American Heart Association aims to improve cardiovascular health by encouraging the general population to meet 7 cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is an important index. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in middle-aged Chinese men. A cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 27,824 middle-aged Chinese men were enrolled. The association between ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors and AIP was determined. The 7 cardiovascular health metrics were scored as follows: 0, poor; 1, general; and 2, ideal. The cardiovascular health status was classified according to the total score, as follows: 0 to 4, inadequate; 5 to 9, average; and 10 to 14, optimum. Analyses assessed the prevalence of 7 cardiovascular health metrics, its association with AIP. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), adjusting for age. All 7 cardiovascular health metrics were shown to correlate with AIP (all P values < 0.05), and the strongest correlation existed between body mass and AIP, followed by total cholesterol and AIP. The mean AIP level increased with the decrease in the score of each of the 7 cardiovascular health metrics (all P values < 0.05). The subjects with poor cardiovascular health status had a 4.982-fold increase in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis, whereas a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score resulted a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high-risk of developing atherosclerosis (OR = 0.777, 95% CI: 0.768–0.787). The ideal cardiovascular health score correlated significantly with AIP, and a 1-point increase in the cardiovascular health score led to a 0.046 reduction in AIP and a 22.3% reduction in the high risk of developing atherosclerosis. These validated the value of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors in the prediction of high

  5. The Association of Sexual Orientation Measures With Young Adults’ Health-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Carter, Jarvis W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, and attraction) and key health-related indicators commonly studied among sexual minority populations: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, smoking, binge drinking, and victimization. Methods. We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave IV (2007–2008) when respondents were aged 24 to 32 years (n = 14 412). We used multivariate linear and logistic regressions to examine consistency of associations between sexual orientation measures and health-related indicators. Results. Strength of associations differed by gender and sexual orientation measure. Among women, being attracted to both sexes, identifying as “mostly straight” or “bisexual,” and having mostly opposite-sex sexual partners was associated with greater risk for all indicators. Among men, sexual attraction was unrelated to health indicators. Men who were “mostly straight” were at greater risk for some, but not all, indicators. Men who had sexual partners of the same-sex or both sexes were at lower risk for binge drinking. Conclusions. Using all 3 dimensions of sexual orientation provides a more complete picture of the association between sexual orientation and health among young adults than does using any 1 dimension alone. PMID:22021310

  6. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  7. Does place of education matter? Contextualizing the education and health status association among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T; Herting, Jerald R; Alegría, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States.

  8. Is mindfulness associated with stress and burnout among mental health professionals in Singapore?

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2016-08-19

    High levels of stress and burnout have been reported among mental health professionals worldwide, including Singapore, with concerning potential implications for the quality of patient care. Mindfulness has been associated with decreased stress and burnout; however, associations between mindfulness, stress, and burnout have not been examined in Singapore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is associated with stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore. A total of 224 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey which included measures of: mindfulness (observe, describe, act with awareness, non-judge, and non-react), stress, and burnout (exhaustion and disengagement). Using multiple regression, significant negative associations were found between each of the mindfulness facets and: stress, exhaustion, and disengagement, while controlling for years of experience. Of the five mindfulness facets, act with awareness demonstrated the strongest negative association with all three variables. This study showed that mental health professionals in Singapore who have higher levels of mindfulness also have lower levels stress and burnout (disengagement and exhaustion). Future longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the directionality of these associations, with implications for the development of interventions aimed to reduce stress and burnout within this population.

  9. Food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes among human infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Cook, John T; Frank, Deborah A; Berkowitz, Carol; Black, Maureen M; Casey, Patrick H; Cutts, Diana B; Meyers, Alan F; Zaldivar, Nieves; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Heeren, Tim; Nord, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research tool. This study uses these new measures to examine associations between food insecurity and health outcomes in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether household food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes in a sentinel population ages < or = 36 mo. We conducted a multisite retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional surveys at urban medical centers in 5 states and Washington DC, August 1998-December 2001. Caregivers of 11,539 children ages < or = 36 mo were interviewed at hospital clinics and emergency departments (ED) in central cities. Outcome measures included child's health status, hospitalization history, whether child was admitted to hospital on day of ED visit (for subsample interviewed in EDs), and a composite growth-risk variable. In this sample, 21.4% of households were food insecure (6.8% with hunger). In a logistic regression, after adjusting for confounders, food-insecure children had odds of "fair or poor" health nearly twice as great [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.66-2.18], and odds of being hospitalized since birth almost a third larger (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.16-1.48) than food-secure children. A dose-response relation appeared between fair/poor health status and severity of food insecurity. Effect modification occurred between Food Stamps and food insecurity; Food Stamps attenuated (but did not eliminate) associations between food insecurity and fair/poor health. Food insecurity is associated with health problems for young, low-income children. Ensuring food security may reduce health problems, including the need for hospitalizations.

  10. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5–14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5–20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8–21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems. PMID:26000035

  11. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-04-03

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.5-14.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.5-20.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.8-21.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems.

  12. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  13. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing.

  14. Specific associations between types of physical activity and components of mental health.

    PubMed

    Asztalos, Melinda; Wijndaele, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Philippaerts, Renaat; Matton, Lynn; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Thomis, Martine; Duquet, William; Lefevre, Johan; Cardon, Greet

    2009-07-01

    Findings of previous studies suggest that the relationship between physical activity and mental health may change across different domains of physical activity, different dimensions of mental health, and different population subgroups. The present study examined associations between five types of physical activity with different contents: housework, leisure active transportation, biking to/from work, walking to/from work, and sports participation, and two dimensions of mental health: perceived stress and psychological distress, in 1919 participants aged 20-65 years, using the data from the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the total sample, and with the sample stratified by gender, age, and occupational category. Further, separate models were used in the gender and age subgroups of each occupational category. Sports participation was the only type of physical activity inversely associated with both stress (OR=0.375; CI: 0.200-0.704) and distress (OR=0.480; CI: 0.253-0.910). Sports participation related to less distress in unemployed mid-aged adults, and to less stress in unemployed women, unemployed young adults, and young adults with blue-collar jobs. Housework was associated with more stress and more distress in women with blue-collar jobs. In young adults with white-collar jobs, however, an inverse association between housework and distress was found. Biking to and from work was associated with more stress in men with blue-collar jobs. Results invite consideration for the utility, and perhaps the necessity, of differentiated health recommendations for physical health and for mental health in different population subgroups.

  15. Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing −1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD. PMID:22900084

  16. Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarine, R.J.; Narad, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.32 references.

  17. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M(age) = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (β = -.17, p < .001). For the girls only, change in body satisfaction significantly mediated that relationship, and a reciprocal relationship between changes in mood and body satisfaction was also identified. Incorporation of lessons emphasizing goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another.

  18. Child and Family Psychiatric and Psychological Factors Associated With Child Physical Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jonathan M.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A.; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

  19. Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, R J; Narad, R A

    1992-10-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.

  20. Variation in Narrative Identity is Associated with Trajectories of Mental Health over Several Years

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Jonathan M.; Turner, Ariana F.; Brookshier, Kathryn M.; Monahan, Casey; Walder-Biesanz, Ilana; Harmeling, Luke H.; Albaugh, Michelle; McAdams, Dan P.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two longitudinal studies designed to assess the relationship between variability in narrative identity and trajectories of mental health over several years. In Study 1, core scenes from 89 late-mid-life adults’ life stories were assessed for several narrative themes. Participants’ mental health and physical health were assessed concurrently with the narratives and once a year for the subsequent four years. Concurrent analyses indicated that the themes of agency, redemption, and contamination were significantly associated with mental (but not physical) health. Longitudinal analyses indicated that these same three themes were significantly associated with participants’ trajectories of mental health over the course of four years. Exploratory analyses indicated that narratives of challenging experiences may be central to this pattern of results. In Study 2, similar longitudinal analyses were conducted on a sample of 27 late-mid-life adults who received a major physical illness diagnosis between the baseline assessment and six months later and a matched sample of 27 control participants who remained healthy throughout the study. Participants’ mental health and physical health were assessed every six months for two years. In this tightly controlled study, the themes of agency, communion, redemption, and contamination in participants’ life narratives collected at Baseline (before any participant got sick) were significantly positively associated with mental health in the group of participants who went on to receive a medical diagnosis, but not in the control group. Taken together, the results of these two studies indicate that the way an individual constructs personal narratives may impact his or her trajectory of mental health over time. PMID:25751718

  1. Stress-associated poor health among adult immigrants with a language barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongliu; Hargraves, Lee

    2009-12-01

    The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the 'Hispanic paradox' suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants. To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health Survey conducted in 2003. The associations between these conditions as well as the immigrants' length of time living in the USA and health were assessed. Our results demonstrated that the three stress-related conditions were significantly associated with a dramatically elevated poor health status (Unhappiness: OR = 5.22, 95% CI: 4.43-6.14; Depression: OR = 3.03, 95% CI: 2.31-3.98; Anxiety: OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.53-7.41). Compared to US citizens without a language barrier, immigrants with a language barrier were more likely to report poor health (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.66-2.78). After adjustment for stressors, the likelihood of reporting poor health among immigrants with a language barrier decreased significantly (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.05-2.91). In addition, these immigrants were more likely to report poor health within the first 10 years of their living in the USA (health in these immigrants. Thus, the healthy migrant hypothesis may not be generalizable to this population.

  2. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    Damián, Javier; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Valderrama-Gama, Emiliana

    2008-01-01

    Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%), 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28) for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06) when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68) when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition. PMID:18304308

  3. Assessment of the association between dentate status and self-rated general health

    PubMed Central

    Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Aiming at preparing the basis for evidence-based dental public health policy making in Slovenia, the objective of the study was to assess the strength of association between oral health status measured by the number of missing teeth and self-rated health (SRH). Methods The study was designed as a pooled individual-level data study from four national cross-sectional studies carried out in the period 2001-2012, based on CINDI Health Monitor methodology. Altogether, 34,412 participants were included. A logistic regression model with poor SRH as observed outcome and the number of teeth as explanatory factor (adjusted for selected biologic, socio-economic and health factors) was proposed. Results In the sample, women represented 55.7% and men 44.3%, median age was 45 years. Persons with more missing teeth more likely rated their health as poor. The association was persistent even when different confounding variables were included in the model. In the group with 1-5 missing teeth, in comparison to the group with none missing teeth, OR was 1.23 (p=0.049), whereas for the group with 6-10 missing teeth, OR was 1.32 (p=0.019); for the group with >10 missing teeth, but not all, OR was 1.77 (p<0.001), and for the group with all missing teeth, OR was 2.19 (p<0.001). Conclusions Study results showed clear association of SRH with dentate status, which confirms the oral-general health connection. This indicates the need for the development of proper dental public health policies for better oral health, and presents a new view on the importance of preserving teeth. PMID:28289473

  4. "Not always smooth sailing": mental health issues associated with the transition from high school to college.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Students who transition from high school to college are often excited by the new phase of their lives. However, they are exposed to circumstances and expectations which place them at risk for psychiatric disorders or that may exacerbate pre-existing problems. In this paper, we discuss risk factors and other issues associated with students transitioning to college or university life, identify challenges for health professionals, and suggest possible strategies to improve the mental health of young adults on college campuses. Academic staff and health care providers need to be aware of how best to engage and assist students during an important phase of their life. Processes and care pathways also need to be easily understood, user friendly, and appropriately resourced. It is anticipated that staff, students, and industry health care providers will benefit from a greater awareness of some of the mental health issues that may occur in higher education.

