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Sample records for health care clinic

  1. Clinical care and health disparities.

    PubMed

    Starfield, B; Gérvas, J; Mangin, D

    2012-04-01

    Health disparities, also known as health inequities, are systematic and potentially remediable differences in one or more aspects of health across population groups defined socially, economically, demographically, or geographically. This topic has been the subject of research stretching back at least decades. Reports and studies have delved into how inequities develop in different societies and, with particular regard to health services, in access to and financing of health systems. In this review, we consider empirical studies from the United States and elsewhere, and we focus on how one aspect of health systems, clinical care, contributes to maintaining systematic differences in health across population groups characterized by social disadvantage. We consider inequities in clinical care and the policies that influence them. We develop a framework for considering the structural and behavioral components of clinical care and review the existing literature for evidence that is likely to be generalizable across health systems over time. Starting with the assumption that health services, as one aspect of social services, ought to enhance equity in health care, we conclude with a discussion of threats to that role and what might be done about them.

  2. Health care clinics in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, K

    1995-04-01

    Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care.

  3. Chinese health care system and clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources.

  4. Chinese health care system and clinical epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources. PMID:28356772

  5. Convenient care clinics: making a positive change in health care.

    PubMed

    Evans, Steven W

    2010-01-01

    To discuss the impact of retail health clinics, also known as convenient care clinics (CCC), on the changing landscape of health care in the United States. Selected articles from the scientific literature and data from the industry literature. The concept of the CCC has been well-received by the public, and nurse practitioners (NPs) have been intimately involved in the development and expansion of these clinics. The professional association of CCCs has been instrumental in promoting operational standards for CCCs to insure a high quality of service. Some resistance to the concept from physicians remains but the convenience for consumers appears to drive the high levels of satisfaction reported. Collaboration among all healthcare providers is essential to expand access to care for everyone. NPs are crucial to the operation of CCCs and provide care that is well-received by consumers.

  6. Meeting new health care challenges with a proven innovation: nurse-managed health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Link, Denise G; Perry, Diane; Cesarotti, Evelyn L

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2014, millions of Americans will enroll in health insurance plans under the Affordable Care Act. Some of these individuals were obtaining health care in safety net health clinics, emergency departments, or urgent care centers; many were going without needed care and will be new to the health care system. In addition to these newly insured, the ranks of older Americans and persons in need of chronic disease management will be on the rise. The way in which health care is delivered will have to change in order for the health care workforce to meet the demand for their services without sacrificing quality or access. Nurse practitioners and registered nurses have the education and skills to provide health promotion, disease prevention, and chronic disease management services that will make up a sizable portion of the demand. Amending state practice acts so that the authority to practice matches the ability to practice and opening provider panels to advanced practice nurses will provide opportunities to establish or expand sustainable nurse-led primary care practices in health care shortage areas. Along with these changes, models of health care delivery that incorporate differentiated practice roles and shared interprofessional responsibility for providing care will maximize the capacity of the system to provide the health care that people need.

  7. Integrated Behavioral Health Care in Pediatric Subspecialty Clinics.

    PubMed

    Samsel, Chase; Ribeiro, Monique; Ibeziako, Patricia; DeMaso, David R

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid behavioral and physical health conditions are accompanied by troubling symptom burden, functional impairment, and treatment complexity. Pediatric subspecialty care clinics offer an opportunity for the implementation of integrated behavioral health (BH) care models that promote resiliency. This article reviews integrated BH care in oncology, palliative care, pain, neuropsychiatry, cystic fibrosis, and transplantation. Examples include integrated care mandates, standards of care, research, and quality improvement by child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAPs) and allied BH clinicians. The role of CAPs in integrated BH care in subspecialty care is explored, focusing on cost, resource use, financial support, and patient and provider satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of analytics and clinical informatics in health care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Federal investment in health information technology has incentivized the adoption of electronic health record systems by physicians and health care organizations; the result has been a massive rise in the collection of patient data in electronic form (i.e. "Big Data"). Health care systems have leveraged Big Data for quality and performance improvements using analytics-the systematic use of data combined with quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to make decisions. Analytics have been utilized in various aspects of health care including predictive risk assessment, clinical decision support, home health monitoring, finance, and resource allocation. Visual analytics is one example of an analytics technique with an array of health care and research applications that are well described in the literature. The proliferation of Big Data and analytics in health care has spawned a growing demand for clinical informatics professionals who can bridge the gap between the medical and information sciences.

  9. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  10. [The family in mental health: support for clinical nursing care].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kely Vanessa Leite Gomes; Monteiro, Ana Ruth Macedo

    2011-10-01

    This is a theoretical reflection on the clinical nursing care in mental health that is offered to the family. In view of having a family member with mental suffering, the family would delegate the care to that relative to the mental institution, thus there should be collaboration between the nursing and medical team to organize the environment and ensure family and social isolation. With the Psychiatric Reform, based on the proposal for psychosocial care, the family becomes the center of attention for health care professionals. The necessary support for clinical nursing care includes making conceptual changes in implementing health education, interdisciplinary work, and in the broadened clinic, so as to ensure comprehensiveness and subjects' autonomy. Clinical nursing care should permeate the subjects' politicalization, in which the actors militate to reach autonomy, and the practices involve dignity, creativity, welcoming, interdisciplinarity, hearing, and knowledge sharing.

  11. Clinical care ratios: quantifying clinical versus non-clinical care for allied health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Cherie; Govier, Adam; Semciw, Adam Ivan

    2016-07-04

    Objective Clinical care ratios (CCRs) are a useful tool that can be used to quantify and benchmark the clinical and non-clinical workloads of allied health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine if CCRs are influenced by level of seniority, type of role or profession. This will provide meaningful information for allied health service managers to better manage service demand and capacity.Method Data was collected from 2036 allied health professionals from five professions across 11 Australian tertiary hospitals. Mean (95% confidence intervals) CCRs were calculated according to profession, seniority and role type. A two-way ANOVA was performed to assess the association of CCRs (dependent variable) with seniority level and profession (independent variables). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons identified where significant main or interaction effects occurred (α = 0.05).Results Significant main effects for seniority level and profession were identified (P < 0.05), but there was no interaction effect. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences between all tier combinations (P < 0.05) with more senior staff having the lowest CCRs.Conclusion The direct and non-direct clinical components of the allied health professional's workload can be quantified and benchmarked with like roles and according to seniority. The benchmarked CCRs for predominantly clinical roles will enable managers to compare and evaluate like roles and modify non-direct clinical components according to seniority and discipline.What is known about the topic? CCRs are a useful tool to quantify, monitor and compare workloads of allied health professionals. They are thought to change with increased seniority of roles. The CCRs for different allied health professional roles has yet to be defined in the literature.What does this paper add? CCRs decrease as level of seniority increases, indicating higher seniority increases non-clinical time. CCRs differ across professions, suggesting

  12. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L

    2013-01-01

    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health.

  13. Advancing LGBT Health Care Policies and Clinical Care Within a Large Academic Health Care System: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.

  14. Teaching About Health Care Disparities in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Leonor; Irby, David M.; Harleman, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teachers often observe interactions that may contribute to health care disparities, yet may hesitate to teach about them. A pedagogical model could help faculty structure teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting, but to our knowledge, none have been adapted for this purpose. In this paper, we adapt an established model, Time-Effective Strategies for Teaching (TEST), to the teaching of health care disparities. We use several case scenarios to illustrate the core components of the model: diagnose the learner, teach rapidly to the learner’s need, and provide feedback. The TEST model is straightforward, easy to use, and enables the incorporation of teaching about health care disparities into routine clinical teaching. PMID:20352501

  15. Health care technology assessment. Basic principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Kevin J; Pierce, Read G; Herndon, James H

    2004-06-01

    Health care technology (defined as all drugs, devices, and medical and surgical procedures used in medical care as well as the organizational and supportive systems within which such care is provided) is widely regarded as an important driver of escalating health care spending in the United States. Many new health care technologies are adopted and used in clinical practice with little or no evidence that their use is associated with improved patient outcomes. Orthopaedic surgeons are facing increasing scrutiny from hospitals and payers regarding the adoption and use of new technology for the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal disease. Health care technology assessment is a growing field that is concerned with the multidisciplinary evaluation of clinical data on the basis of safety and efficacy as well as economic aspects of technology acquisition. Through an understanding of the relevant literature and the concepts of health care technology assessment, orthopaedic surgeons have an opportunity to participate in the assessment process and thus influence clinical and health policy decisions regarding the adoption and use of new and existing technologies in the field of orthopaedic surgery.

  16. Health System Consolidation and Diabetes Care Performance at Ambulatory Clinics.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    We addressed two questions regarding health system consolidation through the acquisition of ambulatory clinics: (1) Was increasing health system size associated with improved diabetes care performance and (2) Did the diabetes care performance of acquired clinics improve postacquisition? Six hundred sixty-one ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states that reported performance data from 2007 to 2013. We employed fixed effects regression to determine if increased health system size and being acquired improved clinics' performance. Using our regression results, we estimated the average effect of consolidation on the performance of clinics that were acquired during our study. Publicly reported performance data obtained from Minnesota Community Measurement. Acquired clinics experienced performance improvements starting in their third year postacquisition. By their fifth year postacquisition, acquired clinics had 3.6 percentage points (95 percent confidence interval: 2.0, 5.1) higher performance than if they had never been acquired. Increasing health system size was associated with slight performance improvements at the end of the study. Health systems modestly improved the diabetes care performance of their acquired clinics; however, we found little evidence that systems experienced large, system-wide performance gains by increasing their size. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Ethical behaviours in clinical practice among Mexican health care workers.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ;dimensions of ethical practice'. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional-patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study's participants would help to improve quality of care.

  18. Ethical Behaviours in Clinical Practice Among Mexican Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Martínez, Edith; Lavielle, Pilar; Bedolla, Miguel; Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cultural domain of ethical behaviours in clinical practice as defined by health care providers in Mexico. Structured interviews were carried out with 500 health professionals employed at the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Mexico City. The Smith Salience Index was used to evaluate the relevance of concepts gathered from the free listings of the interviewees. Cluster analysis and factor analysis facilitated construction of the conceptual categories, which the authors refer to as ‘dimensions of ethical practice’. Six dimensions emerged from the analysis to define the qualities that comprise ethical clinical practice for Mexican health care providers: overall quality of clinical performance; working conditions that favour quality of care; use of ethical considerations as prerequisites for any health care intervention; values favouring teamwork in the health professional–patient relationship; patient satisfaction scores; and communication between health care providers and patients. The findings suggest that improved working conditions and management practices that promote the values identified by the study’s participants would help to improve quality of care. PMID:18849364

  19. Health profiles of foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ab Rahman, Norazida; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Mohamad Noh, Kamaliah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2016-06-14

    The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia. Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care. Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters. More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public

  20. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    PubMed

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The normativity of clinical health care: perspectives on moral realism.

    PubMed

    Nortvedt, Per

    2012-06-01

    The paper argues that a particular version of moral realism constitutes an important basis for ethics in medicine and health care. Moral realism is the position that moral value is a part of the fabric of relational and interpersonal reality. But even though moral values are subject to human interpretations, they are not themselves the sole product of these interpretations. Moral values are not invented but discovered by the subject. Moral realism argues that values are open to perception and experience and that moral subjectivity must be portrayed in how moral values are discovered and perceived by the human subject. Moral values may exist independent of the particular subject's interpretative evaluations as a part of reality. This epistemological point about normativity is particularly significant in medical care and in health care. The clinician perceives moral value in the clinical encounter in a way that is important for competent clinical understanding. Clinical understanding in medical care and health care bears on the encounter with moral values in the direct and embodied relations to patients, with their experiences of illness and their vulnerabilities. Good clinical care is then partly conditioned upon adequate understanding of such moral realities.

  2. A health information network for managing innercity tuberculosis: bridging clinical care, public health, and home care.

    PubMed

    Hripcsak, G; Knirsch, C A; Jain, N L; Stazesky, R C; Pablos-Mendez, A; Fulmer, T

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a health information network and innovative technology to coordinate tuberculosis care. An innercity medical center, a local health department, and a home care nurse service in northern Manhattan were used. The organizations were linked with computer networks. An automated decision support system with a natural language processor was used to detect tuberculosis cases and report them to the health department, and to select patients for respiratory isolation. Educational materials were placed on the World Wide Web and a Web-based kiosk. Home care nurses were outfitted with wireless pen-based computers, and data were relayed to the medical center. Automated tuberculosis case reporting resulted in time savings but not improved accuracy. Automated rules resulted in significant improvements in respiratory isolation. Kiosk educational materials were well-used. Wireless computing led to better access to information for both nurses and physicians, but not to reduction of workload. The key success element was recognition of critical priorities. It is concluded that innovative technology can facilitate the coordination of clinical care, public health, and home care. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. The pragmatic clinical trial in a learning health care system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Roger J

    2016-10-01

    A learning health care system ideally incorporates the ability to adapt to the pace of change, the incorporation of new clinical research paradigms, and leverages electronic health record systems and clinical decision support systems to narrow the divide between research and clinical practice. An adaptive clinical trial can be embedded into the sites and practice of clinical care in a highly pragmatic way to simultaneously generate high-quality data on treatment efficacy and improve the care of patients. This approach can be expanded into a pragmatic platform trial, meaning a trial that is intended to evaluate multiple treatments for a disease or diseases, possibly in combination, and with the available treatments potentially changing over time. This strategy is illustrated using a trial currently being implemented in Europe and funded by the European Union, evaluating three different "domains" of treatments for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care. Simulation studies demonstrate that this approach has the potential to save lives while identifying the best treatment strategies for this critically ill population. Patients are likely to benefit if we can merge clinical trials and decision support into a single continuous learning process. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Health education for pregnancy care in Harare. A survey in seven primary health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Murira, N; Munjanja, S P; Zhanda, I; Lindmark, G; Nystrom, L

    1996-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how health education is currently practiced in the antenatal clinics in Harare and to make recommendations for its improvement. This was a descriptive study in which data was collected through subject interviews and by observations of antenatal clinics in progress. Antenatal sessions at primary care clinics in Harare. 100 pregnant women and 65 midwives. The timing, frequency and methods used in health education and the attitude of the pregnant mothers and staff to health education. The results revealed that health education was given once in pregnancy, on the first visit only. The lecture was the most used teaching method. The lecture was full of distractions which affected the concentration of the audience. Midwives decided on the subject matter for health education without consultation with the expectant women. As a result many women could not follow the practical advice given to them. Midwives overestimated their use of other methods of health education. Both the staff and the pregnant women agreed that there should be greater use of written material for women to read at home with their spouses. The lecture is not the most appropriate method of health education during pregnancy and greater use should be made of other methods of communication such as the mass media and pamphlets.

  5. Health Services and Health Care Needs Fulfilled by Structured Clinical Programs for Children with Medical Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Dennis Z.; Berry, Jay G.; Glader, Laurie; Morin, Melinda J.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Gordon, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe family-reported health service needs of children with medical complexity, and to assess which needs are more often addressed in a tertiary care center-based structured clinical program for children with medical complexity. Study design Mailed survey to families of children with medical complexity enrolled in a structured-care program providing care coordination and oversight at one of three children’s hospitals. Outcomes included receipt of 14 specific health service needs. Paired t-tests compared unmet health care needs prior to and following program enrollment. Results 441 of 968 (46%) surveys were returned and analyzed. Respondents reported their children had a mean age of 7 (standard deviation 5) years. A majority of respondents reported the child had developmental delay (79%) and feeding difficulties (64%). Of respondents, 56% regarded the primary care provider as the primary point of contact for medical issues. Respondents reported an increase in meeting all fourteen health services needs after enrollment in a tertiary care center-based structured clinical program, including primary care checkups (82% v 96%), therapies (78% v 91%), mental health care (34% v 58%), respite care (56% v 75%), and referrals (51% v 83%) (all p<.001). Conclusions Tertiary care center-based structured clinical care programs for children with medical complexity may address and fulfill a broad range of health service needs that are not met in the primary care setting. PMID:26526361

  6. Health Services and Health Care Needs Fulfilled by Structured Clinical Programs for Children with Medical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dennis Z; Berry, Jay G; Glader, Laurie; Morin, Melinda J; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Gordon, John

    2016-02-01

    To describe family-reported health service needs of children with medical complexity (CMC) and to assess which needs are more often addressed in a tertiary care center-based structured clinical program for CMC. Mailed survey to families of CMC enrolled in a structured-care program providing care coordination and oversight at 1 of 3 children's hospitals. Outcomes included receipt of 14 specific health service needs. Paired t tests compared unmet health care needs prior to and following program enrollment. Four hundred forty-one of 968 (46%) surveys were returned and analyzed. Respondents reported their children had a mean age of 7 (SD 5) years. A majority of respondents reported the child had developmental delay (79%) and feeding difficulties (64%). Of the respondents, 56% regarded the primary care provider as the primary point of contact for medical issues. Respondents reported an increase in meeting all 14 health services needs after enrollment in a tertiary care center-based structured clinical program, including primary care checkups (82% vs 96%), therapies (78% vs 91%), mental health care (34% vs 58%), respite care (56% vs 75%), and referrals (51% vs 83%) (all P < .001). Tertiary care center-based structured clinical care programs for CMC may address and fulfill a broad range of health service needs that are not met in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Ethics in clinical practice and in health care].

    PubMed

    Pintor, S; Mennuni, G; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Giarrusso, P; Serio, A; Fraioli, A

    2015-01-01

    The clinical ethics is the identification, analysis and solution of moral problems that can arise during the care of a patient. Given that when dealing with ethical issues in health care some risks will be encountered (talking about ethics in general, or as a problem overlapped with others in this area, or by delegation to legislative determinations) in the text certain important aspects of the topic are examined. First of all ethics as human quality of the relationship between people for the common good, especially in health services where there are serious problems like the life and the health. It is also necessary a "humanizing relationship" between those who work in these services in order to achieve quality and efficiency in this business. It is important a proper training of health professionals, especially doctors, so that they can identify the real needs and means of intervention. It is also important that scientific research must respect fundamental ethical assumptions. In conclusion, ethics in health care is not a simple matter of "cookbook" rules, but involves the responsibility and consciousness of individual operators.

  8. Alzheimer's Disease Clinical and Research Update for Health Care Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    DeFina, Philip A.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Fellus, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 6.8 million Americans who have been diagnosed with dementia, over 5 million have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Due to the rise in the aging population, these figures are expected to double by 2050. The following paper provides an up-to-date review of clinical issues and relevant research. Research related to the methods of the earliest possible detection of AD is ongoing. Health care professionals should play a critical role in differentially diagnosing AD patients, as well as supporting their families. Novel interventions, including medications, natural supplements, and behavioral techniques, are constantly appearing in the literature. It is necessary for the health practitioner to remain current, regarding AD, as such information will facilitate better care for patients and their families. PMID:24083026

  9. Clinical Preventive Services for Older Adults: The Interface Between Personal Health Care and Public Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Chesley L.; Shenson, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging must become a priority objective for both population and personal health services, and will require innovative prevention programming to span those systems. Uptake of essential clinical preventive services is currently suboptimal among adults, owing to a number of system- and office-based care barriers. To achieve maximum health results, prevention must be integrated across community and clinical settings. Many preventive services are portable, deliverable in either clinical or community settings. Capitalizing on that flexibility can improve uptake and health outcomes. Significant reductions in health disparities, mortality, and morbidity, along with decreases in health spending, are achievable through improved collaboration and synergy between population health and personal health systems. PMID:22390505

  10. Communicating Nursing Care Using the Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 Care Plan.

    PubMed

    Matney, Susan A; Dolin, Gay; Buhl, Lindy; Sheide, Amy

    2016-03-01

    A care plan provides a patient, family, or community picture and outlines the care to be provided. The Health Level Seven Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture (C-CDA) Release 2 Care Plan Document is used to structure care plan data when sharing the care plan between systems and/or settings. The American Nurses Association has recommended the use of two terminologies, Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for assessments and outcomes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for problems, procedures (interventions), outcomes, and observation findings within the C-CDA. This article describes C-CDA, introduces LOINC and SNOMED CT, discusses how the C-CDA Care Plan aligns with the nursing process, and illustrates how nursing care data can be structured and encoded within a C-CDA Care Plan.

  11. Global Health and Emergency Care: Overcoming Clinical Research Barriers.

    PubMed

    Levine, Adam C; Barry, Meagan A; Agrawal, Pooja; Duber, Herbert C; Chang, Mary P; Mackey, Joy M; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2017-04-01

    There are many barriers impeding the conduct of high-quality emergency care research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Several of these barriers were originally outlined in 2013 as part of the Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference. This paper seeks to establish a broader consensus on the barriers to emergency care research globally and proposes a comprehensive array of new recommendations to overcome these barriers. An electronic survey was conducted of a purposive sample of global emergency medicine research experts from around the world to describe the major challenges and solutions to conducting emergency care research in low-resource settings and rank them by importance. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2016 Annual Meeting utilized a modified Delphi technique for consensus-based decision making to categorize and expand upon these barriers and develop a comprehensive array of proposed solutions. The working group identified four broad categories of barriers to conducting emergency care research globally, including 1) the limited availability of research personnel, particularly those with prior research training; 2) logistic barriers and lack of standardization of data collection; 3) ethical barriers to conducting research in resource-limited settings, particularly when no local institutional review board is available; and 4) the relative dearth of funding for global emergency care research. Proposed solutions included building a diverse and interdisciplinary research team structured to promote mentorship of junior researchers, utilizing local research assistants or technologic tools such as telemedicine for language translation, making use of new tools such as mobile health (mHealth) to standardize and streamline data collection, identifying alternatives to local institutional review board approval and the use of

  12. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  13. Characterizing Primary Care Visit Activities at Veterans Health Administration Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jennifer C; Terwiesch, Christian; Pelak, Mary; Pettit, Amy R; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Medical home models seek to increase efficiency and maximize the use of resources by ensuring that all care team members work at the top of their licenses. We sought to break down primary care office visits into measurable activities to better under stand how primary care providers (PCPs) currently spend visit time and to provide insight into potential opportunities for revision or redistribution of healthcare tasks. We videotaped 27 PCPs during office visits with 121 patients at four Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Based on patterns emerging from the data, we identified a taxonomy of 12 provider activity categories that enabled us to quantify the frequency and duration of activities occurring during routine primary care visits. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine associations between visit characteristics and provider and clinic characteristics. We found that PCPs spent the greatest percentage of their visit time discussing existing conditions (20%), discussing new conditions (18%), record keeping (13%), and examining patients (13%). Providers spent the smallest percentage of time on preventive care and coordination of care. Mean visit length was 22.9 minutes (range 7.9-58.0 minutes). Site-level ratings of medical home implementation were not associated with differences in how visit time was spent. These data provide a window into how PCPs are spending face-to-face time with patients. The methodology and taxonomy presented here may prove useful for future quality improvement and research endeavors, particularly those focused on opportunities to increase nonappointment care and to ensure that team members work at the top of their skill level.

  14. Establishing an Integrated Health Care Clinic in a Community Mental Health Center: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Staeheli, Martha; Cole, Robert A; Steiner, Jeanne L

    2017-06-30

    Integrating primary care with behavioral health services at community mental health centers is one response to the disparity in mortality and morbidity experienced by adults with serious mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders. Many integration models have been developed in response to the Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) initiative of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). One model is a primary care clinic co-located within the mental health center. The Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC) Wellness Center is one such co-located clinic developed as a partnership between CMHC and a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). In this article, we describe the process of developing this on-site clinic along with lessons learned during implementation. We review different aspects of building and maintaining such a clinic and outline lessons learned from both successes and challenges. We briefly describe the demographics and health characteristics of the patient population served in this clinic. We make recommendations for providers and agencies that are considering or are already developing a model for integrating care. Finally, we briefly review status of our clinic after completion of grant funding.

  15. Global Health and Emergency Care: Defining Clinical Research Priorities.

    PubMed

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Aluisio, Adam R; Barry, Meagan A; Davey, Kevin; Lentz, Brian A; Modi, Payal; Newberry, Jennifer A; Patel, Melissa H; Smith, Tricia A; Vinograd, Alexandra M; Levine, Adam C

    2017-06-01

    Despite recent strides in the development of global emergency medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. Here, progress on the global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified. A retrospective review of all studies compiled in the Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) database from 2013 through 2015 was conducted. Articles were categorized and analyzed using descriptive quantitative measures and structured data matrices. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2016 Annual Meeting then further conceptualized and defined global EM research priorities utilizing consensus-based decision making. Research trends in global EM research published between 2013 and 2015 show a predominance of observational studies relative to interventional or descriptive studies, with the majority of research conducted in the inpatient setting in comparison to the ED or prehospital setting. Studies on communicable diseases and injury were the most prevalent, with a relative dearth of research on chronic noncommunicable diseases. The Global Emergency Medicine Think Tank Clinical Research Working Group identified conceptual frameworks to define high-impact research priorities, including the traditional approach of using global burden of disease to define priorities and the impact of EM on individual clinical care and public health opportunities. EM research is also described through a population lens approach, including gender, pediatrics, and migrant and refugee health. Despite recent strides in global EM research and

  16. Maintenance of health care providers clinical proficiency: Transdisciplinary analysis, modeling and intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    to be completed effectively, productively and within budget. Health care quality and safety; skill decay; physicians; declarative knowledge; clinical...context for studying skill degradation among pediatric health care providers • Objective 2: Develop and validate quality metrics, test alternative...experience less demand for certain clinical skills. Upon resuming domestic practice, they may exhibit skill decay, reducing health care quality and

  17. South Texas Veterans Health Care System Mobile Health Clinic: Business Case Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-11

    diabetes, HIV/AIDs, and cancer treatment and therapy. The system has a National Institute of Health (NIH) funded General Clinical Research Center, a...Bend Division (V/ CBD ) includes primary care outpatient clinics located in Harlingen, McAllen, Corpus Christi, and Laredo. The new Harlingen facility...care expansion into rural areas. In FY11, the V/ CBD will be designated as its own healthcare system, making it the fourth healthcare system in VISN 17

  18. Role of pharmacogenetics in public health and clinical health care: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Ritika; Tan-Koi, Wei Chuen; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacogenomics has been lauded as an important innovation in clinical medicine as a result of advances in genomic science. As one of the cornerstones in precision medicine, the vision to determine the right medication in the right dosage for the right treatment with the use of genetic information has not exactly materialised, and few genetic tests have been implemented as the standard of care in health systems worldwide. Here we review the findings from a SWOT analysis to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats around the role of pharmacogenetics in public health and clinical health care, at the micro, meso and macro levels corresponding to the perspectives of the individuals (scientists, patients and physicians), the health-care institutions and the health systems, respectively.

  19. Introduction to the special issue on advances in clinical and health-care knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rajeev K; Feng, David Dagan; Burstein, Frada; Dwivedi, Ashish N

    2005-06-01

    Clinical and health-care knowledge management (KM) as a discipline has attracted increasing worldwide attention in recent years. The approach encompasses a plethora of interrelated themes including aspects of clinical informatics, clinical governance, artificial intelligence, privacy and security, data mining, genomic mining, information management, and organizational behavior. This paper introduces key manuscripts which detail health-care and clinical KM cases and applications.

  20. [Relations between research and clinical care in co-management studies with mental health care users].

    PubMed

    Palombini, Analice de Lima; Onocko-Campos, Rosana Teresa; Silveira, Marília; Gonçalves, Laura Lamas Martins; Zanchet, Lívia; Xavier, Maria Angélica Zamora; de Castro e Marques, Cecília

    2013-10-01

    This paper is derived from the experience of conducting research with mental health users (not about them, nor for them), analyzing aspects of a study in which different ways of structuring the relationship between clinical practice and research were put into play, thereby questioning the boundaries and ethical issues involved. The clinical practice and research fields that are dealt with are studied with the input of authors who, on the basis of institutional analysis, propose the idea of interventional research, and in the context of public health, revert to the concept of broadened clinical care. The relationship between these two terms - interventional research and broadened clinical care - is based on the notion of subjectivity that operates within the scope of public health and which culminates in the concept of autonomy. Lastly, co-management is proposed as a strategy based on which the different actors involved in conducting research and exercising clinical care can collectively build working principles that are both therapeutic and ethical.

  1. Perspectives on Clinical Informatics: Integrating Large-Scale Clinical, Genomic, and Health Information for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K.

    2013-01-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population. PMID:24465229

  2. Perspectives on clinical informatics: integrating large-scale clinical, genomic, and health information for clinical care.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Myung Shin; Mun, Seong K; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The advances in electronic medical records (EMRs) and bioinformatics (BI) represent two significant trends in healthcare. The widespread adoption of EMR systems and the completion of the Human Genome Project developed the technologies for data acquisition, analysis, and visualization in two different domains. The massive amount of data from both clinical and biology domains is expected to provide personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare services in the near future. The integrated use of EMR and BI data needs to consider four key informatics areas: data modeling, analytics, standardization, and privacy. Bioclinical data warehouses integrating heterogeneous patient-related clinical or omics data should be considered. The representative standardization effort by the Clinical Bioinformatics Ontology (CBO) aims to provide uniquely identified concepts to include molecular pathology terminologies. Since individual genome data are easily used to predict current and future health status, different safeguards to ensure confidentiality should be considered. In this paper, we focused on the informatics aspects of integrating the EMR community and BI community by identifying opportunities, challenges, and approaches to provide the best possible care service for our patients and the population.

  3. Health economic analyses of domiciliary dental care and care at fixed clinics for elderly nursing home residents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, M; Davidson, T; Ordell, S; Sjöström, O; Zimmerman, M; Sjögren, P

    2015-03-01

    Dental care for elderly nursing home residents is traditionally provided at fixed dental clinics, but domiciliary dental care is an emerging alternative. Longer life expectancy accompanied with increased morbidity, and hospitalisation or dependence on the care of others will contribute to a risk for rapid deterioration of oral health so alternative methods for delivering oral health care to vulnerable individuals for whom access to fixed dental clinics is an obstacle should be considered. The aim was to analyse health economic consequences of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents in Sweden, compared to dentistry at a fixed clinic. A review of relevant literature was undertaken complemented by interviews with nursing home staff, officials at county councils, and academic experts in geriatric dentistry. Domiciliary dental care and fixed clinic care were compared in cost analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses. The mean societal cost of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents was lower than dental care at a fixed clinic, and it was also considered cost-effective. Lower cost of dental care at a fixed dental clinic was only achieved in a scenario where dental care could not be completed in a domiciliary setting. Domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents has a lower societal cost and is cost-effective compared to dental care at fixed clinics. To meet current and predicted need for oral health care in the ageing population alternative methods to deliver dental care should be available.

  4. Clinical Instructor Characteristics, Behaviors and Skills in Allied Health Care Settings: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…

  5. Clinical Instructor Characteristics, Behaviors and Skills in Allied Health Care Settings: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…

  6. Adolescents with Special Needs: Clinical Challenges in Reproductive Health Care.

    PubMed

    Quint, Elisabeth H

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents with special needs have unique reproductive health care needs related to their physical and cognitive issues. This review discusses some of the most common concerns that are encountered in clinical practice, as the clinician will partner with the adolescent and her family to guide her through the pubertal transition and to help navigate the risks and rights of reproduction. Families often seek anticipatory guidance before menarche on menstrual hygiene, abuse risk and sexuality and can be reassured that most teens with special needs do very well with menstruation. The clinician needs to evaluate the teenager's reproductive knowledge as well her risk for abuse and coercion and her ability to consent to sexual activity, if she requests contraception. Menstrual management is mostly based on the impact of the menstrual cycles on the teenager's life and activities. The adolescents may have a decreased ability to tolerate menses or pain, or experience changes in seizure pattern or altered mood. Hormonal treatment is often used to assist with menstrual hygiene, cyclical mood changes or dysmenorrhea. The goal of treatment can be complete amenorrhea, alleviate pain or regulate and decrease menstrual flow. The unique risks and benefits of hormonal treatment for this special population are highlighted.

  7. What Would It Take? Stakeholders’ Views and Preferences for Implementing a Health Care Manager Program in Community Mental Health Clinics Under Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Gomes, Arminda P.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Health care manager interventions can improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). In this study, we used concepts from the theory of diffusion of innovations, the consolidated framework for implementation research and a taxonomy of implementation strategies to examine stakeholders’ recommendations for implementing a health care manager intervention in public mental health clinics serving Hispanics with SMI. A purposive sample of 20 stakeholders was recruited from mental health agencies, primary care clinics, and consumer advocacy organizations. We presented participants a vignette describing a health care manager intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views and recommendations for implementing this program. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and content analyzed. We found that a blend of implementation strategies that demonstrates local relative advantage, addresses cost concerns, and enhances compatibility to organizations and the client population is critical for moving health care manager interventions into practice. PMID:25542194

  8. What would it take? Stakeholders' views and preferences for implementing a health care manager program in community mental health clinics under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Gomes, Arminda P; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Health care manager interventions can improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). In this study, we used concepts from the theory of diffusion of innovations, the consolidated framework for implementation research and a taxonomy of implementation strategies to examine stakeholders' recommendations for implementing a health care manager intervention in public mental health clinics serving Hispanics with SMI. A purposive sample of 20 stakeholders was recruited from mental health agencies, primary care clinics, and consumer advocacy organizations. We presented participants a vignette describing a health care manager intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views and recommendations for implementing this program. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and content analyzed. We found that a blend of implementation strategies that demonstrates local relative advantage, addresses cost concerns, and enhances compatibility to organizations and the client population is critical for moving health care manager interventions into practice.

  9. Trends in rural health Clinics and needs during U.S. health care reform.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Judith; Meemon, Natthani; Zhou, Yue; Wan, Thomas T H

    2013-10-01

    Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) are primary care clinics certified through Medicare and Medicaid to provide health care to the medically underserved in rural areas of the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the characteristics of RHCs have either changed or remained stable over a 10-year period in the past: from the late 1990s to 2007. In addition, it is also to describe some of the outstanding needs of RHCs as they navigate the transitions of U.S. health care reform. Using a panel of RHCs continuously in existence from 2006 through 2007, we calculated and compared statistics with corresponding statistics from the literature. We described the geographic distribution of RHCs, demographics of their counties of location, and characteristics of RHC structure and staffing. We also explored the implications of the recently enacted health reform law (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or ACA) for RHCs, and the improvements that RHCs need as it is implemented. By the end of the study period, the highest percentages of RHCs were in the South and Midwest, the percentage of RHCs in the West had grown, and that in the South had declined. RHCs served counties with increasing proportions of individuals below poverty and Hispanics/Latinos. The percentage of independent clinics had grown, as had the percentage of for profit clinics. Finally, the percentage of nurse practitioner full-time equivalents had grown as a proportion of the total for three providers. In investigating the performance of RHCs, many managerial and operational factors are not well understood. It is imperative that RHCs gather the information that could help them maximize the elements of their performance that would keep them financially stable. In addition, a broader awareness of the unique challenges that RHCs face in this era of health care reform is needed.