  5. Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

  6. The association of medical comorbidity in schizophrenia with poor physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L; Postrado, L; Delahanty, J; Fischer, P J; Lehman, A

    1999-08-01

    This study determined the prevalence of medical comorbidities in a cohort of persons receiving treatment for schizophrenia and the association of medical comorbidity with physical and mental health status. A total of 719 persons with schizophrenia sampled from a variety of community and treatment settings as part of the schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) participated in a survey interview. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess sociodemographic factors associated with the number of current medical comorbidities and the association of medical comorbidity count with patient ratings of physical health, mental health, symptoms, and quality of life. The majority of patients reported at least one medical problem. Problems with eyesight, teeth, and high blood pressure were most common. A greater number of current medical problems independently contributed to worse perceived physical health status, more severe psychosis and depression, and greater likelihood of a history of a suicide attempt. This study underscores the need to attend to somatic health care for persons with schizophrenia as well as the linkage of physical and mental health status.

  7. Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

  8. Differences between family practices in the associations of patient characteristics with health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Damman, Olga C; de Boer, Dolf; Hendriks, Michelle; Meuwissen, Liesbeth E; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana M J; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2011-12-01

    When comparing health care providers, patient experience data are usually adjusted for case-mix associations to ensure fair comparisons. Previous studies in the United States showed that case-mix associations sometimes vary across health care providers. Such variation could indicate differential provider behavior for patient subgroups, in which case current adjustment techniques might be inappropriate. To see whether this variation is also apparent in a health care system different from the U.S. system, the authors analyzed Dutch patients' experiences with family practice care. Using multilevel random slope models, the associations between age, general health status, mental health status, education, sex, and ethnicity on one hand and reported experiences on the other hand were assessed across family practices. The authors found only five significant variances between case-mix coefficients, all for outcomes related to health care professionals' conduct. These findings correspond to previous U.S. findings, suggesting that the case-mix variations reported here and previously constitute a rather robust phenomenon.

  9. Supplement use is associated with health status and health-related behaviors in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Paul, Alison A; Prynne, Celia J; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2005-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements may be one of a number of health-related behaviors that cluster together. The current study investigated the underlying diet, health-related characteristics, and behaviors of users and nonusers of dietary supplements in a longitudinal study of health. Participants (n = 1776) completed a 5-d food diary including information on dietary supplement use (vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals) at age 53 y. Sociodemographic information and data on smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were obtained along with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and a blood sample (nonfasting subjects). A significantly greater percentage of women reported supplement use compared with men (45.1 vs. 25.2%). Supplement use was associated with lower BMI, lower waist circumference, higher plasma folate and plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations, nonsmoking, participation in physical activity, and nonmanual social class in women and with plasma folate concentrations and participation in physical activity in men. Nonsupplement users tended to be nonconsumers of breakfast cereals, fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, oily fish, and olive oil and had lower dietary intakes of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin C even after adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Overall, supplement users tended to differ from nonsupplement users on a range of health-related behaviors and health status indicators, although there were fewer significant associations in men. Similarly, dietary supplements users tended to have underlying diets that, were healthier and those taking supplements may be the least likely to need them. These results support the notion of a clustering of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors, particularly for women.

  10. Association between attendance at religious services and self-reported health in 22 European countries.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Amanda; Rose, Richard; Bobak, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There are consistent reports of protective associations between attendance at religious services and better self-rated health but existing data rarely consider the social or individual context of religious behaviour. This paper investigates whether attendance at religious services is associated with better self-rated health in diverse countries across Europe. It also explores whether the association varies with either individual-level (gender, educational, social contact) or country-level characteristics (overall level of religious practice, corruption, GDP). Cross-sectional data from round 2 of the European Social Survey were used and 18,328 men and 21,373 women from 22 European countries were included in multilevel analyses, with country as higher level. Compared to men who attended religious services at least once a week, men who never attended were almost twice as likely to describe their health as poor, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.83 [95% CI, 1.49-2.26]. A similar but weaker effect was seen in women, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.38 [1.19-1.61]. The associations were reduced only marginally in men by controlling for health status, social contact and country-level variables, but weakened in women. The relationships were stronger in people with longstanding illness, less than university education and in more affluent countries with lower levels of corruption and higher levels of religious belief. These analyses confirm that an association between less frequent attendance at religious services and poor health exists across Europe, but emphasise the importance of taking individual and contextual factors into account. It remains unclear to what extent the observed associations reflect reverse causality or are due to differing perceptions of health.

  11. Barriers to care and service satisfaction following homicide loss: associations with mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A

    2015-01-01

    Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction.

  12. The association between health-related behaviours and the risk of divorce in the USA.

    PubMed

    Fu, H; Goldman, N

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the link between health-related variables and risks of divorce. The findings indicate that physical characteristics associated with poor health--namely, obesity and short stature--are not significantly related to risks of marital dissolution for either men or women. On the other hand, risk-taking behaviours--such as smoking and drug use--are strongly related to higher risks of divorce for both sexes. Overall, the results emphasize the need to accommodate health-related variables in the dominant economic and social psychological theories of marital dissolution.

  13. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these

  14. The Association between Discrimination and the Health of Sikh Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; Cleland, C.M.; Hutchinson, M.K.; Islam, N.; Barnes, L.L.; Van Devanter, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between self-reported discrimination (SRD) and mental and physical health (self-reported physical health conditions and direct, physiologic measures (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure) among Sikh Asian Indians (AI), a group that may be particularly discriminated against due to physical manifestations of their faith, including a tendency to wear turbans or ethnic clothing. Methods Sikh AIs (N = 196) were recruited from Sikh gurdwaras in Queens, New York. Data were collected on SRD, social support and self-reported health, along with multiple direct physiological measures for cardiovascular health. Results Participants who wore turbans/scarves reported higher levels of discrimination than those who did not wear turbans/scarves. As hypothesized, multiple regression analysis supported that discrimination is significantly associated with poorer self-reported mental (B = −.53, p < .001) and physical health (B = −.16, p = .04) while controlling for socioeconomic, acculturation, and social support factors. The study did not support an association between SRD and physiologic measures (elevated BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure). Conclusion Consistent with previous discrimination and health reports, this study demonstrated an inverse relationship between discrimination and health among Sikh AIs, an understudied yet high risk minority population. Community-based efforts are also needed to reduce the occurrence or buffer the effects of discrimination experienced by Sikh AIs. PMID:27018726

  15. What Factors are Associated with Consumer Initiation of Shared Decision Making in Mental Health Visits?

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Marianne S.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26427999

  16. What Factors are Associated with Consumer Initiation of Shared Decision Making in Mental Health Visits?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Marianne S; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed.

  17. Social support network structure in older people: underlying dimensions and association with psychological and physical health.

    PubMed

    Golden, Jeannette; Conroy, Ronán M; Lawlor, Brian A

    2009-05-01

    Social networks have been associated with a wide variety of health outcomes in older people. We examined the dimensions underlying the Wenger social support network type assessment to identify dimensions associated with mental and physical health. We interviewed 1334 community-dwelling participants aged 65+. The Geriatric Mental State automated geriatric examination for computer-assisted taxonomy interview was used to rate psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of <24 on the mini mental state examination. Clustering around latent variables identified two uncorrelated social support network domains: family (distance from and contact with relatives) and social engagement. Social engagement was associated with a lower age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of depression (odds ratio for a one-tertile increase 0.48), generalised anxiety disorder (OR 0.60), cognitive impairment (OR 0.68) and physical disability (OR 0.62) all p < 0.001. Adjusted for age, sex, depression, cognitive impairment and disability, the social engagement domain was also associated with better quality of life (OR 1.5) self-rated happiness (OR 1.3) and rating life as worth living (OR 1.4). The family domain, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with any health outcome. The results suggest that elective relationships and social engagement are the 'active ingredients' of social networks which promote health in later life.

  18. Association of blood heavy metals with developmental delays and health status in children

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Lee, Chih-Ying; Chien, Ssu-Ning; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ru-Lan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations with developmental delays and to explore the association of these concentrations with the health status of children. This study recruited 89 children with developmental delays and 89 age- and sex-matched children with typical development. Their health status was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument for function. Family function was also evaluated. Blood lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The children with developmental delays had a considerably poorer HRQOL, lower functional performance and family function, and a higher blood lead concentration than those with typical development. The blood lead concentration had a significantly positive association with developmental delays [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, p < 0.01] in a dose-response manner, and it negatively correlated with PedsQL scores (regression coefficient: −0. 47 to −0.53, p < 0.05) in all the children studied. The higher blood cadmium concentration showed a significantly positive association with developmental delays (OR = 2.24, for >1.0 μg/L vs. <0.6 μg/L, p < 0.05). The blood mercury concentration was not associated with developmental delays and health status. PMID:28252669

  19. Association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health: a meta-analysis and systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael; Hodge, Jason M; Williams, Lana J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar spectrum disorder is a chronic, episodic illness, associated with significant personal, social and economic burden. It is estimated to affect ∼2.4% of the population worldwide and is commonly associated with psychological and/or physiological comorbidities. Osteoporosis is one such comorbidity, a disease of bone that is asymptomatic until a fracture occurs. This systematic review attempts to capture, collate, assess and discuss the literature investigating the association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health. Methods and analysis We aim to identify articles that investigate the association between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health in adults by systematically searching the MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID and CINAHL databases. Two independent reviewers will determine eligibility of studies according to predetermined criteria, and methodological quality will be assessed using a previously published scoring system. A meta-analysis will be conducted, and statistical methods will be used to identify and control for heterogeneity, if possible. If numerical syntheses are prevented due to statistical heterogeneity, a best evidence synthesis will be conducted to assess the level of evidence for associations between bipolar spectrum disorder and bone health. Ethics and dissemination Ethical permission will not be required for this systematic review since only published data will be used. This protocol will be registered with PROSPERO. Findings of the review will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and will be presented to clinical and population health audiences at national and international conferences. PMID:28246138

  20. Association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease among Korean adults: The Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to assess the association between oral health behavior and periodontal disease using nationally representative data.This study involved a cross-sectional analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis models using the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal disease.Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the toothbrushing after lunch group and the toothbrushing before bedtime group were 0.842 (0.758, 0.936) and 0.814 (0.728, 0.911), respectively, after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, drinking, exercise, education, income, white blood cell count, and metabolic syndrome. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of periodontitis for the floss group and the powered toothbrush group after adjustment were 0.678 (0.588, 0.781) and 0.771 (0.610, 0.974), respectively.The association between oral health behavior and periodontitis was proven by multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors among Korean adults. Brushing after lunch and before bedtime as well as the use of floss and a powered toothbrush may be considered independent risk indicators of periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  1. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise.

  2. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-03-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n = 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p < 0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex.

  3. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p<0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value<0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  4. Treatment beliefs, health behaviors and their association with treatment outcome in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Lill-Brith Wium; Gydesen, Helge; Skovlund, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing, it is increasingly well recognized that treatment outcomes in primary care practice are often suboptimal. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Research design and methods This was a large-scale cross-sectional, registry-based study involving a well-defined type 2 diabetes population, in the county of Funen, Denmark. Registry data were combined with a 27-item self-reported survey administered to all insulin-treated people in the registry (n=3160). The survey was constructed to operationalize key concepts of diabetes management, diabetes treatment beliefs, and health behaviors. Results In total, 1033 respondents answered the survey. The majority of treatment beliefs and health behaviors examined were predictors of glycemic control and, to a large extent, lipid profile. Absence from, or a low frequency of, self-measured blood glucose, non-adherence to general medical advice and the prescribed treatment, a low primary care utilization, and perceived low treatment efficacy were factors positively associated with HbA1c levels, s-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein. Conversely, infrequent self-measured blood glucose was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of having a blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg. Perceived low treatment efficacy was the only health belief associated with poorer levels of health outcome other than HbA1c. Conclusions Health behaviors were stronger predictors for health outcomes than treatment beliefs. Self-reported adherence to either the treatment regimen or general medical advice most consistently predicted both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27110367

  5. Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents’ Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness. Methods A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression). Results The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (β =.12, p =.03). Conclusions Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

  6. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1–1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3–2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8–3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01–1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1–1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5–2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1–1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms. PMID:28129410

  7. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  8. Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…

  9. Exploring the Association between Race and Health among Older Adults Who Are Incarcerated.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Shi, Qiuhu; Forseth, Kirsten; Laureano, Pedro; Viola, Deborah

    2017-04-03

    One of the little known ironies in the field of prison health is the notion that prison may actually have health-stabilizing effects for some groups. This study contributes to this line of inquiry by examining a variety of physical and mental health indicators among an older cohort of prisoners. Furthermore, this study's focus on race addresses a notable gap in the growing literature on older prisoner health. A cross-section of 625 males who were incarcerated residing in a northeastern state prison system was surveyed and data on self-reported health status and stress and individual demographics characteristics were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to quantify racial differences with respect to self-reported stress after adjusting for potential confounders. Results suggest that Black men who are older and incarcerated appear to be more resilient than White men who are older. An association was found between race and self-reported stress though not statistically significant. Health status is a significant predictor of self-reported stress in univariate and multivariate analyses. Having ever committed a violent offense and having received mental health services (in and out patient) are statistically associated with self-reported stress. Black men who were older in this study appear to cope better with stress related to incarceration than White men who were older, which may in turn affect other physical and mental health outcomes. Future research is needed to address factors that stabilize health and reduce stress among a racially diverse, aging prison population.

  10. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need

  11. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement

  12. Service Learning in Public Health: Exploring the Benefit to Host Agencies in CDC's Public Health Associate Program.

    PubMed

    Wigington, Corinne J; Sobelson, Robyn K; Duncan, Heather L; Young, Andrea C

    2017-02-08

    The "learn by doing" approach to training is common in the public health field and is a core component of service-learning programs. Trainee satisfaction, learning, and application of learning have been studied. What is less understood is the perspective of the agencies that host trainees. This study aimed to identify whether and how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Associate Program (PHAP) adds value to the agencies that host trainees during 2-year field assignments. An exploratory, qualitative study design consisting of 9 semistructured telephone interviews with PHAP host agency supervisors was used. Results suggested that PHAP increased host agencies' capacity by assigning capable trainees to host agencies. Trainees made quality contributions that led to agency- and/or community-wide improvements and positively affected the agencies' culture. Further evaluation of the host perspective is necessary; as coupled with the trainee's perspective, it will provide a more holistic understanding of program value.

  13. Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, Sarah; Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in

  14. Organizational justice at school and its associations with pupils' psychosocial school environment, health, and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Pietikäinen, Minna; Luopa, Pauliina; Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Jokela, Jukka; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the psychosocial environment perceived by school staff is associated with children's academic performance and wellbeing. In this study we examined the associations between organizational justice (procedural and relational justice) as reported by school staff and pupils' perceptions of their school environment, health problems, academic performance, and absenteeism. We combined data from two surveys: for the staff (the Finnish Public Sector Study, n = 1946) and pupils (the Finnish school health promotion survey, n = 11,781 boys and 12,842 girls) of 136 secondary schools, collected during 2004-2005. Multilevel cumulative logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for potential individual and school-level confounding factors, low procedural justice was associated with pupils' dissatisfaction with school-going. Low relational justice was associated with a 1.30 times higher risk of poor academic performance, 1.15 times higher risk of psychosomatic symptoms and 1.13 times higher risk of depressive symptoms among pupils. Both organizational justice components were associated with truancy. We concluded that staff perceptions of organizational justice at school are associated with pupils' reports of their psychosocial school environment, health, performance, and absenteeism due to truancy. Improving managerial and decision making procedures among school personnel may be an important factor for protecting pupils' academic performance and wellbeing.

  15. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  16. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes. PMID:20853216

  17. Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n = 10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

  18. Association Between Bullying Victimization and Health Risk Behaviors Among High School Students in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Marci Feldman; Jones, Sherry Everett; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between in-person and electronic bullying victimization among US high school students and health risk behaviors and conditions related to violence, substance use, sexual risk, overweight and physical activity, sleep, and asthma. METHODS Data were from the 2011 national YRBS among students who answered questions about in-person and electronic bullying (N=13,846). The YRBS is a biennial, nationally representative survey of students in grades 9–12 (overall response rate=71%). Logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, examined the association between bullying victimization and health risk behaviors or conditions. RESULTS Rates of victimization varied; 9.4% of students reported being bullied in-person and electronically, 10.8% only bullied in-person, 6.8% only electronically bullied, and 73.0% uninvolved. Bullying was associated with nearly all health risk behaviors and conditions studied. CONCLUSION Assessing the broad functioning and behaviors of victims of bullying could enable educators and health practitioners to intervene early and promote the long-term health of youth. PMID:26522172

  19. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish

  20. Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

  1. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  2. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  3. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  4. Typologies of Childhood Exposure to Violence: Associations with College Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Graff, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Hunter, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined typologies of childhood violence exposure (CVE) and the associations of profiles with current demographic characteristics and mental health in emerging adulthood. Participants: The study evaluated a sample of college students from 2 US geographic regions (Midwest, n = 195; Southeast, n = 200). Methods: An online…

  5. [Online Health Services for the Prevention of Stress-associated Psychological Impairments at the Workplace].

    PubMed

    von Hofe, I; Latza, U; Lönnfors, S; Muckelbauer, R

    2016-04-14

    Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of online health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. Methods: The databases EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for English, French and German references. Included were RCTs that examined the influence of online health services on stress-associated impairment in adult employees at the workplace. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for quality appraisal. Results: Out of 5 632 identified references, 13 RCTs were included in this study. The intervention approaches included movement and relaxation exercises, imparting of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral/social-behavioral interventions, risk communication, health coaching, mindfulness training, and career identity training. In 4 RCTs among mainly white collar employees, the interventions led to improvements in stress-associated outcomes (2 RCTs of high, one of medium and one of low quality level). 9 further RCTs (5 of them of a medium and 4 of a low quality level) did not show a beneficial intervention effect. Conclusion: There are effective health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. A final conclusion on the kind of intervention that is effective cannot be drawn due to the limited number of RCTs using various intervention approaches. Interventions of at least 12 weeks and a combination of multiple approaches were more often effective.

  6. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  7. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  8. Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

  9. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  10. General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health…

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  12. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  13. Health care-associated rotavirus illness in pediatric inpatients in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Karmaus, Wilfried; Ehlken, Birgit; Fruhwirth, Martin; Heininger, Ulrich; Plenge-Bonig, Anita; Forster, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    A longitudinal study of health care-associated transmission of rotaviruses (RVs) in pediatric inpatients 0-48 months old in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland showed that almost one third of all cases occurred in patients 2 months old or younger. The effectiveness of vaccination against RV from 2 months of age onward remains to be evaluated.

  14. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  15. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  16. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  17. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  18. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  19. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health.

  20. Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM) was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3%) or no measures (30.3%) while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing. Conclusion This study

  1. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Remote Monitoring in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ryan, Michael P; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Several randomized trials and decision analysis models have found that remote monitoring may reduce health care utilization and expenditures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), compared with in-office monitoring. However, little is known about the generalizability of these findings to unselected populations in clinical practice. To compare health care utilization and expenditures associated with remote monitoring and in-office monitoring in patients with CIEDs, we used Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases. We selected patients newly implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), or permanent pacemaker (PPM), in 2009, who had continuous health plan enrollment 2 years after implantation. Generalized linear models and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders and estimate differences in health care utilization and expenditures in patients with remote or in-office monitoring. We identified 1,127; 427; and 1,295 pairs of patients with a similar propensity for receiving an ICD, CRT-D, or PPM, respectively. Remotely monitored patients with ICDs experienced fewer emergency department visits resulting in discharge (p = 0.050). Remote monitoring was associated with lower health care expenditures in office visits among patients with PPMs (p = 0.025) and CRT-Ds (p = 0.006) and lower total inpatient and outpatient expenditures in patients with ICDs (p <0.0001). In conclusion, remote monitoring of patients with CIEDs may be associated with reductions in health care utilization and expenditures compared with exclusive in-office care.