  10. TRENDS IN RURAL HEALTH CLINICS AND NEEDS DURING U.S. HEALTH CARE REFORM

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Judith; Meemon, Natthani; Zhou, Yue; Wan, Thomas T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) are primary care clinics certified through Medicare and Medicaid to provide health care to the medically underserved in rural areas of the United States. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the characteristics of RHCs have either changed or remained stable over a 10-year period in the past: from the late 1990s to 2007. In addition, it is also to describe some of the outstanding needs of RHCs as they navigate the transitions of U.S. health care reform. Methods Using a panel of RHCs continuously in existence from 2006 through 2007, we calculated and compared statistics with corresponding statistics from the literature. We describe the geographic distribution of RHCs, demographics of their counties of location, and characteristics of RHC structure and staffing. We also explore the implications of the recently enacted health reform law (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or ACA) for RHCs, and the improvements that RHCs need as it is implemented. Findings By the end of the study period the highest percentages of RHCs were in the South and Midwest, the percentage of RHCs in the West had grown, and that in the South had declined. RHCs served counties with increasing proportions of individuals below poverty and Hispanics/Latinos. The percentage of independent clinics had grown, as had the percentage of for-profit clinics. Finally, the percentage of nurse practitioner full-time equivalents had grown as a proportion of the total for three providers. Conclusions In investigating the performance of RHCs, many managerial and operational factors are not well understood. It is imperative that RHCs gather the information that could help them maximize the elements of their performance that would keep them financially stable. In addition, a broader awareness of the unique challenges that RHCs face in this era of health care reform is needed. PMID:23092581

  11. Beyond the limits of clinical governance? The case of mental health in English primary care

    PubMed Central

    Gask, Linda; Rogers, Anne; Campbell, Stephen; Sheaff, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Background Little research attention has been given to attempts to implement organisational initiatives to improve quality of care for mental health care, where there is a high level of indeterminacy and clinical judgements are often contestable. This paper explores recent efforts made at an organisational level in England to improve the quality of primary care for people with mental health problems through the new institutional processes of 'clinical governance'. Methods Framework analysis, based on the Normalisation Process Model (NPM), of attempts over a five year period to develop clinical governance for primary mental health services in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). The data come from a longitudinal qualitative multiple case-study approach in a purposive sample of 12 PCTs, chosen to reflect a maximum variety of organisational contexts for mental health care provision. Results The constant change within the English NHS provided a difficult context in which to attempt to implement 'clinical governance' or, indeed, to reconstruct primary mental health care. In the absence of clear evidence or direct guidance about what 'primary mental health care' should be, and a lack of actors with the power or skills to set about realising it, the actors in 'clinical governance' had little shared knowledge or understanding of their role in improving the quality of mental health care. There was a lack of ownership of 'mental health' as an integral, normalised part of primary care. Conclusion Despite some achievements in regard to monitoring and standardisation of prescribing practice, mental health care in primary care seems to have so far largely eluded the gaze of 'clinical governance'. Clinical governance in English primary mental health care has not yet become normalised. We make some policy recommendations which we consider would assist in the process normalisation and suggest other contexts to which our findings might apply. PMID:18366779

  12. [Clinical practice guidelines: juridical and medico legal issues in health care malpractice liability].

    PubMed

    Moreschi, Carlo; Broi, Ugo Da

    2014-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines are clinical tools addressed to medical and health professionals and are normally employed to improve quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutical procedures but may sometimes limit the autonomy of medical and other health care professionals. The adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines should not be an exclusive step to evaluate the liability and respect of standards of care in case of medico-legal investigations being each clinical case very specific. Medical liability and respect of standards of care should be evaluated with the support of Clinical Practice Guidelines and the extensive examination of all specific features, professional background and experience requested to treat each single patient.

  13. Women's Health Care Minimum Data Set: pilot test and validation for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Farley, Cindy L; Tharpe, Nell; Miller, Liane; Ruxer, Debbie Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    Basic elements of the structure, process, and outcomes of midwifery practice have not been fully determined, particularly in the areas of women's gynecologic and primary health care. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) supported the development of clinical data sets to describe structure, process, and outcomes of midwifery practice for use by clinical practitioners. The Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set was developed using a panel of expert midwives and other women's health care professionals, as well as literature resources. Students of the Graduate Midwifery Program at Philadelphia University performed pilot testing of the Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set as a service to the profession of midwifery while applying concepts learned in their research methods courses. Each student (n = 19) recruited a midwifery practice in which she had a clinical affiliation, and gathered data sets on the previous 30 consecutive women's health care encounters by CNMs or CMs (n = 569). Item analysis and refinement were done. Criterion-related validity and construct-related validity of the Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set were explored through comparison with the medical record and through the testing of plausible hypotheses. The Woman's Health Care Minimum Data Set has the potential to be an important instrument in documenting and understanding the evolving nature of the practice of primary women's health care by midwives and other women's health care providers.

  14. Physician clinical information technology and health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Ketcham, Jonathan D; Lutfey, Karen E; Gerstenberger, Eric; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    The authors develop a conceptual framework regarding how information technology (IT) can alter within-physician disparities, and they empirically test some of its implications in the context of coronary heart disease. Using a random experiment on 256 primary care physicians, the authors analyze the relationships between three IT functions (feedback and two types of clinical decision support) and five process-of-care measures. Endogeneity is addressed by eliminating unobserved patient characteristics with vignettes and by proxying for omitted physician characteristics. The results indicate that IT has no effects on physicians' diagnostic certainty and treatment of vignette patients overall. The authors find that treatment and certainty differ by patient age, gender, and race. Consistent with the framework, IT's effects on these disparities are complex. Feedback eliminated the gender disparities, but the relationships differed for other IT functions and process measures. Current policies to reduce disparities and increase IT adoption may be in discord.

  15. Serving transgender people: clinical care considerations and service delivery models in transgender health.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Kevan; Knudson, Gail; Khan, Sharful Islam; Bonierbale, Mireille; Watanyusakul, Suporn; Baral, Stefan

    2016-07-23

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) standards of care for transsexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming people (version 7) represent international normative standards for clinical care for these populations. Standards for optimal individual clinical care are consistent around the world, although the implementation of services for transgender populations will depend on health system infrastructure and sociocultural contexts. Some clinical services for transgender people, including gender-affirming surgery, are best delivered in the context of more specialised facilities; however, the majority of health-care needs can be delivered by a primary care practitioner. Across high-income and low-income settings alike, there often remains a dearth of educational programming for health-care professionals in transgender health, although the best evidence supports introducing modules on transgender health early during clinical education of clinicians and allied health professionals. While these challenges remain, we review the increasing evidence and examples of the defined roles of the mental health professional in transgender health-care decisions, effective models of health service provision, and available surgical interventions for transgender people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting oral health practice among patients with diabetes attending primary health care clinics

    PubMed Central

    Aljaber, Abeer; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The oral public health program for patients with diabetes was initiated by Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health (MoH) based on international quality standard to control the severity of oral disease in patients with diabetes through improving the accessibility of patients to dental clinics in primary health care centers (PHCC). This program intends to deliver oral health care (OHC) for each patient with diabetes at least one visit every six months. However, we found that more than 90% of patients with diabetes that visited prince Mohammed bin Saud PHCC in Riyadh do not get their regular dental check up every six months. We developed a quality improvement project (QIP) using the quality improvement model to activate MoH oral health program for patients with diabetes visiting prince Mohamed bin Saud PHCC. The aim of our QIP was to increase number of patients with diabetes receiving their regular oral health check up during the PHC visit. The quality team tested two simple improvement ideas. The first idea was having the dentist signature on appointment request. The testing of the first idea led to the second idea, that both physician and dentist should sign the referral form. After running several PDSA cycles to test these interventions ideas, we found the number of patients with diabetes seen in dental clinic had increased dramatically compared with the baseline assessment. We conclude that the idea of signing the referral form by both physician and dentist is a practical and simple strategy to be executed and has a direct impact on the patient clinical flow between clinics. PMID:26734427

  17. Rural Health Clinics and Diabetes-Related Primary Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkbride, Kelly; Wallace, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) were associated with higher rates of recommended primary care services for adult beneficiaries diagnosed with diabetes in Oregon's Medicaid program, the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). Methods: OHP claims data from 2002 to 2003 were used to assess quality of diabetic care for…

  18. Rural Health Clinics and Diabetes-Related Primary Care for Medicaid Beneficiaries in Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkbride, Kelly; Wallace, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) were associated with higher rates of recommended primary care services for adult beneficiaries diagnosed with diabetes in Oregon's Medicaid program, the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). Methods: OHP claims data from 2002 to 2003 were used to assess quality of diabetic care for…

  19. Seniors' perspectives on care: a case study of the Alex Seniors health clinic, Calgary.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marta; Rypien, Candace; Drummond, Neil; Harasym, Patricia; Nixon, Lara

    2015-02-25

    Primary care initiatives face an imperative to not only reduce barriers to care for their patients but also to uniquely accommodate the complex needs of at-risk patient populations. Patient-centered multidisciplinary care team models for primary care, like the Alex Seniors Clinic, are one approach for providing comprehensive care for marginalized seniors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore patient perspectives on the responsiveness of the Alex Seniors Clinic to their stated health needs. Themes reflected participants' perspectives on factors impacting their health needs as vulnerable seniors as well as on the measures that the Alex Seniors Clinic has taken to meet those needs. Factors impacting health included: the nature of their relationships to the physical environment in which they lived, the nature of the relationships they had to others in that environment, and independence and autonomy. Participants identified accessibility, respect and support, and advocacy as the ways in which the clinic was working to address those health needs. While respect and support, as well as advocacy, effectively addressed some patient needs, participants felt that accessibility problems continue to be health-related barriers for clinic patients. This may be due to the fact that issues of accessibility reflect larger community and social problems. Nevertheless, it is only through engaging the patient community for input on clinic approaches that an understanding can be gained of how closely a clinic's care goals are currently aligning with patient perspectives of the care and services they receive.

  20. Excellence in Development of Health Care Providers: The Nicaragua Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Norma Graciela; Miller, Alyssia; Knappen, Jackson; Visina, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 17% of the U.S. population is Latino, with an expected increase to 31% by 2060. It is imperative that we prepare students who will be future health care providers with the resources needed to care for the Latino population, specifically increasing the number of Spanish-speaking health care providers who have some understanding of the Latino culture. There is a lack of health care providers who are educated about the Latino culture and lack mentorship in the development of medical conversational Spanish. The Nicaragua Clinical Experience is a service learning abroad program embedded in an academic setting through the scholarship of cultural immersion, language development, health care, and leadership development of students. The Nicaragua Clinical Experience is a unique academic program that prepares pre-health care majors to provide culturally congruent health care for the Latino population. Students are prepared to care for Latino patients through the cultural immersion program and are also introduced to working in "team-based care" multidisciplinary groups to improve health care outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. An innovative capstone health care informatics clinical residency: Interprofessional team collaboration.

    PubMed

    Custis, Laura M; Hawkins, Shelley Y; Thomason, Tanna R

    2017-03-01

    Integrated information systems and wireless technology have been increasingly incorporated into health care organizations with the premise that information technology will promote safe, high-quality, cost-effective patient care. With the advancement of technology, the level of expertise necessary to assume health care information technology roles has escalated. The purpose of this article is to describe a clinical residency project whereby students in a graduate degree health care informatics program successfully fulfilled program competencies through a faculty-lead research project focused on the use of home telehealth with a group of heart failure patients. Through the use of Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and outcomes, the health care informatics students completed essential learning activities deemed essential for transition into the role of an informatics specialist. Health care informatics educational leaders are encouraged to adapt this template of applied learning into their practices.

  2. Vacation health care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001937.htm Vacation health care To use the sharing features on this page, ... and help you avoid problems. Talk to your health care provider or visit a travel clinic 4 to ...

  3. [Actual aspects of state control of dietary, clinical and prophylactic nutrition in health care organizations].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2014-01-01

    A review is aimed to help professionals, who provide state sanitary control of dietary (clinical and prophylactic) nutrition in health care organizations. Taking into account the new modern legislative framework and the scientific and practical publications, the basic requirements for standardization, harmonization and individualization (personalization) of nutritional therapy and monitoring of their implementation in health care organizations by state sanitary authorities has been set out. The attention is focused on the optimization of clinical nutrition, as well as the methods of assessment of balance and nutritive value of the standard diets, their proper correction with dry protein composite blends and other specialized products of dietary clinical and prophylactic nutrition, including foods fortified with dietary and biologically active substances and food supplements (nutraceuticals). The paper describes ways to improve the organization of state sanitary and dietary nutritional care in health care organizations, outlines priority issues to be addressed to improve the nutritional care.

  4. Structural Vulnerability: Operationalizing the Concept to Address Health Disparities in Clinical Care.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Philippe; Holmes, Seth M; Sue, Kim; Quesada, James

    2017-03-01

    The authors propose reinvigorating and extending the traditional social history beyond its narrow range of risk behaviors to enable clinicians to address negative health outcomes imposed by social determinants of health. In this Perspective, they outline a novel, practical medical vulnerability assessment questionnaire that operationalizes for clinical practice the social science concept of "structural vulnerability." A structural vulnerability assessment tool designed to highlight the pathways through which specific local hierarchies and broader sets of power relationships exacerbate individual patients' health problems is presented to help clinicians identify patients likely to benefit from additional multidisciplinary health and social services. To illustrate how the tool could be implemented in time- and resource-limited settings (e.g., emergency department), the authors contrast two cases of structurally vulnerable patients with differing outcomes. Operationalizing structural vulnerability in clinical practice and introducing it in medical education can help health care practitioners think more clearly, critically, and practically about the ways social structures make people sick. Use of the assessment tool could promote "structural competency," a potential new medical education priority, to improve understanding of how social conditions and practical logistics undermine the capacities of patients to access health care, adhere to treatment, and modify lifestyles successfully. Adoption of a structural vulnerability framework in health care could also justify the mobilization of resources inside and outside clinical settings to improve a patient's immediate access to care and long-term health outcomes. Ultimately, the concept may orient health care providers toward policy leadership to reduce health disparities and foster health equity.

  5. Evaluation of a hand hygiene campaign in outpatient health care clinics.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, Kate Stenske; Kaur, Ramandeep; Freeman, Lisa C; Powell, Douglas A

    2013-03-01

    To improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster. In this interventional study, health care workers at two outpatient clinics were observed for frequency of hand hygiene (attempts versus opportunities). Gel sanitizer and informational posters were introduced together as an intervention. Direct observation of the frequency of hand hygiene was performed during baseline, intervention, and follow-up. A poststudy survey of health care workers was also distributed and collected. In both clinics, the frequency of hand hygiene was poor at baseline (11% and 21%) but improved significantly after intervention (36% and 54%) and was maintained through the follow-up period (32% and 51%). Throughout the study, postcontact hand hygiene was observed significantly more often than precontact hand hygiene. In both clinics, health care workers reported a preference for soap and water; yet observations showed that when the intervention made gel sanitizer available, sanitizer use predominated. Fifty percent of the surveyed health care workers considered the introduction of gel sanitizer to be an effective motivating tool for improving hand hygiene. Hand hygiene performance by health care workers in outpatient clinics may be improved through promoting the use of gel sanitizer and using informational posters. Compared with surveys, direct observation by trained observers may provide more accurate information about worker preferences for hand hygiene tools.

  6. Performance assessment questionnaire regarding TB control for use in primary health care clinics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Ruffino-Netto, Antônio

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide access to and disseminate a questionnaire used as an instrument to assess the organizational elements and the performance of primary health care clinics regarding TB control in Brazil, comparing selected organizational dimensions by health care clinic, by municipality and by actor (patients, health care workers and managers). The results show that municipalities where the coverage of supervised treatment was more extensive presented more favorable indicators regarding access to TB treatment. The organizational format of the health care clinics involved in TB treatment-family health programs and referral centers with specialized teams in TB Control Programs (TCPs)-was not a factor that expanded access to diagnosis. The TCPs involving a smaller number of patients presented better performance regarding health care professional-patient relationship. The majority of the patients faced economic and social difficulties, and most managers were unaware of the amount of resources allocated to TB control activities. The instrument proved to be viable and to have the potential to adequately assess the performance of health care clinics in the urban areas studied.

  7. Unearthing the Theoretical Underpinnings of "Green Care" in Mental Health and Substance Misuse Care: Theoretical Underpinnings and Contemporary Clinical Examples.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John R; Travale, Rodger

    2016-01-01

    The concept of "Green Care" can increasingly be found in mental health and addictions literature and some Psychiatric/Mental Health Nurses are practicing in facilities that base their approach on some or all of the underpinning theoretical elements of Green Care. However, Green Care is not yet widely considered to be part of mainstream psychiatry. Unearthing and articulating its theoretical underpinnings and clinical applications may further advance its legitimacy. Accordingly, this article identifies four principal theoretical elements of Green Care: Connectedness; Contact with Nature; Benefits of Exercise; and Occupation/Work as Therapeutic, each of which is explored and articulated by drawing on relevant literature.

  8. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part II.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J R

    1995-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part article, in the December 1994 issue of the journal, the author discussed the manufacturing theories of Peter Drucker in terms of their applicability for the health care field. He concluded that Drucker's four principles and practices of manufacturing--statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach--do have application to the health care system. Clinical guidelines, a variation on the Drucker theory, are a specific example of the manufacturing process in health. The performance to date of some guidelines and their implications for the health care reform debate are discussed in Part II of the article.

  9. The Swedish National Diabetes Register in clinical practice and evaluation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren Elfgren, Ing-Marie; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Törnvall, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Aim The purpose of this project is to describe the use of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in clinical practice in a Swedish county and to specifically monitor the diabetes care routines at two separate primary health-care centres (PHCC) with a special focus on older patients.

  10. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  11. Developing an informatics tool to advance supportive care: the Veterans Health Care Administration Palliative Care National Clinical Template.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Joy R; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Chong, Kelly; Shreve, Scott T; Goldzweig, Caroline L; Austin, Colletta; Asch, Steven M; Lorenz, Karl A

    2014-03-01

    Increasing emphasis in performance-based payment, public reporting, and quality improvement (QI) has led to widespread interest in measuring and improving the quality of care. By 2014, hospice programs will be required to report quality data to the federal government or incur financial penalties. With this increased interest in quality reporting comes an opportunity to develop informatics tools to capture data that reflect the complex practices involved in palliative care (PC). Therefore, there is a need to disseminate information on developing tools that facilitate capturing data and fostering improved performance. The Veterans Health Care Administration, a national leader in health information technology (HIT) and PC, established the Quality Improvement Resource Center (QuIRC) to develop innovative HIT tools to standardize and improve PC practices throughout the 153 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers nationwide. The aim of the paper is to describe the development of the Palliative Care-National Clinical Template (PC-NCT) for documenting initial PC consults. Domains of quality of life provided the foundation for this template. Principles of user-centered informatics design guided development activities. A national consensus panel of PC experts prioritized quality indicators as targets for QI. An interdisciplinary team of PC providers identified desired aspects of template functionality. QuIRC balanced PC providers' desired aspects of functionality against the feasibility within the VA HIT system. Formal pilot and usability testing contributed to numerous iterations of the PC-NCT currently piloted in five geographically distributed sites. This paper presents a robust approach to developing an informatics tool for PC practice. Data collected via the PC-NCT will bring variations in current practice into view and assist in directing resources at "important targets" for QI. Although the development of HIT tools to quantify PC practice is complex, there

  12. Predictors of Rural Health Clinics Managers' Willingness to Join Accountable Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    T H Wan, Thomas; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Ortiz, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has facilitated the development of an innovative and integrated delivery care system, Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). It is timely, to identify how health care managers in rural health clinics are responding to the ACO model. This research examines RHC managers' perceived benefits and barriers for implementing ACOs from an organizational ecology perspective. A survey was conducted in Spring of 2012 covering the present RHC network working infrastructures - 1) Organizational social network; 2) organizational care delivery structure; 3) ACO knowledge, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers; 4) quality and disease management programs; and 5) health information technology (HIT) infrastructure. One thousand one hundred sixty clinics were surveyed in the United States. They cover eight southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) and California. A total of ninety-one responses were received. RHC managers' personal perceptions on ACO's benefits and knowledge level explained the most variance in their willingness to join ACOs. Individual perceptions appear to be more influential than organizational and context factors in the predictive analysis. The study is primarily focused in the Southeastern region of the U.S. The generalizability is limited to this region. The predictors of rural health clinics' participation in ACOs are germane to guide the development of organizational strategies for enhancing the general knowledge about the innovativeness of delivering coordinated care and containing health care costs inspired by the Affordable Care Act. Rural health clinics are lagged behind the growth curve of ACO adoption. The diffusion of new knowledge about pros and cons of ACO is essential to reinforce the health care reform in the United States.

  13. Predictors of Rural Health Clinics Managers' Willingness to Join Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    T.H.Wan, Thomas; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Ortiz, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has facilitated the development of an innovative and integrated delivery care system, Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). It is timely, to identify how health care managers in rural health clinics are responding to the ACO model. This research examines RHC managers' perceived benefits and barriers for implementing ACOs from an organizational ecology perspective. Methodology/Approach A survey was conducted in Spring of 2012 covering the present RHC network working infrastructures – 1) Organizational social network; 2) organizational care delivery structure; 3) ACO knowledge, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers; 4) quality and disease management programs; and 5) health information technology (HIT) infrastructure. One thousand one hundred sixty clinics were surveyed in the United States. They cover eight southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) and California. A total of ninety-one responses were received. Findings RHC managers' personal perceptions on ACO's benefits and knowledge level explained the most variance in their willingness to join ACOs. Individual perceptions appear to be more influential than organizational and context factors in the predictive analysis. Research limitations/implications The study is primarily focused in the Southeastern region of the U.S. The generalizability is limited to this region. The predictors of rural health clinics' participation in ACOs are germane to guide the development of organizational strategies for enhancing the general knowledge about the innovativeness of delivering coordinated care and containing health care costs inspired by the Affordable Care Act. Originality/Value of Paper Rural health clinics are lagged behind the growth curve of ACO adoption. The diffusion of new knowledge about pros and cons of ACO is essential to reinforce the health care reform

  14. Health literacy and child health promotion: implications for research, clinical care, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lee M; Shaw, Judith S; Guez, Ghislaine; Baur, Cynthia; Rudd, Rima

    2009-11-01

    The nation's leading sources of morbidity and health disparities (eg, preterm birth, obesity, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, mental health disorders, and cancer) require an evidence-based approach to the delivery of effective preventive care across the life course (eg, prenatal care, primary preventive care, immunizations, physical activity, nutrition, smoking cessation, and early diagnostic screening). Health literacy may be a critical and modifiable factor for improving preventive care and reducing health disparities. Recent studies among adults have established an independent association between lower health literacy and poorer understanding of preventive care information and poor access to preventive care services. Children of parents with higher literacy skills are more likely to have better outcomes in child health promotion and disease prevention. Adult studies in disease prevention have suggested that addressing health literacy would be an efficacious strategy for reducing health disparities. Future initiatives to reduce child health inequities should include health-promotion strategies that meet the health literacy needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers.

  15. How Beliefs About Bladder Dysfunction Among Health-Care Professionals Influence Clinical Practice Development

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Maria; Salmon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bladder dysfunction can affect up to 75% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) on several important life domains. It is a multifaceted problem that remains underdiagnosed by health-care professionals. The aims of this study were to understand the perceptions of Irish health-care professionals regarding bladder dysfunction and to explore current service provision for people with MS. Methods: Two focus groups, three dyadic interviews, and one semistructured interview with 14 health-care professionals lasting up to 90 minutes were audio-recorded. Participants included eight physiotherapists, two occupational therapists, three nurses, and one clinical case manager from acute and community settings. Results: Thematic analysis of transcripts yielded two key themes. The first theme involves the underlying beliefs of health-care professionals, their clinical practice, and experiential knowledge in the model of clinical practice development in relation to bladder management. The second theme addresses the pivotal points in this model where change can be implemented to optimize bladder management. The first element of change encompasses the interaction between clinical practice and experiential knowledge of health-care professionals. The second element of change incorporates how acknowledgment of individual beliefs of health-care professionals can further inform clinical practice and experiential knowledge. Conclusions: These findings suggest that health-care professionals need to be aware of their beliefs in relation to bladder dysfunction. Examining these beliefs may influence how people with MS access health service provision for this disabling symptom. This type of reflexive practice may facilitate changes to existing perceptions and reduce the reluctance to discuss bladder symptoms. PMID:28835743

  16. Management Development in Health Care: Exploring the Experiences of Clinical Nurse Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Laura; Milner, Brigid

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dramatic reforms in the health service in recent years. Design/methodology/approach--Examines management development in health care, and explores the experiences of clinical nurse managers. Findings--Duplication of agencies and multiplication of roles have led to tensions in terms of both…

  17. Transitions clinic: creating a community-based model of health care for recently released California prisoners.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily A; Hong, Clemens S; Samuels, Liz; Shavit, Shira; Sanders, Ronald; Kushel, Margot

    2010-01-01

    Most California prisoners experience discontinuity of health care upon return to the community. In January 2006, physicians working with community organizations and representatives of the San Francisco Department of Public Health's safety-net health system opened the Transitions Clinic (TC) to provide transitional and primary care as well as case management for prisoners returning to San Francisco. This article provides a complete description of TC, including an illustrative case, and reports information about the recently released individuals who participated in the program. From January 2006 to October 2007, TC saw 185 patients with chronic medical conditions. TC patients are socially and economically disenfranchised; 86% belong to ethnic minority groups and 38% are homeless. Eighty-nine percent of patients did not have a primary care provider prior to their incarceration. Preliminary findings demonstrate that a community-based model of care tailored to this disenfranchised population successfully engages them in seeking health care.

  18. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  19. Medication Abortion within a Student Health Care Clinic: A Review of the First 46 Consecutive Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Emily M.; Bordoloi, Anita; Moorthie, Mydhili; Pela, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol has been available in the United States since 2000. The authors reviewed the first 46 medication abortion cases conducted at a university-based student health care clinic to determine the safety and feasibility of medication abortion in this type of clinical setting. Participants:…

  20. Intimate partner violence and health care-seeking patterns among female users of urban adolescent clinics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Marable, Danelle; Silverman, Jay G

    2010-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and associations with health care-seeking patterns among female patients of adolescent clinics, and to examine screening for IPV and IPV disclosure patterns within these clinics. A self-administered, anonymous, computerized survey was administered to female clients ages 14-20 years (N = 448) seeking care in five urban adolescent clinics, inquiring about IPV history, reasons for seeking care, and IPV screening by and IPV disclosure to providers. Two in five (40%) female urban adolescent clinic patients had experienced IPV, with 32% reporting physical and 21% reporting sexual victimization. Among IPV survivors, 45% reported abuse in their current or most recent relationship. IPV prevalence was equally high among those visiting clinics for reproductive health concerns as among those seeking care for other reasons. IPV victimization was associated with both poor current health status (AOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.40) and having foregone care in the past year (AOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.20-5.58). Recent IPV victimization was associated only with past 12 month foregone care (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.18-3.46). A minority (30%) reported ever being screened for IPV in a clinical setting. IPV victimization is pervasive among female adolescent clinic attendees regardless of visit type, yet IPV screening by providers appears low. Patients reporting poor health status and foregone care are more likely to have experienced IPV. IPV screening and interventions tailored for female patients of adolescent clinics are needed.

  1. AN ADDITIONAL CAUSE OF HEALTH CARE DISPARITIES—THE VARIABLE CLINICAL DECISIONS OF PRIMARY CARE DOCTORS

    PubMed Central

    McKinlay, John; Piccolo, Rebecca; Marceau, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Rationale, Aims and Objectives Decades of work on health disparities have culminated in identification of three contributors to variability in diagnosis and management of disease: 1) patient attributes, 2) physician characteristics, and 3) organizational. Understanding the relative influence of different contributors to variability in diagnosis and management of diabetes is important to improving quality and reducing disparities. This study was designed to examine the influence of patient, provider, and organizational factors on the diagnosis and management of a major chronic disease: diabetes. Method A factorial experiment using video vignettes was conducted among n=192 primary care physicians. Physicians were interviewed after viewing vignettes of (1) a “patient” with symptoms strongly suggestive of diabetes and (2) an already diagnosed diabetes “patient” with emerging peripheral neuropathy. Results 60.9 percent of physicians identified diabetes as the correct diagnosis, with significant variations depending on the patients’ race/ethnicity. Many physicians offered competing diagnoses with high levels of certainty. For the “patient” with emerging peripheral neuropathy, 42.2 percent of physicians would do all essential components of a foot examination, while 21.9 percent would do none. Conclusions That half of all diabetes in the US remains undiagnosed is unsurprising given only 60.9 percent of physicians would diagnose it when the condition is strongly suggested, and nearly one quarter suspecting diabetes would not order tests necessary to confirm it. The diagnosis of diabetes is significantly influenced by a patient’s race/ethnicity and clinical management (specifically for foot neuropathy), is influenced by patient SES, physician gender, and access to clinical guidelines. PMID:23216876

  2. Involuntary Consent: Conditioning Access to Health Care on Participation in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Yearby, Ruqaiijah A

    2016-09-01

    American bioethics has served as a safety net for the rich and powerful, often failing to protect minorities and the economically disadvantaged. For example, minorities and the economically disadvantaged are often unduly influenced into participating in clinical trials that promise monetary gain or access to health care. This is a violation of the bioethical principle of "respect for persons," which requires that informed consent for participation in clinical trials is voluntary and free of undue influence. Promises of access to health care invalidate the voluntariness of informed consent not only because it unduly induces minorities and the economically disadvantaged to participate in clinical trials to obtain access to potentially life saving health care, but it is also manipulative because some times the clinical trial is conducted by the very institutions that are denying minorities and the economically disadvantaged access to health care. To measure whether consent is voluntary and free of undue influence, federal agencies should require researchers to use the Vulnerability and Equity Impact Assessment tool, which I have created based on the Health Equity Impact Assessment tool, to determine whether minorities and the economically disadvantaged are being unduly influenced into participating in clinical trials in violation of the "respect for persons" principle. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  3. [Conflicts of interests in clinical research in primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L; Navarro-Rubio, M D; Sisó-Almirall, A

    2014-03-01

    Conflicts of interests between professionals and patients in biomedical research, is an ethical problem. None of the laws in Spain mention whether the clinical researcher has to clarify to participants the reasons why it proposes them to participate in a clinical trial. In this article, conflicts of interests in research are discussed in the context of primary healthcare. In this area conflicts of interests might alter the confidence between patients and healthcare professionals. Finally, we suggest some practical strategies that can help participants make the decision to participate in a clinical trial more willingly and freely. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Outpatient health care utilization in a sample of cognitively impaired veterans receiving care in VHA geriatric evaluation and management clinics.

    PubMed

    King, Paul R; Vair, Christina L; Wade, Michael; Gass, Julie; Wray, Laura O; Kusche, Anna; Saludades, Charito; Chang, June

    2015-02-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Geriatric Evaluation And Management (GEM) clinics are designed specifically to address the needs of older veterans with complex age-related concerns, including dementia and comorbid medical and mental health conditions. Previous literature describes aging veterans as having greater health care needs compared with age-matched nonveteran samples, and multimorbidity is of particular concern in this population. Using data extracted from electronic medical records (EMRs), the present study describes the demographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, and health care utilization of a sample of 476 VHA GEM patients with diagnosed cognitive impairment or dementia seen in clinics across Upstate New York. Examination of EMR data demonstrated that in addition to diagnosed cognitive impairment and dementia, over 66% of the sample had at least 1 additional mental health diagnosis coded during the study period. Many were prescribed dementia medications and/or other psychotropic medications, predominantly antidepressants. These veterans utilized a variety of outpatient services, including high rates of mental health consultation subsequent to GEM evaluation, though low rates of mental health follow-up were observed. Results from the current study provide insight into the important role mental health providers such as psychologists and psychiatrists can play as collaborators in interdisciplinary geriatrics care for veterans.

  5. Feasibility of a Sexual Health Clinic Within Cancer Care: A Pilot Study Using Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Myrna; McDivitt, Karmen; Ryan, Maureen; Tomlinson, Jamie; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    As cancer survival rates increase, so does the imperative for a satisfying quality of life, including a fulfilling sexual life. The feasibility and effectiveness of a newly formed Sexual Health Clinic were determined using a nurse-led format, which provided support to survivors in a cancer care setting. Twenty-one cancer survivors received assessment, education, and tailored sexual health support by an oncology nurse with specialized skills in sexual health. Two months later, semistructured interviews focused on patients' personal experiences. Questionnaires were also administered to healthcare providers involved in providing the follow-up care. Participants presented with sexual concerns that were psychological, physical, and/or relational. Scores on validated measures of sexual functioning were in the range comparable to those with a sexual dysfunction. Participants were open to being asked about sexual health and wanted professionals available who were skilled in dealing with sexual health services. Most participants experienced an improvement in their well-being and/or sexual life following participation. Some noted more confidence when speaking with their partner about sexual concerns. Our pilot Sexual Health Clinic was feasible, and evidence for its effectiveness was based on qualitative feedback. Participants and providers identified a strong need for the inclusion of sexual health services in cancer care. Oncology nurses are in a key position to initiate discussions surrounding sexual health issues related to cancer treatment. Self-awareness, sensitivity, and a nonjudgmental approach are required to address this dimension of holistic cancer care.