  2. Health Risks Associated with Oil Pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Udofia, Emilia A.; Ekong, Ibanga; Ebuk, Godwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there is considerable public concern about the environmental impacts of oil pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, actual evidence on the pathological and psychological effects in the health of local communities is minimally known. We sought to associate the perspective measures of exposure to oil pollution with health outcomes (inventory of health symptoms and functional capacity limitations) and determine how emotional reactions to environmental risks moderate these health outcomes. Method: The study was conducted with 600 participants selected from five local government areas in Akwa Ibom State where oil pollution is rampant. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data on the respondents’ exposure to oil pollution, self-rated health and disease symptoms, perception of risk of exposure and emotional reactions to local oil pollution. Results: Most of the participants lived in areas with visible oil pollution and/or near gas flaring facilities and regularly suffered direct exposure to oil in their environment. High level of emotional distress was a part of everyone's life for the study population. Risk perception in the study area was mediated, to a large extent, by dreaded hazards (catastrophic fears of pipeline explosions and oil spill fire), visual cues (gas flares and smoke stacks) and chemosensory cues (off-flavor in drinking water). The exposure metrics were found to be significant predictors of the health effects and influencing factors (emotional reactions). Multi-levels models suggest that at the individual level, the demographic variables and direct contact with oil pollution were important mediators of functional capacity limitation. At the community level, emotional distress from fear of the sources of exposure was an important mediator of the health symptoms. Conclusions: This study documents high levels of disease symptoms and environmental distress (worry, annoyance and intolerance) associated with oil pollution

  3. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  4. Resilience associated with mental health problems among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-05-01

    A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, ORu = 0.96 and 0.96, p < .01). In multivariate models adjusting for both background and other psycho-social factors, resilience was independently associated with probable depression (ORa = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and anxiety (ORa = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Resilience was independently associated with depression and anxiety. As resilience is changeable, interventions targeting mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.

  5. Association between morningness-eveningness and mental and physical health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Individuals differ in their biological rhythms and their preference for morning or evening hours. Morning types prefer morning hours for intellectual and physical activities while evening types feel and perform best at late afternoon or in the evening. This not only is a simple dichotomous classification but also can be viewed as a continuum. Individual differences in morningness-eveningness are an interesting facet of personality, but little is known about the relationship between psychological factors or health-related variables and morningness-eveningness in adolescents. In Study I, there were positive correlations between morningness and positive attitude towards life and a negative association between morningness and depression. In Study II, there were significant positive relationships between morningness and physical health, mental health, self-esteem, familial relationship, and school functioning. These results indicate that eveningness might be an unspecific risk factor for mental and physical health.

  6. The association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in older adults, and its social cognitive mediators.

    PubMed

    Geboers, Bas; de Winter, Andrea F; Luten, Karla A; Jansen, Carel J M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate health literacy is a common problem among older adults and is associated with poor health outcomes. Insight into the association between health literacy and health behaviors may support interventions to mitigate the effects of inadequate health literacy. The authors assessed the association of health literacy with physical activity and nutritional behavior in community-dwelling older adults. The authors also assessed whether the associations between health literacy and health behaviors are mediated by social cognitive factors. Data from a study among community-dwelling older adults (55 years and older) in a relatively deprived area in The Netherlands were used (baseline n=643, response: 43%). The authors obtained data on health literacy, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and potential social cognitive mediators (attitude, self-efficacy, and risk perception). After adjustment for confounders, inadequate health literacy was marginally significantly associated with poor compliance with guidelines for physical activity (OR=1.52, p=.053) but not with poor compliance with guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.20, p=.46). Self-efficacy explained 32% of the association between health literacy and compliance with physical activity guidelines. Further research may focus on self-efficacy as a target for interventions to mitigate the negative effects of inadequate health literacy.

  7. The Florida Department of Health and the Florida Association of County Health Department Business Administrators: a model of successful collaboration to sustain operational excellence.

    PubMed

    Napier, Michael J; Street, Phillip; Wright, Robin; Kouba, James Michael; Ciereck, Christina; Dillon, Matthew J; Dollar, Rosemary C; Parizek, William A; Stapp, Charles Philip; Dickinson, Ross

    2004-01-01

    The Florida Association of County Health Department Business Administrators, Inc., is an organization of public health business professionals working collaboratively with the state's department of health administrative offices in promoting best practices throughout local county health departments. This article discusses a number of joint initiatives, past and present, that are benefiting public health services in Florida. In addition, mentoring and training, contract management, cost allocation, and financial reporting, among others, are "hot button" topics of interest to all states in promoting improved administration of their public health programs.

  8. ARE LITERACY SKILLS ASSOCIATED WITH YOUNG ADULTS’ HEALTH IN AFRICA? EVIDENCE FROM MALAWI

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether literacy skills are a distinct dimension of education that influences young adults’ health in the southeast African context of Malawi. It uses new data from Tsogolo la Thanzi, a study of young adults in southern Malawi, to achieve three aims. The first is descriptive: to demonstrate a direct assessment for measuring literacy in a population-based survey, and show that it captures variability in skills among young adults, including those with comparable levels of educational attainment. The second aim is to identify whether literacy influences young adults’ health—net of their educational attainment and other confounding factors. Multivariate analyses reveal that literacy is associated with two measures of physical health: self-rated health and prolonged sickness. Because literacy is a key determinant of health, the third aim is to provide insight into how to measure it: can commonly used indirect approaches to estimating literacy (e.g., based on educational attainment or self-reports), accurately capture its prevalence and relationship with health? In a second set of analyses, bivariate results show whether, and the extent to which, indirect measures of literacy overestimate literacy’s prevalence, and multivariate models assess whether indirect estimates of literacy capture its relationship with health. The findings support future efforts to incorporate literacy assessments into population surveys to accurately estimate literacy’s prevalence and health benefits, particularly in contexts like Malawi where access to high-quality schools remains limited. PMID:25164414

  9. Factors associated with Taiwanese lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions: Qualitative interview findings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn

    2016-08-11

    This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.

  10. Public health implications of environmental noise associated with unconventional oil and gas development.

    PubMed

    Hays, Jake; McCawley, Michael; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2017-02-15

    Modern oil and gas development frequently occurs in close proximity to human populations and increased levels of ambient noise have been documented throughout some phases of development. Numerous studies have evaluated air and water quality degradation and human exposure pathways, but few have evaluated potential health risks and impacts from environmental noise exposure. We reviewed the scientific literature on environmental noise exposure to determine the potential concerns, if any, that noise from oil and gas development activities present to public health. Data on noise levels associated with oil and gas development are limited, but measurements can be evaluated amidst the large body of epidemiology assessing the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure and established public health guidelines for community noise. There are a large number of noise dependent and subjective factors that make the determination of a dose response relationship between noise and health outcomes difficult. However, the literature indicates that oil and gas activities produce noise at levels that may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes, including annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease. More studies that investigate the relationships between noise exposure and human health risks from unconventional oil and gas development are warranted. Finally, policies and mitigation techniques that limit human exposure to noise from oil and gas operations should be considered to reduce health risks.

  11. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  12. Perceived discrimination among racial and ethnic minority drug users and the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Shumway, Martha; Masson, Carmen L; Pouget, Enrique R; Jordan, Ashly E; Des Jarlais, Don C; Sorensen, James L; Perlman, David C

    2017-03-17

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104). The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Race, Ethnicity, and Medical Care questionnaire was utilized to assess perceived institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination. Perceived institutional discrimination was examined across race/ethnicity and by regular use of ERs, having a regular doctor, and consistent health insurance. Perceived interpersonal discrimination was examined by race/ethnicity. Perceived interpersonal drug use discrimination was the most common type of discrimination experienced in health care settings. Perceptions of institutional discrimination related to race/ethnicity and drug use among non-Hispanic Whites did not significantly differ from those among non-Hispanic Blacks or Hispanics. A perception of less frequent institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings was associated with increased odds of having a regular doctor. Awareness of perceived interpersonal and institutional discrimination in certain populations and the effect on health care service utilization should inform future intervention development to help reduce discrimination and improve health care utilization among PWUDs.

  13. Social network types and the health of older adults: exploring reciprocal associations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Yanlong

    2015-04-01

    Social network types have been proved to have significant impacts on older population's health outcomes. However, the existing discoveries are still inconsistent, which may be attributed largely to the heterogeneous measures and methods scholars used and to the unidirectional causalities presumed in most research. This study addresses these gaps by using more-refined measures to explore whether the network types have differential impacts on older adults' health outcomes, and whether a reverse causal relationship exists between older adults' health conditions and the network types they adopted. Using data from three recent waves (2005, 2008, and 2012) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n = 4190), we constructed four network types using the K-means clustering method (i.e., diverse, friend, family, and restricted), and examined their impacts on a variety of health outcomes (i.e., physical, cognitive, psychological, and overall well-being). Our results demonstrate that there are strong reciprocal associations between these two factors. On the one hand, a diverse network type yielded the most beneficial health outcomes as measured by multiple health indicators, and the friend-focused network type is more beneficial than the family-focused network type in physical outcomes but not in psychological outcomes. On the other hand, we found that a decrease in all health indicators leads to withdrawal from more-beneficial network types such as a diversified network type, and a shift to less-beneficial network types such as family-focused or restricted networks. The understanding of this reciprocal association could encourage programs designed to enhance healthy aging to focus on improving the bridging social capital of older adults so that they can break the vicious cycle between network isolation and poor health conditions.

  14. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  15. Association between asthma and obesity among immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2014-11-26

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.

  16. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  17. The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

  18. Instrumentalism, civil association and the ethics of health care: understanding the "politics of faith".

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Peter R

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers critical reflection on the contemporary tendency to approach health care in instrumentalist terms. Instrumentalism is means-ends rationality. In contemporary society, the instrumentalist attitude is exemplified by the relationship between individual consumer and a provider of goods and services. The problematic nature of this attitude is illustrated by Michael Oakeshott's conceptions of enterprise association and civil association. Enterprise association is instrumental; civil association is association in terms of an ethically delineated realm of practices. The latter offers a richer ethical conception of the relation between person and society than instrumentalism does. Oakeshott's conception is further illustrated by reflection on the connection between morality and religion that he explores in an early essay concerning "religious sensibility". Religious sensibility turns on the acknowledgement of the vulnerability of the self to the vicissitudes of life. This vulnerability cannot be bargained over instrumentally without imperilling the self. Religious sensibility is thus a valuable resource for criticising instrumentalist attitudes. It allows for the cultivation of ethical self-understanding that is essential to comprehending the conditions in virtue of which genuine civil life is possible. These conditions need to be taken into account in health care. Health care is not simply about substantive wants. It also necessarily concerns the universal and constant condition of being prey to illness that is the common lot of all citizens.

  19. Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2016-01-01

    Built environment factors constrain individual level behaviors and choices, and thus are receiving increasing attention to assess their influence on health. Traditional regression methods have been widely used to examine associations between built environment measures and health outcomes, where a fixed, prespecified spatial scale (e.g., 1 mile buffer) is used to construct environment measures. However, the spatial scale for these associations remains largely unknown and misspecifying it introduces bias. We propose the use of distributed lag models (DLMs) to describe the association between built environment features and health as a function of distance from the locations of interest and circumvent a-priori selection of a spatial scale. Based on simulation studies, we demonstrate that traditional regression models produce associations biased away from the null when there is spatial correlation among the built environment features. Inference based on DLMs is robust under a range of scenarios of the built environment. We use this innovative application of DLMs to examine the association between the availability of convenience stores near California public schools, which may affect children's dietary choices both through direct access to junk food and exposure to advertisement, and children's body mass index z scores.

  20. Oral mucosal lesions and their association with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors.

    PubMed

    Gheno, José Nicolau; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Weissheimer, Camila; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801) using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%). Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.

  1. Educational attainment moderates the associations of diabetes education with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes education is a critical element of care for people with diabetes. However, the associations between diabetes education and self-care or health outcomes have not been clearly demonstrated at a national level. The aims of this study were to examine the associations of attendance of diabetes education classes with health behaviours and glycaemic control, and to understand whether these associations were moderated by level of educational attainment. Data were analysed for 456 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V, collected from January 2010 to December 2012. No significant differences were observed between patients who had attended diabetes education classes and those who had never attended for factors such as smoking, drinking, exercise, nutrition therapy or glycaemic control. There was a significant interaction effect between receiving diabetes education and level of educational attainment on obtaining optimal glycaemic control. Attending diabetes education was positively associated with optimal glycaemic control among patients with more than a high school education but was negatively associated with it among those with less than middle school education. Diabetes education programmes need to be tailored to the needs and cognitive capacities of the target population.

  2. Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of

  3. A comparative study of professional and interprofessional values between health professional associations.

    PubMed

    Tsou, PaiHsuan; Shih, Julie; Ho, Ming-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The need for effective interprofessional collaboration to ensure safe patient care is crucial. However, health professions are guided by separate professional codes of conduct. To examine whether professional codes are consistent across professions, this review examines 13 key health professional associations in the United States and compares their values to the guiding principles of interprofessional practice defined by the Interprofessional Professionalism Collaborative (IPC). Findings indicate that all six of the IPC's principles (altruism/caring, excellence, ethics, respect, communication, and accountability) were shared by the majority of professions, with many emphasizing two additional attributes, integrity and justice, suggesting there is room to expand the IPC's core principles. Few associations included interprofessional communication and collaboration in their professional codes. There is potential for associations to promote greater interprofessional collaboration by reshaping their professional frameworks. With many shared values across professions, establishing a common framework of interprofessional professionalism is feasible.

  4. Strengthening the organizational capacity of health professional associations: the FIGO LOGIC Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Helena; Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David J

    2013-09-01

    Health professional associations, including national associations of obstetrics and gynecology, can have a leading role in influencing and developing health policy and practice. However, in low- and middle-resource countries, the organizational capacity to facilitate this role is often insufficient. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics LOGIC (Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Impact and Change) Initiative has been developing the capacity of national associations in Africa and Asia. Through this work, an electronic resource of materials (http://figo-toolkit.org/) has been brought together to support organizational capacity development, addressing domains such as culture, strategic planning, human resources, project and financial management, performance, external relations, membership services, and the development and revision of clinical guidelines.

  5. I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems

    SciTech Connect

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-23

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  6. I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORING—CHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-01

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  7. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  8. Risk Factors and Health Profiles of Recent Migrant Women Who Experienced Violence Associated with Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Anita J.; Merry, Lisa A.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence associated with pregnancy is a major public health concern, but little is known about it in recent migrant women. This study looked at (1) risk factors for violence associated with pregnancy among newly arrived migrant women in Canada and (2) if those who experienced violence associated with pregnancy had a different health profile or use of healthcare services for themselves or their infants during pregnancy and up to 4 months postpartum compared to other childbearing migrant women. Methods Pregnant migrant women in Canada <5 years were recruited in 12 hospitals in 3 large cities between 2006 and 2009 and followed to 4 months postpartum. Data were collected on maternal background, migration history, violence associated with pregnancy, maternal and infant physical and mental health, and services used. Results Of a total of 774 pregnant migrant women, 59 (7.6%) women reported violence associated with pregnancy. Migrant women who experienced violence, compared to those who did not, were at increased risk of violence if they lived without a partner, were asylum seekers, migrated <2 years ago, or had less than high school education. Women who reported violence were less likely to have up-to-date vaccinations, take folic acid before pregnancy, more likely to commence prenatal care after 3 months gestation and to not use contraceptives after birth. They were also more likely to have a history of miscarriage and report more postpartum pain and increased bleeding. They were also more likely to have inadequate social support and report more depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on standardized tests. No differences were found in the health status of the infants of women who experienced violence compared to those who did not. Conclusions Clinicians should sensitively ask recent migrant women (asylum seekers, refugees, and nonrefugee immigrants) about violence associated with pregnancy and appropriately assess

  9. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s) This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. Methods The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers’ ages 15–49 and their youngest child (ages 6–36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother’s recall of her own and her child’s consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome – child DDS -- and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. Results There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother’s consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child’s food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women’s empowerment. Conclusions The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family. PMID:26305458

  10. Perceived Discrimination is Associated with Health Behaviors among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study*

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviors among African Americans (AA). Methods The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat, and sleep were examined among 4,939 35–84 year old participants after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Results Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95%CI 1.00,1.28 and 1.19, 95%CI 1.05,1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, p<.05 and 0.43, p<.01, in men and women, respectively). Everyday and lifetime discrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: −0.08, p<.05 and −0.18, p<.001, respectively; and mean difference for lifetime discrimination: −0.08, p<.05, and −0.24, p<.001, respectively). Burden of discrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Conclusions Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviors among men and women. Health behaviors offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. PMID:26417003

  11. American Heart Association's Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics in Under-Represented Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Freda; Zhang, Guo; Davey, Adam; Tan, Yin; Ma, Grace X

    2016-12-01

    The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health score is based on 7 cardiovascular health metrics to measure progress toward their Impact Goal of reducing cardiovascular disease by 20 % before 2020. This study applied this construct to assess cardiovascular health in a sample of Asian Americans. Convenience sampling methods were used to enroll self-identified Asian American's over the age of 18 years who were attending community health fairs across the greater Philadelphia and urban areas of New Jersey. The heart health metrics of tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, and glucose were measured. In the greater sample (N = 541), 82 % were female, the mean age was 65.1 (SD = 15.5) years, 45 % were Vietnamese, 38 % were Chinese and 17 % were Korean. Prevalence of ideal heart health for the metrics of tobacco use (95 %) was high. Only 19.4 % achieved ideal levels of physical activity, 35.1 % for BMI, 28.9 % for glucose and 66 % for blood pressure. Dietary intake was ideal for 20.7 % of the sample. More years since migration and Korean race trended toward having a higher prevalence of poor health in some metrics. Most Asian Americans are not achieving ideal cardiovascular health for several of the metrics evaluated, with those residing in the United States for more than 13 years and Korean Americans being higher-risk groups. Targeted community based intervention approaches to improving and monitoring heart health in Asian American, and Asian American subgroups, are needed.

  12. Determinants of perceived sexism and their role on the association of sexism with mental health.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Katherine; Pérez, Glòria; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study sought to compare the socioeconomic factors related to perceived sexism in employed and non-employed Spanish women and to examine whether the relationship of perceived sexism with mental health outcomes is reduced when such factors are taken into account. Data were taken from the 2006 Spanish Health Survey, including women aged 20-64 years (n=10,927). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the independent relationships between socioeconomic variables and perceived sexism and also between perceived sexism and poor mental health. In this latter case, socioeconomic variables were included by blocks in the logistic models. Perceived sexism was higher among employed women (3.9% vs. 2.8% among non-employed) and mainly among those in a managerial position (11.35%; adjusted OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.30-5.67) and having irregular working hours (5.5%; adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.34). Socioeconomic and family characteristics were associated with perceived sexism among women. Perceived sexism was associated with poor mental health, and this remained the case when different independent variables were taken into account. These results highlight the importance of taking into account gender discrimination in different aspects of our society, such as work and family organization, and in planning mental health interventions.

  13. Student learning outcomes associated with video vs. paper cases in a public health dentistry course.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (α=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students.

  14. [The association between common mental disorders and subjective health conditions among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa de; Feres, Sara de Barros Lima; Soares, Bruno Porto; Ferreira, Efigenia Ferreira E

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of common mental disorders and the impairment of subjective health conditions among the elderly. It involved a cross-sectional analytical survey conducted among all the elderly residents in the urban area of a Brazilian municipality with low population density. Mental disorders were evaluated using the short version of the Goldberg General Health questionnaire. Subjective and normative health conditions were evaluated and logistic regression was applied (OR/CI95%) with a 5% significance level. The survey included 419 elderly residents and the prevalence of mental disorders was 44.6%. The presence of mental disorders was greater among seniors who reported dissatisfaction with life, impairment in the mental and physical control of quality of life and with self-perception of the appearance of teeth and gums as negative. The prevalence of disorders was less identified between men and among those for whom oral health did not affect their relationships with other people The common mental disorder was identified in a significant number of the elderly investigated and the presence of this disorder has been mainly associated with oral health conditions.

  15. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinéia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Teófilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil.

  16. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  17. Characteristics of health care organizations associated with learning and development: lessons from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of health care organizations associated with an ability to learn from experiences and to develop and manage change were explored in this study. Understanding of these characteristics is necessary to identify factors influencing success in learning from the past and achieving future health care quality objectives. A literature review of the quality improvement, strategic organizational development and change management, organizational learning, and microsystems fields identified 20 organizational characteristics, grouped under (a) organizational systems, (b) key actors, and (c) change management processes. Qualitative methods, using interviews, focus group reports, and archival records, were applied to find associations between identified characteristics and 6 Swedish health care units externally evaluated as delivering high-quality care. Strong support for a characteristic was defined as units having more than 4 sources describing the characteristic as an important success factor. Eighteen characteristics had strong support from at least 2 units. The strongest evidence was found for the following: (i) key actors have long-term commitment, provide support, and make sense of ambiguous situations; (ii) organizational systems encourage employee commitment, participation, and involvement; and (iii) change management processes are employed systematically. Based on the results, a new model of "characteristics associated with learning and development in health care organizations" is proposed.