  6. Health Care Infrastructure for Financially Sustainable Clinical Genomics.

    PubMed

    Lennerz, Jochen K; McLaughlin, Heather M; Baron, Jason M; Rasmussen, David; Sumbada Shin, Meini; Berners-Lee, Nancy; Miller Batten, Julie; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Gala, Manish K; Winter, Harland S; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Sweetser, David A; Boswell, Marianne; Pacula, Maciej; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Le, Long P; Hynes, William; Rehm, Heidi L; Klibanski, Anne; Black-Schaffer, Stephen W; Golden, Jeffrey A; Louis, David N; Weiss, Scott T; Iafrate, A John

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing has evolved technically and economically into the method of choice for interrogating the genome in cancer and inherited disorders. The introduction of procedural code sets for whole-exome and genome sequencing is a milestone toward financially sustainable clinical implementation; however, achieving reimbursement is currently a major challenge. As part of a prospective quality-improvement initiative to implement the new code sets, we adopted Agile, a development methodology originally devised in software development. We implemented eight functionally distinct modules (request review, cost estimation, preauthorization, accessioning, prebilling, testing, reporting, and reimbursement consultation) and obtained feedback via an anonymous survey. We managed 50 clinical requests (January to June 2015). The fraction of pursued-to-requested cases (n = 15/50; utilization management fraction, 0.3) aimed for a high rate of preauthorizations. In 13 of 15 patients the insurance plan required preauthorization, which we obtained in 70% and ultimately achieved reimbursement in 50%. Interoperability enabled assessment of 12 different combinations of modules that underline the importance of an adaptive workflow and policy tailoring to achieve higher yields of reimbursement. The survey confirmed a positive attitude toward self-organizing teams. We acknowledge the individuals and their interactions and termed the infrastructure: human pipeline. Nontechnical barriers currently are limiting the scope and availability of clinical genomic sequencing. The presented human pipeline is one approach toward long-term financial sustainability of clinical genomics. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physician Professional Satisfaction and Area of Clinical Practice: Evidence from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Caloyeras, John P; Kanter, Michael; Ives, Nicole; Kim, Chong Y; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Berry, Sandra H; Brook, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Context: For health care reform to succeed, health care systems need a professionally satisfied primary care workforce. Evidence suggests that primary care physicians are less satisfied than those in other medical specialties. Objective: To assess three domains of physician satisfaction by area of clinical practice among physicians practicing in an established integrated health system. Design: Cross-sectional online survey of all Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG) partner and associate physicians (N = 1034) who were primarily providing clinic-based care in 1 of 4 geographically and operationally distinct Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Centers. Main Outcome Measures: Primary measure was satisfaction with one’s day-to-day professional life as a physician. Secondary measures were satisfaction with quality of care and income. Results: Of the 636 physicians responding to the survey (61.5% response rate), on average, 8 in 10 SCPMG physicians reported satisfaction with their day-to-day professional life as a physician. Primary care physicians were only minimally less likely to report being satisfied (difference of 8.2–9.5 percentage points; p < 0.05) than were other physicians. Nearly all physicians (98.2%) were satisfied with the quality of care they are able to provide. Roughly 8 in 10 physicians reported satisfaction with their income. No differences were found between primary care physicians and those in other clinical practice areas regarding satisfaction with quality of care or income. Conclusion: It is possible to create practice settings, such as SCPMG, in which most physicians, including those in primary care, experience high levels of professional satisfaction. PMID:27057819

  8. Using organizational and clinical performance data to increase the value of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric M; Krahn, Dean D; McGuire, Marsden H; Tavakoli, Sara; Wright, David M; Solares, Hugo E; Lemke, Sonne; Trafton, Jodie

    2017-02-01

    U.S. health systems, policy makers, and patients increasingly demand high-value care that improves health outcomes at lower cost. This study describes the initial design and analysis of the Mental Health Management System (MHMS), a performance data and quality improvement tool used by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to increase the value of its mental health care. The MHMS evaluates access to and quality of mental health care, organizational structure and efficiency, implementation of innovative treatment options, and, in collaboration with management, resource needs for delivering care. Performance on 31 measures was calculated for all U.S. VHA facilities (N = 139). Pearson correlations revealed that better access to care was significantly associated with fewer mental health provider staffing vacancies (r = -.24) and higher staff-to-patient ratios for psychiatrists (r = .19) and other outpatient mental health providers (r = .27). Higher staff-to-patient ratios were significantly associated with higher performance on a number of patient and provider satisfaction measures (range of r = .18-.51) and continuity of care measures (range of r = .26-.43). Relationships observed between organizational and clinical performance measures suggest that the MHMS is a robust informatics and quality improvement tool that can serve as a model for health systems planning to adopt a value perspective. Future research should expand the MHMS framework to measure patient and health systems costs and psychosocial outcomes, as well as evaluate whether quality improvement solutions implemented as a result of using organizational information leads to higher-value mental health care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Social determinants of health and retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Light, Lucia; Raboud, Janet; Antoniou, Tony; Bacon, Jean; Benoit, Anita; Cooper, Curtis; Kendall, Claire; Loutfy, Mona; Wobeser, Wendy; McGee, Frank; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-12-27

    Continuous HIV care supports antiretroviral therapy initiation and adherence, and prolongs survival. We investigated the association of social determinants of health (SDH) and subsequent retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multi-site cohort of patients at 10 HIV clinics. Data were collected from medical charts, interviews, and via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests. For participants interviewed in 2009, we used three-category multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of retention in 2010-2012, defined as (1) continuous care (≥2 viral loads ≥90 days in all years; reference category); (2) discontinuous care (only 1 viral load/year in ≥1 year); and (3) a gap in care (≥1 year in 2010-2012 with no viral load). In total, 1838 participants were included. In 2010-2012, 71.7% had continuous care, 20.9% had discontinuous care, and 7.5% had a gap in care. Discontinuous care in 2009 was predictive (p < .0001) of future retention. SDH associated with discontinuous care were Indigenous ethnicity, being born in Canada, being employed, reporting hazardous drinking, and non-injection drug use. Being a heterosexual male was associated with having a gap in care, and being single and younger were associated with discontinuous care and a gap in care. Various SDH were associated with retention. Care discontinuity was highly predictive of future gaps. Targeted strategic interventions that better engage those at risk of suboptimal retention merit exploration.

  10. Integrating Patient-Generated Health Data Into Clinical Care Settings or Clinical Decision-Making: Lessons Learned From Project HealthDesign

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Sara R; Hayes, Gillian R; Dorr, David A; Ash, Joan S; Sittig, Dean F

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-generated health data (PGHD) are health-related data created or recorded by patients to inform their self-care and understanding about their own health. PGHD is different from other patient-reported outcome data because the collection of data is patient-driven, not practice- or research-driven. Technical applications for assisting patients to collect PGHD supports self-management activities such as healthy eating and exercise and can be important for preventing and managing disease. Technological innovations (eg, activity trackers) are making it more common for people to collect PGHD, but little is known about how PGHD might be used in outpatient clinics. Objective The objective of our study was to examine the experiences of health care professionals who use PGHD in outpatient clinics. Methods We conducted an evaluation of Project HealthDesign Round 2 to synthesize findings from 5 studies funded to test tools designed to help patients collect PGHD and share these data with members of their health care team. We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 Project HealthDesign study team members and 12 health care professionals that participated in these studies. We used an immersion-crystallization approach to analyze data. Our findings provide important information related to health care professionals’ attitudes toward and experiences with using PGHD in a clinical setting. Results Health care professionals identified 3 main benefits of PGHD accessibility in clinical settings: (1) deeper insight into a patient’s condition; (2) more accurate patient information, particularly when of clinical relevance; and (3) insight into a patient’s health between clinic visits, enabling revision of care plans for improved health goal achievement, while avoiding unnecessary clinic visits. Study participants also identified 3 areas of consideration when implementing collection and use of PGHD data in clinics: (1) developing practice workflows and protocols

  11. The effect of organizational climate on the clinical care of patients with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Wright, Eric R; Linde, Beverly; Rau, N Leela; Gayman, Mathew; Viggiano, Theresa

    2003-08-01

    During the past 3 decades, the number of patients with serious mental health problems seeking care in general hospital emergency departments has increased exponentially, with special clinical challenges. This study examines the effect of organizational climate--the subjective perceptions of staff regarding the work environment--on ED staff members' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems, as well as the effect on the clinical care of these patients. The data for this study came from a written survey of 109 emergency nurses and other clinical staff employed in a general public hospital emergency department in a midwestern city (response rate = 67.9%). The findings indicate that the emergency nurses and other clinical staff who view their working conditions positively report having more frequent contact and providing a greater variety of interventions to patients with psychiatric problems. Staff members who believed that their clinical work roles and expectations are poorly defined were those least likely to interact with this patient population. The findings indicate that organizational processes seem to have an impact on the delivery of clinical care, as well as caregivers' attitudes about this patient population. This finding underlines the importance of addressing organizational climate in emergency departments as part of an effort to improve the quality of care for patients with mental health problems.

  12. New York City's Child Health Clinics: Providing Quality Primary Care to Children in Low-Income and Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    A study was conducted to determine whether the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is fulfilling dual public health and primary care missions of its Child Health Clinics, which provide services to 78,000 New York City children every year. Among the services provided by Child Health Clinics are health examinations for school and…

  13. Adverse health effects of spousal violence among women attending Saudi Arabian primary health-care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eldoseri, H M; Tufts, K A; Zhang, Q; Fish, J N

    2014-12-17

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider. Victims of spousal violence had poor perceptions of their overall health, and reported pain or discomfort, antidepressant use and suicidal thoughts. Women mostly disagreed with the presented justifications for wife-beating. However, the association between gender attitudes and spousal violence was not significant. The results of this study support calls for integration of education about partner violence into health-care curricula to enhance the access and quality of services.

  14. Measurement of goal attainment in clinical and health care programs.

    PubMed

    Kiresuk, T J; Lund, S H; Larsen, N E

    1982-02-01

    Goal attainment scaling (GAS) is a method of measurement that attempts to tailor measures to the relevant and often unique characteristics of an event, individual, program, or organization. The general approach is common in industry, management, service delivery, and most forms of contractual arrangements or agreements. GAS has quantification characteristics that make it useful in a variety of research and management areas, and it is popularly used as a clinical and educational facilitator. This article describes the method within a recent historical context, relating the method to current thinking and problems in evaluation, and attempts to make the method accessible to potential users. Special emphasis is placed on the use of analyses that assess readiness to change or adopt new practices.

  15. Leadership and organization development in health-care: lessons from the Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Margaret M; O'Neil, Deborah A; FitzSimons, Kathleen; Bailin, Philip L; Stoller, James K

    2011-01-01

    Leaders in health-care today are faced with a wide array of complex issues. This chapter describes an innovative physician leadership development program at the Cleveland Clinic intended to enhance the leadership capacities of individuals and the organization. Propositions regarding the program's impact on organizational innovation, organizational commitment, social capital, and the human element of physician practice are offered for future examination.

  16. Community-based free clinics: opportunities for interprofessional collaboration, health promotion, and complex care management.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, Martha A; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle L; Reinhardt, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Free or outreach clinics offer students the opportunity to work with diverse patient populations. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of a sample of chiropractic patients at a free community-based clinic to assess clinical and educational opportunities for students to work with diverse populations, collaborate with other professions and practice health promotion through patient education. This was a prospective, descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over 2 months. Data on demographics, health status, and health risks were collected from patients and their interns. Of the 158 patients, 50.6% were women and 50.6% African-American, while only 20.9% were employed full-time. Of the 24.7% tobacco users, 48.7% expressed interest in cessation. Of 80.0% overweight or obese patients, 48.8% expressed interest in weight loss. By self-report, 16.5% were diabetic, 10.1% took hypertension medication, 36.7% used prescription pain medication (9.4% opiate use), 33.5% used nonprescription pain medication, and 9.4% were under the care of a mental health professional. This patient population is demographically diverse. A high proportion of patients who used tobacco, or were overweight or obese expressed interest in information on those topics. A substantial proportion reported being under care with a mental health professional. This clinic provides opportunities for students to work with diverse populations, collaborate with other professions, and practice health promotion.

  17. Identifying US veterans who access services from health care for the homeless clinics.

    PubMed

    Knopf-Amelung, Sarah M; Jenkins, Darlene M

    2013-12-01

    Research on veterans experiencing homelessness is predominantly focused on the US Department of Veterans Affairs setting, despite the fact that substantial numbers receive services from Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) clinics. We explored how HCH clinics identified veteran patients through a survey of administrators (49% response rate). The majority (98%) identified veterans but used varied language and approaches. Implementing a streamlined, culturally competent identification process is vital to collecting accurate data, connecting veterans with benefits, and informing treatment plans.

  18. Consumer health information technology in an adult public health primary care clinic: a heart health education feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gleason-Comstock, Julie A; Streater, Alicia; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Artinian, Nancy T; Timmins, Jessica; Baker, Suzanne; Joshua, Bosede; Paranjpe, Aniruddha

    2013-12-01

    To explore the feasibility and short term outcomes of using an interactive kiosk integrated into office flow to deliver health information in a primary care clinic. Fifty-one adults with BMI ≥25 were randomly assigned to use a kiosk with attached devices to receive a six-week healthy eating/weight monitoring (intervention) or general health/BP monitoring (attention-control) program. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 weeks (post) and three month follow-up. Participants completed an average of 2.73 weekly sessions, with transportation and time given as limiting factors. They found the kiosk easy to use (97%), liked the touchscreen (94%), and would use the kiosk again (81%). Although there were no differences between groups, the 27 completing all assessments showed reduced weight (p=.02), and decreased systolic (p=.01) and diastolic BP (p<.001) at follow-up. Although healthy eating behaviors increased, the change was not statistically significant. Using a kiosk within a clinic setting is a feasible method of providing health information and self-monitoring. Multi-session educational content can provide beneficial short-term outcomes in overweight adults. A kiosk with attached peripherals in a clinic setting is a viable adjunct to provider education, particularly in medically underserved areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Sandor J

    2016-12-21

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals.

  20. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals. PMID:28123917

  1. Creating Conditions for Patients’ Values to Emerge in Clinical Conversations: Perspectives of Health Care Team Members

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Andrew B.L.; Lim, Catherine; Hartzler, Andrea L.; Hirsch, Tad; Ludman, Evette; Wagner, Edward H.; Ralston, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Eliciting, understanding, and honoring patients’ values— the things most important to them in daily life—is a cornerstone of patient-centered care. However, this rarely occurs explicitly as a routine part of clinical practice. This is particularly problematic for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) because they face difficult choices about how to balance competing demands for self-care in accordance with their values. In this study, we sought to inform the design of interventions to support conversations about patient values between patients with MCC and their health care providers. We conducted a field study that included observations of 21 clinic visits for patients who have MCC, and interviews with 16 care team members involved in those visits. This paper contributes a practice-based account of ways in which providers engage with patient values, and discusses how future work in interactive systems design might extend and enrich these engagements. PMID:28890950

  2. The Role of Rural Health Clinics in Hospitalization Due to Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions: A Study in Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wanqing; Mueller, Keith J.; Chen, Li-Wu; Conway, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Context: Hospitalization due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) is often used as an indicator for measuring access to primary care. Rural health clinics (RHCs) provide basic primary care services for rural residents in health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). The relationship between RHCs and ACSCs is unclear. Purpose: The purpose…

  3. Quality of health care provided at a pediatric nurse-managed clinic.

    PubMed

    Coddington, Jennifer; Sands, Laura; Edwards, Nancy; Kirkpatrick, Jane; Chen, Susan

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assimilate evidence regarding quality of care received at nurse-managed clinics (NMCs), particularly a pediatric NMC that provides health care for the underserved pediatric population. A nonexperimental design was used in this study. Quality of care data were collected at Trinity Nursing Center for Child Health (TNCCH), a pediatric NMC. Evidence included whether a pediatric NMC met selected national benchmark pediatric Healthcare Effectiveness and Data Information Set (HEDIS) quality indicators as well as HEDIS targets set by the Office of Medicaid Policy and Planning (OMPP) in Indiana. Findings suggest that TNCCH met or exceeded national HEDIS benchmark standards of care and targets set by OMPP. This study offers further evidence that NMCs provide a high quality of care. Benefits of addressing the research question in this study include the preservation of the nurse-managed healthcare safety net, increased access to health care for the medically underserved population resulting in improved health outcomes, and evidence to suggest that NMCs can assist private practice physicians to support this population of patients. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Clinical research and global health: mentoring the next generation of health care students.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sural K; Nodell, Bobbi; Montano, Silvia M; Behrens, Chris; Zunt, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Interest in global health and opportunities to conduct clinical research at international sites have increased markedly for health profession trainees. With this increase in demand comes an increase in the need for mentors at international and home institutions to provide guidance with designing, implementing and analysing clinical research projects that benefit both the trainees and the research site. In this article, we provide an overview of our insights gained through mentoring in the international setting and suggest a series of key points to help ensure an enjoyable and productive international clinical research experience for both trainees and mentors.

  5. [Community resources prescription for self-care improvement in chronic illnesses. Clinical case management in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vico-Díaz de Rada, Lucía; González-Suárez, Miriam; Duarte-Clíments, Gonzalo; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán

    2014-01-01

    A case is presented of a 52 year-old male seen in a Primary Care nursing clinic for a type 2 diabetes mellitus metabolic control. The frequency of the visits increased due to perceived difficulties caused by changing the medical treatment. A focused interview was conducted under functional health patterns framework. The patient was unable to write or read, had not worked for the last 25 years, and expressed a lack of control over his self-care. An action plan was prepared, prioritizing Ineffective Health Maintenance, Powerlessness, and Impaired Social Interaction NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. The goals were set at improving knowledge and control over his disease and participating in leisure activities. To achieve these, the social health resources in the area were contacted, and agreed that the patient could attend activities that could improve his self-care and his quality of life. An improvement in his diabetes control was observed in the following evaluations, with an increase in his level of knowledge and self-care. The Primary Health care nurse should consider available community resources by using a comprehensive approach to chronic diseases for their therapeutic benefit and management, especially in those patients with adverse sociocultural conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Student specialty plans, clinical decision-making, and health care reform

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robert L.; Romney, Crystal; Kano, Miria; Wright, Randy; Skipper, Betty; Getrich, Christina; Sussman, Andrew L.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Health care reform aims to increase evidence based, cost-conscious, and patient-centered care. Family medicine is seen as central to these aims in part due to evidence of lower cost, comparable quality care compared with other specialties. We sought evidence that senior medical students planning family medicine residency differ from peers entering other fields in decision-making patterns relevant to these health care reform aims. Methods We conducted a national, anonymous, internet-based survey of senior medical students. Students chose one of two equivalent management options for a set of patient vignettes based on preventive care, medication selection or initial chronic disease management scenarios, representing in turn, evidence-based care, cost-conscious care, and patient-centered care. We examined differences in student recommendations, comparing those planning to enter family medicine with all others using bivariate and weighted, multilevel, multivariable analyses. Results Among 4,656 surveys received from seniors at 84 participating medical schools, students entering family medicine were significantly more likely to recommend patient management options that were more cost-conscious (p=.01) and more patient-centered (p<.001). We did not find a significant difference between the student groups in recommendations for evidence-based care vignettes. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that students planning to enter family practice may already have clinical decision-making patterns that support health care reform goals to a greater extent than their peers. If confirmed by additional studies, this could have implications for medical school admission and training processes. PMID:24915476

  7. Public Health Clinic Based Hepatitis C Testing and Linkage to Care in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Mehta, Shruti H.; Lasola, Jackline; Latkin, Carl; Niculescu, Alex; O’Connor, Cristi; Chaulk, Patrick; Ghanem, Khalil; Page, Kathleen R; Sulkowski, Mark S.; Thomas, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Testing and linkage to care are important determinants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment effectiveness. Public health clinics serve populations at high risk for HCV. We investigated their potential to serve as sites for HCV testing, initiation of and linkage to HCV care. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients accessing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) care at the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) STI clinics, from June 2013 through April 2014. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HCV infection and specialist linkage to care. Results Between June 24, 2013 and April 15, 2014, 2681 patients were screened for HCV infection. Overall, 189 (7%) were anti-HCV positive, of whom 185 (98%) received follow-up HCV RNA testing, with 155 (84%) testing RNA positive. Of 155 RNA positive individuals, 138 (89%) returned to the STI clinic for HCV RNA results and initial HCV care including counseling regarding transmission and harm reduction for alcohol, and 132 (85%) were referred to a specialist for HCV care. With provision of patient navigation services, 81(52%) attended an offsite HCV specialist appointment. Alcohol use and lack of insurance coverage were associated with lower rates of specialist linkage (OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.1–0.9] and OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.1–0.9] respectively). Conclusion We identified a high prevalence of HCV infection in BCHD STI clinics. With availability of patient navigation services a large proportion of HCV infected patients linked to off-site specialist care. PMID:26840570

  8. Public health clinic-based hepatitis C testing and linkage to care in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Falade-Nwulia, O; Mehta, S H; Lasola, J; Latkin, C; Niculescu, A; O'Connor, C; Chaulk, P; Ghanem, K; Page, K R; Sulkowski, M S; Thomas, D L

    2016-05-01

    Testing and linkage to care are important determinants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment effectiveness. Public health clinics serve populations at high risk of HCV. We investigated their potential to serve as sites for HCV testing, initiation of and linkage to HCV care. Cross-sectional study of patients accessing sexually transmitted infection (STI) care at the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) STI clinics, from June 2013 through April 2014 was conducted. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HCV infection and specialist linkage to care. Between 24 June 2013 and 15 April 2014, 2681 patients were screened for HCV infection. Overall, 189 (7%) were anti-HCV positive, of whom 185 (98%) received follow-up HCV RNA testing, with 155 (84%) testing RNA positive. Of 155 RNA-positive individuals, 138 (89%) returned to the STI clinic for HCV RNA results and initial HCV care including counselling regarding transmission and harm reduction in alcohol, and 132 (85%) were referred to a specialist for HCV care. With provision of patient navigation services, 81 (52%) attended an offsite HCV specialist appointment. Alcohol use and lack of insurance coverage were associated with lower rates of specialist linkage (OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.1-0.9] and OR 0.4 [95% CI 0.1-0.9], respectively). We identified a high prevalence of HCV infection in BCHD STI clinics. With availability of patient navigation services, a large proportion of HCV-infected patients linked to off-site specialist care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Pain care in Austrian health care centers: Questionnaire study on the current status of Austrian pain clinics].

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A

    2015-12-01

    Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an

  10. Bronx Teens Connection's Clinic Linkage Model: Connecting Youth to Quality Sexual and Reproductive Health Care.

    PubMed

    O'Uhuru, Deborah J; Santiago, Vivian; Murray, Lauren E; Travers, Madeline; Bedell, Jane F

    2017-03-01

    Teen pregnancy and birth rates in the Bronx have been higher than in New York City, representing a longstanding health disparity. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented a community-wide, multicomponent intervention to reduce unintended teen pregnancy, the Bronx Teens Connection. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model sought to increase teens' access to and use of sexual and reproductive health care by increasing community partner capacity to link neighborhood clinics to youth-serving organizations, including schools. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model used needs assessments, delineated the criteria for linkages, clarified roles and responsibilities of partners and staff, established trainings to support the staff engaged in linkage activities, and developed and used process evaluation methods. Early results demonstrated the strength and feasibility of the model over a 4-year period, with 31 linkages developed and maintained, over 11,300 contacts between clinic health educators and teens completed, and increasing adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined clinical best practices for adolescent reproductive health. For those eight clinics that were able to provide data, there was a 25% increase in the number of teen clients seen over 4 years. There are many factors that relate to an increase in clinic utilization; some of this increase may have been a result of the linkages between schools and clinics. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model is an explicit framework for clinical and youth-serving organizations seeking to establish formal linkage relationships that may be useful for other municipalities or organizations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Evaluation of secondary care in oral health: a study of specialty clinics in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Neves, Jerlucia Cavalcanti das; Silveira, Fabiana Moura da Motta; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Pucca Júnior, Gilberto Alfredo; Rosales, Maritza Sosa

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of secondary care in the area of health surveillance. This was a descriptive and normative/evaluative study. Performance analysis drew on secondary data, based on a historical series of dental procedures conducted at the specialized dental clinics implemented in Brazil and recorded by the Outpatient Information System of the Unified National Health System (SIA/SUS) in 2007, as well as primary data from site visits to the clinics, based on questionnaires completed by clinic staff. Performance of the clinics was poor in most regions of the country, and the North of Brazil had the lowest percentage of specialty services implemented. The indicator "Performance of Secondary Care in Oral Health" was 64.4%. The type 3 specialty clinics showed better results in terms of performance and achievement of targets. The study showed the need to review the legal framework for implementing specialized dental clinics by adjusting the criteria and norms, as well as definition of new standards for achievement of goals in the evaluation and monitoring of these services.

  12. Effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations.

  13. Effective Strategies for Global Health Research, Training and Clinical Care: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to synthesize the evidence on effective strategies for global health research, training and clinical care in order to identify common structures that have been used to guide program development. A Medline search from 2001 to 2011 produced 951 articles, which were reviewed and categorized. Thirty articles met criteria to be included in this review. Eleven articles discussed recommendations for research, 8 discussed training and 11 discussed clinical care. Global health program development should be completed within the framework of a larger institutional commitment or partnership. Support from leadership in the university or NGO, and an engaged local community are both integral to success and sustainability of efforts. It is also important for program development to engage local partners from the onset, jointly exploring issues and developing goals and objectives. Evaluation is a recommended way to determine if goals are being met, and should include considerations of sustainability, partnership building, and capacity. Global health research programs should consider details regarding the research process, context of research, partnerships, and community relationships. Training for global health should involve mentorship, pre-departure preparation of students, and elements developed to increase impact. Clinical care programs should focus on collaboration, sustainability, meeting local needs, and appropriate process considerations. PMID:25716404

  14. Clinical characteristics and patterns of health deficits of centenarians receiving home care and long-term care services.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Shannon; Armstrong, Joshua J; Tyas, Suzanne L; Neufeld, Eva

    2017-09-21

    Centenarians (persons aged 100years and older) are one of the fastest growing cohorts in countries across the world. With the increasing prevalence of centenarians and growing amount of clinical information in large administrative health databases, it is now possible to more fully characterize the health of this unique and heterogeneous population. This study described patterns of health deficits in the centenarian population receiving care from community-based home care services and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Ontario, Canada. All centenarians who received home care and were assessed using the interRAI-Home Care Assessment instrument between 2007 and 2011 (n=1163) and all centenarians who resided in LTCFs between 2005 and 2011 who were assessed using the interRAI Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0) (n=2228) were included in this study. Bivariate analyses described the centenarian population while K-means clustering analyses were utilized to identify relatively homogeneous subgroups within this heterogeneous population. The 3391 centenarians were aged 100 to 114 (mean age 101.5years ±1.9 SD) and the majority were women (84.7%). Commonly reported deficits included cognitive impairment, physical impairment, and bladder problems. Centenarians residing in LTCFs were significantly more likely than centenarians receiving home care services to report cognitive or functional impairment, or to exhibit symptoms of depression. The commonalities and uniqueness of four clusters of centenarians are described. Although there is great variability, there is also commonality within the centenarian population. Recognizing patterns within the heterogeneity of centenarians is key to providing high-quality person-centered care and to targeting health promotion and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modern clinical research: How rapid learning health care and cohort multiple randomised clinical trials complement traditional evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Lambin, Philippe; Zindler, Jaap; Vanneste, Ben; van de Voorde, Lien; Jacobs, Maria; Eekers, Daniëlle; Peerlings, Jurgen; Reymen, Bart; Larue, Ruben T H M; Deist, Timo M; de Jong, Evelyn E C; Even, Aniek J G; Berlanga, Adriana J; Roelofs, Erik; Cheng, Qing; Carvalho, Sara; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Zegers, Catharina M L; van Limbergen, Evert; Berbee, Maaike; van Elmpt, Wouter; Oberije, Cary; Houben, Ruud; Dekker, Andre; Boersma, Liesbeth; Verhaegen, Frank; Bosmans, Geert; Hoebers, Frank; Smits, Kim; Walsh, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Trials are vital in informing routine clinical care; however, current designs have major deficiencies. An overview of the various challenges that face modern clinical research and the methods that can be exploited to solve these challenges, in the context of personalised cancer treatment in the 21st century is provided. The purpose of this manuscript, without intending to be comprehensive, is to spark thought whilst presenting and discussing two important and complementary alternatives to traditional evidence-based medicine, specifically rapid learning health care and cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. Rapid learning health care is an approach that proposes to extract and apply knowledge from routine clinical care data rather than exclusively depending on clinical trial evidence, (please watch the animation: http://youtu.be/ZDJFOxpwqEA). The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design is a pragmatic method which has been proposed to help overcome the weaknesses of conventional randomised trials, taking advantage of the standardised follow-up approaches more and more used in routine patient care. This approach is particularly useful when the new intervention is a priori attractive for the patient (i.e. proton therapy, patient decision aids or expensive medications), when the outcomes are easily collected, and when there is no need of a placebo arm. Truly personalised cancer treatment is the goal in modern radiotherapy. However, personalised cancer treatment is also an immense challenge. The vast variety of both cancer patients and treatment options makes it extremely difficult to determine which decisions are optimal for the individual patient. Nevertheless, rapid learning health care and cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design are two approaches (among others) that can help meet this challenge.

  16. Information needs of health care professionals in an AIDS outpatient clinic as determined by chart review.

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, N B; Huber, J T; Giuse, D A; Brown, C W; Bankowitz, R A; Hunt, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the information needs of health care professionals in HIV-related clinical encounters, and to determine the suitability of existing information sources to address those needs. SETTING: HIV outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Seven health care professionals with diverse training and patient care involvement. METHODS: Based on patient charts describing 120 patient encounters, participants generated 266 clinical questions. Printed and on-line information sources were used to answer questions in two phases: using commonly available sources and using all available medical library sources. MEASUREMENTS: The questions were divided into 16 categories by subject. The number of questions answered, their categories, the information source(s) providing answers, and the time required to answer questions were recorded for each phase. RESULTS: Each participant generated an average of 3.8 clinical questions per chart. Five categories accounted for almost 75% of all questions; the treatment protocols/regimens category was most frequent (24%). A total of 245 questions (92%) were answered, requiring an average of 15 minutes per question. Most (87%) of the questions were answered via electronic sources, even though paper sources were consulted first. CONCLUSIONS: The participating professionals showed considerable information needs. A combination of on-line and paper sources was necessary to provide the answers. The study suggests that present-day information sources are not entirely satisfactory for answering clinical questions generated by examining charts of HIV-infected patients. PMID:7850563

  17. A Population Health Approach to Clinical Social Work with Complex Patients in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephen M; Hatzenbuehler, Stephanie; Gilbert, Erika; Bouchard, Mark P; McGill, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Chronic diseases disproportionately occur among people from disadvantaged backgrounds. These backgrounds correlate with poor health in adulthood. Capacity for patients' to collaborate in their care tends to be lower than among other patients, leading to inefficient uses in medical services and higher risk of adverse events. In the course of this study, social workers engaged patients with increased inpatient and emergency department (ED) use and barriers to self-management, and evaluated them for lifetime exposure to material disadvantage and violence. Intervention focused on creating a primary care team that improved patients' self-efficacy, increased locus of control, and improved capacity for engagement. Results include a 49 percent decrease in admissions and a 5 percent decrease in ED utilization with significant cost savings. Authors recommend further study to analyze social, clinical, and financial risk in a larger sample, which may yield information about a health care provider's most at-risk patients for early targeted intervention.

  18. Well-Child Care Clinical Practice Redesign at a Community Health Center: Provider and Staff Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Kelly; Moreno, Candice; Chung, Paul J.; Elijah, Jacinta; Coker, Tumaini R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health centers (CHCs) are a key element of the health care safety net for underserved children. They may be an ideal setting to create well-child care (WCC) clinical practice redesign to drastically improve WCC delivery. Objective To examine the perspectives of clinical and administrative staff at a large, multisite urban CHC on alternative ways to deliver WCC services for low-income children aged 0 to 3 years. Methods Eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 4 pediatric teams (each consisting of 1 pediatrician and 2 medical assistants) and 4 CHC executive/administrative staff (Medical Director, COO, CEO, and Nurse Supervisor). Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Salient themes included WCC delivery challenges and endorsed WCC clinical practice redesign solutions. Results The 3 main WCC delivery challenges included long wait times due to insurance verification and intake paperwork, lack of time for parent education and sick visits due to WCC visit volume, and absence of a system to encourage physicians to use non–face-to-face communication with parents. To address WCC delivery challenges, CHC providers and administrators endorsed several options for clinical practice redesign in their setting. These included use of a health educator in a team-based model of care, a previsit tool for screening and surveillance, Web site health education, a structured system for non–face-to-face (eg, phone) parent communication, and group visits. Conclusion CHC-specific strategies for WCC clinical practice redesign endorsed by a large, multisite safety net clinic may lead to more efficient, effective, and family-centered WCC for low-income populations. PMID:24327599

  19. Diabetes mellitus and treatment outcomes in Palestine refugees in UNRWA primary health care clinics in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khader, A; Ballout, G; Shahin, Y; Hababeh, M; Farajallah, L; Zeidan, W; Abu-Zayed, I; Kochi, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Shaikh, I; Seita, A

    2013-12-21

    Six primary health care clinics in Jordan, serving Palestine refugees diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). To report on the number and characteristics of new DM patients registered in the second quarter of 2013 and of all DM patients ever registered by 30 June 2013, with treatment outcomes and cumulative burden of late-stage complications. A descriptive cohort study using routine data collected through e-Health. Of the 288 new patients in Q2 2013 and 12 548 patients ever registered with DM by 30 June 2013, smoking, physical inactivity and obesity were recorded in 19%, 50% and 47%, respectively. In Q2 2013, 9740 (78%) patients attended a clinic, with >99% having undergone disease control measures: of these, 72% had postprandial blood glucose ⩽ 180 mg/dl, 71% had blood cholesterol < 200 mg/dl, 82% had blood pressure < 140/90 and 40% had body mass index < 30 kg/m(2). Late-stage complications were present in 1130 (11.6%) patients who attended a clinic, with cardiovascular disease and stroke being the most common. Several differences in outcomes were found between males and females. There is a high burden of disease due to DM at primary health care clinics in Jordan. Cohort analysis using e-Health is a vital way to assess management and follow-up.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and treatment outcomes in Palestine refugees in UNRWA primary health care clinics in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khader, A.; Ballout, G.; Shahin, Y.; Hababeh, M.; Farajallah, L.; Zeidan, W.; Abu-Zayed, I.; Kochi, A.; Zachariah, R.; Kapur, A.; Shaikh, I.; Seita, A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: Six primary health care clinics in Jordan, serving Palestine refugees diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). Objectives: To report on the number and characteristics of new DM patients registered in the second quarter of 2013 and of all DM patients ever registered by 30 June 2013, with treatment outcomes and cumulative burden of late-stage complications. Design: A descriptive cohort study using routine data collected through e-Health. Results: Of the 288 new patients in Q2 2013 and 12 548 patients ever registered with DM by 30 June 2013, smoking, physical inactivity and obesity were recorded in 19%, 50% and 47%, respectively. In Q2 2013, 9740 (78%) patients attended a clinic, with >99% having undergone disease control measures: of these, 72% had postprandial blood glucose ⩽ 180 mg/dl, 71% had blood cholesterol < 200 mg/dl, 82% had blood pressure < 140/90 and 40% had body mass index < 30 kg/m2. Late-stage complications were present in 1130 (11.6%) patients who attended a clinic, with cardiovascular disease and stroke being the most common. Several differences in outcomes were found between males and females. Conclusion: There is a high burden of disease due to DM at primary health care clinics in Jordan. Cohort analysis using e-Health is a vital way to assess management and follow-up. PMID:26393043

  1. Clinical documentation of dental care in an era of electronic health record use.

    PubMed

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Ramoni, Rachel B; Patton, Michael; Da Silva, John D; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2016-09-01

    Although complete and accurate clinical records do not guarantee the provision of excellent dental care, they do provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of care provided. However, a lack of universally accepted documentation standards, incomplete record-keeping practices, and unfriendly electronic health care record (EHR) user interfaces are factors that have allowed for persistent poor dental patient record keeping. Using 2 different methods-a validated survey, and a 2-round Delphi process-involving 2 appropriately different sets of participants, we explored what a dental clinical record should contain and the frequency of update of each clinical entry. For both the closed-ended survey questions and the open-ended Delphi process questions, respondents had a significant degree of agreement on the "clinical entry" components of an adequate clinical record. There was, however, variance on how frequently each of those clinical entries should be updated. Dental providers agree that complete and accurate record keeping is essential and that items such as histories, examination findings, diagnosis, radiographs, treatment plans, consents, and clinic notes should be documented. There, however, does not seem to be universal agreement how frequently such items should be recorded. As the dental profession moves towards prevalent use of electronic health care records, the issue of standardization and interoperability becomes ever more pressing. Settling issues of standardization, including record documentation, must begin with guideline-creating dental professional bodies, who need to clearly define and disseminate what these standards should be and everyday dentists who will ultimately ensure that these standards are met and kept. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social and clinical dimensions of citizenship from the mental health-care provider perspective.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Allison N; Clayton, Ashley; Gambino, Matthew; Rowe, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Citizenship is a theoretical framework regarding social inclusion and community participation of people with mental illnesses. It is defined by a person's connection to rights, responsibilities, roles, resources, and relationships. The application of this framework in public mental health settings is in its early stages. This study was an exploration of mental health providers' views of the potential contribution of this framework. Eight focus groups were conducted with 77 providers on teams in a large mental health center. A 12-item brief version of a 46-item measure of citizenship was a starting point for discussion of the relevance of the framework and citizenship supports in public mental health care. Two themes were presented: social, including relatedness, stigma, and meaningful choices, and clinical, including client empowerment and barriers to citizenship work in clinical settings. These themes are discussed in relation to the introduction of citizenship-oriented practices in mental health care. Participant comments reflect openness to the concept of citizenship and the need for greater access to normative community life for clients, but also skepticism regarding the ability of providers and mental health centers to incorporate citizenship approaches in current care models. Findings suggest there are challenges to developing and implementing citizenship supports in public mental health settings based on social and clinical factors and limitations. However, it is also noted that efforts to address challenges through consultation and education of providers can support the goal of a life in the community for persons with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Association between women veterans' experiences with VA outpatient health care and designation as a women's health provider in primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Lori A; Trentalange, Mark; Murphy, Terrence E; Brandt, Cynthia; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Maisel, Natalya C; Wright, Steven M; Gaetano, Vera S; Allore, Heather; Skanderson, Melissa; Reyes-Harvey, Evelyn; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rose, Danielle; Haskell, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Women veterans comprise a small percentage of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. Prior research on women veterans' experiences with primary care has focused on VA site differences and not individual provider characteristics. In 2010, the VA established policy requiring the provision of comprehensive women's health care by designated women's health providers (DWHPs). Little is known about the quality of health care delivered by DWHPs and women veterans' experience with care from these providers. Secondary data were obtained from the VA Survey of Healthcare Experience of Patients (SHEP) using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) patient-centered medical home (PCMH) survey from March 2012 through February 2013, a survey designed to measure patient experience with care and the DWHPs Assessment of Workforce Capacity that discerns between DWHPs versus non-DWHPs. Of the 28,994 surveys mailed to women veterans, 24,789 were seen by primary care providers and 8,151 women responded to the survey (response rate, 32%). A total of 3,147 providers were evaluated by the SHEP-CAHPS-PCMH survey (40%; n = 1,267 were DWHPs). In a multivariable model, patients seen by DWHPs (relative risk, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04) reported higher overall experiences with care compared with patients seen by non-DWHPs. The main finding is that women veterans' overall experiences with outpatient health care are slightly better for those receiving care from DWHPs compared with those receiving care from non-DWHPs. Our findings have important policy implications for how to continue to improve women veterans' experiences. Our work provides support to increase access to DWHPs at VA primary care clinics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-10

    Environment Substudy: AD A139001 Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on the Performance of Basic Medical Tasks (HCSD Report #83-001) 8 DATE TITLE...Contact urticaria to parabens , Arch. Dermatol, 1979, 115:1231-1232. *13 Smith, E. B., Padilla, R. S., McCabe, J. M., Becker, L. E., Benzoyl...Chemical Environment . --3-Report #83-001. Ft. Sam Houston, TX: Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity, December 1982. 19 Penetar, D. M

  5. Financial and clinical risk in health care reform: a view from below.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pam; Mackintosh, Maureen; Ross, Fiona; Clayton, Julie; Price, Linnie; Christian, Sara; Byng, Richard; Allan, Helen

    2012-04-01

    This paper examines how the interaction between financial and clinical risk at two critical phases of health care reform in England has been experienced by frontline staff caring for vulnerable patients with long term conditions. The paper draws on contracting theory and two interdisciplinary and in-depth qualitative research studies undertaken in 1995 and 2007. Methods common to both studies included documentary analysis and interviews with managers and front line professionals. The 1995 study employed action-based research and included observation of community care; the 2007 study used realistic evaluation and included engagement with service user groups. In both reform processes, financial risk was increasingly devolved to frontline practitioners and smaller organizational units such as GP commissioning groups, with payment by unit of activity, aimed at changing professionals' behaviour. This financing increased perceived clinical risk and fragmented the delivery of health and social care services requiring staff efforts to improve collaboration and integration, and created some perverse incentives and staff demoralisation. Health services reform should only shift financial risk to frontline professionals to the extent that it can be efficiently borne. Where team work is required, contracts should reward collaborative multi-professional activity.