  18. Modeling the Association Between Particle Constituents of Air Pollution and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Suh, Helen H.; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the association between specific fine-particle (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm; PM2.5) constituents and adverse health outcomes rather than focusing solely on the impact of total PM2.5. Because PM2.5 may be related to both constituent concentration and health outcomes, constituents that are more strongly correlated with PM2.5 may appear more closely related to adverse health outcomes than other constituents even if they are not inherently more toxic. Therefore, it is important to properly account for potential confounding by PM2.5 in these analyses. Usually, confounding is due to a factor that is distinct from the exposure and outcome. However, because constituents are a component of PM2.5, standard covariate adjustment is not appropriate. Similar considerations apply to source-apportioned concentrations and studies assessing either short-term or long-term impacts of constituents. Using data on 18 constituents and data from 1,060 patients admitted to a Boston medical center with ischemic stroke in 2003–2008, the authors illustrate several options for modeling the association between constituents and health outcomes that account for the impact of PM2.5. Although the different methods yield results with different interpretations, the relative rankings of the association between constituents and ischemic stroke were fairly consistent across models. PMID:22850792

  19. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2016-11-17

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0-0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1-15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5-3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0-35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23-2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03-1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control.

  20. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Haro, Josep Maria; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Chrepa, Vanessa; Kotsakis, Georgios A.

    2016-01-01

    Edentulism is associated with various adverse health outcomes but treatment options in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are limited. Data on its prevalence and its effect on mental health and overall-health is lacking, especially from LMICs. Self-reported data on complete edentulism obtained by standardized questionnaires on 201,953 adults aged ≥18 years from 50 countries which participated in the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002–2004 were analyzed. Age and sex-standarized edentulism prevalence ranged from 0.1% (95% CI = 0.0–0.3) (Myanmar) to 14.5% (95% CI = 13.1–15.9) (Zimbabwe), and 2.1% (95% CI = 1.5–3.0) (Ghana) to 32.3% (95% CI = 29.0–35.8) (Brazil) in the younger and older age groups respectively. Edentulism was significantly associated with depression (OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.23–2.00) and poor self-rated health (OR 1.38, 95% CI = 1.03–1.83) in the younger group with no significant associations in the older age group. Our findings highlight the edentulism-related health loss in younger persons from LMICs. The relative burden of edentulism is likely to grow as populations age and live longer. Given its life-long nature and common risk factors with other NCDs, edentulism surveillance and prevention should be an integral part of the global agenda of NCD control. PMID:27853193

  1. Association of Nursing Overtime, Nurse Staffing, and Unit Occupancy with Health Care-Associated Infections in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Beltempo, Marc; Blais, Régis; Lacroix, Guy; Cabot, Michèle; Piedboeuf, Bruno

    2017-04-04

    Objective This study aims to assess the association of nursing overtime, nurse staffing, and unit occupancy with health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study Design A 2-year retrospective cohort study was conducted for 2,236 infants admitted in a Canadian tertiary care, 51-bed NICU. Daily administrative data were obtained from the database "Logibec" and combined to the patient outcomes database. Median values for the nursing overtime hours/total hours worked ratio, the available to recommended nurse staffing ratio, and the unit occupancy rate over 3-day periods before HCAI were compared with days that did not precede infections. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) that control for the latter factors and unit risk factors were also computed. Results A total of 122 (5%) infants developed a HCAI. The odds of having HCAI were higher on days that were preceded by a high nursing overtime ratio (aOR, 1.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05-2.75, quartile [Q]4 vs. Q1). High unit occupancy rates were not associated with increased odds of infection (aOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.47-1.51, Q4 vs. Q1) nor were higher available/recommended nurse ratios (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.67-1.99, Q4 vs. Q1). Conclusion Nursing overtime is associated with higher odds of HCAI in the NICU.

  2. Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue–Matos, Cristina; Alvim–Ferraz, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Considering vehicular transport as one of the most health-relevant emission sources of urban air, and with aim to further understand its negative impact on human health, the objective of this work was to study its influence on levels of particulate-bound PAHs and to evaluate associated health risks. The 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene associated with fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were determined. The samples were collected at one urban site, as well as at a reference place for comparison. The results showed that the air of the urban site was more seriously polluted than at the reference one, with total concentrations of 17 PAHs being 2240% and 640% higher for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively; vehicular traffic was the major emission source at the urban site. PAHs were predominantly associated with PM2.5 (83% to 94% of ΣPAHs at urban and reference site, respectively) with 5 rings PAHs being the most abundant groups of compounds at both sites. The risks associated with exposure to particulate PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks exceeded the health-based guideline levels, thus demonstrating that exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs at levels found at urban site might cause potential health risks. Furthermore, the results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene (regarded as a marker of the genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs) alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures.

  3. [Association between approach-avoidance commitment to romantic relationships, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and personal mental health].

    PubMed

    Komura, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson's (1999) and Levinger's (1999) theoretical argument.

  4. Associations between long commutes and subjective health complaints among railway workers in Norway.

    PubMed

    Urhonen, Terhi; Lie, Arve; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-12-01

    Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes. The mean number of complaints was 7.5 among the former group and 6.4 for the latter group (p = 0.009). In a regression model, in which the authors controlled for age, gender, education, self-rated health, and coping, the employees with long commutes reported more complaints than those with short commutes. Significant associations were found between those with long commutes and the number and degree of incidences of self-reported musculoskeletal pain, pseudo-neurologic complaints, and gastrointestinal problems. Commuters who had had long commutes for more than 10 years reported more gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal complaints than those with long commutes for less than 2 years. Also, commuters with long commutes spent less time with their families and leisure activities compared with those with short commutes. The authors conclude that the association between long commute times and higher levels of subjective health complaints should attract the attention of transport planners, employers, and public health policymaker.

  5. Associations between Childhood Parental Mental Health Difficulties and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adulthood: The Influence of Life-Course Socioeconomic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Viola; Klijs, Bart; Smidt, Nynke; Mierau, Jochen O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression among older adults (i.e., the 50+) is a major health concern. The objective of this study is to investigate whether growing up with a parent suffering from mental health problems is associated with depressive symptoms in late-adulthood and how this association is influenced by life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood. Methods We used life-history data from the SHARE survey, consisting of 21,127 participants living in 13 European countries. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the EURO-D scale. Parental mental health was assessed by asking respondents to report whether any of their parents had mental health problems during the respondents’ childhood. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between parental mental health status and depression. Variables on childhood and late-life socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors were sequentially added to the model to assess the extent to which this association is influenced by life-course circumstances. Results Individuals who were exposed during childhood to a parent with mental health problems suffered from depressive symptoms more often in late adulthood than those who were not (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.43–2.17). Adjustment for life-course socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors in childhood and late adulthood diminished this association to an OR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.24–1.90) and OR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.16–1.82), respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate a substantial association between parental mental health problems in childhood and depression in late adulthood and that this association is partly explained by childhood as well as late adulthood socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors. PMID:27936078

  6. Effect of Multiple Simultaneous Vaccines on Polio Seroresponse and Associated Health Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    responses to biological warfare vaccines in human vaccinees . Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:1–7. 20] Butler D. Admission on Gulf War vaccines spurs debate on...Naval Health Research Center Effect of Multiple, Simultaneous Vaccines on Polio Seroresponse and Associated Health Outcomes Michael P...Diego, California 92106-3521 E a M C a b a A R R A A K P I S M T T 1 t c i o c i A h 0 Vaccine 33 (2015) 2842–2848 Contents lists available at

  7. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  8. Dietary and lifestyle habits and the associated health risks in shift workers.

    PubMed

    Nea, Fiona M; Kearney, John; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Corish, Clare A

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally only a small proportion of the workforce was engaged in shift work. Changing economic pressures have resulted in increased engagement in shift work, with approximately 17 % of the workforce in Europe engaged in this work pattern. The present narrative review aimed to summarise the data on the effects of shift work on the diet, lifestyle and health of employees, while addressing the barriers to, and opportunities for, improving health among shift workers. Shift work can result in low-quality diet and irregular eating patterns. Adverse health behaviours are also reported; particularly increased smoking and poor sleep patterns. These altered lifestyle habits, in conjunction with disruption to circadian rhythms, can create an unfavourable metabolic phenotype which facilitates the development and progression of chronic disease. Although the data are inconclusive due to issues such as poor study design and inadequate control for confounding factors; shift workers appear to be at increased mental and physical health risk, particularly with regard to non-communicable diseases. Information is lacking on the obstacles to leading a healthier lifestyle while working shifts, and where opportunities lie for intervention and health promotion among this group. In order to provide an informed evidence base to assist shift workers in overcoming associated occupational hazards, this gap must be addressed. This review highlights the unique nutritional issues faced by shift workers, and the subsequent effect on health. In societies already burdened with increased incidence of non-communicable chronic diseases, there is a clear need for education and behaviour change interventions among this group.

  9. An Exploratory Analysis of the Potential Association Between SCI Secondary Health Conditions and Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, John; Dumont, Frédéric S.; Leblond, Jean; Park, So Eyun; Noonan, Vanessa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary health conditions (SHCs) are common following traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) and are believed to influence a person’s ability to participate in daily activities (DAs). This association should be understood so that health care providers may target interventions with clarity and purpose to manage SHCs and facilitate DAs to maximal effect. Objective: To explore the association between SHCs and DAs expressed as the increased chance of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when an SHC is present. Methods: Community-dwelling persons with tSCI (n = 1,137) responded to the SCI Community Survey. The occurrence and frequency of 21 SHCs were determined. The extent of participation in 26 DAs was measured. The relative risk (RR) of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when a SHC is present was calculated. Results: When some SHC were present, the RR of not participating as much as wanted increased significantly (range, 15%-153%; P < .001). Certain SHCs (light-headedness/dizziness, fatigue, weight problems, constipation, shoulder problems) were associated with a greater chance of not participating in many DAs. No single SHC was associated with every DA and conversely not every DA was associated with an SHC. Conclusions: Maximizing participation in DAs requires minimizing SHCs in every instance. Understanding the association between SHCs and DAs may facilitate targeted care resulting in less severe SHCs, greater participation in DAs, and benefits to both the individual and society. PMID:25477741

  10. Association between market concentration of hospitals and patient health gain following hip replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pistollato, Michele; Charlesworth, Anita; Devlin, Nancy; Propper, Carol; Sussex, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between market concentration of hospitals (as a proxy for competition) and patient-reported health gains after elective primary hip replacement surgery. Methods Patient Reported Outcome Measures data linked to NHS Hospital Episode Statistics in England in 2011/12 were used to analyse the association between market concentration of hospitals measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and health gains for 337 hospitals. Results The association between market concentration and patient gain in health status measured by the change in Oxford Hip Score (OHS) after primary hip replacement surgery was not statistically significant at the 5% level both for the average patient and for those with more than average severity of hip disease (OHS worse than average). For 12,583 (49.1%) patients with an OHS before hip replacement surgery better than the mean, a one standard deviation increase in the HHI, equivalent to a reduction of about one hospital in the local market, was associated with a 0.104 decrease in patients’ self-reported improvement in OHS after surgery, but this was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Conclusions Hospital market concentration (as a proxy for competition) appears to have no significant influence (at the 5% level) on the outcome of elective primary hip replacement. The generalizability of this finding needs to be investigated. PMID:25213207

  11. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting.

  12. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  13. Ventilator-associated pneumonia risk decreased by use of oral moisture gel in oral health care.

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ≥38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination.

  14. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  15. Guidelines for biosafety laboratory competency: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Delany, Judy R; Pentella, Michael A; Rodriguez, Joyce A; Shah, Kajari V; Baxley, Karen P; Holmes, David E

    2011-04-15

    These guidelines for biosafety laboratory competency outline the essential skills, knowledge, and abilities required for working with biologic agents at the three highest biosafety levels (BSLs) (levels 2, 3, and 4). The competencies are tiered to a worker's experience at three levels: entry level, midlevel (experienced), and senior level (supervisory or managerial positions). These guidelines were developed on behalf of CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) by an expert panel comprising 27 experts representing state and federal public health laboratories, private sector clinical and research laboratories, and academic centers. They were then reviewed by approximately 300 practitioners representing the relevant fields. The guidelines are intended for laboratorians working with hazardous biologic agents, obtained from either samples or specimens that are maintained and manipulated in clinical, environmental, public health, academic, and research laboratories.

  16. Associations Between Gender and Obesity Among Adults with Mental Illnesses in a Community Health Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Jonikas, Jessica A; Cook, Judith A; Razzano, Lisa A; Steigman, Pamela J; Hamilton, Marie M; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Santos, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associations with gender, clinical factors, and medical co-morbidities were examined among 457 adults attending public mental health programs in 4 U.S. states. BMI was measured directly and other information was gathered by interview. Over half (59%, n = 270) were obese including 18% (n = 83) who were morbidly obese. In hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis controlling for demographic, psychiatric, medical, smoking, and health insurance statuses, women were significantly more likely to be obese than men. Obesity also was more likely among those who were younger and not high school graduates, those with diabetes or hypertension, and those who did not smoke tobacco. Interaction effects were found between gender and diabetes, hypertension, tobacco smoking, education, race, and age. The high prevalence of obesity among women, coupled with interactions between gender and other factors, suggest that targeted approaches are needed to promote optimal physical health in this population.

  17. The Associations Between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-04-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research report focuses on the associations between substance use, sexual behaviors, deviant behaviors, self-reported health, and cyber dating abuse perpetration. Participants included 705 ethnically diverse adolescents ( n = 408; 57.9% female) in Southeast Texas. Having had sexual intercourse or using alcohol or drugs before having sex was significantly linked with cyber dating abuse perpetration, as was poor physical health, and substance use. Consistent with limited research, we found a link between cyber dating abuse and engagement in bullying behaviors. The discussion section includes suggestions for school nurse practice and further research.

  18. Key Data Gaps Regarding the Public Health Issues Associated with Opioid Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Teresa D.; Haddox, J. David; Nielsen, Alexandra E.; Wakeland, Wayne; Fitzgerald, John

    2014-01-01

    Most pharmaceutical opioids are used to treat pain and they have been demonstrated to be effective medications for many. Their abuse and misuse pose significant public health concerns in the United States. Research has provided much insight into the prevalence, scope, and drivers of opioid abuse, but a holistic understanding is limited by a lack of available data regarding key aspects of this public health problem. Twelve data gaps were revealed during the creation of a systems-level computer model of medical use, diversion, nonmedical use, and the adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesics in the United States. Data specific to these gaps would enhance the validity and real-world applications of systems-level models of this public health problem, and would increase understanding of the complex system in which use and abuse occur. This paper provides an overview of these gaps, argues for the importance of closing them, and provides specific recommendations for future data collection efforts. PMID:24554390

  19. Key Data Gaps Regarding the Public Health Issues Associated with Opioid Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Teresa D; Haddox, J David; Nielsen, Alexandra E; Wakeland, Wayne; Fitzgerald, John

    2015-10-01

    Most pharmaceutical opioids are used to treat pain, and they have been demonstrated to be effective medications for many. Their abuse and misuse pose significant public health concerns in the USA. Research has provided much insight into the prevalence, scope, and drivers of opioid abuse, but a holistic understanding is limited by a lack of available data regarding key aspects of this public health problem. Twelve data gaps were revealed during the creation of a systems-level computer model of medical use, diversion, nonmedical use, and the adverse outcomes associated with opioid analgesics in the USA. Data specific to these gaps would enhance the validity and real-world applications of systems-level models of this public health problem and would increase understanding of the complex system in which use and abuse occur. This paper provides an overview of these gaps, argues for the importance of closing them, and provides specific recommendations for future data collection efforts.

  20. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity.

  1. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity

  2. The association of resilience with mental and physical health among older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study.

    PubMed

    Schure, Marc B; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged>=55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of depressive symptomatology and chronic pain, and with higher levels of mental and physical health. Resilience remained significantly associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for demographic and other health measures. Our findings suggest that resilience among older AIs has important implications for some aspects of mental and physical health.

  3. Engaging health care workers to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and avert patient harm.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Krein, Sarah L; Edson, Barbara; Watson, Sam R; Battles, James B; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. The "On the CUSP: Stop CAUTI" initiative represents the single largest national effort (involving >950 hospitals) to mitigate urinary catheter risk. The program brings together key organizations to assist state hospital associations and hospitals by providing education and coaching support, addressing both the technical aspects of preventing CAUTI and CAUTI-specific socio-adaptive challenges. At the local level, engaging health care workers, from physicians and nurses to other ancillary services, is critical. This includes (1) making the importance of addressing CAUTI stakeholder specific, (2) ensuring support from leaders of essential disciplines, (3) underscoring the importance of the collaborative nature of CAUTI prevention, and (4) identifying champions within the organization to lead and be accountable for the work. Sustainability is ensured by integrating the process into the health care worker's daily routine activities.

  4. Religious Attitude Associated with General Health and Smoking in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the university students’ model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. Methods: In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. Findings: The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Conclusion: Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary. PMID:24494094

  5. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  6. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  7. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  8. Learning lessons and making differences: the European Association of Health Law conference 2009.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Graeme

    2010-06-01

    The second conference of the European Association of Health Law took place in the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh, Scotland on 15-16 October 2009. The event was generously sponsored by the British Academy and the AHRC/SCRIPT research centre based in the School of Law at the University of Edinburgh. The meeting was attended by 115 delegates from 26 countries and preceded by a public debate on assisted dying. This report gives an account of these events and the future direction of the work of the Association.

  9. Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2000-08-01

    The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

  10. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the actual perception of a food’s sensory properties, and therefore highly rely on previous experiences of similar consumptions stored in memory. In this study we assessed the differential strength of food associations implicitly stored in memory, using an associative priming paradigm. Participants (N = 30) were exposed to a forced-choice picture-categorization task, in which the food or non-food target images were primed with either non-sensory or sensory related words. We observed a smaller N400 amplitude at the parietal electrodes when categorizing food as compared to non-food images. While this effect was enhanced by the presentation of a food-related word prime during food trials, the primes had no effect in the non-food trials. More specifically, we found that sensory associations are stronger implicitly represented in memory as compared to non-sensory associations. Thus, this study highlights the neuronal mechanisms underlying previous observations that sensory associations are important features of food memory, and therefore a primary motive in food choice. PMID:27213567

  11. Expanded Scopes Of Practice For Dental Hygienists Associated With Improved Oral Health Outcomes For Adults.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Margaret; Continelli, Tracey; Moore, Jean; Baker, Bridget; Surdu, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Dental hygienists are important members of the oral health care team, providing preventive and prophylactic services and oral health education. However, scope-of-practice parameters in some states limit their ability to provide needed services effectively. In 2001 we developed the Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index, a numerical tool to measure the state-level professional practice environment for dental hygienists. We used the index to score state-level scopes of practice in all fifty states and the District of Columbia in 2001 and 2014. The mean composite score on the index increased from 43.5 in 2001 to 57.6 in 2014, on a 100-point scale. We also analyzed the association of each state's composite score with an oral health outcome: tooth extractions among the adult population because of decay or disease. After we controlled for individual- and state-level factors, we found in multilevel modeling that more autonomous dental hygienist scope of practice had a positive and significant association with population oral health in both 2001 and 2014.

  12. Infant face interest is associated with voice information and maternal psychological health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma; Slade, Pauline; Herbert, Jane S

    2014-11-01

    Early infant interest in their mother's face is driven by an experience based face processing system, and is associated with maternal psychological health, even within a non clinical community sample. The present study examined the role of the voice in eliciting infants' interest in mother and stranger faces and in the association between infant face interest and maternal psychological health. Infants aged 3.5-months were shown photographs of their mother's and a stranger's face paired with an audio recording of their mother's and a stranger's voice that was either matched (e.g., mother's face and voice) or mismatched (e.g., mother's face and stranger's voice). Infants spent more time attending to the stranger's matched face and voice than the mother's matched face and voice and the mismatched faces and voices. Thus, infants demonstrated an earlier preference for a stranger's face when given voice information than when the face is presented alone. In the present sample, maternal psychological health varied with 56.7% of mothers reporting mild mood symptoms (depression, anxiety or stress response to childbirth). Infants of mothers with significant mild maternal mood symptoms looked longer at the faces and voices compared to infants of mothers who did not report mild maternal mood symptoms. In sum, infants' experience based face processing system is sensitive to their mothers' maternal psychological health and the multimodal nature of faces.

  13. Happiness is best kept stable: positive emotion variability is associated with poorer psychological health.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B

    2013-02-01

    Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive.