  6. Teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses and their general health: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sharif, F; Rezaie, S; Keshavarzi, S; Mansoori, P; Ghadakpoor, S

    2013-07-01

    Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9) was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001). Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  7. The impact of clinical librarian services on patients and health care organisations.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison; Maden, Michelle; Payne, Clare

    2016-06-01

    Systematic reviews have found limited evidence of effectiveness and impact of clinical librarians (CLs) due to the poor quality of reporting, scale and design of previous studies. To measure specific CL impact on organisational and patient outcomes using a robust approach that helps CLs develop research skills. Questionnaire and interviews. Clinical librarians contribute to a wide range of outcomes in the short and longer term reflecting organisational priorities and objectives. These include direct contributions to choice of intervention (36%) diagnosis (26%) quality of life (25%), increased patient involvement in decision making (26%) and cost savings and risk management including avoiding tests, referrals, readmissions and reducing length of stay (28%). Interventions provided by CL's are complex and each contributes to multiple outcomes of importance to health care organisations. This study is unique in taking a wide view of potential and specific impacts to which CLs contribute across health care organisations. It is the largest UK evaluation of CL services to date and demonstrates CLs affect direct patient care, improve quality and save money. Future researchers are urged to use the tools presented to collect data on the same outcomes to build a significant and comprehensive international evidence base about the effectiveness and impact of clinical librarian services. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Risk management and clinical governance for complex home-based health care.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mary; Noyes, Jane

    2007-07-01

    Healthcare professionals have an obligation to enable children with complex needs to lead 'ordinary lives' at home but the views of professionals and family members often diverge in relation to the management of risks. Nurses are increasingly taking on the clinical responsibility for children with complex needs within a multidisciplinary, multi-agency team, yet have little training or experience in adapting risk management and clinical governance frameworks to home-based settings. Risk management frameworks for home-based care for children with complex health and social care needs are introduced in this article. Best practice guidance and resources for adapting risk management frameworks are presented to meet this identified gap in knowledge and experience. Children, young people and their parents have increasing expectations relating to the type and quality of home-based support they receive. Developing and applying clinical governance and risk management frameworks are part of improving outcomes for children with complex needs and their families.

  9. Community-based free clinics: opportunities for interprofessional collaboration, health promotion, and complex care management

    PubMed Central

    Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle L.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Free or outreach clinics offer students the opportunity to work with diverse patient populations. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of a sample of chiropractic patients at a free community-based clinic to assess clinical and educational opportunities for students to work with diverse populations, collaborate with other professions and practice health promotion through patient education. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over 2 months. Data on demographics, health status, and health risks were collected from patients and their interns. Results: Of the 158 patients, 50.6% were women and 50.6% African-American, while only 20.9% were employed full-time. Of the 24.7% tobacco users, 48.7% expressed interest in cessation. Of 80.0% overweight or obese patients, 48.8% expressed interest in weight loss. By self-report, 16.5% were diabetic, 10.1% took hypertension medication, 36.7% used prescription pain medication (9.4% opiate use), 33.5% used nonprescription pain medication, and 9.4% were under the care of a mental health professional. Conclusion: This patient population is demographically diverse. A high proportion of patients who used tobacco, or were overweight or obese expressed interest in information on those topics. A substantial proportion reported being under care with a mental health professional. This clinic provides opportunities for students to work with diverse populations, collaborate with other professions, and practice health promotion. PMID:26241702

  10. The effectiveness and quality of routine child and adolescent mental health care outreach clinics.

    PubMed

    Day, Crispin; Davis, Hilton

    2006-11-01

    Little evidence has been available about the functioning and outcomes of child mental health services operating at the primary care interface. This study investigated the effectiveness and quality of one particular model of outreach clinic. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing outcomes of children attending the outreach clinics with a waiting list comparison. The intervention group (n=88) was assessed at referral, four months and twelve months later. The comparison group (n=99) completed measures at referral and four months. The main carers of participant children completed self-report measures of problem severity, impact, burden, parental stress and parent satisfaction. Clinicians provided clinical activity information. There were significant reductions in children's problem severity, distress and impairment, particularly for behavioural difficulties. In contrast, the results showed no effect upon the outcomes of children's emotional problems or parental stress. High ratings of satisfaction were obtained for many aspects of care. The children receiving care through this system of decentralised, outreach clinics derived clinical benefits that were maintained over time. The outreach clinics received strong consumer support suggesting the service offered a high level of acceptability to parents.

  11. Making influenza vaccination mandatory for health care workers: the views of NSW Health administrators and clinical leaders.

    PubMed

    Leask, Julie; Helms, Charles M; Chow, Maria Y; Robbins, Spring C Cooper; McIntyre, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    The challenges of maintaining high influenza vaccination rates in health care workers have focused worldwide attention on mandatory measures. In 2007, NSW Health issued a policy directive requiring health care workers to be screened/vaccinated for certain infectious diseases. Annual influenza vaccine continued to be recommended but not required. This paper describes the views of NSW Health administrators and clinical leaders about adding influenza vaccination to the requirements. Of 55 staff interviewed, 45 provided a direct response. Of these, 23 supported inclusion, 14 did not and eight were undecided. Analysis of interviews indicated that successfully adding influenza vaccination to the current policy directive would require four major issues to be addressed: (1) providing and communicating a solid evidence base supporting the policy directive; (2) addressing the concerns of staff about the vaccine; (3) ensuring staff understand the need to protect patients; and (4) addressing the logistical challenges of enforcing an annual vaccination.

  12. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians.

  13. A pilot survey of post-deployment health care needs in small community-based primary care clinics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known regarding to what extent community-based primary care physicians are encountering post-deployment health care needs among veterans of the Afghanistan or Iraq conflicts and their family members. Methods This pilot study conducted a cross-sectional survey of 37 primary care physicians working at small urban and suburban clinics belonging to a practice-based research network in the south central region of Texas. Results Approximately 80% of the responding physicians reported caring for patients who have been deployed to the Afghanistan or Iraq war zones, or had a family member deployed. Although these physicians noted a variety of conditions related to physical trauma, mental illnesses and psychosocial disruptions such as marital, family, financial, and legal problems appeared to be even more prevalent among their previously deployed patients and were also noted among family members of deployed veterans. Conclusions Community-based primary care physicians should be aware of common post-deployment health conditions and the resources that are available to meet these needs. PMID:21801356

  14. Clinical mentorship to improve pediatric quality of care at the health centers in rural Rwanda: a qualitative study of perceptions and acceptability of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) as a strategy to improve pediatric care in countries with high child mortality, its implementation faces challenges related to lack of or poor post-didactic training supervision and gaps in necessary supporting systems. These constraints lead to health care workers’ inability to consistently translate IMCI knowledge and skills into practice. A program providing mentoring and enhanced supervision at health centers (MESH), focusing on clinical and systems improvement was implemented in rural Rwanda as a strategy to address these issues, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of pediatric care at rural health centers. We explored perceptions of MESH from the perspective of IMCI clinical mentors, mentees, and district clinical leadership. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 40 health care workers from 21 MESH-supported health centers. Two FGDs in each district were carried out, including one for nurses and one for director of health centers. District medical directors and clinical mentors had individual in-depth interviews. We performed a hermeneutic analysis using Atlas.ti v5.2. Results Study participants highlighted program components in five key areas that contributed to acceptability and impact, including: 1) Interactive, collaborative capacity-building, 2) active listening and relationships, 3) supporting not policing, 4) systems improvement, and 5) real-time feedback. Staff turn-over, stock-outs, and other facility/systems gaps were identified as barriers to MESH and IMCI implementation. Conclusion Health care workers reported high acceptance and positive perceptions of the MESH model as an effective strategy to build their capacity, bridge the gap between knowledge and practice in pediatric care, and address facility and systems issues. This approach also improved relationships between the district supervisory team and health center-based care

  15. Clinical trials as treatment option: bioethics and health care disparities in substance dependency.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; McKay, Tara

    2009-12-01

    Bioethicists have warned against the dangers of mixing research with treatment. They are concerned that research priorities may take precedence over individual patient needs and that research subjects tend to misunderstand the purpose of research or overestimate the direct medical benefits of participating in studies. Yet, other work has questioned whether clinical research can always be separated from therapeutic benefit for participants. Using in-depth interviews with participants in two phase III randomized U.S. clinical trials for methamphetamine dependency, we examine the treatment options available to participants, their experiences with participating in the trials, and potential problems of trial participation. We find that while participants have experience with four alternative treatment modalities - quitting alone, support groups, in-patient treatment facilities, and consulting primary care physicians - the randomized clinical trials compare favorably to alternatives because they provide access to evidence-based behavioral treatments, specialized medical professionals, non-judgmental staff, and the possibility of receiving an experimental drug. We conclude that while randomized clinical trials are imperfect substitutes for clinical care, they constitute a fragile and sporadic therapeutic niche in a country with fundamental problems in access to health care, a mixed punitive-therapeutic drug addiction policy, and a profit-driven pharmaceutical development and approval process.

  16. Health-Care Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    The Broad Acres clinic is one of 1,500 school-based health centers nationwide that bring a wide range of medical, nutritional, and mental-health care to millions of students and their families. The centers provide an important safety net for children and adolescents--particularly the more than 10 million today who lack health insurance, according…

  17. Health-Care Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    The Broad Acres clinic is one of 1,500 school-based health centers nationwide that bring a wide range of medical, nutritional, and mental-health care to millions of students and their families. The centers provide an important safety net for children and adolescents--particularly the more than 10 million today who lack health insurance, according…

  18. [Impact of Morbidity on Health Care Costs of a Department of Health through Clinical Risk Groups. Valencian Community, Spain].

    PubMed

    Caballer Tarazona, Vicent; Guadalajara Olmeda, Natividad; Vivas Consuelo, David; Clemente Collado, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Risk adjustment systems based on diagnosis stratify the population according to the observed morbidity. The aim of this study was to analyze the total health expenditure in a health area, relating to age, gender and morbidity observed in the population. Observational cross-sectional study of population and area of health care costs in the Health District of Denia-Marina Salud (Alicante) in 2013. Population (N=156,811) were stratified by Clinical Risk Groups into 9 states of health, state 1 being healthy, and state 9 the highest disease burden. Each inhabitant was charged with the hospital costs, primary care and outpatient pharmacy to obtain the total costs. Health status and severity by age and gender, as well as the costs of each group were analysed. The statistical tests, student t and χ2 were applied to verify the existence of significant differences between and intra groups. The average cost per inhabitant was 983 euros which increased from 240 euros to 42,881 at the state 9 and severity level 6. Patients of health states 5 and 6 caused the largest expenditure by concentration of the population, but health states 8 and 9 had the highest average expenditure, with 80% of hospitalised cost. A different composition of health expenditure per individual morbidity was corroborated, with an exponential growth in hospital spending.

  19. Reducing barriers to mental health and social services for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: outcomes of an integrated primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Cohen, Greg; Bertenthal, Daniel; Cohen, Beth E; Maguen, Shira; Daley, Aaron

    2011-10-01

    Despite high rates of post-deployment psychosocial problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, mental health and social services are under-utilized. To evaluate whether a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) integrated care (IC) clinic (established in April 2007), offering an initial three-part primary care, mental health and social services visit, improved psychosocial services utilization in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans compared to usual care (UC), a standard primary care visit with referral for psychosocial services as needed. Retrospective cohort study using VA administrative data. Five hundred and twenty-six Iraq and Afghanistan veterans initiating primary care at a VA medical center between April 1, 2005 and April 31, 2009. Multivariable models compared the independent effects of primary care clinic type (IC versus UC) on mental health and social services utilization outcomes. After 2007, compared to UC, veterans presenting to the IC primary care clinic were significantly more likely to have had a within-30-day mental health evaluation (92% versus 59%, p < 0.001) and social services evaluation [77% (IC) versus 56% (UC), p < 0.001]. This exceeded background system-wide increases in mental health services utilization that occurred in the UC Clinic after 2007 compared to before 2007. In particular, female veterans, younger veterans, and those with positive mental health screens were independently more likely to have had mental health and social service evaluations if seen in the IC versus UC clinic. Among veterans who screened positive for  ≥ 1 mental health disorder(s), there was a median of 1 follow-up specialty mental health visit within the first year in both clinics. Among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans new to primary care, an integrated primary care visit further improved the likelihood of an initial mental health and social services evaluation over background increases, but did not improve retention in specialty mental health services.

  20. Use of Drop-In Clinic Versus Appointment-Based Care for LGBT Youth: Influences on the Likelihood to Access Different Health-Care Structures.

    PubMed

    Newman, Bernie S; Passidomo, Kim; Gormley, Kate; Manley, Alecia

    2014-06-01

    The structure of health-care service delivery can address barriers that make it difficult for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents to use health services. This study explores the differences among youth who access care in one of two service delivery structures in an LGBT health-care center: the drop-in clinic or the traditional appointment-based model. Analysis of 578 records of LGBT and straight youth (aged 14-24) who accessed health care either through a drop-in clinic or appointment-based care within the first year of offering the drop-in clinic reveals patterns of use when both models are available. We studied demographic variables previously shown to be associated with general health-care access to determine how each correlated with a tendency to use the drop-in structure versus routine appointments. Once the covariates were identified, we conducted a logistic regression analysis to identify its association with likelihood of using the drop-in clinic. Insurance status, housing stability, education, race, and gender identity were most strongly associated with the type of clinic used. Youth who relied on Medicaid, those in unstable housing, and African Americans were most likely to use the drop-in clinic. Transgender youth and those with higher education were more likely to use the appointment-based clinic. Although sexual orientation and HIV status were not related to type of clinic used, youth who were HIV positive used the appointment-based clinic more frequently. Both routes to health care served distinct populations who often experience barriers to accessible, affordable, and knowledgeable care. Further study of the factors related to accessing health care may clarify the extent to which drop-in hours in a youth-friendly context may increase the use of health care by the most socially marginalized youth.

  1. Use of traditional health practices by Southeast Asian refugees in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, D.; Panwala, S.; Hooton, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of use of traditional health practices among different ethnic groups of Southeast Asian refugees after their arrival in the United States, we conducted a convenience sample of 80 Cambodian, Lao, Mien, and ethnic Chinese patients (20 each) attending the University of Washington Refugee Clinic for a new or follow-up visit. Interpreters administered a questionnaire that dealt with demographics, medical complaints, traditional health practices, health beliefs, and attitudes toward Western practitioners. In all, 46 (58%) patients had used one or more traditional health practices, but the prevalence varied by ethnic group. Coining and massage were used by all groups except the Mien, whereas moxibustion and healing ceremonies were performed almost exclusively by the Mien. Traditional health practices were used for a variety of symptoms and, in 78% of reported uses, patients reported alleviation of symptoms. The use of traditional health practices is common among Southeast Asian refugees. Clinicians who care for this population should be aware of these practices because they may supersede treatments prescribed by physicians or leave cutaneous stigmata that may be confused with disease or physical abuse. Good patient care may necessitate the use or tolerance of both Western and traditional modalities in many Southeast Asian refugees. Images PMID:1595275

  2. Preventive and clinical care provided to adolescents attending public oral health services New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A

    2014-11-28

    Dental Therapists and Oral Health Therapists (Therapists) working in the New South Wales (NSW) Public Oral Health Service are charged with providing clinical dental treatment including preventive care for all children under 18 years of age. Adolescents in particular are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions. However, there is a dearth of evidence about the type or the proportion of clinical time allocated to preventive care.The aim of this study is to record the proportion and type of preventive care and clinical treatment activities provided by Therapists to adolescents accessing the NSW Public Oral Health Service. Clinical dental activity data for adolescents was obtained from the NSW Health electronic Information System for Oral Health (ISOH) for the year 2011. Clinical activities of Therapists were examined in relation to the provision of different types of preventive care for adolescents by interrogating state-wide public oral health data stored on ISOH. Therapists were responsible for 79.7 percent of the preventive care and 83.0 percent of the restorative treatment offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services over the one year period. Preventive care provided by Therapists for adolescents varied across Local Health Districts ranging from 32.0 percent to 55.8 percent of their clinical activity. Therapists provided the majority of clinical care to adolescents accessing NSW Public Oral Health Services. The proportion of time spent undertaking prevention varied widely between Local Health Districts. The reasons for this variation require further investigation.

  3. Integrated physical and mental health care at a nurse-managed clinic: report from the trenches.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Deena

    2011-07-01

    The Health and Wellness Center (HWC), located in Joliet, Illinois, is a nurse-managed universally accessible primary health care center funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration. The goals of the HWC are to improve access to quality primary health care services for all patients, including those who are uninsured and underserved, and to develop and implement a model of nurse-managed primary health care that integrates both physical and mental health assessment and treatment. After 5 years of developing and using this model, it is clear that integration requires strategic supports from the financial, political, and professional sectors to be considered a cost-effective model of health care delivery. Recommendations for policy and practice change are offered based on the author's experiences of providing integrated health care at the HWC and the health care industry's responses to uninsured or underinsured patients' needs.

  4. Health Care Delivery Practices in Huntington's Disease Specialty Clinics: An International Survey.

    PubMed

    Frich, Jan C; Rae, Daniela; Roxburgh, Richard; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia H; Edmondson, Mary; Pope, Erika Bjorklund; Goodman, LaVonne; Haddad, Monica S; Giuliano, Joe; Nelson, Eugene C; Guttman, Mark; Nance, Martha

    2016-06-27

    Little is known about the organization of clinical services for Huntington's disease (HD). To describe how health care services are organized and delivered in HD-clinics taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. In 2014, a 69-item survey was administered to sites taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. Of 231 sites surveyed, 121 (52.2%) sites in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Oceania responded. Most sites in the sample serve large populations, with 61.1% serving more than 1.5 million people, and a further 33% serving >500,000. Almost all (86.0%) centers see patients from outside their region. The majority of centers (59.7%) follow 50-199 patients, 21.9% care for more than 200. Most centers provide care in all stages of HD, and nearly all review pre-symptomatic cases. Multidisciplinary case reviews are offered in 54.5% of sites, with outreach clinics offered by 48.1%. Videoconferencing and telemedicine are used by 23.6%. Separate consultations for caregivers are offered in more than half of the centers. Most centers (70.4%) report following published guidelines or local care pathways for HD. Most centers serve a large population and use a multidisciplinary approach. The survey gives insight into factors underpinning HD service delivery globally. There is a need for more in-depth studies of clinical practice to understand how services are organized and how such features may be associated with quality of care.

  5. [Health care networks].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Eugênio Vilaça

    2010-08-01

    The demographic and epidemiologic transition resulting from aging and the increase of life expectation means an increment related to chronic conditions. The healthcare systems contemporary crisis is characterized by the organization of the focus on fragmented systems turned to the acute conditions care, in spite of the chronic conditions prevalence, and by the hierarchical structure without communication flow among the different health care levels. Brazil health care situation profile is now presenting a triple burden of diseases, due to the concomitant presence of infectious diseases, external causes and chronic diseases. The solution is to restore the consistence between the triple burden of diseases on the health situation and the current system of healthcare practice, with the implantation of health care networks. The conclusion is that there are evidences in the international literature on health care networks that these networks may improve the clinical quality, the sanitation results and the user's satisfaction and the reduction of healthcare systems costs.

  6. Brief Multiple Behavior Interventions in a College Student Health Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Werch, Chudley E. (Chad); Bian, Hui; Moore, Michele J.; Ames, Steve; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of brief image-based interventions, including a multiple behavior health contract, a one-on-one tailored consultation, and a combined consultation plus contract intervention, for impacting multiple health behaviors of students in a university health clinic. Methods A total of 155 college students attending a major Southern university were recruited to participate in a study evaluating a health promotion program titled Project Fitness during the fall 2005 and spring 2006. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments as they presented at the clinic: 1) a multiple behavior health contract, 2) a one-on-one tailored consultation, or 3) a combined consultation plus contract intervention. Baseline and one-month post-intervention data were collected using computer-assisted questionnaires in a quiet office within the student health clinic. Results Omnibus repeated measures MANOVAs were significant for drinking driving behaviors, F(2,136)=4.43, p=.01, exercise behaviors, F(5,140)=6.12, p=.00), nutrition habits, F(3,143)=5.37, p=.00, sleep habits, F(2,144)=5.03, p=.01, and health quality of life, F(5,140)=3.09, p=.01, with improvements on each behavior across time. Group by time interaction effects showed an increase in the use of techniques to manage stress, F(2,144)=5.48, p=.01, and the number of health behavior goals set in the last 30 days, F(2,143)=5.35, p=.01, but only among adolescents receiving the consultation, or consultation plus contract. Effect sizes were consistently larger across health behaviors, and medium in size, when both consult and contract were employed together. Conclusions Brief interventions using a positive goal image of fitness, and addressing a number of health habits using a contract and consultation strategy alone, or in combination, have the potential to influence positive changes in multiple health behaviors of college students attending a university primary health care clinic. PMID

  7. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. Objective The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manage their chronic diseases. Methods An observational study was conducted with patients of the Internal Medicine resident primary care clinics of Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Self-reported information regarding demographics, current mobile phone usage, current mobile health app and social media usage, barriers to using mobile phones or mobile health apps, and interest in using a mobile health app was collected. Results Ninety-one percent of patients owned a mobile phone, with 76% (169/223) of these reporting having a mobile phone with Internet capability. Fifty-seven percent of subjects used mobile apps on their mobile phones, and 32% (41/130) of these used mobile apps related to their health. Eighty-six percent (207/241) of respondents voiced interest in using a mobile app to improve their health, and 40% (88/221) stated they would use such an app daily. Patients stated they would find the mobile health app most useful for nutrition, exercise, and obtaining general information on medical conditions. Conclusions Despite the fact that the majority of our primary care patients were of lower socioeconomic status, they utilized mobile phones with Internet and mobile app capabilities to a great extent. There was substantial interest among our patients in using mobile health technology to both manage chronic disease and improve overall health. Given that cultural, educational, and socioeconomic disparities strongly correlate with

  8. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Veronica; Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-04-19

    There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manage their chronic diseases. An observational study was conducted with patients of the Internal Medicine resident primary care clinics of Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Self-reported information regarding demographics, current mobile phone usage, current mobile health app and social media usage, barriers to using mobile phones or mobile health apps, and interest in using a mobile health app was collected. Ninety-one percent of patients owned a mobile phone, with 76% (169/223) of these reporting having a mobile phone with Internet capability. Fifty-seven percent of subjects used mobile apps on their mobile phones, and 32% (41/130) of these used mobile apps related to their health. Eighty-six percent (207/241) of respondents voiced interest in using a mobile app to improve their health, and 40% (88/221) stated they would use such an app daily. Patients stated they would find the mobile health app most useful for nutrition, exercise, and obtaining general information on medical conditions. Despite the fact that the majority of our primary care patients were of lower socioeconomic status, they utilized mobile phones with Internet and mobile app capabilities to a great extent. There was substantial interest among our patients in using mobile health technology to both manage chronic disease and improve overall health. Given that cultural, educational, and socioeconomic disparities strongly correlate with higher rates of chronic diseases such as obesity

  9. Oral health care for patients with epidermolysis bullosa--best clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Susanne M; Serrano, María Concepción; Zillmann, Gisela; Gálvez, Pablo; Araya, Ignacio; Yanine, Nicolás; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Oliva, Patricio; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Villanueva, Julio

    2012-09-01

      To provide the users with information on the current best practices for managing the oral health care of people living with EB.   A systematic literature search, in which the main topic is dental care in patients with Epidermolysis Bullosa, was performed. Consulted sources, ranging from 1970 to 2010, included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, DARE, and the Cochrane controlled trials register (CENTRAL). In order to formulate the recommendations of the selected studies the SIGN system was used. The first draft was analysed and discussed by clinical experts, methodologists and patients representatives on a two days consensus meeting. The resulting document went through an external review process by a panel of experts, other health care professionals, patient representatives and lay reviewers. The final document was piloted in three different centres in United Kingdom, Czech Republic and Argentina.   The guideline is composed of 93 recommendations divided into 3 main areas: 1) Oral Care--access issues, early referral, preventative strategies, management of microstomia, prescriptions and review appointments 2) Dental treatment: general treatment modifications, radiographs, restorations, endodontics, oral rehabilitation, periodontal treatment, oral surgery and orthodontics, and 3) Anaesthetic management of dental treatment.   A preventive protocol is today's dental management approach of choice. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Diagnosis of paediatric HIV infection in a primary health care setting with a clinical algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, C.; Liebeschuetz, S.; Blaauw, D.; Cassol, S.; Qazi, S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of an algorithm used by primary care health workers to identify children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This HIV algorithm is being implemented in South Africa as part of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy that aims to improve childhood morbidity and mortality by improving care at the primary care level. As AIDS is a leading cause of death in children in southern Africa, diagnosis and management of symptomatic HIV infection was added to the existing IMCI algorithm. METHODS: In total, 690 children who attended the outpatients department in a district hospital in South Africa were assessed with the HIV algorithm and by a paediatrician. All children were then tested for HIV viral load. The validity of the algorithm in detecting symptomatic HIV was compared with clinical diagnosis by a paediatrician and the result of an HIV test. Detailed clinical data were used to improve the algorithm. FINDINGS: Overall, 198 (28.7%) enrolled children were infected with HIV. The paediatrician correctly identified 142 (71.7%) children infected with HIV, whereas the IMCI/HIV algorithm identified 111 (56.1%). Odds ratios were calculated to identify predictors of HIV infection and used to develop an improved HIV algorithm that is 67.2% sensitive and 81.5% specific in clinically detecting HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with symptomatic HIV infection can be identified effectively by primary level health workers through the use of an algorithm. The improved HIV algorithm developed in this study could be used by countries with high prevalences of HIV to enable IMCI practitioners to identify and care for HIV-infected children. PMID:14997238

  11. Care utilization in a pediatric diabetes clinic: cancellations, parental attendance, and mental health appointments

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jessica T.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Laffel, Lori M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine care utilization, family attendance, and A1c in a multi-disciplinary pediatric diabetes clinic. Study design Retrospective electronic record review of de-identified data included patients (99% type 1 diabetes) with established diabetes care, aged <30 years (mean 15±5.2) and diabetes duration >1 year (mean 8.5±5.1) at first visit during a two-year period. Outcomes included care utilization, family attendance, and glycemic control (A1c). Analyses included t-tests, ANOVAs, chi-square analyses, odds ratios (95% CI), and multivariate analyses. Results Among 1771 patients, there were 5.8±2.8 visits/patient; 15% of scheduled appointments resulted in cancellation or no-show; 61% of patients missed ≥1 visit. Patients with ≥2 missed appointments had higher A1c and were older than those with <2 missed visits. Almost half of visits were attended by mothers alone; fathers attended 22% of visits. Patients whose fathers attended ≥1 visit had lower A1c than patients whose fathers never attended. Eighteen percent of patients had on-site mental health visits. Patients with ≥1 mental health visit(s) had higher mean A1c, shorter diabetes duration, and were younger than those with no mental health visits. Conclusions Our observations suggest a need to encourage attendance at diabetes visits and include fathers to improve A1c. The high rate of missed visits, especially in patients with poor glycemic control, identifies wasted provider effort when late cancellations/no-shows yield vacant clinic time. It is important to explore reasons for missed visits and to find approaches to maximize attendance, e.g., extended evening/weekend clinic hours or virtual visits. PMID:24612905

  12. Health Insurance Status and Eligibility Among Patients who Seek Healthcare at a Free Clinic in the Affordable Care Act Era.

    PubMed

    Sessions, Kristen; Hassan, Amal; McLeod, Thomas G; Wieland, Mark L

    2017-08-22

    Free clinics provide care to over 1.8 million people in the United States every year and are a valuable safety net for uninsured and underinsured patients. The Affordable Care Act has resulted in millions of newly insured Americans, yet there is continued demand for healthcare at free clinics. In this study, we assessed health insurance status and eligibility among 489 patients who visited a free clinic in 2016. Eighty-seven percent of patients seen were uninsured, 53.1% of whom were eligible for health insurance (Medicaid or subsidized insurance premiums). The majority of these patients completed health insurance applications at their visit with the help of a navigator. A majority of patients who were not eligible for health insurance lacked citizenship status. This study highlights that a significant number of patients who visit free clinics are eligible for health insurance, and that free clinics are important sites for health insurance navigation programs.

  13. Ethical and legal issues in the clinical practice of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Romero, Marcos; Vazquez-Naya, Jose Manuel; Pereira, Javier; Pazos, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Since it was conceived, the notion of primary care has been a crucial concept in health services. Most health care is provided at this level and primary care clinicians have an essential role, both in terms of disease prevention and disease management. During the last decades, primary health care has evolved from a traditional paternalistic model, in which patients played the role of passive recipient of care, towards a situation in which patients are partners involved in the decision making-process. This new context opened a considerable number of new ethical and legal aspects, which need to be comprehensively analyzed and discussed in order to preserve the quality of primary health care all around the world. This work reviews the most important ethical and legal issues in primary health care. Legislation issues are explained in the context of the Spanish Health Services.

  14. International student nurses' experiences of clinical practice in the Finnish health care system.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Lea-Riitta; Pitkäjärvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe international student nurses' experiences of their clinical practice in the Finnish health care system. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Fourteen international student nurses of African and Asian origin were interviewed, and the data were then analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that appreciative orientation, sense of belonging to the team, enhancing independent working, growing towards professionalism and working as a member of the team were descriptions of positive experiences. Descriptions of negative experiences were related to restricted learning and compromised human dignity, which lead to negative feelings of being an outsider, decreased self-esteem, sense of giving up and anticipation of difficulties. Despite the small sample size, the results indicate a need to develop clinical practice arrangements when the language of the learning environment is other than that of the student nurse. As the number of international students has increased in the Finnish health care sector and in nursing education, it is important to recognise the factors related to positive and negative experiences in clinical practice.

  15. Changes in the American health care system: crisis in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Conn, R B; Snyder, J W

    1997-11-06

    American medicine is undergoing unprecedented changes, and the resulting distortions are affecting the economics, organization and operations of all clinical laboratories. Professionals who work in these laboratories are facing administrative and economic pressures to reduce costs, to increase productivity, and to comply with proliferating new statutes and regulations. The medical 'cottage industry' in which the patient was the focus of the medical professionals' attention and endeavours is being replaced by the corporate management of many health care activities in which financial profits are being given first priority. Medical facilities, including clinical laboratories, are being bought and sold, being consolidated, or simply being closed. The clinical laboratories may be at the vortex of the maelstrom affecting American medicine. Cost pressures are encouraging further automation and retraining of laboratory staffs. If the leaders in laboratory medicine are unable to accomplish the necessary tasks to meet the new challenges, there inevitably is a non-medical, non-scientific financial manager at hand who is willing to define the changes and the desired outcome. Because of the rapidity of the changes taking place, it is not possible to predict with any confidence the modifications that will achieve a permanent status or the degree to which medical professionals will remain masters of their fates. The evolving health care system will become less costly, more technologically advanced, and a more challenging system in which to work.

  16. Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy in Opioid-Addicted Health Care Professionals Returning to Clinical Practice: A Hidden Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Heather; Bryson, Ethan O.

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether it is safe for recovering health care professionals to return to clinical practice after treatment for drug addiction. One specific component of reentry that remains particularly contentious is the use of pharmacotherapeutics, specifically buprenorphine, as opioid substitution therapy for health care professionals who wish to return to clinical work. Because health care professionals are typically engaged in safety-sensitive work with considerable consequences when errors occur, abstinence-based recovery should be recommended until studies demonstrate that it is safe to allow this population to practice while undergoing opioid substitution therapy. PMID:22386182

  17. The Determinants of Health Care Seeking Behaviour of Adolescents Attending STD Clinics in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Reddy, Priscilla; Van Den Borne, H. W.; Kok, Gerjo; Pietersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the determinants of delay behavior in health care seeking in a sample of 292 adolescent patients with STD symptoms. Early health care seeking was determined by perceived seriousness of STDs, an absence of self treatment prior to seeking care, and positive attitudes regarding personal autonomy in condom use behavior. (Contains 17…

  18. Clinical tests and evaluations of a wireless ECG sensor for realization of ubiquitous health care systems.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Hiroto; Tsujioka, Tetsuo; Inoue, Tadayuki; Nakajima, Shigeyoshi; Hara, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhide

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of an online medical diagnosis system for ubiquitous health care using a wireless ECG sensor. To confirm the feasibility ofthe system, we conducted clinical tests by 67 subjects with a wireless ECG sensor and a Holter ECG monitor simultaneously for comparison purpose. We made five types of evaluations such as analyses on data loss rate, burst data loss length, ECG waveforms comparison, normalized cross-correlation and heart rate variability (HRV) by RR50. The results show that, as long as the sensed data are successfully received at a receiver, the wireless ECG sensor has a comparable performance with the Holter ECG monitor.

  19. Clinical and health care use characteristics of patients newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat and colchicine for gout

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seoyoung C.; Schmidt, Bernhard M.W.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Background Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis with the increasing prevalence in the developed countries. It is well-known that many patients with gout have significant comorbidities and high health care utilization. Methods Using US insurance claims data (2009–2011), a population-based cohort study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics and health care utilization patterns in patients with gout newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine. Results There were 25,051 allopurinol, 4,288 febuxostat and 6,238 colchicine initiators. Mean age was 53 years and 83%–87% were male. More than half of patients had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 20% had diabetes and 10% cardiovascular disease. The mean uric acid level (mg/dl) was similar at baseline ranging from 8.1 to 8.5 across the groups. Compared to allopurinol or colchicine initiators, febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater health care uses including outpatient, inpatient or emergency room visits, both at baseline and during the follow-up. Use of gout related drugs, such as opioids, steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was most common in febuxostat and least common in colchicine initiators. The median daily dose at both start and end of treatment was 300mg for allopurinol, 40mg for febuxostat, and 1.2mg for colchicine. The dosage of allopurinol and febuxostat was rarely increased during the follow-up. Conclusion Patients who started allopurinol, febuxostat or colchicine for gout generally had hyperuricemia and multiple comorbidities. Febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater use of health care resources and gout-related drugs than other groups. Overall, the dosages of allopurinol or febuxostat remained unchanged over time. PMID:23861232

  20. From cottage industry to a dominant mode of primary care: stages in the diffusion of a health care innovation (retail clinics).

    PubMed

    McKinlay, John B; Marceau, Lisa D

    2012-09-01

    Primary health care is essential to population health and there is increasing need for it, especially with an aging population with multiple comorbidities. Primary health care in the U.S. is widely considered in an ever-deepening crisis. This paper presents a detailed case study of the recent rise of a "disruptive innovation" - retail clinics - which have the potential to transform the face of primary health care in the US. We describe six stages in the diffusion of retail clinics, from cottage industry to a dominant mode for the delivery of primary health care, and consider sociopolitical influences that facilitate and impede their emerging potential. Retail clinics may provide a strategic opportunity to re-engineer the primary health care system, although they may also produce worrisome unanticipated consequences. Discussion concerning the potential threats and opportunities posed by retail clinics occurs in the absence of sound evidence concerning their comparative effectiveness and quality-of-care. This case study identifies the sociopolitical influences and processes that determine whether health care innovations rise or fall, and highlights critically important points along the pathway to health system change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic health records based phenotyping in next-generation clinical trials: a perspective from the NIH Health Care Systems Collaboratory.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Hammond, W Ed; Nahm, Meredith; Wixted, Douglas; Simon, Gregory E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Bauck, Alan E; Cifelli, Denise; Smerek, Michelle M; Dickerson, John; Laws, Reesa L; Madigan, Rosemary A; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Kluchar, Cynthia; Califf, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Widespread sharing of data from electronic health records and patient-reported outcomes can strengthen the national capacity for conducting cost-effective clinical trials and allow research to be embedded within routine care delivery. While pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) have been performed for decades, they now can draw on rich sources of clinical and operational data that are continuously fed back to inform research and practice. The Health Care Systems Collaboratory program, initiated by the NIH Common Fund in 2012, engages healthcare systems as partners in discussing and promoting activities, tools, and strategies for supporting active participation in PCTs. The NIH Collaboratory consists of seven demonstration projects, and seven problem-specific working group 'Cores', aimed at leveraging the data captured in heterogeneous 'real-world' environments for research, thereby improving the efficiency, relevance, and generalizability of trials. Here, we introduce the Collaboratory, focusing on its Phenotype, Data Standards, and Data Quality Core, and present early observations from researchers implementing PCTs within large healthcare systems. We also identify gaps in knowledge and present an informatics research agenda that includes identifying methods for the definition and appropriate application of phenotypes in diverse healthcare settings, and methods for validating both the definition and execution of electronic health records based phenotypes.

  2. Clinical reasoning and advanced practice privileges enable physical therapist point-of-care decisions in the military health care system: 3 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Rhon, Daniel I; Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W

    2013-09-01

    Physical therapists frequently make important point-of-care decisions for musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. In the Military Health System (MHS), these decisions may occur while therapists are deployed in support of combat troops, as well as in a more traditional hospital setting. Proficiency with the musculoskeletal examination, including a fundamental understanding of the diagnostic role of musculoskeletal imaging, is an important competency for physical therapists. The purpose of this article is to present 3 cases managed by physical therapists in unique MHS settings, highlighting relevant challenges and clinical decision making. Three cases are presented involving conditions where the physical therapist was significantly involved in the diagnosis and clinical management plan. The physical therapist's clinical privileges, including the ability to order appropriate musculoskeletal imaging procedures, were helpful in making clinical decisions that facilitate timely management. The cases involve patients with an ankle sprain and Maisonneuve fracture, a radial head fracture, and a pelvic neoplasm referred through medical channels as knee pain. Clinical pathways from point of care are discussed, as well as the reasoning that led to decisions affecting definitive care for each of these patients. In each case, emergent treatment and important combat evacuation decisions were based on a combination of examination and management decisions. Physical therapists can provide important contributions to the primary management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions in a variety of settings within the MHS. In the cases described, advanced clinical privileges contributed to the success in this role.

  3. Perceptions of clinical utility of an Augmented Reality musical software among health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; de Assis, Gilda Aparecida; do Nascimento, Marilena; de Deus Lopes, Roseli

    2017-04-01

    Augmented Reality musical software (GenVirtual) is a technology, which primarily allows users to develop music activities for rehabilitation. This study aimed to analyse the perceptions of health care professionals regarding the clinical utility of GenVirtual. A second objective was to identify improvements to GenVirtual software and similar technologies. Music therapists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and speech and language therapist who assist people with physical and cognitive disabilities were enrolled in three focus groups. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected through inductive thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: the use of GenVirtual in health care areas; opportunities for realistic application of GenVirtual; and limitations in the use of GenVirtual. The registration units identified were: motor stimulation, cognitive stimulation, verbal learning, recreation activity, musicality, accessibility, motivation, sonic accuracy, interference of lighting, poor sound, children and adults. This research suggested that the GenVirtual is a complementary tool to conventional clinical practice and has great potential to motor and cognitive rehabilitation of children and adults. Implications for Rehabilitation Gaining health professional' perceptions of the Augmented Reality musical game (GenVirtual) give valuable information as to the clinical utility of the software. GenVirtual was perceived as a tool that could be used as enhancing the motor and cognitive rehabilitation process. GenVirtual was viewed as a tool that could enhance clinical practice and communication among various agencies, but it was suggested that it should be used with caution to avoid confusion and replacement of important services.

  4. Health care engineering management.

    PubMed

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  5. Teaching population health and community-based care across diverse clinical experiences: integration of conceptual pillars and constructivist learning.

    PubMed

    Valentine-Maher, Sarah K; Van Dyk, Elizabeth J; Aktan, Nadine M; Bliss, Julie Beshore

    2014-03-01

    Nursing programs are challenged to prepare future nurses to provide care and affect determinants of health for individuals and populations. This article advances a pedagogical model for clinical education that builds concepts related to both population-level care and direct care in the community through a contextual learning approach. Because the conceptual pillars and hybrid constructivist approach allow for conceptual learning consistency across experiences, the model expands programmatic capacity to use diverse community clinical sites that accept only small numbers of students. The concept-based and hybrid constructivist learning approach is expected to contribute to the development of broad intellectual skills and lifelong learning. The pillar concepts include determinants of health and nursing care of population aggregates; direct care, based on evidence and best practices; appreciation of lived experience of health and illness; public health nursing roles and relationship to ethical and professional formation; and multidisciplinary collaboration. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Improving health care, Part 2: A clinical improvement worksheet and users' manual.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E C; Batalden, P B; Plume, S K; Mohr, J J

    1996-08-01

    Small tests of change can be conducted in everyday clinical practice, thereby turning the health care delivery team into reflective practitioners who can learn from, and improve on, their work. CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT WORKSHEET AND USERS' MANUAL--CASE STUDY: The worksheet has been designed as a simple tool for applying clinical improvement to the core clinical delivery process. A carpal tunnel surgery (CTS) team was formed to improve outcomes and reduce costs for patients and to promote improvements in quality and value. The team wanted to determine if surgical patients treated with local anesthesia in an ambulatory setting have superior satisfaction with care, comparable clinical and functional outcomes, and lower medical (and social) costs. For the first time, standardized assessments of patient case mix, treatment processes, and health outcomes were designed into the delivery process by gathering data from the patient and from the surgeon presurgery and 4 weeks and 12 weeks postsurgery. Results for the first 49 of 50 to 100 consecutive patients show improved outcomes and reductions in costs, from $937 to $405 per patient. Even though CTS was selected to be a quick and noncontroversial opportunity, considerable effort had to be expended to ensure that all clinicians and other affected staff would understand and support "the new way". "Ramp up" improvements as time passes, more and more change trials are conducted and their complexity increases. To ease implementation of changes, teams can diagram core process "components" and attach measures, use flowcharts to plan and monitor implementation and use change management thinking to help sharpen the plan and anticipate problems.

  7. Integrating research, clinical care, and education in academic health science centers.

    PubMed

    King, Gillian; Thomson, Nicole; Rothstein, Mitchell; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Parker, Kathryn

    2016-10-10

    Purpose One of the major issues faced by academic health science centers (AHSCs) is the need for mechanisms to foster the integration of research, clinical, and educational activities to achieve the vision of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) and optimal client care. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This paper synthesizes literature on organizational learning and collaboration, evidence-informed organizational decision making, and learning-based organizations to derive insights concerning the nature of effective workplace learning in AHSCs. Findings An evidence-informed model of collaborative workplace learning is proposed to aid the alignment of research, clinical, and educational functions in AHSCs. The model articulates relationships among AHSC academic functions and sub-functions, cross-functional activities, and collaborative learning processes, emphasizing the importance of cross-functional activities in enhancing collaborative learning processes and optimizing EIDM and client care. Cross-functional activities involving clinicians, researchers, and educators are hypothesized to be a primary vehicle for integration, supported by a learning-oriented workplace culture. These activities are distinct from interprofessional teams, which are clinical in nature. Four collaborative learning processes are specified that are enhanced in cross-functional activities or teamwork: co-constructing meaning, co-learning, co-producing knowledge, and co-using knowledge. Practical implications The model provides an aspirational vision and insight into the importance of cross-functional activities in enhancing workplace learning. The paper discusses the conceptual and empirical basis to the model, its contributions and limitations, and implications for AHSCs. Originality/value The model's potential utility for health care is discussed, with implications for organizational culture and the promotion of cross-functional activities.

  8. [The health-disease-care process from the perspective of the users of a primary care clinic in Montevideo, Uruguay: An analysis of therapeutic trajectories].

    PubMed

    Evia Bertullo, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze, using an ethnographic approach, the health-disease-care experiences of the users of a multi-specialty clinic that forms part of the Metropolitan Primary Health Care Network of Uruguay's Public Health Services. The fieldwork was carried out in the northeast of Montevideo from July 2012 to November 2013, combining participant observation in social and care spaces and interviews with more than 20 users. In our analysis of care trajectories we found that people incorporate different practices and beliefs when facing their health problems. The use of biomedical health care services is predominant in Uruguay; nevertheless, people engage in self-care practices and in some cases, in the use of folk, religious/magical or alternative remedies. Medical pluralism is therefore observed in facing certain common ailments or significant experiences of disease.

  9. Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Home Health Care Home health care helps older adults live independently for as long ... need for long-term nursing home care. Home health care may include occupational and physical therapy, speech therapy, ...

  10. Rural health clinics and diabetes-related primary care for Medicaid beneficiaries in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, Kelly; Wallace, Neal

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) were associated with higher rates of recommended primary care services for adult beneficiaries diagnosed with diabetes in Oregon's Medicaid program, the Oregon Health Plan (OHP). OHP claims data from 2002 to 2003 were used to assess quality of diabetic care for beneficiaries residing in urban areas or rural areas with or without at least 1 RHC. Study subjects included Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) or disabled beneficiaries, aged 18-64, who were enrolled in the OHP for 12 months per study year and had at least 1 claim with a diabetes diagnosis (n = 6,267). Diabetes-related primary care was measured by the proportion of patients receiving each of 3 recommended tests at least once during the calendar year: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and eye exam. Logistic regression models were used to identify differences in testing rates across the geographic areas, after controlling for individual differences including age, race, sex, and health status. Rural areas with no RHC had significantly lower rates of HbA1c testing, lipid profiles, and eye exams than urban areas (P < .01). Rural areas with at least 1 RHC had significantly higher rates for lipid profiles and eye exams than other rural areas (P < .05). No significant differences were detected in testing rates between rural areas with an RHC present and urban areas. RHCs in rural Oregon were associated with higher rates of recommended primary care for diabetes, consistent with the intent of the policy intervention.

  11. The impact of a clinical training unit on integrated child health care in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Guiscafré, H.; Martínez, H.; Palafox, M.; Villa, S.; Espinosa, P.; Bojalil, R.; Gutiérrez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This study had two aims: to describe the activities of a clinical training unit set up for the integrated management of sick children, and to evaluate the impact of the unit after its first four years of operation. The training unit was set up in the outpatient ward of a government hospital and was staffed by a paediatrician, a family medicine physician, two nurses and a nutritionist. The staff kept a computerized database for all patients seen and they were supervised once a month. During the first three years, the demand for first-time medical consultation increased by 477% for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and 134% for acute diarrhoea (AD), with an average annual increase of demand for medical care of 125%. Eighty-nine per cent of mothers who took their child for consultation and 85% of mothers who lived in the catchment area and had a deceased child received training on how to recognize alarming signs in a sick child. Fifty-eight per cent of these mothers were evaluated as being properly trained. Eighty-five per cent of primary care physicians who worked for government institutions (n = 350) and 45% of private physicians (n = 90) were also trained in the recognition and proper management of AD and ARI. ARI mortality in children under 1 year of age in the catchment area (which included about 25,000 children under 5 years of age) decreased by 43.2% in three years, while mortality in children under 5 years of age decreased by 38.8%. The corresponding figures for AD mortality reduction were 36.3% and 33.6%. In this same period, 11 clinical research protocols were written. In summary, we learned that a clinical training unit for integrated child care management was an excellent way to offer in-service training for primary health care physicians. PMID:11417039

  12. [Clinic management of public social protection policy in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Arcos-Griffiths, Estela; Muñoz-González, Luz Angélica; Vollrath-Ramírez, Antonia; Sánchez-Segura, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the effectiveness of clinical management of primary care health in the field of Integral Protection System for Children "Chile Crece Contigo" and "Red Protege". Observational, descriptive, with information available from secondary sources of Chile Crece Contigo system in the district of Pudahuel, Santiago de Chile. The population was 1,656 pregnant women assigned to Chile Crece Contigo system in 2009. Social vulnerability was measured with the Social Protection Record. Sociodemographic and Chile Crece Contigo system performance variables were selected. It featured a raw and refined database. Processing and analysis of data was performed using the statistical program Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Excel. Descriptive statistics for frequency, position and dispersion were calculated. Certification of Scientific Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing was granted. A 91.4% of institutional social vulnerability detected by screening social protection record was observed. Psychosocial risk was higher in women with social vulnerability (42.0 vs. 28.2%) more often recognized as inadequate family support, depressive symptoms, domestic violence, substance abuse and conflicts with motherhood. In the universal, specific and integrated performance it was not met with 100% access to benefits. The invisibility of the social vulnerability and low effectiveness of the transfer of benefits to socially vulnerable women/children deserves skills development of contextualized and integrated clinical management professionals in primary health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing and monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases in a primary health care clinic, Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Manjomo, R. C.; Mwagomba, B.; Ade, S.; Ali, E.; Ben-Smith, A.; Khomani, P.; Bondwe, P.; Nkhoma, D.; Douglas, G. P.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Chikosi, L.; Gadabu, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Patients with chronic non-communicable diseases attending a primary health care centre, Lilongwe, Malawi. Objective: Using an electronic medical record monitoring system, to describe the quarterly and cumulative disease burden, management and outcomes of patients registered between March 2014 and June 2015. Design: A cross-sectional study. Results: Of 1135 patients, with new registrations increasing each quarter, 66% were female, 21% were aged ⩾65 years, 20% were obese, 53% had hypertension alone, 18% had diabetes alone, 12% had asthma, 10% had epilepsy and 7% had both hypertension and diabetes. In every quarter, about 30% of patients did not attend the clinic and 19% were registered as lost to follow-up (not seen for ⩾1 year) in the last quarter. Of those attending, over 90% were prescribed medication, and 80–90% with hypertension and/or diabetes had blood pressure/blood glucose measured. Over 85% of those with epilepsy had no seizures and 60–75% with asthma had no severe attacks. Control of blood pressure (41–51%) and diabetes (15–38%) was poor. Conclusion: It is feasible to manage patients with non-communicable diseases in a primary health care setting in Malawi, although more attention is needed to improve clinic attendance and the control of hypertension and diabetes. PMID:27358797

  14. The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Kunimitsu, Ayano

    2009-04-23

    The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics), which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96). Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07), illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15), the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22), and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06). The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics in regard to clinical malaria case

  15. Use of Outpatient Care in Veterans Health Administration and Medicare among Veterans Receiving Primary Care in Community-Based and Hospital Outpatient Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Chapko, Michael; Bryson, Chris L; Burgess, James F; Fortney, John C; Perkins, Mark; Sharp, Nancy D; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in use of Veterans Health Administration (VA) and Medicare outpatient services by VA primary care patients. Data Sources/Study Setting VA administrative and Medicare claims data from 2001 to 2004. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of outpatient service use by 8,964 community-based and 6,556 hospital-based VA primary care patients. Principal Findings A significant proportion of VA patients used Medicare-reimbursed primary care (>30 percent) and specialty care (>60 percent), but not mental health care (3–4 percent). Community-based patients had 17 percent fewer VA primary care visits (p<.001), 9 percent more Medicare-reimbursed visits (p<.001), and 6 percent fewer total visits (p<.05) than hospital-based patients. Community-based patients had 22 percent fewer VA specialty care visits (p<.0001) and 21 percent more Medicare-reimbursed specialty care visits (p<.0001) than hospital-based patients, but no difference in total visits (p=.80). Conclusions Medicare-eligible VA primary care patients followed over 4 consecutive years used significant primary care and specialty care outside of VA. Community-based patients offset decreased VA use with increased service use paid by Medicare, suggesting that increasing access to VA primary care via community clinics may fragment veteran care in unintended ways. Coordination of care between VA and non-VA providers and health care systems is essential to improve the quality and continuity of care. PMID:20831716

  16. Clinical conversations about health: the impact of confidentiality in preventive adolescent care.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Rickert, Vaughn I; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    To better understand how confidentiality impacts the delivery of preventive adolescent health care by examining adolescent and parent beliefs and the relationship between confidentiality and the number and subject matter of health topics discussed at the last visit. This study represents a secondary analysis of nationally representative online survey data collected from adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 504) and parents of adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 500). Descriptive statistics were conducted on confidentiality variables of interest. Analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc tests were computed to determine whether the mean number of topics discussed varied by level of confidential consultation provided. Associations between confidential consultation and health topics discussed at the last visit were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Approximately, half of both samples reported provision of confidential consultation. Eighty-nine percent of parents believed adolescents should be able to speak with providers alone, yet 61% preferred to be in examination room for the entire visit. Nearly half of all adolescents believed parental presence impacted conversation. Mean number of topics discussed was significantly higher when a visit was partially confidential (4.11 ± 3.05; p = 0) versus when a visit was not confidential (2.76 ± 2.68; p = 0). There were significant associations between confidential consultation and discussions about 8 of 11 health topics. Confidential consultation significantly impacts the number and subject matter of health topics discussed. A split-visit confidentiality model for adolescent preventive care visits may result in clinical conversations that address more topics. This arrangement may also appeal to parents who have mixed feelings about confidentiality. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An asthma and diabetes quality improvement project: enhancing care in clinics and community health centers.

    PubMed

    Silver, Alan; Figge, James; Haskin, Donna L; Pryor, Veronica; Fuller, Karen; Lemme, Thomas; Li, Nancy; O'Brien, Mary Jane

    2011-04-01

    Asthma and diabetes are major chronic conditions in the United States, particularly in the Medicaid population. The majority of care for these diseases occurs at ambulatory practice sites. The New York State Department of Health Office of Health Insurance Programs (OHIP) worked with IPRO, the New York State Medicare quality improvement organization, to develop and implement a quality improvement project (QIP) for these conditions. The approach was based upon the Chronic Care Model and used an iterative academic-detailing methodology. Clinics and community health centers volunteered to participate and used IPRO-collected data with audit and feedback to improve their practices. Several metrics significantly improved for asthma (e.g., use of anti-inflammatory long term controller agents, assessment of asthma severity, use of asthma action plans) and for diabetes (e.g., lipid testing and control, A1c testing). Key organizational elements of success included senior medical leadership commitment and practice site quality improvement team meetings. OHIP has used the QIP experience to begin patient-centered medical home implementation in New York State.

  18. Highlights from the third annual Mayo Clinic conference on systems engineering and operations research in health care.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Janine R A; Osborn, John B; Roger, Véronique L; Rohleder, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    In August 2010, the Third Annual Mayo Clinic Conference on Systems Engineering and Operations Research in Health Care was held. The continuing mission of the conference is to gather a multidisciplinary group of systems engineers, clinicians, administrators, and academic professors to discuss the translation of systems engineering methods to more effective health care delivery. Education, research, and practice were enhanced via a mix of formal presentations, tutorials, and informal gatherings of participants with diverse backgrounds. Although the conference promotes a diversity of perspectives and methods, participants are united in their desire to find ways in which systems engineering can transform health care, especially in the context of health care reform and other significant changes affecting the delivery of health care.

  19. Highlights From the Third Annual Mayo Clinic Conference on Systems Engineering and Operations Research in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Janine R. A.; Osborn, John B.; Roger, Véronique L.; Rohleder, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the Third Annual Mayo Clinic Conference on Systems Engineering and Operations Research in Health Care was held. The continuing mission of the conference is to gather a multidisciplinary group of systems engineers, clinicians, administrators, and academic professors to discuss the translation of systems engineering methods to more effective health care delivery. Education, research, and practice were enhanced via a mix of formal presentations, tutorials, and informal gatherings of participants with diverse backgrounds. Although the conference promotes a diversity of perspectives and methods, participants are united in their desire to find ways in which systems engineering can transform health care, especially in the context of health care reform and other significant changes affecting the delivery of health care. PMID:21803959

  20. Prevalence of outsourcing and perception of clinical nutrition managers on performance of health care dietetics services.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Junehee; Yoon, Barbara J H

    2003-08-01

    A nationwide survey of clinical dietitians and clinical nutrition managers was conducted to assess the prevalence of outsourcing in health care dietetics services and to evaluate perceived performance of dietetics services. A questionnaire was developed, validated by an expert panel, and pilot tested prior to data collection. Members of the Clinical Nutrition Management Dietetic Practice Group (N=1,668) were selected as the study sample. Of 431 respondents, 152 (35.3%) indicated that management of both patient and cafeteria foodservices was outsourced. When mean scores of perceived performance ratings were compared using t test, respondents from self-operated facilities rated several items related to patient and cafeteria food quality and material and human resource utilization higher than respondents at contract-managed facilities. No significant differences were found in performance related to decision-making process, buying power, or training programs. Results suggest that careful weighing of advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing is needed before making decisions regarding outsourcing dietetics services.

  1. [Do clinical guidelines and economic restrictions on health care affect the criminal liability of health care professionals?].

    PubMed

    Erlinger, Rainer

    2004-05-01

    Criminal liability in connection with clinical guidelines relates to several different aspects: (1) It refers to the guideline authors' liability under criminal law in the case of faulty guidelines. (2) Guidelines do not constitute legally binding rules. They can only contribute to determining the standard for medical specialists. (3) There can and must not be any reversal in the burden of proof with criminal proceedings. (4) In case of a deviation from guidelines and a related breach of duty, the subjective aspect of negligence (i.e. the recognizability of danger) can often be inferred from the knowledge of the respective guideline that we can reasonably expect of the physician. (5) No physician who has adhered to the guidelines can regularly be accused of (subjective) negligence. (6) Problems may be encountered in cases where the topic in question has not been covered, but only peripherally touched upon by guidelines. For the sake of uniformity in our legal system, the individual physician must not be held criminally responsible for the lack of economic means. Possible solutions include: (1) relating the standard to the practically instead of the theoretically feasible, (2) investigating to what extent criminal liability may be limited by acceptability and possibility. The complete refusal to provide medical care under inadequate conditions may increase the endangerment of legally protected rights and therefore be unacceptable. Attempts to improve structures towards the standard may be regarded as meeting the requirements under criminal law.

  2. Peoples' understandings of a primary care-based mental health self-help clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Oliver, Dianne; Bower, Peter; Lovell, Karina; Richards, Dave

    2004-04-01

    Self-help programmes are increasingly advocated as a means of managing mental health problems. This qualitative study explored patients' understandings of the use of a UK primary care-based self-help clinic (facilitated by a nurse). As part of a wider evaluation of the clinic, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sub-sample of clinic users. Data indicate that people understand their problem as one of having lost an ability to cope, and that the ethos underlying the clinic is well matched to restore a sense of coping, by motivating patients to re-establish and retain control over their everyday lives. However, some patients experienced a sense of dissonance between prior expectations and actual use of the self-help clinic. Without prior familiarity with self-help, engaging the patient as the mechanism of change may be difficult. Some patients expected formal counselling and were influenced in this by their previous experience of services and discussions with the GP at the point of referral. It takes time and active engagement with self-help materials before patients become aware that they are a crucial mechanism of change. Patients may benefit from information and a referral process, which emphasises the centrality of self-efficacy and the patient as 'change agent' prior to referral.

  3. Challenges in Achieving Collaboration in Clinical Practice: The Case of Norwegian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Anne-Kari; Ådnanes, Marian; Paulsen, Bård; Mannion, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article summarizes and synthesizes the findings of four separate but inter-linked empirical projects which explored challenges of collaboration in the Norwegian health system from the perspectives of providers and patients. The results of the four projects are summarised in eight articles. Methods: The eight articles constituted our empirical material. Meta-ethnography was used as a method to integrate, translate, and synthesize the themes and concepts contained in the articles in order to understand how challenges related to collaboration impact on clinical work. Results: Providers’ collaboration across all contexts was hampered by organizational and individual factors, including, differences in professional power, knowledge bases, and professional culture. The lack of appropriate collaboration between providers impeded clinical work. Mental health service users experienced fragmented services leading to insecurity and frustration. The lack of collaboration resulted in inadequate rehabilitation services and lengthened the institutional stay for older patients. Conclusion: Focusing on the different perspectives and the inequality in power between patients and healthcare providers and between different providers might contribute to a better environment for achieving appropriate collaboration. Organizational systems need to be redesigned to better nurture collaborative relationships and information sharing and support integrated working between providers, health care professionals and patients. PMID:28435416

  4. Enabling health care decisionmaking through clinical decision support and knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, David; Sanders, Gillian D; Bright, Tiffani J; Wong, Anthony; Dhurjati, Ravi; Bristow, Erin; Bastian, Lori; Coeytaux, Remy; Samsa, Gregory; Hasselblad, Vic; Williams, John W; Wing, Liz; Musty, Michael; Kendrick, Amy S

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To catalogue study designs used to assess the clinical effectiveness of CDSSs and KMSs, to identify features that impact the success of CDSSs/KMSs, to document the impact of CDSSs/KMSs on outcomes, and to identify knowledge types that can be integrated into CDSSs/KMSs. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE(®), CINAHL(®), PsycINFO(®), and Web of Science(®). REVIEW METHODS We included studies published in English from January 1976 through December 2010. After screening titles and abstracts, full-text versions of articles were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Included articles were abstracted to evidence tables by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed for seven domains in which sufficient studies with common outcomes were included. RESULTS We identified 15,176 articles, from which 323 articles describing 311 unique studies including 160 reports on 148 randomized control trials (RCTs) were selected for inclusion. RCTs comprised 47.5 percent of the comparative studies on CDSSs/KMSs. Both commercially and locally developed CDSSs effectively improved health care process measures related to performing preventive services (n = 25; OR 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.58), ordering clinical studies (n = 20; OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.00), and prescribing therapies (n = 46; OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.82). Fourteen CDSS/KMS features were assessed for correlation with success of CDSSs/KMSs across all endpoints. Meta-analyses identified six new success features: Integration with charting or order entry system. Promotion of action rather than inaction. No need for additional clinician data entry. Justification of decision support via research evidence. Local user involvement. Provision of decision support results to patients as well as providers. Three previously identified success features were confirmed: Automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow. Provision of decision support at time and location of decisionmaking. Provision of a

  5. Silk road: opportunities for foreign-owned health care clinics in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, T K

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals and other health care providers are being squeezed by declining reimbursement and capitated revenues. As this happens they are looking to expand into rapidly developing and newly industrialised countries. This article will focus on the People's Republic of China as a country with opportunities for developing private hospitals and health care facilities.

  6. The personal health record paradox: health care professionals' perspectives and the information ecology of personal health record systems in organizational and clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Nazi, Kim M

    2013-04-04

    documents revealed a multidimensional dynamic between the trajectory of secure messaging implementation and its impact on organizational actors and their use of technology, influencing workflow, practices, and the flow of information. In effect, secure messaging was the missing element of complex information ecology and its implementation acted as a catalyst for change. Secure messaging was found to have important consequences for access, communication, patient self-report, and patient/provider relationships. Study findings have direct implications for the development and implementation of PHR systems to ensure adequate training and support for health care professionals, alignment with clinical workflow, and features that enable information sharing and communication. Study findings highlight the importance of clinician endorsement and engagement, and the need to further examine both intended and unintended consequences of use. This research provides an integral step toward better understanding the social and organizational context and impact of PHR and secure messaging use in clinical practice settings.

  7. Balancing health care evidence and art to meet clinical needs: policymakers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Parker, Louise E; Ritchie, Mona J; Kirchner, Joann E; Owen, Richard R

    2009-12-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Although many believe that evidence-based practice (EBP) has great potential, critics have identified limitations including a focus on randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence to the exclusion of other evidence types and a disregard for the art of medicine. Others have argued, however, that proper application of EBP involves reasoned consideration of a wide variety of information; thus, the dichotomy between medical science and art may be false. We explore the views of executive-level policymakers from the Veterans Health Administration, a leader in the EBP movement, regarding what constitutes evidence and the relative importance of evidence versus practical needs when determining clinical policy. Method We conducted 26 semi-structured qualitative interviews and performed a content analysis. Results Although informants generally believed in the value of EBP and the role of RCTs within it, they also valued other types of evidence. Further, they had concerns that were sometimes antithetical with strict adherence to an evidence-based approach. These included practical concerns, fit with organizational values and with local circumstances, resources, political pressures and patient needs. They were especially concerned about how to address medical conditions that affect many individuals or high-risk populations that have no evidence-based treatment. Conclusion When possible, health care practice should be evidence-based. When this is not possible, health care providers must turn to the art of medicine by using consensus-based best practices. Further, it is important for policymakers and researchers to work in concert to develop EBPs that are practical and meet needs.

  8. Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3-17 years old) enrolled in Primary Care Services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. Results: 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of 2 years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0.409). After 1 year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusions: The monitoring of asthmatic patients in Primary Care Services showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. PMID:26316387

  9. Clinical Protocols to Reduce High Risk Drinking in College Students: The College Drinking Prevention Curriculum for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this curriculum is to help all health care professionals -- physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, health educators, counselors, psychologists, and others who work with college students -- identify and treat students who are at-risk or are having alcohol-related problems. The clinical methods…

  10. Clinical course and management of SARS in health care workers in Toronto: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Avendano, Monica; Derkach, Peter; Swan, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has only recently been described. We provide individual patient data on the clinical course, treatment and complications experienced by 14 front-line health care workers and hospital support staff in Toronto who were diagnosed with SARS, and we provide follow-up information for up to 3 weeks after their discharge from hospital. Methods As part of the initial response to the SARS outbreak in Toronto, our health care centre was asked to establish a SARS unit for health care workers who were infected. Patients were admitted to this unit and were closely monitored and treated until they were well enough to be discharged. We prospectively compiled information on their clinical course, management and complications and followed them for 3 weeks after discharge. Results The 11 women and 3 men described here (mean age 42 [standard deviation {SD} 9] years) were all involved in providing medical or ancillary hospital services to patients who were later found to have SARS. Onset of symptoms in 4 of our patients who could clearly identify only a single contact with a patient with SARS occurred on average 4 (SD 3) days after exposure. For the remaining 10 patients with multiple patient contacts, symptom onset followed exposure by a mean of 3.5 (SD 3) days after their exposure. All patients were treated with ribavirin, and all patients received levofloxacin. Many experienced major complications. Dyspnea was present in 12 patients during their stay in hospital, and all developed abnormalities on chest radiograph; 3 patients developed severe hypoxemia (PaO2 < 50 mm Hg). All patients experienced a drop in hemoglobin. Nine patients had hemolytic anemia. Three patients experienced numbness and tingling in their hands and feet, and 2 developed frank tetany. All 3 had magnesium levels that were less than 0.1 mmol/L. All patients recovered and were discharged home. At a follow-up examination 3 weeks after discharge (5 weeks after onset

  11. Health care consumers' perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Saw, Pui San; Nissen, Lisa M; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei Se; Mak, Vivienne

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists' involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers' views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists' role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs' resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs' reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration. This study provides insights into consumers' perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in providing integrated and collaborative primary care

  12. Health care consumers’ perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Pui San; Nissen, Lisa M; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei Se; Mak, Vivienne

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs’ reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration. Conclusion This study provides insights into consumers’ perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in

  13. Rural Health Clinics (RHCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Medicaid? What are the Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement (QAPI) requirements for RHCs? Can Rural Health Clinics be certified as Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs)? Can RHCs join Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs)? What is the difference between a Federally ...

  14. Do patients and health care professionals view the communication processes of clinical research differently? A Rasch analysis from a survey.

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; Solans-Julian, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolores; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    The increasing amount of the clinical research conducted in the primary health care has enabled extending research beyond traditional settings, but this transfer has implied some trade-offs. Health care professionals who conduct research with trusted patients require assuming the ethical standards of research and communication skills to enable patients' autonomy and freedom of choice. This study aims to measure the opinions of health professionals and patients on issues of communication in clinical research. A cross-sectional study with health care professionals and patients from primary health care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Each group completed a similar self-administered questionnaire. A Rasch model was fitted to data. After examination of goodness-of-fit, differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance, and patients' measures were calibrated to professionals' measures to compare overall mean measures. Professionals and patients found the ethical attitudes most difficult to endorse related to trust in clinical researchers and conflicts of interest. Patients' perceptions of professional ethical behaviour were significantly lower than professionals'. Different item functioning between nurses and family doctors was found in the item on seeking ethical collaboration when collaborating in clinical research. Effective knowledge of ethical norms was associated with greater perceived ethical values in clinical research and confidence in health care professionals among patients. Differences in the views of the communication process between patients and professionals could alert research boards, health care institutions and researchers to the need for greater transparency, trust and ethical instruction when patients are involved in clinical research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Severity of Mental Health Impairment and Trajectories of Improvement in an Integrated Primary Care Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; Corso, Meghan L.; Corso, Kent A.; Morrow, Chad E.; Kanzler, Kathryn E.; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To model typical trajectories for improvement among patients treated in an integrated primary care behavioral health service, multilevel models were used to explore the relationship between baseline mental health impairment level and eventual mental health functioning across follow-up appointments. Method: Data from 495 primary care…

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  17. The Clinical Nutrition Research Agenda in Indonesia and beyond: ecological strategy for food in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Lukito, Widjaja; Wibowo, Lindawati; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2017-06-01

    Despite progress with the food-associated health agenda in the public health and clinical domains, much remains to be done in Indonesia. There are reasons to be optimistic which include economic development, increasing literacy, progress towards universal health coverage and community organizational arrangements across the archipelago which focus on health through some 10,000 puskesmas. These community health centres are variably staffed with voluntary cadres from the community, bidans (nurses) and general medical practitioners. For more effective prevention and management of nutritionally-related health problems, innovative community and clinical nutrition research and expertise is required. With rapid urbanisation, the growth of the digital economy, increasing socio-economic inequity and climate change, there are imperatives for ecologically sustainable, nonemployment dependent livelihoods which provide energy, food, water, education and health care security. A relevant health care workforce will include those who research and practice clinical nutrition. Here we gather together an account of an extensive body of published and emerging literature which makes a case collectively for a more ecological approach to nutrition and health and how it might revitalise the Indonesian and other health care systems.

  18. Use of telemedicine for haemodialysis: perceptions of patients and health-care providers, and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Pamela; Buis, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    In Michigan, the use of telemedicine for dialysis patients began in three centres in 2005. A total of 747 clinical consultations was conducted in the following 22 months. Telephone surveys were conducted with 34 patients and four providers. The patients and providers all had positive perceptions of the telemedicine system and the care that was delivered. Most of the clinical measures of the patients met or exceeded the recommendations made by Renal Network 11. In addition to the clinical work, the telemedicine equipment was used for educational events. Twenty-six professional educational events were provided with a total audience of 105 individuals, and 35 administrative meetings were provided with 286 staff members in attendance. The study showed that patients and providers could participate in educational events that might not be available locally. Despite the success of dialysis telemedicine, the Marquette General Health System discontinued its use in 2007 when the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services re-affirmed that dialysis centres were not approved sites for telemedicine.

  19. Attitude and satisfaction of health care providers towards clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: A post-deployment survey.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Arebu Issa; Tilahun, Zelalem; Beedemariam, Gebremedhin; Ayalneh, Belete; Hailemeskel, Bisrat; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy service has evolved steadily over the past few decades and is contributing to the 'patient care journey' at all stages. The service improves safety and effectiveness of medicines, thereby avoiding medication errors. As part of this global shift in pharmacy education and practice, Ethiopian Universities revamped the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and the first graduates came out in July 2013. These graduates were immediately deployed in public hospital settings, with the ultimate aim of providing clinical pharmacy services. As such an initiative is new to the Ethiopian pharmacy sector, there is a need to do assessment of the health care providers' perception and satisfaction towards the service. A cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire was conducted in six regions and one-city administration of the country. Physicians, Health officers and Nurses working along with the new pharmacy graduates formed the study population. A total of 650 healthcare professionals participated in the study. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Majority of the health care providers agreed that clinical pharmacy service could have a significant contribution to the patient care. A large proportion of them (70-90 %) had a positive attitude, although there appeared to be some differences across professions. About 50 % of the professionals were of the opinion that patient care should be left to the health care providers and pharmacists should concentrate on drug products. In addition, the same proportion of respondents said that the setup in their respective hospital was appropriate for provision of clinical pharmacy service. Multivariable analysis indicated that attitude of the health care providers was significantly associated with year of experience. A large proportion of the health care providers had positive attitude towards the service, although the extent of the service was below their expectation. Hence

  20. [Clinical evolution and nutritional status in asthmatic children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Morishita, Rosinha Yoko Matsubayaci; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical evolution and the association between nutritional status and severity of asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in Primary Health Care. A retrospective cohort study of 219 asthmatic patients (3 to 17 years old) enrolled in primary care services (PCSs) in Embu das Artes (SP), from 2007 to 2011. Secondary data: gender, age, diagnosis of asthma severity, other atopic diseases, family history of atopy, and body mass index. To evaluate the clinical outcome of asthma, data were collected on number of asthma exacerbations, number of emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids at follow-up visits in the 6th and 12th months. The statistical analysis included chi-square and Kappa agreement index, with 5% set as the significance level. 50.5% of patients started wheezing before the age of two years, 99.5% had allergic rhinitis and 65.2% had a positive family history of atopy. Regarding severity, intermittent asthma was more frequent (51.6%) and, in relation to nutritional status, 65.8% of patients had normal weight. There was no association between nutritional status and asthma severity (p=0,409). After one year of follow-up, 25.2% of patients showed reduction in exacerbations and emergency room consultations, and 16.2% reduced the amount of inhaled corticosteroids. The monitoring of asthmatic patients in PCSs showed improvement in clinical outcome, with a decreased number of exacerbations, emergency room consultations and doses of inhaled corticosteroids. No association between nutritional status and asthma severity was observed in this study. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental health care professionals' experiences with the discharge planning process and transitioning patients attending outpatient clinics into community care.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Ann Marie; Sevigny, Elizabeth; Laizner, Andrea M; Houle, Claudine; La Riccia, Pina

    2014-08-01

    Health care reform promotes delivery of mental health care in the community. Outpatient mental healthcare professionals (HCPs) are pressured to discharge patients. This study's purpose: to understand the experience and perceptions of mental HCPs with discharge planning and transitioning patients into community care. Twelve HCPs participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. Three main categories: engaging in the discharge planning process, making the transition smooth, and guiding values emerged. A conceptual framework was created to explain the phenomenon. HCPs valued strengthening partnerships and building relationships to ensure smooth transition. Sufficient resources and trust imperative for safe patient discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of electronic health records on the use of clinical care guidelines for patients with medically complex conditions.

    PubMed

    Fricton, James; Rindal, D Brad; Rush, William; Flottemesch, Thomas; Vazquez, Gabriela; Thoele, Merry Jo; Durand, Emily; Enstad, Chris; Rhodus, Nelson

    2011-10-01

    The emergence of health information technology provides an opportunity for health care providers to improve the quality and safety of dental care, particularly for patients with medically complex conditions. The authors randomized each of 15 dental clinics (HealthPartners, Bloomington, Minn.) to one of three groups to evaluate the impact of two clinical decision support (CDS) approaches during an 18-month study period. In the first approach--provider activation through electronic dental records (EDRs)--a flashing alert was generated at the dental visit to identify patients with medically complex conditions and to direct the dental care provider to Web-based personalized care guidelines. In the second approach--patient activation through personal health records--a secure e-mail was generated or a letter was mailed to patients before dental visits encouraging them to ask their dental care provider to review the care guidelines specific to their medical conditions. The authors evaluated the rate of reviewing care guidelines among 102 providers. Participants in the provider and patient activation groups increased their use of the system during the first six months, which had a generalized effect of increasing use of the guidelines for all patients, even if they were not part of the study (P < .05). The study results showed that provider activation was more effective than was patient activation. However, providers did not sustain their high level of use of the system, and by the end of the study, the rate of use had returned to baseline levels despite participants' continued receipt of electronic alerts. The study results demonstrated that review of clinical care guidelines for patients with medically complex conditions can be improved with CDS systems that involve the use of electronic health records. As the U.S. population ages, dentists must be vigilant in adapting care for patients with medically complex conditions to ensure therapeutic safety and effectiveness

  3. Clinical informatics in critical care.

    PubMed

    Martich, G Daniel; Waldmann, Carl S; Imhoff, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Health care information systems have the potential to enable better care of patients in much the same manner as the widespread use of the automobile and telephone did in the early 20th century. The car and phone were rapidly accepted and embraced throughout the world when these breakthroughs occurred. However, the automation of health care with use of computerized information systems has not been as widely accepted and implemented as computer technology use in all other sectors of the global economy. In this article, the authors examine the need, risks, and rewards of clinical informatics in health care as well as its specific relationship to critical care medicine.

  4. Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psychology: Toward a Scientifically Principled Approach to Mental and Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy B; McFall, Richard M; Shoham, Varda

    2008-11-01

    The escalating costs of health care and other recent trends have made health care decisions of great societal import, with decision-making responsibility often being transferred from practitioners to health economists, health plans, and insurers. Health care decision making increasingly is guided by evidence that a treatment is efficacious, effective-disseminable, cost-effective, and scientifically plausible. Under these conditions of heightened cost concerns and institutional-economic decision making, psychologists are losing the opportunity to play a leadership role in mental and behavioral health care: Other types of practitioners are providing an increasing proportion of delivered treatment, and the use of psychiatric medication has increased dramatically relative to the provision of psychological interventions. Research has shown that numerous psychological interventions are efficacious, effective, and cost-effective. However, these interventions are used infrequently with patients who would benefit from them, in part because clinical psychologists have not made a convincing case for the use of these interventions (e.g., by supplying the data that decision makers need to support implementation of such interventions) and because clinical psychologists do not themselves use these interventions even when given the opportunity to do so. Clinical psychologists' failure to achieve a more significant impact on clinical and public health may be traced to their deep ambivalence about the role of science and their lack of adequate science training, which leads them to value personal clinical experience over research evidence, use assessment practices that have dubious psychometric support, and not use the interventions for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy. Clinical psychology resembles medicine at a point in its history when practitioners were operating in a largely prescientific manner. Prior to the scientific reform of medicine in the early 1900s

  5. Health care technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  6. Primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kitai, A

    1986-07-01

    Development of primary care in Japan in still relatively unorganized and unstructured. As mentioned above, the author describes some strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese primary care system. In addressing the weaknesses the following suggestions are offered for the Japanese primary care delivery system: Increase the number of emergency rooms for all day, especially on holidays and at night. Introduce an appointment system. Introduce an open system of hospitals. Coordinate with public hospitals and primary care clinics. Organize the referral system between private practitioners and community hospitals. Increase the number of paramedical staff. Strengthen group practice among primary care physicians. Increase the establishment of departments of primary care practice with government financial incentives to medical schools and teaching hospitals. Develop a more active and direct teaching role for primary care practice or family practice at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Improve and maintain present health insurance payment method, shifting from quantity of care to quality and continuity of care. Introduce formal continuing education. Introduce formal training programs of primary care and strengthen ambulatory care teaching programs.

  7. [Early clinical and radiological basic detection of congenital hip dysplasia at primary health care units].

    PubMed

    Olivo-Rodríguez, A G; Redón-Tavera, A

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of late congenital hip dysplasia has increased, together with its sequelae, disability and absence of early diagnosis. The problem is that there is a difference between the sensitivity and the clinical exam, and the physicians knowledge of this topic is poor. We evaluated the quality of the training provided to the primary health care staff on congenital hip dysplasia. A prospective cohort study was undertaken to study 228 physicians for 3 years. A workshop was delivered and the physicians took a pre-workshop and a post-workshop exam. Then pelvic X-rays of infants under 6 months of age were taken and the X-ray references and measurements were assessed. The statistical analysis assesses the change in the pre-workshop and post-workshop grades in both the group that participated in the workshop and the group that did not. The statistical variables used included means, standard deviation, minimum and maximum grades, and the score differences. Students t test was used to prove the statistical significance of the differences, with n-1 degrees of freedom. Thirty-one pathological hips were detected in infants under 6 months of age in the group that took the workshop. The group that received the training shows that the latter may have a positive impact since an improvement in the grades (p 0.0001) was seen after the theoretical and practical course and after the X-ray measurements. A low knowledge level was observed. The training raised the awareness of the health care staff and a progressive increase was seen in the number of infants under 6 months of age who received a timely detection.

  8. Clinical Practice Models for the Use of E-Mental Health Resources in Primary Health Care by Health Professionals and Peer Workers: A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cunningham, John A; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Research into e-mental health technologies has developed rapidly in the last 15 years. Applications such as Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have accumulated considerable evidence of efficacy and some evidence of effectiveness. These programs have achieved similar outcomes to face-to-face therapy, while requiring much less clinician time. There is now burgeoning interest in integrating e-mental health resources with the broader mental health delivery system, particularly in primary care. The Australian government has supported the development and deployment of e-mental health resources, including websites that provide information, peer-to-peer support, automated self-help, and guided interventions. An ambitious national project has been commissioned to promote key resources to clinicians, to provide training in their use, and to evaluate the impact of promotion and training upon clinical practice. Previous initiatives have trained clinicians to use a single e-mental health program or a suite of related programs. In contrast, the current initiative will support community-based service providers to access a diverse array of resources developed and provided by many different groups. Objective The objective of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework to support the use of e-mental health resources in routine primary health care. In particular, models of clinical practice are required to guide the use of the resources by diverse service providers and to inform professional training, promotional, and evaluation activities. Methods Information about service providers’ use of e-mental health resources was synthesized from a nonsystematic overview of published literature and the authors’ experience of training primary care service providers. Results Five emerging clinical practice models are proposed: (1) promotion; (2) case management; (3) coaching; (4) symptom-focused treatment; and (5) comprehensive therapy. We also

  9. Clinical Practice Models for the Use of E-Mental Health Resources in Primary Health Care by Health Professionals and Peer Workers: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Julia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Cunningham, John A; Bennett, Kylie; Bennett, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Research into e-mental health technologies has developed rapidly in the last 15 years. Applications such as Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy interventions have accumulated considerable evidence of efficacy and some evidence of effectiveness. These programs have achieved similar outcomes to face-to-face therapy, while requiring much less clinician time. There is now burgeoning interest in integrating e-mental health resources with the broader mental health delivery system, particularly in primary care. The Australian government has supported the development and deployment of e-mental health resources, including websites that provide information, peer-to-peer support, automated self-help, and guided interventions. An ambitious national project has been commissioned to promote key resources to clinicians, to provide training in their use, and to evaluate the impact of promotion and training upon clinical practice. Previous initiatives have trained clinicians to use a single e-mental health program or a suite of related programs. In contrast, the current initiative will support community-based service providers to access a diverse array of resources developed and provided by many different groups. The objective of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework to support the use of e-mental health resources in routine primary health care. In particular, models of clinical practice are required to guide the use of the resources by diverse service providers and to inform professional training, promotional, and evaluation activities. Information about service providers' use of e-mental health resources was synthesized from a nonsystematic overview of published literature and the authors' experience of training primary care service providers. Five emerging clinical practice models are proposed: (1) promotion; (2) case management; (3) coaching; (4) symptom-focused treatment; and (5) comprehensive therapy. We also consider the service provider skills

  10. Health care provider experience with canagliflozin in real-world clinical practice: favorability, treatment patterns, and patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bolge, Susan C; Flores, Natalia M; Huang, Shu; Cai, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study describes how health care providers approach canagliflozin for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the real world. Patients and methods An Internet-based questionnaire was completed by 101 endocrinologists, 101 primary care physicians, and 100 nurse practitioners/physician assistants (NP/PAs). Health care providers were required to have experience prescribing or managing patients using canagliflozin to be included in the study. Health care providers compared canagliflozin with other T2DM medication classes on clinical characteristics, costs, and patient satisfaction. Confidence in canagliflozin was also measured. Health care providers reported their canagliflozin prescribing experience and good candidate characteristics for treatment. Finally, providers reported on patient outcomes among those receiving canagliflozin. All variables were compared across provider type. Results Health care providers reported higher favorability for canagliflozin for blood pressure and body weight compared with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and higher favorability for effect on blood pressure, body weight, treatment satisfaction, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared with sulfonylureas (SUs), with differences observed for effect on blood pressure. Health care providers reported being very/extremely confident (55%–74%) with canagliflozin as a second-to fourth-line treatment. The top 3 characteristics reported by the providers, in terms of describing a good candidate for canagliflozin, include those concerned about their weight, insurance coverage/affordability, and avoiding injectable treatments. Finally, providers reported often/always observing patients’ lowering or controlling HbA1c (82%–88%) and improvement in overall quality of life (QoL; 50%–53%) with canagliflozin treatment. No differences were observed across provider type for confidence, good candidate characteristics, or patient outcomes. Conclusion

  11. A Framework to Support the Sharing and Reuse of Computable Phenotype Definitions Across Health Care Delivery and Clinical Research Applications

    PubMed Central

    Richesson, Rachel L.; Smerek, Michelle M.; Blake Cameron, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ability to reproducibly identify clinically equivalent patient populations is critical to the vision of learning health care systems that implement and evaluate evidence-based treatments. The use of common or semantically equivalent phenotype definitions across research and health care use cases will support this aim. Currently, there is no single consolidated repository for computable phenotype definitions, making it difficult to find all definitions that already exist, and also hindering the sharing of definitions between user groups. Method: Drawing from our experience in an academic medical center that supports a number of multisite research projects and quality improvement studies, we articulate a framework that will support the sharing of phenotype definitions across research and health care use cases, and highlight gaps and areas that need attention and collaborative solutions. Framework: An infrastructure for re-using computable phenotype definitions and sharing experience across health care delivery and clinical research applications includes: access to a collection of existing phenotype definitions, information to evaluate their appropriateness for particular applications, a knowledge base of implementation guidance, supporting tools that are user-friendly and intuitive, and a willingness to use them. Next Steps: We encourage prospective researchers and health administrators to re-use existing EHR-based condition definitions where appropriate and share their results with others to support a national culture of learning health care. There are a number of federally funded resources to support these activities, and research sponsors should encourage their use. PMID:27563686

  12. Association Between Weight Change, Clinical Outcomes, and Health Care Costs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jayanti; Sternhufvud, Catarina; Smith, Nancy; Bell, Kelly; Stott-Miller, Marni; McMorrow, Donna; Johnston, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Previous research suggests that weight loss is associated with decreases in health care costs among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and that weight change can affect clinical measures, including hemoglobin A1c (A1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and blood pressure. Previous research has also demonstrated more pronounced impact of weight change among patients with T2DM who are obese and have no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To (a) examine the association between weight change and all-cause and diabetes-related health care costs among patients with T2DM; (b) examine the association between weight change and select clinical measures among patients with T2DM; and (c) analyze a subgroup of obese patients with no previous CVD. This retrospective, observational cohort study used U.S. insurance claims linked to laboratory and electronic medical records. This study included patients with T2DM aged 18 years or older who added or switched to a nonmetformin antidiabetes medication after metformin monotherapy between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012 (date of add/switch was the index date). The primary predictor was percentage weight change (PWC) between a weight measurement at index and a follow-up measurement 6 months later; PWC ranged from negative (weight loss) to positive (weight gain). Outcomes, measured in the 12-month period beginning at the time of follow-up weight measurement, included all-cause and diabetes-related health care costs and achievement of thresholds for A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Multivariable models quantified the association between PWC (linear effect) and study outcomes. A total of 1,520 patients (mean age 55 years; 47% female) were included, with 780 patients (mean age 53 years; 51% female) in the subgroup sample. Mean (SD) index weight and PWC were 224.6 (52.8) lbs and +0.2% (4.7%) in the primary analysis, and 241.3 (47.3) lbs and -0.2% (4.6%) in the subgroup sample. In adjusted analyses, decreasing

  13. Aged-Care Professionals' and Health Care Professionals' Self-Reported Impact of Printed Educational Material on Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duc H T; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Kitching, Fiona; Bohensky, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the printed educational material (PEM), the Residential Aged-Care (RAC) Communiqué, on the changing clinical practice of health and aged-care professionals. The RAC Communiqué is a PEM that contains case narratives from Coroners' investigations into potentially preventable deaths in nursing homes. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, using an anonymous electronic survey distributed to all subscribers of the RAC Communiqué. The questionnaire consisted of 40 questions in five sections, such as respondent characteristics, respondent preferences and reading behavior, respondent opinion about the RAC Communiqué content, and the mode of its delivery, impact of the RAC Communiqué, and the details of changes in professional practice. The response rate was 58.3% (367/630). Respondents were mostly women aged 45 years and older (n = 319, 86.9%) with more than 10 years of experience (n = 241, 65.7%) in management (n = 171, 46.6%) or nursing (n = 65, 17.7%). Of the 367 respondents, 204 (55.6%) reported changing their practice. Multivariate analysis revealed that women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.35) aged between 45 and 54 (OR = 2.06, CI = 1.13-3.75), who read most of the RAC Communiqué (OR = 2.77, CI = 1.34-5.72) and were subscribed for more than 1 year (OR = 3.58, CI = 1.61-7.95) were significantly associated with practice change. More than half of the survey respondents who read the RAC Communiqué self-reported a change in practice highlighting its impact and efficacy as PEM.

  14. The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the

  15. Out-of-Sync Cancer Care: Health Insurance Companies, Biomedical Practices, and Clinical Time in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Camilo

    2017-04-01

    I discuss the physical wearing out of low-income cancer patients in the aftermath of the neoliberal restructuring of the Colombian health care system in 1993. The settings for this struggle are the hospitals and the health insurance companies; the actors are bodies with cancer, the physicians who diagnose people with cancer, and the relatives who care for them. I show how most low-income patients, instead of accessing complete anticancer treatments in a timely fashion, have to negotiate and confront health insurance companies and profit-making. This results in a wait, where the time needs of the bureaucracy of the health care system and the time needs of patients' bodies are discordant, at a cost to patients.

  16. Community reactions to reproductive health care at three school-based clinics in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, P D; Morse, E V; Simon, P M; Stock, M; Pratt, J L; Sterne, S

    1996-09-01

    Despite the growing success of school-based health care during the past two decades, the issue of providing reproductive health care at school-based health centers remains controversial. In this article, focus group data from three school-based centers in Louisiana, each in different stages of development, demonstrates how the controversies about reproductive health may frame more general concerns about school-based care. In addition, community readiness to address directly problematic sexual behavior relates not only to the specific needs and priorities of the community but to recognition of the negative effect of the consequences of sexual behavior such as pregnancy, high drop out, and absenteeism rates on a community's educational, rather than social, goals and values.

  17. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  18. Can clinical use of Social Media improve quality of care in mental Health? A Health Technology Assessment approach in an Italian mental health service.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Nollo, Giandomenico; Pace, Nicola; Torri, Emanuele

    2015-09-01

    Clinical use of modern Information and Communication Technologies such as Social Media (SM) can easily reach and empower groups of population at risk or affected by chronic diseases, and promote improvement of quality of care. In the paper we present an assessment of SM (i.e. e-mails, websites, on line social networks, apps) in the management of mental disorders, carried out in the Mental Health Service of Trento (Italy) according to Health Technology Assessment criteria. A systematic review of literature was performed to evaluate technical features, safety and effectiveness of SM. To understand usage rate and attitude towards new social technologies of patients and professionals, we performed a context analysis by a survey conducted over a group of 88 psychiatric patients and a group of 35 professionals. At last, we made recommendations for decision makers in order to promote SM for the management of mental disorders in a context of prioritization of investments in health care.

  19. Educating residents in behavioral health care and collaboration: integrated clinical training of pediatric residents and psychology fellows.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Anthony R; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M

    2011-02-01

    Pediatric residency practices face the challenge of providing both behavioral health (BH) training for pediatricians and psychosocial care for children. The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Rochester General Hospital developed a joint training program and continuity clinic infrastructure in which pediatric residents and postdoctoral psychology fellows train and practice together. The integrated program provides children access to BH care in a primary care setting and gives trainees the opportunity to integrate collaborative BH care into their regular practice routines. During 1998-2008, 48 pediatric residents and 8 psychology fellows trained in this integrated clinical environment. The program's accomplishments include longevity, faculty and fiscal stability, sustained support from pediatric leadership and community payers, the development in residents and faculty of greater comfort in addressing BH problems and collaborating with BH specialists, and replication of the model in two other primary care settings. In addition to quantitative program outcomes data, the authors present a case example that illustrates how the integrated program works and achieves its goals. They propose that educating residents and psychology trainees side by side in collaborative BH care is clinically and educationally valuable and potentially applicable to other settings. A companion report published in this issue provides results from a study comparing the perceptions of pediatric residents whose primary care continuity clinic took place in this integrated setting with those of residents from the same pediatric residency who had their continuity clinic training in a nonintegrated setting.

  20. Health outcomes and retention in care following release from prison for patients of an urban post-incarceration transitions clinic

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Aaron D.; Anderson, Matthew R.; Bartlett, Gary; Valverde, John; Starrels, Joanna L.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic health conditions are overrepresented among prisoners who often face barriers to medical care following release. Transitions clinics seek to provide timely access to medical care following release. This retrospective cohort study investigated care delivery and health outcomes for recently released prisoners receiving care at the Bronx Transitions Clinic. Among 135 recently released prisoners, median time from release to initial medical visit was 10 days (IQ Range: 5–31). Six-month retention in care was high for HIV-infection (86%), but lower for opioid dependence (33%), hypertension (45%) and diabetes (43%). At six months, 54% of HIV-patients had a suppressed viral load, but fewer buprenorphine-treated patients reduced opioid use (19%), and fewer hypertensive and diabetic patients reached respective blood pressure (35%) and hemoglobin A1c (14%) goals. Access to medical care is necessary but not sufficient to control chronic health conditions. Additional interventions are necessary for formerly incarcerated persons to achieve optimal health outcomes. PMID:25130230

  1. Improving health care, Part 4: Concepts for improving any clinical process.

    PubMed

    Batalden, P B; Mohr, J J; Nelson, E C; Plume, S K

    1996-10-01

    One promising method for streamlining the generation of "good ideas" is to formulate what are sometimes called change concepts-general notions or approaches to change found useful in developing specific ideas for changes that lead to improvement. For example, in current efforts to reduce health care costs by discounting provider charges, the underlying generic concept is "reducing health care costs," and the specific idea is "discounting provider charges." Short-term gains in health care cost reduction can occur by pursuing discounts. After some time, however, limits to such reduction in costs are experienced. Persevering and continuing to travel down the "discounting provider charges" path is less likely to produce further substantial improvement than returning to the basic concept of "reducing health care costs." An interdisciplinary team aiming to reduce costs while improving quality of care for patients in need of hip joint replacement generated ideas for changing "what's done (process) to get better results." After team members wrote down their improvement ideas, they deduced the underlying change concepts and used them to generate even more ideas for improvement. Such change concepts include reordering the sequence of steps (preadmission physical therapy "certification"), eliminating failures at hand-offs between steps (transfer of information from physician's office to hospital), and eliminating a step (epidural pain control). Learning about making change, encouraging change, managing the change within and across organizations, and learning from the changes tested will characterize the sustainable, thriving health systems of the future.

  2. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  3. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  4. Educating for the 21st-Century Health Care System: An Interdependent Framework of Basic, Clinical, and Systems Sciences.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Haidet, Paul; Papp, Klara K; Wolpaw, Daniel R; Moser, Eileen; Wittenstein, Robin D; Wolpaw, Terry

    2017-01-01

    In the face of a fragmented and poorly performing health care delivery system, medical education in the United States is poised for disruption. Despite broad-based recommendations to better align physician training with societal needs, adaptive change has been slow. Traditionally, medical education has focused on the basic and clinical sciences, largely removed from the newer systems sciences such as population health, policy, financing, health care delivery, and teamwork. In this article, authors examine the current state of medical education with respect to systems sciences and propose a new framework for educating physicians in adapting to and practicing in systems-based environments. Specifically, the authors propose an educational shift from a two-pillar framework to a three-pillar framework where basic, clinical, and systems sciences are interdependent. In this new three-pillar framework, students not only learn the interconnectivity in the basic, clinical, and systems sciences but also uncover relevance and meaning in their education through authentic, value-added, and patient-centered roles as navigators within the health care system. Authors describe the Systems Navigation Curriculum, currently implemented for all students at the Penn State College of Medicine, as an example of this three-pillar educational model. Simple adjustments, such as including occasional systems topics in medical curriculum, will not foster graduates prepared to practice in the 21st-century health care system. Adequate preparation requires an explicit focus on the systems sciences as a vital and equal component of physician education.

  5. What elements of the work environment are most responsible for health worker dissatisfaction in rural primary care clinics in Tanzania?

    PubMed

    Mbaruku, Godfrey M; Larson, Elysia; Kimweri, Angela; Kruk, Margaret E

    2014-08-03

    In countries with high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, reliable access to quality healthcare in rural areas is essential to save lives. Health workers who are satisfied with their jobs are more likely to remain in rural posts. Understanding what factors influence health workers' satisfaction can help determine where resources should be focused. Although there is a growing body of research assessing health worker satisfaction in hospitals, less is known about health worker satisfaction in rural, primary health clinics. This study explores the workplace satisfaction of health workers in primary health clinics in rural Tanzania. Overall, 70 health workers in rural Tanzania participated in a self-administered job satisfaction survey. We calculated mean ratings for 17 aspects of the work environment. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to identify groupings of these variables. We then examined the bivariate associations between health workers demographics and clinic characteristics and each of the satisfaction scales. Results showed that 73.9% of health workers strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their job; however, only 11.6% strongly agreed that they were satisfied with their level of pay and 2.9% with the availability of equipment and supplies. Two categories of factors emerged from the PCA: the tools and infrastructure to provide care, and supportive interpersonal environment. Nurses and medical attendants (compared to clinical officers) and older health workers had higher satisfaction scale ratings. Two dimensions of health workers' work environment, namely infrastructure and supportive interpersonal work environment, explained much of the variation in satisfaction among rural Tanzanian health workers in primary health clinics. Health workers were generally more satisfied with supportive interpersonal relationships than with the infrastructure. Human resource policies should consider how to improve these two aspects of work as a

  6. Relationship between Clinical Conditions and Use of Veterans Affairs Health Care among Medicare-Enrolled Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Laura A; Byrne, Margaret M; Daw, Christina N; Hasche, Jennifer; Reis, Brian; Pietz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine how reliance on Veterans Affairs (VA) for medical care among veterans enrolled in Medicare is affected by medical conditions, access, and patient characteristics. Data Sources/Study Setting Department of Veterans Affairs. Study Design We examined reliance on the VA for inpatient, outpatient, and overall medical care among all VA users in fiscal years 2003 and 2004 who were also enrolled in Medicare. We calculated the marginal effects of patient factors on VA reliance using fractional logistic regression; we also analyzed overall VA reliance separately for under-65 and age-65+ groups. The primary focus of this analysis was the relationship between aggregated condition categories (ACCs), which represent medical conditions, and reliance on the VA. Principal Findings Mean VA reliance was significantly higher in the under-65 population than in the age-65+ group (0.800 versus 0.531). Lower differential distance to the VA, and higher VA-determined priority for health care, predicted higher VA reliance. Most individual ACCs were negatively associated with VA reliance, though substance abuse and mental health disorders were significantly associated with increased reliance on VA care. Conditions of the eyes and ears/nose/throat had positive marginal effect on VA reliance for the under 65, while diabetes was positive for age 65+. Among inpatients, veterans with ACCs for mental health conditions, eye conditions, amputations, or infectious and parasitic conditions had higher likelihood of a VA hospitalization than inpatients without these conditions. Conclusions Many dually enrolled Veterans use both Medicare and VA health care. Age, accessibility, and priority level for VA services have a clear relationship with VA reliance. Because dual use is common, coordination of care among health care settings for such patients should be a policy priority. PMID:20403056

  7. Rationalizing definitions and procedures for optimizing clinical care and public health in fetal death and stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Joseph, K S; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Mehrabadi, Azar; Dahlgren, Leanne; Basso, Melanie; Davies, Cheryl; Lee, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent focus on stillbirth, there remains a profound need to address problems associated with the definitions and procedures related to fetal death and stillbirth. The current definition of fetal death, first proposed in 1950, needs to be updated to distinguish between the timing of fetal death (which has etiologic and prognostic significance) and the timing of stillbirth (ie, the delivery of the dead fetus). Stillbirth registration procedures, modeled after live birth registration and not death registration, also need to be modernized because they can be an unnecessary burden on some grieving families. The problems associated with fetal death definitions and stillbirth-associated procedures are highlighted by selective fetal reduction in multifetal pregnancy; in many countries, the fetus reduced at 10-13 weeks of gestation and delivered at term gestation requires stillbirth registration and a burial permit even if fetal remains cannot be identified. An international consensus is needed to standardize the definition of reportable fetal deaths; ideally this should be based on the timing of fetal death and should address the status of pregnancy terminations. In this article, we list propositions for initiating an international dialogue that will rationalize fetal death definitions, registration criteria, and associated procedures, and thereby improve clinical care and public health.

  8. The Personal Health Record Paradox: Health Care Professionals’ Perspectives and the Information Ecology of Personal Health Record Systems in Organizational and Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    accounts and analysis of organizational documents revealed a multidimensional dynamic between the trajectory of secure messaging implementation and its impact on organizational actors and their use of technology, influencing workflow, practices, and the flow of information. In effect, secure messaging was the missing element of complex information ecology and its implementation acted as a catalyst for change. Secure messaging was found to have important consequences for access, communication, patient self-report, and patient/provider relationships. Conclusions Study findings have direct implications for the development and implementation of PHR systems to ensure adequate training and support for health care professionals, alignment with clinical workflow, and features that enable information sharing and communication. Study findings highlight the importance of clinician endorsement and engagement, and the need to further examine both intended and unintended consequences of use. This research provides an integral step toward better understanding the social and organizational context and impact of PHR and secure messaging use in clinical practice settings. PMID:23557596

  9. Health care workers.

    PubMed

    Udasin, I G

    2000-12-01

    More people are employed in the health care sector than in any other industry in the United States. Health care workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards, including biological, chemical, physical and psychological stressors. Concerns about exposure to contagious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis have influenced the career choices of many health professionals. Physical hazards, especially ergonomic ones, account for the majority of the disability faced by health care workers. Chemical exposure and psychosocial stresses are also present in health care institutions. The exposure encountered in health care facilities is potentially dangerous to health care workers as well as to their family members and unborn children.

  10. Information technology, health care, and the future: what are the implications for the clinical laboratory?

    PubMed

    Lincoln, T L; Essin, D

    1992-01-01

    As new information systems are offered for the clinical laboratory, advanced applications and improvements in computer hardware continue to dominate marketing presentations and fascinate the decision maker. However, the most important issue for all of our clinical information systems is not the speed of the hardware, the reliability of the systems software, or the ability of applications to carry out routine tasks in some novel or elegant manner. Rather, it is "coping"--the ability of a system to manage new issues that arise as information requirements change over time and to manage all the unexpected events that occur in the course of regular work but that do not follow the usual sequence of procedures. The need for new processing conventions to cope with unexpected situations without creating new problems is not unique to health care. The need is present wherever the real world intrudes directly and significantly into critical operations. Moreover, the pressure to adjust to changing external circumstances continues to grow as the rate of change in our information-based society increases. The lack of general coping procedures, although long ignored, has become such a pervasive handicap that marked improvements in this type of flexibility will be introduced over this decade. New software designs that deal with coping issues are already beginning to appear and to bear fruit. When purchasing any new laboratory computer system today, software that demonstrates an effective coping flexibility should be given more weight than fascinating innovations in hardware or software that are the favorites of vendor marketers. It is now possible to test for such flexibility on a site-specific basis.

  11. An International Health Track Is Associated With Care for Underserved US Populations in Subsequent Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bazemore, Andrew W.; Goldenhar, Linda M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Diller, Philip M.; Huntington, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to increase insurance coverage have revealed limits in primary care capacity, in part due to physician maldistribution. Of interest to policymakers and educators is the impact of nontraditional curricula, including global health education, on eventual physician location. We sought to measure the association between graduate medical education in global health and subsequent care of the underserved in the United States. Methods In 2005, we surveyed 137 graduates of a family medicine program with one of the country's longest-running international health tracks (IHTs). We compared graduates of the IHT, those in the traditional residency track, and graduates prior to IHT implementation, assessing the anticipated and actual involvement in care of rural and other underserved populations, physician characteristics, and practice location and practice population. Results IHT participants were more likely to practice abroad and care for the underserved in the United States in the first 5 years following residency than non-IHT peers. Their current practices were more likely to be in underserved settings and they had higher percentages of uninsured and non–English-speaking patients. Comparisons between pre-IHT and post-IHT inception showed that in the first 5 years following residency, post-IHT graduates were more likely to care for the underserved and practice in rural areas and were likely to offer volunteer community health care services but were not more likely to practice abroad or to be in an academic practice. Conclusions Presence of an IHT was associated with increased care of underserved populations. After the institution of an IHT track, this association was seen among IHT participants and nonparticipants and was not associated with increased long-term service abroad. PMID:22655132

  12. Competence of health workers in emergency obstetric care: an assessment using clinical vignettes in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lohela, Terhi Johanna; Nesbitt, Robin Clark; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Kirkwood, Betty; Gabrysch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess health worker competence in emergency obstetric care using clinical vignettes, to link competence to availability of infrastructure in facilities, and to average annual delivery workload in facilities. Design Cross-sectional Health Facility Assessment linked to population-based surveillance data. Setting 7 districts in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. Participants Most experienced delivery care providers in all 64 delivery facilities in the 7 districts. Primary outcome measures Health worker competence in clinical vignette actions by cadre of delivery care provider and by type of facility. Competence was also compared with availability of relevant drugs and equipment, and to average annual workload per skilled birth attendant. Results Vignette scores were moderate overall, and differed significantly by respondent cadre ranging from a median of 70% correct among doctors, via 55% among midwives, to 25% among other cadres such as health assistants and health extension workers (p<0.001). Competence varied significantly by facility type: hospital respondents, who were mainly doctors and midwives, achieved highest scores (70% correct) and clinic respondents scored lowest (45% correct). There was a lack of inexpensive key drugs and equipment to carry out vignette actions, and more often, lack of competence to use available items in clinical situations. The average annual workload was very unevenly distributed among facilities, ranging from 0 to 184 deliveries per skilled birth attendant, with higher workload associated with higher vignette scores. Conclusions Lack of competence might limit clinical practice even more than lack of relevant drugs and equipment. Cadres other than midwives and doctors might not be able to diagnose and manage delivery complications. Checking clinical competence through vignettes in addition to checklist items could contribute to a more comprehensive approach to evaluate quality of care. Trial registration number NCT00623337

  13. Factors associated to clinical learning in nursing students in primary health care: an analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Gallardo, Pilar; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes; Espejo-Matorrales, Flora; Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Pinto, Ione Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the students' perception about the quality of clinical placements and asses the influence of the different tutoring processes in clinical learning. Methods: analytical cross-sectional study on second and third year nursing students (n=122) about clinical learning in primary health care. The Clinical Placement Evaluation Tool and a synthetic index of attitudes and skills were computed to give scores to the clinical learning (scale 0-10). Univariate, bivariate and multivariate (multiple linear regression) analyses were performed. Results: the response rate was 91.8%. The most commonly identified tutoring process was "preceptor-professor" (45.2%). The clinical placement was assessed as "optimal" by 55.1%, relationship with team-preceptor was considered good by 80.4% of the cases and the average grade for clinical learning was 7.89. The multiple linear regression model with more explanatory capacity included the variables "Academic year" (beta coefficient = 1.042 for third-year students), "Primary Health Care Area (PHC)" (beta coefficient = 0.308 for Area B) and "Clinical placement perception" (beta coefficient = - 0.204 for a suboptimal perception). Conclusions: timeframe within the academic program, location and clinical placement perception were associated with students' clinical learning. Students' perceptions of setting quality were positive and a good team-preceptor relationship is a matter of relevance. PMID:27627124

  14. Clinical Testing of a National Standardized Minimum Data Set Designed to Capture the Management Context of Health Care Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Connie W.; Huber, Diane G.

    1997-01-01

    Collecting the contextual factors that influence patient/client outcomes, quality, and cost of health care is essential for comparison of delivery systems and health care plans. Measuring the effects of management and administrative interventions and quantifying the characteristics of the environment within which care is delivered are essential to determining the validity of studies measuring patient/client outcomes and effectiveness. This paper describes the research based development of the Nursing Management Minimum Data Set (NMMDS) and outlines a strategy for clinical testing of the NMMDS across 50 US sites, settings, and health systems. The NMMDS, the product of a collaborative effort between The University of Iowa NMMDS Research Team and the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), is grounded in nursing's history of managing, coordinating, and integrating care across sites and settings. Implications for measuring the nursing component, alone or as a part of a broader whole of health care delivery redefinition, are explained. This work is vital in addressing the contextual part of data warehousing and clinical repositories

  15. Opportunities for multidisciplinary ASH clinical hypertension specialists in an era of population health and accountable care: ASH leadership message.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M

    2014-07-01

    The ASH hypertension specialists and ASH clinical and comprehensive hypertension centers represent a continuum of expertise and capacity positioned to play a major role in advancing the Triple Aim, which includes improving the patient care experience, population health, and value in cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention. The ASH hypertension specialists board is dedicated to testing and designating a broad range of qualified health care professionals as clinical hypertension specialists. A continuing partnership with ASH, recognizing the need for an appropriate firewall between education and testing, is essential in providing the education and training programs required to grow and sustain the specialized workforce required to translate current evidence and future advances in personalized medicine into better care for individuals, better health for populations, and better value for payers. Moreover, growth of the ASH hypertension registry has the potential to accelerate advances in education and patient care as noted previously. The ASH hypertension specialists board is excited about the opportunities available to a well-trained and collaborative multidisciplinary group of clinical hypertension specialists in an era of ACOs pursuing the Triple Aim.

  16. Effectiveness of a group outpatient visit model for chronically ill older health maintenance organization members: a 2-year randomized trial of the cooperative health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Scott, John C; Conner, Douglas A; Venohr, Ingrid; Gade, Glenn; McKenzie, Marlene; Kramer, Andrew M; Bryant, Lucinda; Beck, Arne

    2004-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Cooperative Health Care Clinic ((CHCC) group outpatient model for chronically ill, older health maintenance organization (HMO) patients) with usual care. Two-year, randomized, controlled trial conducted with recruitment from February 1995 through July of 1996. Nonprofit group model HMO. Two hundred ninety-four adults (145 intervention and 149 usual care), aged 60 and older (mean age 74.1) with 11 or more outpatient visits in the prior 18 months, one or more self-reported chronic conditions, and expressed interest in participating in a group clinic. Monthly group meetings held by patients' primary care physicians. Differences in clinic visits, inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, hospital outpatient services, professional services, home health, and skilled nursing facility admissions; measures of patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, and activities of daily living (ADLs). Outpatient, pharmacy services, home health, and skilled nursing facility use did not differ between groups, but CHCC patients had fewer hospital admissions (P=.012), emergency visits (P=.008), and professional services (P=.005). CHCC patients' costs were $41.80 per member per month less than those of control patients. CHCC patients reported higher satisfaction with their primary care physician (P=.022), better quality of life (P=.002), and greater self-efficacy (P=.03). Health status and ADLs did not differ between groups. The CHCC model resulted in fewer hospitalizations and emergency visits, increased patient satisfaction, and self-efficacy, but no effect on outpatient use, health, or functional status. Copyright 2004 American Geriatrics Society

  17. Association of Enrollment in an Aerodigestive Clinic With Reduced Hospital Stay for Children With Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Appachi, Swathi; Banas, Anne; Feinberg, Lisa; Henry, Douglas; Kenny, Diane; Kraynack, Nathan; Rosneck, Amy; Carl, John; Krakovitz, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have disproportionate health care utilization. Previous studies have demonstrated that a primary medical home improves health care outcomes for this population. To elucidate if enrollment in a multidisciplinary aerodigestive clinic improves outcomes and reduces health care costs by decreasing admissions and inpatient days. A retrospective medical record review of 113 patients with aerodigestive disorders enrolled in a pediatric multidisciplinary clinic from June 2009 to December 2013 was performed. Of the 113 particpants, 58 (51.3%) were male, 59 (52.2%) had a tracheostomy, and 90 (80.5%) had a gastrostomy tube during their enrollment period. Patient ages at enrollment ranged from 0 to 20 years, with 59 (52.2%) ranging from 0 to 5 years, 23 (20.4%) ranging from 6 to 10 years, 18 (15.9%) ranging from 11 to 15 years, and 13 (11.5%) being 16 years or older.Admissions data before and after enrollment in a pediatric multidisciplinary clinic were examined. The main outcomes studied were changes in admissions and inpatient days before and after enrollment. Financial data were also examined to determine the reduction in technical direct cost. The admissions data for 113 children were analyzed. No significant difference in number of admissions per year was seen with enrollment with a median difference of -0.30 admissions per year (range, -10.6 to 6.7 admissions per year; 95% CI, -3.5 to 2.9). However, there was a significant decrease seen in inpatient days per year following enrollment, with a median decrease of 4.1 inpatient days per year (range, -80 to 283.3 inpatient days per year; 95% CI, 0.33 to 91.0). When examining aerodigestive admissions alone, the median number of aerodigestive hospital days avoided per patient was 0.57 days per month, or 6.8 days per year, representing a 70% reduction in technical direct cost. These findings indicate that for children with special health care needs, enrollment in a multidisciplinary

  18. Patient-centred interprofessional collaboration in primary care: challenges for clinical, educational and health services research. An EGPRN keynote paper.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Paul; Rees, Charlotte E; Groenewegen, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The theme 'patient-centred interprofessional collaboration' of the EGPRN conference in October 2012, captures in just three words important challenges for European primary care and its research agenda. Challenges for future research are formulated, in three domains: clinical, educational and health services research. Transferability of research, based upon advanced computational infrastructure, will facilitate a rapid learning health care system. In educational research, this includes the use of observational and reflexivity methods. Outcomes should be defined in terms of improvement of functional status and social participation rather than in terms of disease-specific outcomes. Partnership with all stakeholders, patients, GPs and their health care colleagues and students, can help in reducing avoidable waste in the production and reporting of research evidence.

  19. Challenges Faced by Preceptors Serving in Dual Roles as Health Care Providers and Clinical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Preceptors play an integral role in training athletic training students (ATSs). Balancing roles as health care providers and educators can often be challenging. Role strain is a documented concern for the preceptor, yet limited information is available regarding other issues faced while supervising ATSs. Objective: To explore preceptor…

  20. Challenges Faced by Preceptors Serving in Dual Roles as Health Care Providers and Clinical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Preceptors play an integral role in training athletic training students (ATSs). Balancing roles as health care providers and educators can often be challenging. Role strain is a documented concern for the preceptor, yet limited information is available regarding other issues faced while supervising ATSs. Objective: To explore preceptor…

  1. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M

    2016-01-11

    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  2. Improving the Implementation of Evidence-Based Clinical Practices in Adolescent Reproductive Health Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lisa M.; Middleton, Dawn; Mueller, Trisha; Avellino, Lia; Hallum-Montes, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of the study were to describe baseline data in the implementation of evidence-based clinical practices among health center partners as part of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative and to identify opportunities for health center improvement. Methods Health center partner baseline data were collected in the first year (2011) and before program implementation of a 5-year community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative. A needs assessment on health center capacity and implementation of evidence-based clinical practices was administered with 51 health centers partners in 10 communities in the United States with high rates of teen pregnancy. Results Health centers reported inconsistent implementation of evidence-based clinical practices in providing reproductive health services to adolescents. Approximately 94.1% offered same-day appointments, 91.1% had infrastructure to reduce cost barriers, 90.2% offered after-school appointments, and 80.4% prescribed hormonal contraception without prerequisite examinations or testing. Approximately three quarters provided visual and audio privacy in examination rooms (76.5%) and counseling areas (74.5%). Fewer offered a wide range of contraceptive methods (67.8%) and took a sexual health history at every visit (54.9%). Only 45.1% reported Quick Start initiation of hormonal contraception, emergency contraception (43.1%), or intrauterine devices (12.5%) were “always” available to adolescents. Conclusions The assessment highlighted opportunities for health center improvement. Strategies to build capacity of health center partners to implement evidence-based clinical practices may lead to accessibility and quality of reproductive health services for adolescents in the funded communities. PMID:26381918

  3. Evaluating the clinical efficacy of a primary care-focused, nurse-led, consultation liaison model for perinatal mental health.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Simone T; Fisher, Lisa J; Green, Vicki M

    2012-02-01

    In Australia, perinatal mental illness is common, although poorly identified and treated. Improved perinatal mental health depends on service provision models that reflect a focus on promotion, prevention, and early intervention, while facilitating improved referral pathways between primary health and specialist mental health services. In 2008, a contemporary community-based model of mental health service provision was developed as an alternative to the pre-existing hospital-based service model. The model is delivered primarily by mental health nurses using a consultation liaison framework. It provides for specialist mental health assessment and brief intervention in collaboration with the general practitioner, who remains the primary health provider. It also aims to raise community awareness and build capacity for the management of perinatal disorders in the primary care sector. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of the model, and the improvement in access for primary health providers and women, was conducted at 2 years from its implementation. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated by using comparative data from the Edinburgh Depression Scale and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the results demonstrated clinical efficacy. Improved attendance rates indicated that women preferred this community-based service model as an alternative to the pre-existing service model. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Examining chronic care patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making: the case of Parkinson's disease patients in a patient-centred clinic.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Racine, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Patient-centred care is a recommended model of care for Parkinson's disease (PD). It aims to provide care that is respectful and responsive to patient preferences, values and perspectives. Provision of patient-centred care should entail considering how patients want to be involved in their care. To understand the participation preferences of patients with PD from a patient-centred care clinic in health-care decision-making processes. Mixed-methods study with early-stage Parkinson's disease patients from a patient-centred care clinic. Study involved a modified Autonomy Preference Index survey (N=65) and qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews, analysed using thematic qualitative content analysis (N=20, purposefully selected from survey participants). Interviews examined (i) the patient preferences for involvement in health-care decision making; (ii) patient perspectives on the patient-physician relationship; and (iii) patient preferences for communication of information relevant to decision making. Preferences for participation in decision making varied between individuals and also within individuals depending on decision type, relational and contextual factors. Patients had high preferences for communication of information, but with acknowledged limits. The importance of communication in the patient-physician relationship was emphasized. Patient preferences for involvement in decision making are dynamic and support shared decision making. Relational autonomy corresponds to how patients envision their participation in decision making. Clinicians may need to assess patient preferences on an on-going basis. Our results highlight the complexities of decision-making processes. Improved understanding of individual preferences could enhance respect for persons and make for patient-centred care that is truly respectful of individual patients' wants, needs and values. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical Features, Outcomes, and Molecular Characteristics of Community- and Health Care-Associated Staphylococcus lugdunensis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chun-Fu; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Lin, Jung-Fu; Liu, Tsui-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a major cause of aggressive endocarditis, but it is also responsible for a broad spectrum of infections. The differences in clinical and molecular characteristics between community-associated (CA) and health care-associated (HA) S. lugdunensis infections have remained unclear. We performed a retrospective study of S. lugdunensis infections between 2003 and 2014 to compare the clinical and molecular characteristics of CA and HA isolates. We collected 129 S. lugdunensis isolates in total: 81 (62.8%) HA isolates and 48 (37.2%) CA isolates. HA infections were more frequent than CA infections in children (16.0% versus 4.2%, respectively; P = 0.041) and the elderly (38.3% versus 14.6%, respectively; P = 0.004). The CA isolates were more likely to cause skin and soft tissue infections (85.4% versus 19.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). HA isolates were more frequently responsible for bacteremia of unknown origin (34.6% versus 4.2%, respectively; P < 0.001) and for catheter-related bacteremia (12.3% versus 0%, respectively; P = 0.011) than CA isolates. Fourteen-day mortality was higher for HA infections than for CA infections (11.1% versus 0%, respectively). A higher proportion of the HA isolates than of the CA isolates were resistant to penicillin (76.5% versus 52.1%, respectively; P = 0.004) and oxacillin (32.1% versus 2.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). Two major clonal complexes (CC1 and CC3) were identified. Sequence type 41 (ST41) was the most common sequence type identified (29.5%). The proportion of ST38 isolates was higher for HA than for CA infections (33.3% versus 12.5%, respectively; P = 0.009). These isolates were of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec)type IV, V, or Vt. HA and CA S. lugdunensis infections differ in terms of their clinical features, outcome, antibiotic susceptibilities, and molecular characteristics. PMID:27225402

  6. Building a global health education network for clinical care and research. The benefits and challenges of distance learning tools. Lessons learned from the Hopkins Center for Clinical Global Health Education.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Robert C; McKenzie-White, Jane; Gupta, Amita

    2011-06-01

    Expanding the capacity for clinical care and health research is a global priority and a global challenge. The Johns Hopkins Center for Clinical Global Health Education (CCGHE) was established in 2005 to provide access to high-quality training to health care providers in resource-limited settings. The CCGHE made a strategic decision to develop, use, and evaluate distance learning platforms to achieve its mission. In the initial years of this new program, several lessons have been learned that may be helpful to other programs considering the use of distance learning programs to expand global health clinical and research capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Telephone care coordination for smokers in VA mental health clinics: protocol for a hybrid type-2 effectiveness-implementation trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes an innovative protocol for a type-II hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial that is evaluating a smoking cessation telephone care coordination program for Veterans Health Administration (VA) mental-health clinic patients. As a hybrid trial, the protocol combines implementation science and clinical trial methods and outcomes that can inform future cessation studies and the implementation of tobacco cessation programs into routine care. The primary objectives of the trial are (1) to evaluate the process of adapting, implementing, and sustaining a smoking cessation telephone care coordination program in VA mental health clinics, (2) to determine the effectiveness of the program in promoting long-term abstinence from smoking among mental health patients, and (3) to compare the effectiveness of telephone counseling delivered by VA staff with that delivered by state quitlines. Methods/design The care coordination program is being implemented at six VA facilities. VA mental health providers refer patients to the program via an electronic medical record consult. Program staff call referred patients to offer enrollment. All patients who enroll receive a self-help booklet, mailed smoking cessation medications, and proactive multi-call telephone counseling. Participants are randomized to receive this counseling from VA staff or their state’s quitline. Four primary implementation strategies are being used to optimize program implementation and sustainability: blended facilitation, provider training, informatics support, and provider feedback. A three-phase formative evaluation is being conducted to identify barriers to, and facilitators for, program implementation and sustainability. A mixed-methods approach is being used to collect quantitative clinical effectiveness data (e.g., self-reported abstinence at six months) and both quantitative and qualitative implementation data (e.g., provider referral rates, coded interviews with providers

  8. Reducing health care delivery costs using clinical paths: a case study on improving hospital profitability.

    PubMed

    Clare, M; Sargent, D; Moxley, R; Forthman, T

    1995-01-01

    The process of merging and benchmarking clinical and financial data is pivotal to the development of appropriate clinical pathways. Bristol Regional Medical Center (BRMC), facing the challenge of managed care organizations (MCOs), instituted this process and achieved significant cost savings, largely because of the working partnership between the administration and its medical staff. In DRG 89, Simple Pneumonia and Pleurisy, Age Greater than 17 with CC, data adjusted for severity of illness and cost of living were furnished to BRMC by HCIA Inc. Major benchmark or "best practice" variations were incorporated into new clinical pathways, leading to decreased resource use, no compromise in the quality of care, and a beneficial halo effect on other unrelated DRGs.

  9. The new production theory for health care through clinical reengineering: a study of clinical guidelines--Part I.

    PubMed

    Sharp, J R

    1994-12-01

    Drucker writes that the emerging theory of manufacturing includes four principles and practices: statistical quality control, manufacturing accounting, modular organization, and systems approach. SQC is a rigorous, scientific method of identifying variation in the quality and productivity of a given production process, with an emphasis on improvement. The new manufacturing economics intends to integrate the production strategy with the business strategy in order to account for the biggest portions of costs that the old methods did not assess: time and automation. Production operations that are both standardized and flexible will allow the organization to keep up with changes in design, technology, and the market. The return on innovation in this environment is predicated on a modular arrangement of flexible steps in the process. Finally, the systems approach sees the entire process as being integrated in converting goods or services into economic satisfaction. There is now a major restructuring of the U.S. health care industry, and the incorporation of these four theories into health care reform would appear to be essential. This two-part article will address two problems: Will Drucker's theories relate to health care (Part I)? Will the "new manufacturing" in health care (practice guidelines) demonstrate cost, quality, and access changes that reform demands (Part II)?

  10. Clinical problems in community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, B; van Meijel, B; Schene, A; Hutschemaekers, G

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the problems that professionals perceive in the community mental health care for patients with severe borderline personality disorder that do not fit into specialized therapy. A group of national experts (n = 8) participated in a four-phase Delphi-procedure to identify and prioritize the problems. A total of 36 problems reflecting five categories was found: patient-related, professional-related, interaction-related, social system-related, and mental health care-related. Problems with attachment and dependency and social issues were important patient problems while a lack of skills was an important professional problem. Support from the patient's social system and the mental health system were identified as limited, which resulted in both the patient and the professional feeling isolated. Patient, professional, and organisational characteristics of community care differ substantially from those of specialized care. The field is thus in need of a more tailored approach that takes these differences into account.

  11. [A survey of demand for medical care in three public health clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M S; D'Orsi, E; Prates, E C; Toschi, W D; Shiraiwa, T; Campos, T P; Ell, E; Garcia, N L; Junqueira, A P; Serrão, S A; Tavares, E L

    1994-01-01

    A sample survey was conducted in three public ambulatory medical care units in Rio de Janeiro in order to show the demographic and nosological aspects of the clientele as well as to evaluate the quality of clinic records. The sample included 2,029 patients registered in the health clinics and 3,980 consultants from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. The diagnoses were coded according to the 9th revision of the International Classification of Dieases. Females accounted for about 60% of the sample, and more than a half were between 15 and 49 years of age. Children under 10 years old made up 28% of the total. About 38% of the patients came from the poor areas of the city: the "favelas". The case files were poorly filled out, frequently lacking useful information. The most frequent cause was classified in the XVIo chapter of the ICD - ill-defined causes, followed by respiratory, infectious, genitourinary and circulatory diseases. External causes predominated in one of the health clinics, which is an emergency service. There was a great demand for preventive measures, such as prenatal care and child care, even at the clinic that was traditionally devoted only to curative medicine. The most frequent specific diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, gynecological problems, prenatal care, and skin diseases. There were no records for referrals to other health services. The poor quality of the medical records causes problems in terms of quality of health care. Use of such record-keeping systems, even while criticizing them, is essential to improve them.

  12. Dental Anxiety and the Use of Oral Health Services Among People Attending Two HIV Primary Care Clinics in Miami

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard; Cardenas, Gabriel; Xavier, Jessica; Jeanty, Yves; Pereyra, Margaret; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined factors associated with dental anxiety among a sample of HIV primary care patients and investigated the independent association of dental anxiety with oral health care. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2010 from 444 patients attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Corah Dental Anxiety Scores and use of oral health-care services were obtained from all HIV-positive patients in the survey. Results The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety in this sample was 37.8%, while 7.9% of the sample was characterized with severe dental anxiety. The adjusted odds of having severe dental anxiety were 3.962 times greater for females than for males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.688, 9.130). After controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, access to dental care, and HIV primary clinic experience, participants with severe dental anxiety had 69.3% lower adjusted odds of using oral health-care services within the past 12 months (vs. longer than 12 months ago) compared with participants with less-than-severe dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio = 0.307, 95% CI 0.127, 0.742). Conclusion A sizable number of patients living with HIV have anxiety associated with obtaining needed dental care. Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals. PMID:22547875

  13. Unplanned health care tourism.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2015-01-01

    Health care tourism is often a preplanned event carefully laying out all the details. Sometimes, when one least expects it, medical care is needed outside of the mainland. This Editorial speaks to an unplanned experience.

  14. National Health Care Survey

    Cancer.gov

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  15. Adjustment disorder with anxiety in old age: comparing prevalence and clinical management in primary care and mental health care.

    PubMed

    Arbus, C; Hergueta, T; Duburcq, A; Saleh, A; Le Guern, M-E; Robert, P; Camus, V

    2014-05-01

    Adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjD-A) is a common cause of severe anxiety symptoms, but little is known about its prevalence in old age. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of AjD-A in outpatients over the age of 60 who consecutively consulted 34 general practitioners and 22 psychiatrists during a 2-week period. The diagnosis of AjD-A was obtained using the optional module for diagnostic of adjustment disorder of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study procedure also explored comorbid psychiatric conditions and documented recent past stressful life events, as well as social disability and current pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Overall, 3651 consecutive subjects were screened (2937 in primary care and 714 in mental health care). The prevalence rate of AjD-A was 3.7% (n=136). Up to 39% (n=53) of AjD-A subjects had a comorbid psychiatric condition, mostly of the anxious type. The most frequently stressful life event reported to be associated with the onset of AjD-A was personal illness or health problem (29%). More than 50% of the AjD-A patients were markedly to extremely disabled by their symptoms. Compared to patients who consulted psychiatrists, patients who were seen by primary care physicians were older, had obtained lower scores at the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, benefited less frequently from non-pharmacological management and received benzodiazepines more frequently. AjD-A appears to be a significantly disabling cause of anxiety symptoms in community dwelling elderly persons, in particular those presenting personal health related problems. Improvement of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological management of AjD-A would contribute to limit risks of benzodiazepine overuse, particularly in primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Creonization of health care.

    PubMed

    Bulger, R J

    1990-01-01

    As prefigured in the Greek tragedy Antigone, one of the primary conflicts in contemporary health care is that between humane concern for the individual and concern for society at large and administrative rules. The computerization of the health care system and development of large data bases will create new forms of this conflict that will challenge the self-definition of health care and health care professionals.

  17. An early oral health care program starting during pregnancy: results of a prospective clinical long-term study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Karen; Geurtsen, Werner; Günay, Hüsamettin

    2010-06-01

    This study covers phase IV of a prospective clinical long-term study. Objective of this clinical investigation was to analyze the effects of a long-term prevention program on dental and oral health of teenagers at the age of 13 to 14 years. The entire study was subdivided into four phases. Phase I comprised an individual preventive care during pregnancy ("primary-primary prevention"); phase II assessed mothers and their young children until the age of 3 years ("primary prevention"); and in phase III, mothers and children at the age of 6 years were investigated. In phase IV of the study, the oral health of 13- to 14-year-old teenagers was examined (13.4 +/- 0.5 years; n = 29). All phases consisted of an examination, education about oral health care, and treatment based on the concept of an early oral health care promotion. The control group consisted of randomly selected adolescents at the same age (n = 30). The following clinical parameters were assessed: decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMF-T)/decayed, missing, and filled surface teeth index, hygiene index, papilla bleeding index, Periodontal Screening Index, and Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus concentration in saliva. The teenagers of the "prevention" group of phase IV of our prospective study revealed a share of 89.7% caries-free dentitions (65.5% sound; 24.2% caries-free with fillings). Mean DMF-T was 0.55 +/- 1.0. The control group showed a significantly higher mean DMF-T of 1.5 +/- 1.5 (p < 0.05) and revealed 56.7% of caries-free dentitions (30% sound, 26.7% caries-free with restorations). Our data clearly document that an early oral health care promotion starting during pregnancy may cause a sustained and long-term improvement of the oral health of children.

  18. Clinical skill and knowledge requirements of health care providers caring for children in disaster, humanitarian and civic assistance operations: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather L; Gaskins, Susan W; Seibert, Diane C

    2013-02-01

    Military health care providers (HCPs) have an integral role during disaster, humanitarian, and civic assistance (DHCA) missions. Since 50% of patients seen in these settings are children, military providers must be prepared to deliver this care. The purpose of this systematic, integrative review of the literature was to describe the knowledge and clinical skills military health care providers need in order to provide care for pediatric outpatients during DHCA operations. A systematic search protocol was developed in conjunction with a research librarian. Searches of PubMed and CINAHL were conducted using terms such as Disaster*, Geological Processes, and Military Personnel. Thirty-one articles were included from database and manual searches. Infectious diseases, vaccines, malnutrition, sanitation and wound care were among the most frequently mentioned of the 49 themes emerging from the literature. Concepts included endemic, environmental, vector-borne and vaccine-preventable diseases; enhanced pediatric primary care; and skills and knowledge specific to disaster, humanitarian and civic assistance operations. The information provided is a critical step in developing curriculum specific to caring for children in DHCA. While the focus was military HCPs, the knowledge is easily translated to civilian HCPs who provide care to children in these situations.

  19. Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic.

    PubMed

    Jewett, A; Al-Tayyib, A A; Ginnett, L; Smith, B D

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends testing and linkage to care for persons most likely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), including persons with human immunodeficiency virus. We explored facilitators and barriers to integrating HCV point-of-care (POC) testing into standard operations at an urban STD clinic. Methods. The OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test was integrated at the Denver Metro Health Clinic (DMHC). All clients with at least one risk factor were offered the POC test. Research staff conducted interviews with clients (three HCV positive and nine HCV negative). Focus groups were conducted with triage staff, providers, and linkage-to-care counselors. Results. Clients were pleased with the ease of use and rapid return of results from the HCV POC test. Integrating the test into this setting required more time but was not overly burdensome. While counseling messages were clear to staff, clients retained little knowledge of hepatitis C infection or factors related to risk. Barriers to integrating the HCV POC test into clinic operations were loss to follow-up and access to care. Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection.

  20. Teamwork in health care.

    PubMed

    Landman, Natalie; Aannestad, Liv K; Smoldt, Robert K; Cortese, Denis A

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that maintaining and improving the health of the population, and doing so in a financially sustainable manner, requires the coordination of acute medical care with long-term care, and social support services, that is, team-based care. Despite a growing body of evidence on the benefits of team-based care, the health care ecosystem remains "resistant" to a broader implementation of such care models. This resistance is a function of both system-wide and organizational barriers, which result primarily from fragmentation in reimbursement for health care services, regulatory restrictions, and the siloed nature of health professional education. To promote the broader adoption of team-based care models, the health care system must transition to pay for value reimbursement, as well as break down the educational silos and move toward team-based and value-based education of health professionals.

  1. Personal Care in Learning Health Care Systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Kim, Scott Y H

    2015-12-01

    The idea of a "learning health care system"--one that systematically integrates clinical research with medical care--has received considerable attention recently. Some commentators argue that under certain conditions pragmatic comparative effectiveness randomized trials can be conducted ethically within the context of a learning health care system without the informed consent of patients for research participation. In this article, we challenge this perspective and contend that conducting randomized trials of individual treatment options without consent is neither necessary nor desirable to promote and sustain learning health care systems. Our argument draws on the normative conception of personal care developed by Charles Fried in a landmark 1974 book on the ethics of randomized controlled trials.

  2. Health care-associated infection surveillance in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: A prospective clinical study after moving to a new building.

    PubMed

    Cura, Ceyhun; Ozen, Metehan; Akaslan Kara, Aybuke; Alkan, Gulsum; Sesli Cetin, Emel

    2016-01-01

    There are very few prospective clinical studies on neonatal health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance. HAI surveillance helps reduce not only mortality, but also morbidity, length of hospital stay, and health care costs. This prospective clinical study covered a period of 12 months in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). HAI rates were calculated using different denominators: number of patients hospitalized in the NICU, number of patient-days, and number of specific device-days. The HAI rate was 18%, and the incidence density was 17/1,000 patient-days. The most common HAI was bloodstream infection (n = 34; 50%). The most common pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 54.9%) in gram-positive bacteria and in general. Methicillin resistance was 96.4% for CoNS. Klebsiella spp (13.7%) was the most common gram-negative bacteria. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase positivity was 14.3% for Klebsiella spp and 25% for Escherichia coli. HAI-related mortality was 0.3%. NICUs should perform their own HAI surveillance with prospective clinical design. Attention paid to handwashing, disinfection and sanitizing, complying with the terms of asepsis, extending in-service training, increasing the number of medical staff, preventing frequent changes in health care staff positions, and improving physical environmental conditions in NICUs might eventually decrease HAI rates. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of personal digital assistants in clinical decision making by health care professionals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Divall, Pip; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Baker, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Ownership of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smartphones by health professionals is increasingly common. Providing the best available evidence at the point of care is important for time-poor clinical staff and may lead to benefits in the processes and outcomes of clinical care. This review was performed to investigate the usefulness of PDAs in the clinical setting. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 2000 to March 2010. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects on the processes or outcomes of clinical care of using PDAs compared with not using a PDA were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations and abstracts, assessed full text articles and abstracted data from the studies. Seven trials met the review inclusion criteria, of which only three were of satisfactory quality. Studies investigated the use of PDAs either in recording patient information or in decision support for diagnoses or treatment. An increase in data collection quality was reported, and the appropriateness of diagnosis and treatment decisions was improved. PDAs appear to have potential in improving some processes and outcomes of clinical care, but the evidence is limited and reliable conclusions on whether they help, in what circumstances and how they should be used are not possible. Further research is required to assess their value and ensure full benefits from their widespread use, but the pace of technological development creates problems for the timely evaluation of these devices and their applications.

  4. The economic model for health care delivery. A business plan to create the virtual clinic.

    PubMed

    Butz, J T; Dilday, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the history of managed care, and then analyzes the economic rationale underlying the present dynamics of the marketplace. With this background, the paper postulates what the ultimate delivery system should be: the virtual clinic. It includes a proposed micro-model that could evolve into a macro-institution driven by the two essential elements of the market: equity and efficiency.

  5. Quality of care and health-related quality of life of climacteric stage women cared for in family medicine clinics in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives 1) To design and validate indicators to measure the quality of the process of care that climacteric stage women receive in family medicine clinics (FMC). 2) To assess the quality of care that climacteric stage women receive in FMC. 3) To determine the association between quality of care and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among climacteric stage women. Methods The study had two phases: I. Design and validation of indicators to measure the quality of care process by using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. II. Evaluation of the quality of care and its association with HR-QoL through a cross-sectional study conducted in two FMC located in Mexico City that included 410 climacteric stage women. The quality of care was measured by estimating the percentage of recommended care received (PRCR) by climacteric stage women in three process components: health promotion, screening, and treatment. The HR-QoL was measured using the Cervantes scale (0-155). The association between quality of care and HR-QoL was estimated through multiple linear regression analysis. Results The lowest mean of PRCR was for the health promotion component (24.1%) and the highest for the treatment component (86.6%). The mean of HR-QoL was 50.1 points. The regression analysis showed that in the treatment component, for every 10 additional points of the PRCR, the global HR-QoL improved 2.8 points on the Cervantes scale (coefficient -0.28, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The indicators to measure quality of care for climacteric stage women are applicable and feasible in family medicine settings. There is a positive association between the quality of the treatment component and HR-QoL; this would encourage interventions to improve quality of care for climacteric stage women. PMID:20144238

  6. Hypertension and treatment outcomes in Palestine refugees in United Nations Relief and Works Agency primary health care clinics in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khader, A; Farajallah, L; Shahin, Y; Hababeh, M; Abu-Zayed, I; Zachariah, R; Kochi, A; Kapur, A; Harries, A D; Shaikh, I; Seita, A

    2014-10-01

    In six United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) primary health care clinics in Jordan serving Palestine refugees diagnosed with hypertension, to determine the number, characteristics, programme outcomes and measures of disease control for those registered up to 30 June, 2013, and in those who attended clinic in the second quarter of 2013, the prevalence of disease-related complications between those with hypertension only and hypertension combined with diabetes mellitus. Retrospective cohort study with programme and outcome data collected and analysed using E-Health. There were 18 881 patients registered with hypertension with females (64%) and persons aged ≥ 40 years (87%) predominating. At baseline, cigarette smoking was recorded in 17%, physical inactivity in 48% and obesity in 71% of patients. 77% of all registered patients attended clinic in the second quarter of 2013; of these, 50% had hypertension and diabetes and 50% had hypertension alone; 9% did not attend the clinics and 10% were lost to follow-up. Amongst those attending clinic, 92% had their blood pressure measured, of whom 83% had blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg. There were significantly more patients with hypertension and diabetes (N = 966, 13%) who had disease-related complications than patients who had hypertension alone (N = 472, 6%) [OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.5], and these differences were found for both males [18% vs. 10%, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2] and females [11% vs. 5%, OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.1-2.9]. Large numbers of Palestine refugees are being registered and treated for hypertension in UNRWA primary health care clinics in Jordan. Cohort analysis and E-Health can be used to regularly assess caseload, programme outcomes, clinic performance, blood pressure control and cumulative prevalence of disease-related complications. Current challenges include the need to increase clinic attendance and attain better control of blood pressure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Los Angeles Free Clinic [and]"Adolescent Health Care Programs That Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainwater, Mary; De Caprio, Chris

    The first paper describes The Los Angeles Free Clinic and its services, which are specifically designed to respond to the needs of low-income and homeless youth within the community. The paper describes a free-of-charge, free-of-judgment comprehensive response system that exists because of collaboration with other health facilities such as…

  8. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.

    PubMed

    Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee

    2006-01-01

    The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.

  9. Challenges in adapting existing clinical natural language processing systems to multiple, diverse health care settings.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Schoen, Robert E; Leffler, Daniel A; Morris, Michele; Rose, Sherri; Baer, Andrew; Crockett, Seth D; Gourevitch, Rebecca A; Dean, Katie M; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-09-01

    Widespread application of clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems requires taking existing NLP systems and adapting them to diverse and heterogeneous settings. We describe the challenges faced and lessons learned in adapting an existing NLP system for measuring colonoscopy quality. Colonoscopy and pathology reports from 4 settings during 2013-2015, varying by geographic location, practice type, compensation structure, and electronic health record. Though successful, adaptation required considerably more time and effort than anticipated. Typical NLP challenges in assembling corpora, diverse report structures, and idiosyncratic linguistic content were greatly magnified. Strategies for addressing adaptation challenges include assessing site-specific diversity, setting realistic timelines, leveraging local electronic health record expertise, and undertaking extensive iterative development. More research is needed on how to make it easier to adapt NLP systems to new clinical settings. A key challenge in widespread application of NLP is adapting existing systems to new clinical settings.

  10. Adaptation and validation of the instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision for medical students in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Öhman, Eva; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Kaila, Päivi; Hult, Håkan; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Salminen, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Clinical learning takes place in complex socio-cultural environments that are workplaces for the staff and learning places for the students. In the clinical context, the students learn by active participation and in interaction with the rest of the community at the workplace. Clinical learning occurs outside the university, therefore is it important for both the university and the student that the student is given opportunities to evaluate the clinical placements with an instrument that allows evaluation from many perspectives. The instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision (CLES) was originally developed for evaluation of nursing students' clinical learning environment. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the CLES instrument to measure medical students' perceptions of their learning environment in primary health care. In the adaptation process the face validity was tested by an expert panel of primary care physicians, who were also active clinical supervisors. The adapted CLES instrument with 25 items and six background questions was sent electronically to 1,256 medical students from one university. Answers from 394 students were eligible for inclusion. Exploratory factor analysis based on principal component methods followed by oblique rotation was used to confirm the adequate number of factors in the data. Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the dimensions of CLES instrument. The construct validity showed a clearly indicated four-factor model. The cumulative variance explanation was 0.65, and the overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.95. All items loaded similarly with the dimensions in the non-adapted CLES except for one item that loaded to another dimension. The CLES instrument in its adapted form had high construct validity and high reliability and internal consistency. CLES, in its adapted form, appears to be a valid instrument to evaluate medical students' perceptions of

  11. Are all skilled birth attendants created equal? A cluster randomised controlled study of non-physician based obstetric care in primary health care clinics in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dilys; DeMaria, Lisa; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Dolores; Padron-Salas, Aldanely; Romero-Alvarez, Minerva; Suarez, Leticia

    2013-10-01

    the great majority of births in Mexico are attended by physicians. Non-physician health professionals have never been evaluated or compared to the medical model of obstetric care. This study evaluates the relative strengths of adding an obstetric nurse or professional midwife to the physician based team in rural clinics. we undertook a cluster-randomised trial in 27 clinics in 2 states with high maternal mortality. Twelve non-physician providers (obstetric nurses (4) and professional midwives (8)) were randomly assigned to clinics; 15 clinics served as control sites. Over an 18-month period in 2009-2010, we evaluated quality of care through chart review and monthly interviews with providers about last three deliveries performed. We analysed practices by creating indices using WHO care guidelines for normal labour and childbirth. Volume of care was assessed using administrative reporting forms. two thousand two hundred fifty-four pregnancies were followed, and a total of 461 deliveries occurred in study sites. Intervention clinics were more likely to score highly on the index for favourable practices on admission (OR=3.6, 95% CI 2.3-5.8), and during labour, childbirth, and immediately post partum (OR=8.6, 95% CI 2.9-25.6) and less likely to use excessively used or harmful practices during labour, childbirth and immediately post partum (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4). There was a significant increase in volume of care in intervention clinics for antenatal visits (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), deliveries (IRR=2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7) and for postpartum visits (IRR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). the addition of non-physician skilled birth attendants to rural clinics in Mexico where they independently provided basic obstetric services led to improved care and higher coverage than clinics without. The potential value of including a professional midwife or obstetric nurse in all rural clinics providing obstetric care should be considered. Mexican National Institute for

  12. Health Care in India.

    PubMed

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Although a stated right for all Indians, equal access to health care in India is impeded by socioeconomic barriers. With its 3-tier system of public health care centers in villages, district hospitals, and tertiary care hospitals, government expenditure in India is inordinately low, with a disproportionate emphasis on private health spending. Accordingly, the poorest receive a minority of the available subsidies, whereas the richest obtain more than a third, fostering a divide in health care infrastructure across the rich and poor in urban and rural settings. This paradigm has implications for domestic Indian public health and global public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Care in China.

    PubMed

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    China has recently emerged as an important global partner. However, like other developing nations, China has experienced dramatic demographic and epidemiologic changes in the past few decades. Population discontent with the health care system has led to major reforms. China's distinctive health care system, including its unique history, vast infrastructure, the speed of health reform, and economic capacity to make important advances in health care, nonetheless, has incomplete insurance coverage for urban and rural dwellers, uneven access, mixed quality of health care, increasing costs, and risk of catastrophic health expenditures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of effectiveness and satisfaction outcomes of a mental health screening and referral clinical pathway for community nursing care.

    PubMed

    Allen, J; Annells, M; Nunn, R; Petrie, E; Clark, E; Lang, L; Robins, A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a mental health screening and referral clinical pathway for generalist community nursing care of war veterans and war widow(er)s in Australia on outcomes of client self-reported mental health, quality of life, and client and carer satisfaction. The pathway was developed by literature review and consultation, then trialled and evaluated. Validated screening tools were embedded within the pathway to support generalist nurses' mental health decision making. Pre- and post-measures were applied. Clients on whom the pathway was trialled were invited to complete an evaluation survey questionnaire, as were their informal carers. Most clients and carers who responded to these questionnaires were highly satisfied or satisfied with care provided through application of the pathway. This study adds understanding about one way that community nurses might identify people with mental health difficulties. The trialled pathway, which was modified and refined following the study, is now available on the Internet as an evidence-based resource for community nurses in Australia to guide practice and maximize holistic care for war veterans and war widow(er)s where that care is funded by Department of Veterans' Affairs.

  15. Systematic Review of Integrative Health Care Research: Randomized Control Trials, Clinical Controlled Trials, and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsan, Raheleh; Coulter, Ian D.; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the level of evidence for integrative health care research. We searched PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, the entire Cochrane Library, MANTIS, Social SciSearch, SciSearch Cited Ref Sci, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and NCCAM grantee publications listings, from database inception to May 2009, as well as searches of the “gray literature.” Available studies published in English language were included. Three independent reviewers rated each article and assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 50). Our search yielded 11,891 total citations but 6 clinical studies, including 4 randomized, met our inclusion criteria. There are no available systematic reviews/meta-analyses published that met our inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed independently using quality checklists of the SIGN 50. Only a small number of RCTs and CCTs with a limited number of patients and lack of adequate control groups assessing integrative health care research are available. These studies provide limited evidence of effective integrative health care on some modalities. However, integrative health care regimen appears to be generally safe. PMID:20953383

  16. The role of noise in clinical environments with particular reference to mental health care: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Rutherford, Peter; Crawford, Paul

    2015-09-01

    There is a large literature suggesting that noise can be detrimental to health and numerous policy documents have promoted noise abatement in clinical settings. This paper documents the role of noise in clinical environments and its deleterious effects with a particular focus on mental health care. Our intention however, is to go beyond the notion that noise is simply undesirable and examine the extent to which researchers have explored the meaning of sound in hospital settings and identify new opportunities for research and practice. This is a narrative review which has grouped the literature and issues in the field into themes concerning the general issues of noise in health care; sleep noise and hospital environments; noise in intensive care units; implications for service users and staff; and suggestions for new ways of conceptualising and researching clinical soundscapes. Data sources comprised relevant UK policy documents and the results of a literature search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using terms such as noise, health, hospital, soundscape and relevant additional terms derived from the papers retrieved. In addition the references of retrieved articles were scanned for additional relevant material and historical items significant in shaping the field. Excess unwanted noise can clearly be detrimental to health and impede recovery, and this is clearly recognised by policymakers especially in the UK context. We use the literature surveyed to argue that it is important also to see the noise in clinical environments in terms of the meaning it conveys and rather than merely containing unwanted sound, clinical environments have a 'soundscape'. This comprises noises which convey meaning, for example about the activities of other people, the rhythms of the day and the nature of the auditory community of the hospital. Unwanted sound may have unwanted effects, especially on those who are most vulnerable, yet this does not necessarily mean that silence is

  17. Using a self-service kiosk to identify behavioural health needs in a primary care clinic serving an urban, underserved population.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Glenda; Kasiah, Fatima; Syed, Irshad

    2015-09-09

    Integration of behavioural health into primary care clinics is an established model of care and important approach to eliminating mental health disparities, but demands on provider time is a barrier to mental health screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a kiosk placed in a primary care clinic to screen for multiple mental health disorders. Quality improvement initiative with Plan-Do-Study-Act implementation and time series monitoring of utilisation outcomes. A total of 281 screens were completed identifying positive screens for depression (30%) and bipolar disorder (17%). Post-traumatic stress disorder and concerning substance use were less common. Development of health information technology to facilitate behavioural health assessment in primary care is a promising approach to integrated care and provides additional benefits of population health monitoring.

  18. Can remote STI/HIV testing and eClinical Care be compatible with robust public health surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Harding-Esch, Emma; Nardone, Anthony; Gibbs, Jo; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Sonnenberg, Pam; Estcourt, Claudia; Hughes, Gwenda; Mohammed, Hamish; Gill, Noel; Sadiq, S Tariq; Lowndes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we outline the current data capture systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance used by Public Health England (PHE), and how these will be affected by the introduction of novel testing platforms and changing patient pathways. We outline the Chlamydia Online Clinical Care Pathway (COCCP), developed as part of the Electronic Self-Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections (eSTI2) Consortium, which ensures that surveillance data continue to be routinely collected and transmitted to PHE. We conclude that both novel diagnostic testing platforms and established data capture systems must be adaptable to ensure continued robust public health surveillance. PMID:26742547

  19. Post-Katrina provision of health care to veterans in a mobile clinic: providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Corazon R; Eichaker, Veronica; Chee, Vernon E; Chapital, Eleanor

    2007-08-01

    To describe the challenges faced by healthcare providers in the aftermath of one of the worst natural disasters in the United States. Eight healthcare providers describe their perceptions of the care they provided to veterans at a mobile clinic in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. This informal report used Giorgi's phenomenological approach to gathering and analyzing information provided in written response to eight specific questions. Four broad categories of challenges and concerns are discussed in this article: (a) What was important in the provision of care for the veterans, (b) the hindrances encountered, (c) factors that facilitated the care given, and (d) the perceived effects of the care they provided. Three key themes characterized the lived experience of the eight participants: uncertainty, deprivation, and stabilization. Although this was not a formal research study, the authors and participants were able to use their research backgrounds and understandings to organize and make sense of their experiences during this chaotic period. As hurricane season in the United States and the anniversary of Hurricane Katrina (August 2005) approach, it is hoped that this report on the experiences and recommendations of healthcare providers will benefit other providers in similar situations.

  20. Can Synovial Pathobiology Integrate with Current Clinical and Imaging Prediction Models to Achieve Personalized Health Care in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Humby, Frances Claire; Al Balushi, Farida; Lliso, Gloria; Cauli, Alberto; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2017-01-01

    Although great progress has been made in the past decade toward understanding the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), clinicians remain some distance from a goal of personalized health care. The capacity to diagnose RA early, predict prognosis, and moreover predict response to biologic therapies has been a research focus for many years. How currently available clinical prediction models can facilitate such goals is reviewed in this article. In addition, the role of current imaging techniques in this regard is also discussed. Finally, the authors review the current literature regarding synovial biomarkers and consider whether integration of synovial pathobiology into clinical prediction algorithms may enhance their predictive value. PMID:28516086

  1. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A health care provider uses blood and urine tests that measure ...

  2. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Endometriosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose endometriosis? Skip sharing on social media ... under a microscope, to confirm the diagnosis. 1 Health care providers may also use imaging methods to produce ...

  3. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Hypoparathyroidism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose hypoparathyroidism? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A health care provider will order a blood test to determine ...

  4. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Vaginitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose vaginitis? Skip sharing on social media ... out the cause of a woman's symptoms, her health care provider will Examine the vagina, the vulva, and ...

  5. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10142373

  6. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Heffler, Stephen K.

    1995-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10151891

  7. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Heffler, Stephen K.

    1995-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10142578

  8. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10114933

  9. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Lazenby, Helen C.

    1992-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10120177

  10. Health care in China.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Burns, C E; Hellings, P J

    1984-05-01

    Maternal-child nurses are part of a growing number of Americans who have had the opportunity to visit China. An increased understanding of the history and of the health care practices of the Chinese people lends itself to an examination of American values and health practices. The insight developed may aid us as we seek to understand our own health care practices for women and children and to plan for the future in health care.

  11. Health care utilization by low-income clients of a community clinic: an archival study.

    PubMed

    Marin, B V; Marin, G; Padilla, A M; De La Rocha, C; Fay, J

    1982-01-01

    An archival study was done of 500 medical records from a community clinic serving a low income predominantly Hispanic area of Los Angeles. The data collected included demographic characteristics and presented symptoms or reasons for visit, as well as diagnosis and treatment. The greatest number of patient visits were made for family planning services. A large porportion of the patients who received initial family planning services failed to return to the clinic for follow ups or additional supplies. A total of 208 pregnancy tests were performed in 151 of the 500 cases sampled. Of these, 152 were positive. The most frequently stated reason for requesting pediatric services was for physical exams, accounting for 30% of the visits. It should be noted that the discontinuity of care and insufficient utilization of preventive care seen in these results deserve serious attention by medical clinic administrators. The rate of patients who do not return for family planning after the initial visit is worrisome. A greater effort to attract women to family planning services at the time they request pregnancy verification could reduce the need for abortion of unwanted pregnancy. The data also indicate that changes in the wording of certain questions commonly asked of clients may be needed. This study allowed service providers to obtain important information about their performance, their needs, and the future direction that their services might take. This type of analysis is relatively low in cost and can yield important benefits, espicially if done on a periodical base in a search for policy implications.

  12. Quality management: patients reflections on health care at outpatient clinic of internal medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ljubičić, Neven; Boban, Marko; Gaćina, Petar; Adzija, Jasminka; Benceković, Zeljka; Rajković, Ana

    2009-06-01

    Middle and older age group relative share in the community permanently grows. Those are commonly burdened with several chronic health conditions or elevated incidence of acute ones and in more frequent need for consulting health services. In the era of modern technical medicine, it is important to increase quality of services particularly patients orientated. Department of Internal Medicine developed questionnaire to assess reflections on medical care from the receiver of medical services point of view. Sample was formed from individuals that visited outpatient triage Unit (OTU) and voluntary enrolled, during period April 1-August 31, 2008 for any medical reason. Study population structure had similarly equally of both genders, socio-economical background, and was in age range 18-87. Questionnaire was developed by team of experienced personnel covering satisfaction on received medical care. There were 279 returned formulary in a sample of 6700 patients (4.18%). Patients visited OTU chiefly on behalf medical condition secondary to address of residency, followed by personal choice, on advice given by general practitioner, by emergency transportation services, or just due to earlier experiences. Regarding provided medical care extent, 4/5 of patients were examined in lesser than 2 hours, while total workup lasted mostly for 2-4, followed by over four. Over half of patients were moderate toward highly satisfied with provided medical information, personnel communication style and general reflection on all services while being in the Department premises. Astonishing proportion of patients (93%) was satisfied with positive personnel communication. Integration of patients' self-perceived reports about medical services in organizing process is inevitable for augmenting content and at the same time valuable for developing overall quality of treatment. Communication excellence is of premier importance and unavoidable for giving additional positive effect to remain health

  13. Impact of Patient-Centered Care Innovations on Access to Providers, Ambulatory Care Utilization, and Patient Clinical Indicators in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Lisa; Sohn, Min-Woong; Jordan, Neil; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Gampetro, Pamela; LaVela, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration piloted patient-centered care (PCC) innovations beginning in 2010 to improve patient and provider experience and environment in ambulatory care. We use secondary data to look at longitudinal trends, evaluate system redesign, and identify areas for further quality improvement. This was a retrospective, observational study using existing secondary data from multiple US Department of Veteran Affairs sources to evaluate changes in veteran and facility outcomes associated with PCC innovations at 2 innovation and matched comparison sites between FY 2008-2010 (pre-PCC innovations) and FY 2011-2012 (post-PCC innovations). Outcomes included access to primary care providers (PCPs); primary, specialty, and emergency care use; and clinical indicators for chronic disease. Longitudinal trends revealed a different story at each site. One site demonstrated better PCP access, decrease in emergency and primary care use, increase in specialty care use, and improvement in diabetic glucose control. The other site demonstrated a decrease in PCP access and primary care use, no change in specialty care use, and an increase in diastolic blood pressure in relation to the comparison site. Secondary data analysis can reveal longitudinal trends associated with system changes, thereby informing program evaluation and identifying opportunities for quality improvement.

  14. Service quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, J W; Berwick, D M; Shore, M F

    1999-02-17

    Although US health care is described as "the world's largest service industry," the quality of service--that is, the characteristics that shape the experience of care beyond technical competence--is rarely discussed in the medical literature. This article illustrates service quality principles by analyzing a routine encounter in health care from a service quality point of view. This illustration and a review of related literature from both inside and outside health care has led to the following 2 premises: First, if high-quality service had a greater presence in our practices and institutions, it would improve clinical outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction while reducing cost, and it would create competitive advantage for those who are expert in its application. Second, many other industries in the service sector have taken service quality to a high level, their techniques are readily transferable to health care, and physicians caring for patients can learn from them.

  15. The Conceptualization of Self-Care and Integration of Self-Care Education in the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs Accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling Curriculum: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore how CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs conceptualize self-care and integrate self-care education into counseling curriculum. Counselor educators in CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs served as representatives to their programs and were invited to share…

  16. The Conceptualization of Self-Care and Integration of Self-Care Education in the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs Accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling Curriculum: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore how CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs conceptualize self-care and integrate self-care education into counseling curriculum. Counselor educators in CACREP accredited Clinical Mental Health Counseling programs served as representatives to their programs and were invited to share…

  17. Next generation long term transplant clinics: Improving resource utilization and the quality of care through health information technology

    PubMed Central

    Rioth, Matthew J; Warner, Jeremy; Savani, Bipin N; Jagasia, Madan

    2016-01-01

    By the year 2020, potentially one half million hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients will need long-term follow up care to address not only chronic GvHD but also multiple other late consequences of transplant. Despite this increase in patients, there will not be a concomitant increase in the HCT workforce. Thus the future of long-term patient management will require a new “next-generation” clinical model that utilizes technological solutions to make the care of the HCT patient efficient, safe, and cost-effective. Guideline-based decision support will be embedded in clinical workflows. Documentation requirements will be reduced as automated data collection from electronic medical records (EMRs) will populate registries and provide feedback for a rapid learning health system. Interoperable EMRs will disseminate treatment protocols to multiple care providers in a distributed long-term clinic model, such that providers outside of the transplant center can provide services closer to the patient. Patients will increase their participatory role through patient portals and mobile devices. At Vanderbilt, we have responded so some of these future challenges by embedding guideline-based decision support, structuring clinical documentation, and being early adopters of communication technology. This manuscript describes the current state of some of these innovations, and a vision for the future of the long-term transplant clinic. PMID:26367235

  18. Next-generation long-term transplant clinics: improving resource utilization and the quality of care through health information technology.

    PubMed

    Rioth, M J; Warner, J; Savani, B N; Jagasia, M

    2016-01-01

    By the year 2020, potentially one-half a million hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients will need long-term follow-up care to address not only chronic GvHD but also multiple other late consequences of transplant. Despite this increase in patients, there will not be a concomitant increase in the HCT workforce. Thus, the future of long-term patient management will require a new 'next-generation' clinical model that utilizes technological solutions to make the care of the HCT patient efficient, safe and cost-effective. Guideline-based decision support will be embedded in clinical workflows. Documentation requirements will be reduced as automated data collection from electronic medical records (EMRs) will populate registries and provide feedback for a rapid learning health system. Interoperable EMRs will disseminate treatment protocols to multiple care providers in a distributed long-term clinic model, such that providers outside of the transplant center can provide services closer to the patient. Patients will increase their participatory role through patient portals and mobile devices. At Vanderbilt, we have responded to some of these future challenges by embedding guideline-based decision support, structuring clinical documentation and being early adopters of communication technology. This manuscript describes the current state of some of these innovations, and a vision for the future of the long-term transplant clinic.

  19. Exploring Systems That Support Good Clinical Care in Indigenous Primary Health-care Services: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Systems Assessment Tool Data from High-Improving Services.

    PubMed

    Woods, Cindy; Carlisle, Karen; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra Claire; Tsey, Komla; Matthews, Veronica; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement is a process for raising the quality of primary health care (PHC) across Indigenous PHC services. In addition to clinical auditing using plan, do, study, and act cycles, engaging staff in a process of reflecting on systems to support quality care is vital. The One21seventy Systems Assessment Tool (SAT) supports staff to assess systems performance in terms of five key components. This study examines quantitative and qualitative SAT data from five high-improving Indigenous PHC services in northern Australia to understand the systems used to support quality care. High-improving services selected for the study were determined by calculating quality of care indices for Indigenous health services participating in the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease National Research Partnership. Services that reported continuing high improvement in quality of care delivered across two or more audit tools in three or more audits were selected for the study. Precollected SAT data (from annual team SAT meetings) are presented longitudinally using radar plots for quantitative scores for each component, and content analysis is used to describe strengths and weaknesses of performance in each systems' component. High-improving services were able to demonstrate strong processes for assessing system performance and consistent improvement in systems to support quality care across components. Key strengths in the quality support systems included adequate and orientated workforce, appropriate health system supports, and engagement with other organizations and community, while the weaknesses included lack of service infrastructure, recruitment, retention, and support for staff and additional costs. Qualitative data revealed clear voices from health service staff expressing concerns with performance, and subsequent SAT data provided evidence of changes made to address concerns. Learning from the processes and strengths of high-improving services may be useful

  20. Factors influencing patients seeking oral health care in the oncology dental support clinic at an urban university dental school setting.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p < .001) and the importance of receiving dental care (p < .001) were significant factors in relation to self-rated dental health. Perceived overall health (p < .001) also had a significant association with cancer status and the need for organ transplants. This study provided the ODSC at UMKC and other specialty clinics with vital information that can contribute to future planning efforts. © 2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Impact of Structured Inter-professional Education on Health Care Professional Students' Perceptions of Collaboration in a Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alison; Lee, Sam; Lombardo, Samantha; Salama, Mariam; Ellis, Sandi; Kay, Theresa; Davies, Robyn; Landry, Michel D

    2012-01-01

    To examine how a structured inter-professional education (IPE) clinical placement influences health care professional (HCP) students' perceptions of inter-professional collaboration (IPC) relative to that of students in a traditional clinical placement. This study used a mixed-methods design. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was administered to HCP students (n=36) in two Toronto hospitals before and after a structured 5-week IPE clinical placement to examine changes in their perceptions of IPC. Students in a traditional clinical placement (n=28) were used as a control group. Focus groups were then conducted with seven students who took part in the structured IPE clinical placement. A coding framework was devised a priori, and the qualitative results were used to explain the quantitative findings. There were no statistically significant differences between groups after the structured IPE clinical placement, but the intervention group showed a greater positive trend in total IEPS scores from baseline to follow-up. Qualitative data suggest that students valued the knowledge and skills gained through the structured IPE clinical placement. Findings suggest that structured IPE clinical placements may provide students with valuable collaborative learning opportunities, enhanced respect for other professionals, and insight into the value of IPC in healthcare delivery. More research is needed to explore other factors that influence specific perceptions among physical therapy students. Purpose: To examine how a structured inter-professional education (IPE) clinical placement influences health care professional (HCP) students' perceptions of inter-professional collaboration (IPC) relative to that of students in a traditional clinical placement. Methods: This study used a mixed-methods design. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was administered to HCP students (n=36) in two Toronto hospitals before and after a structured 5-week IPE

  2. Running nurse-led secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease in primary care: qualitative study of health professionals' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Murchie, Peter; Campbell, Neil C; Ritchie, Lewis D; Thain, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Background A randomised trial of nurse-led secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease resulted in improved secondary prevention and significantly lowered all-cause mortality at 4-year follow-up. This qualitative trial was conducted to explore the experience of health professionals that had been involved in running the clinics. Aim To identify the barriers and facilitators to establishing secondary prevention clinics for coronary heart disease within primary care. Design of study Semi-structured audiotaped telephone interviews with GPs and nurses involved in running clinics. Setting A stratified, random sample of 19 urban, suburban, and rural general practices in north-east Scotland. Method Semi-structured telephone interviews with 19 GPs and 17 practice-based nurses involved in running nurse-led clinics for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Results Eight practices had run clinics continuously and 11 had stopped, with eight subsequently restarting. Participants accounted for these patterns by referring to advantages and disadvantages of the clinics in four areas: patient care, development of nursing skills, team working, and infrastructure. Most practitioners perceived benefits for patients from attending secondary prevention clinics, but some, from small rural practices, thought they were unnecessary. The extended role for nurses was welcomed, but was dependent on motivated staff, appropriate training and support. Clinics relied on, and could enhance, team working, however, some doctors were wary of delegating. With regard to infrastructure, staff shortages (especially nurses) and accommodation were as problematic as lack of funds. Conclusions Nurse-led secondary prevention clinics were viewed positively by most healthcare professionals that had been involved in running them, but barriers to their implementation had led most to stop running them at some point. Lack of space and staff shortages are likely to remain ongoing problems

  3. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  4. [Modeling a clinical process for differentiated thyroid cancer health care in Hospital Base Valdivia, Chile].

    PubMed

    Ávila-Schwerter, C; Torres-Andrade, M C; Méndez, C A; Márquez-Manzano, M

    2016-01-01

    To design a clinical process model in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer in order to improve accessibility to this treatment. Based on modified Participatory Action Research, a model design process was conducted using a literature review and meetings with organisations committed to the redesigning process, and to agree an improved and feasible process. The process map was constructed by participatory action including, characterisation of the value chain, fault detection in the flow of the process, relevant documents and process for proposing modifications and approvals necessary for this purpose. Links were established between the main process and the support and strategic processes. The participatory model helped to cut the waiting times for diagnosis and treatment of this disease from 12 to 4 months. For each unit to be able to fully visualise the map of the process and understand their contribution as a set of integrated contributions and not fragmented, helps in the comprehensive management of patients and operation processes based on the hierarchical and dominant organisational model in Chilean hospitals. To analyse and remodel clinical processes by participatory action helps to limit failures in the fluidity of care of the patients, by presenting each participating unit with a general view of the process, the problems, and the possible solutions. Furthermore, this approach helps to clarify the process in order to make it more efficient, to harmonise relationships, and to improve coordination in order to optimise patient care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban and rural safety net health care system clinics: no disparity in HPV4 vaccine completion rates.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Kelly Jo; Verdenius, Inge; Bartley, Mitchell J; Else, Britney M; Paynter, Christopher A; Rosemergey, Beth E; Harris, George D; Malnar, Gerard J; Harper, Sean M; Griffith, R Stephen; Bonham, Aaron J; Harper, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Safety net health care centers in the US serve vulnerable and underinsured females. The primary aim of this work was to determine if HPV4 dosing compliance differs between females who receive doses at rural vs. urban core safety net health care locations. Females exclusively receiving health care in the Truman Medical Center (TMC) safety net system at the urban core and rural locations were identified by their HPV4 vaccine records. Dates and number of HPV4 doses as well as age, gravidity, parity and race/ethnicity were recorded from the electronic medical record (EMR). Appropriate HPV4 dosing intervals were referenced from the literature. 1259 females, 10-26 years of age, received HPV4 vaccination at either the rural (23%) or urban core location (77%). At the rural location, 23% received three doses on time, equal to the 24% at the urban core. Females seen in the urban core were more likely to receive on-time doublet dosing than on-time triplet dosing (82% vs. 67%, p<0.001). Mistimed doses occurred equally often among females receiving only two doses, as well as those receiving three doses. Compliance with on-time HPV4 triplet dose completion was low at rural and urban core safety net health clinics, but did not differ by location.

  6. Primary Care Clinics and Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chiung-Ya; Lin, Yi-Ling; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Accountable Care Organization (ACO) is one of the new models of health care delivery in the U.S. To date, little is known about the characteristics of health care organizations that have joined ACOs. We report on the findings of a survey of primary care clinics, the objective of which was to investigate the opinions of clinic management about participation in ACOs, and the characteristics of clinic organizational structure that may contribute to joining ACOs or be willing to do so. Methods A 27-item survey questionnaire was developed and distributed by mail in 3 annual waves to all Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) in 9 states. Two dependent variables - participation in ACOs and willingness to join ACOs - were created and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results 257 RHCs responded to the survey. A small percentage (5.2%) of the respondent clinics reported that they were participating in ACOs. RHCs in isolated areas were 78% less likely to be in ACOs (odds= 0.22, p= 0.059). Non-profit RHCs indicated a higher willingness to join an ACO than for-profit RHCs (B= 1.271, p= 0.054). There is a positive relationship between RHC size and willingness to join an ACO (B= 0.402, p=0.010). Conclusions At this early stage of ACO development, many RHC personnel are unfamiliar with the ACO model. Rural providers’ limited technological and human resources, and the lack of ACO development in rural areas, may delay or prevent their participation in ACOs. PMID:26900587

  7. An Integrated Model for Patient Care and Clinical Trials (IMPACT) to Support Clinical Research Visit Scheduling Workflow for Future Learning Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Li, Yu; Berhe, Solomon; Boland, Mary Regina; Gao, Junfeng; Hruby, Gregory W.; Steinman, Richard C.; Lopez-Jimenez, Carlos; Busacca, Linda; Hripcsak, George; Bakken, Suzanne; Bigger, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We describe a clinical research visit scheduling system that can potentially coordinate clinical research visits with patient care visits and increase efficiency at clinical sites where clinical and research activities occur simultaneously. Participatory Design methods were applied to support requirements engineering and to create this software called Integrated Model for Patient Care and Clinical Trials (IMPACT). Using a multi-user constraint satisfaction and resource optimization algorithm, IMPACT automatically synthesizes temporal availability of various research resources and recommends the optimal dates and times for pending research visits. We conducted scenario-based evaluations with 10 clinical research coordinators (CRCs) from diverse clinical research settings to assess the usefulness, feasibility, and user acceptance of IMPACT. We obtained qualitative feedback using semi-structured interviews with the CRCs. Most CRCs acknowledged the usefulness of IMPACT features. Support for collaboration within research teams and interoperability with electronic health records and clinical trial management systems were highly requested features. Overall, IMPACT received satisfactory user acceptance and proves to be potentially useful for a variety of clinical research settings. Our future work includes comparing the effectiveness of IMPACT with that of existing scheduling solutions on the market and conducting field tests to formally assess user adoption. PMID:23684593

  8. Integrating Correctional and Community Health Care: An Innovative Approach for Clinical Learning in a Baccalaureate Nursing Program.

    PubMed

    Bouchaud, Mary T; Swan, Beth Ann

    2017-01-01

    With an evolving focus on primary, community-based, and patient-centered care rather than acute, hospital-centric, disease-focused care, and recognition of the importance of coordinating care and managing transitions across providers and settings of care, registered nurses need to be prepared from a different and broader knowledge base and skills set. A culture change among nurse educators and administrators and in nursing education is needed to prepare competent registered nurses capable of practicing from a health promotion, disease prevention, community- and population-focused construct in caring for a population of patients who are presenting health problems and conditions that persist across decades and/or lifetimes. While healthcare delivery is moving from the hospital to ambulatory and community settings, community-based educational opportunities for nursing students are shrinking due to a variety of reasons, including but not limited to increased regulatory requirements, the presence of competing numbers of nursing schools and their increased enrollment of students, and decreasing availability of community resources capable and willing to precept students in an all-day interactive learning environment. A detailed discussion of one college of nursings' journey to find an innovative solution and approach to the dilemma of limited and decreasing available community clinical sites to prepare senior level prelicensure baccalaureate nursing students for healthcare practice in the twenty-first century. This article demonstrated how medium/maximum prisons can provide an ideal learning experience for not only technical nursing skills but more importantly for reinforcing