  14. Associations of Military Divorce with Mental, Behavioral, and Physical Health Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    There is a paucity of data on the associations of recent divorce on the health and military outcomes of service members during the recent conflicts...Participants of the Millennium Cohort Study who were divorced between baseline and follow-up surveys were compared with those who remained married...sociodemographic, baseline behavioral, and military covariates. Compared with those who remained married, service members who recently divorced were

  15. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  16. Health-Related Everyday Functioning in the Internet Age: HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders Disrupt Online Pharmacy and Health Chart Navigation Skills.

    PubMed

    Woods, Steven Paul; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Morgan, Erin E; Cameron, Marizela V; Doyle, Katie L; Smith, Tyler V; Cushman, Clint

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) on 2 Internet-based tests of healthcare management. Study participants included 46 individuals with HIV infection, 19 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 21 seronegatives. Participants were administered Internet-based tests of online pharmacy and health records navigation skills in which they used mock credentials to log in to an experimenter-controlled website and independently perform a series of typical online health-related behaviors (e.g., refill a prescription, read and interpret an electronic chart note). HAND was associated with significantly lower accuracy on both the online pharmacy and health records navigation tasks. Among the HIV+ participants, poorer performance on the online healthcare navigation tasks was associated with fewer years of education, higher plasma viral load, less frequent Internet use, and lower health literacy. Findings indicate that individuals with HAND may have marked difficulties navigating the Internet to complete important health-related behaviors.

  17. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing a novel all hands on deck approach for hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; DiBiase, Lauren M; Schade Willis, Tina M; Wolak, Eric S; Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2016-05-02

    Hand hygiene is a key intervention for preventing health care-associated infections; however, maintaining high compliance is a challenge, and accurate measurement of compliance can be difficult. A novel program that engaged all health care personnel to measure compliance and provide real-time interventions overcame many barriers for compliance measurement and proved effective for sustaining high compliance and reducing health care-associated infections.

  18. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  19. Assessing the association between environmental impacts and health outcomes: a case study from Florida.

    PubMed

    Young, Linda J; Gotway, Carol A; Yang, Jie; Kearney, Greg; DuClos, Chris

    2008-09-10

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program to integrate hazard monitoring, exposure, and health effects surveillance into a cohesive tracking network. Part of Florida's effort to move toward implementation of EPHT is to develop models of the spatial and temporal association between myocardial infarctions (MIs) and ambient ozone levels in Florida. Existing data were obtained from Florida's Agency for Health Care Administration, Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Census Bureau, and CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. These data were linked by both ignoring spatial support and using block kriging, a support-adjusted approach. The MI data were indirectly standardized by age, race/ethnicity, and sex. The state of Florida was used as the comparison standard to compute the MI standardized event ratio (SER) for each county and each month. After the data were linked, global models were used initially to relate MIs to ambient ozone levels, adjusting for covariates. The global models provide an estimated relative MI SER for the state. Realizing that the association in MIs and ozone might change across locations, local models were used to estimate the relative MI SER for each county, again adjusting for covariates. Results differed, depending on whether the spatial support was ignored or accounted for in the models. The opportunities and challenges associated with EPHT analyses are discussed and future directions highlighted.

  20. Self-Reported Physical Health Associations of Traumatic Events in Medical and Dental Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Sheela; Hannan, Susan M.; Boykin, Derrecka; Orcutt, Holly; Hamad, Judy; Hoersch, Michelle; Hasnain, Memoona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the prevalence and severity of health-related sequelae of traumatic exposure in a nonpsychiatric, outpatient sample. Self-report surveys were completed by patients seeking outpatient medical (n = 123) and dental care (n = 125) at a large, urban academic medical center. Results suggested that trauma exposure was associated with a decrease in perceptions of overall health and an increase in pain interference at work. Contrary to prediction, a history of interpersonal trauma was associated with less physical and emotional interference with social activities. A history of trauma exposure was associated with an increase in time elapsed since last medical visit. Depression and anxiety did not mediate the relationship between trauma history and medical care. Based on these results, clinical and research implications in relation to the health effects of trauma are discussed. The results suggest that routine screening for traumatic events may be important, particularly when providers have long-term relationships with patients. PMID:25929906

  1. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

  2. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  3. Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutritionally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in "home economics", but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises.

  4. Associations of Mental Health and Physical Function with Colonoscopy-related Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Eiji; Watanabe, Seitaro; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the effects of mental health and physical function in association with colonoscopy-related pain. Methods The mental health and physical function were evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-8 Health Survey questionnaire. Poor physical status was defined as a physical component summary (PCS) <40 and poor mental status as a mental component summary (MCS) <40. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), with significant pain defined as VAS ≥70 mm and insignificant pain as VAS <70 mm. The background and colonoscopic findings were compared in patients with significant and insignificant pain. Patients This study evaluated consecutive Japanese patients who were positive on fecal occult blood tests and underwent total colonoscopy. Results Of the 100 patients, 23 had significant and 77 had insignificant colonoscopy-related pain. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that MCS <40 [odds ratio (OR) 6.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-25.9, p=0.0156], PCS <40 (OR 5.96; 95% CI 1.45-24.5, p=0.0133), and ≥300 seconds to reach the cecum (OR 4.13; 95% CI 1.16-14.7, p=0.0281) were independent risk factors for colonoscopy-related pain. Conclusion The mental health and physical function are important determinants of colonoscopy-related pain. Evaluating the mental health and physical function of patients prior to colonoscopy may effectively predict the degree of colonoscopy-related pain. PMID:28202858

  5. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  6. Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Physical and Nonphysical-Only Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Amy E; Anderson, Melissa L; Rivara, Frederick P; Thompson, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with the type of intimate partner violence (IPV) women experience by the timing of their abuse. Methods A total of 3,333 women (ages 18–64) were randomly sampled from the membership files of a large health plan located in a metropolitan area and participated in a telephone survey to assess IPV history, including the type of IPV (physical IPV or nonphysical abuse only) and the timing of the abuse (ongoing; recent, not ongoing but occurring in the past 5 years; remote, ending at least 5 years prior). Automated annual health care utilization and costs were assembled over 7.4 years for women with physical IPV and nonphysical abuse only by the time period during which their abuse occurred (ongoing, recent, remote), and compared with those of never-abused women (reference group). Results Mental health utilization was significantly higher for women with physical or nonphysical abuse only compared with never-abused women—with the highest use among women with ongoing abuse (relative risk for those with ongoing abuse: physical, 2.61; nonphysical, 2.18). Physically abused women also used more emergency department, hospital outpatient, primary care, pharmacy, and specialty services; for emergency department, pharmacy, and specialty care, utilization was the highest for women with ongoing abuse. Total annual health care costs were higher for physically abused women, with the highest costs for ongoing abuse (42 percent higher compared with nonabused women), followed by recent (24 percent higher) and remote abuse (19 percent higher). Women with recent nonphysical abuse only had annual costs that were 33 percent higher than nonabused women. Conclusion Physical and nonphysical abuse contributed to higher health care utilization, particularly mental health services utilization. PMID:19674432

  7. Are Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Associated with Sleep and Resilience in Health Professionals?

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Xiaokui; Khayat, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To describe the relationship between trainable qualities (mindfulness and self-compassion), with factors conceptually related to burnout and quality of care (sleep and resilience) in young health professionals and trainees. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Large Midwestern academic health center. Participants: 213 clinicians and trainees. Outcome measures: Sleep and resilience were assessed by using the 8-item PROMIS Sleep scale and the 6-item Brief Resilience Scale. Mindfulness and self-compassion were assessed using the 10-item Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, Revised and the 12-item Self-Compassion Scale. Health was assessed with Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health measures, and stress was assessed with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. After examination of descriptive statistics and Pearson correlations, multiple regression analyses were done to determine whether mindfulness and self-compassion were associated with better sleep and resilience. Results: Respondents had an average age of 28 years; 73% were female. Professions included dieticians (11%), nurses (14%), physicians (38%), social workers (24%), and other (12%). Univariate analyses showed normative values for all variables. Sleep disturbances were significantly and most strongly correlated with perceived stress and poorer health, but also with less mindfulness and self-compassion. Resilience was strongly and significantly correlated with less stress and better mental health, more mindfulness, and more self-compassion. Conclusions: In these young health professionals and trainees, sleep and resilience are correlated with both mindfulness and self-compassion. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether training to increase mindfulness and self-compassion can improve clinicians' sleep and resilience or whether decreasing sleep disturbances and building resilience improves mindfulness and compassion. PMID:26218885

  8. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  9. Demographic, Physical, and Mental Health Factors Associated With Deployment of U.S. Army Soldiers to the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,4:227, 2010 Demographic, Physical , and Mental Health Factors Associated With Deployment of U.S. Army Soldiers to the Persian...describe the prewar demo- graphic, occupational, and physical and mental health status of active duty Army soldiers who deployed to the Persian Gulf and...behaviors, risk- taking behaviors, and mental or physical health could influence a soldier’s postwar health status. Such factors could affect the chance

  10. Demographic, Physical, and Mental Health Factors Associated with Deployment of U.S. Army Soldiers to the Persian Gulf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,4:227, 2010 Demographic, Physical , and Mental Health Factors Associated With Deployment of U.S. Army Soldiers to the Persian...describe the prewar demo- graphic, occupational, and physical and mental health status of active duty Army soldiers who deployed to the Persian Gulf and...behaviors, risk- taking behaviors, and mental or physical health could influence a soldier’s postwar health status. Such factors could affect the chance

  11. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  12. Contingency valuation and preferences of health states associated with side effects of antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sevy, S; Nathanson, K; Schechter, C; Fulop, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and the test-retest reliability of the willingness to pay (WTP) method for estimating health state preferences associated with side effects of antipsychotic medication. Ninety-six schizophrenia patients on antipsychotics were asked (1) how much they would be willing to pay to get rid of side effects with 100 percent probability, (2) a standard gamble (SG) question measuring utilities of patient's health state associated with side effects, and (3) their WTP to get rid of side effects based on the utility found with SG. Patients were divided into three groups based on severity of side effects. There was a significant difference between side effect severity groups for (1) the utility associated with side effects (Kruskal-Wallis [K-W] chi-square = 8.48, p = 0.014), and (2) their WTP to get rid of side effects with either 100 percent probability (K-W chi-square = 14.32,p = 0.001) or based on the utility associated with side effects (K-W chi-square = 5.96, p = 0.051). There was a significant correlation between utility and the WTP based on utility (Spearman r = -0.42, p = 0.003). Because of a wide variation in side effects at the 1-month interval, we were unable to assess the test-retest reliability of SG and WTP. Our results suggest that WTP has some construct validity in valuating and measuring preferences of health states associated with side effects of antipsychotics in schizophrenia.

  13. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the

  14. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH)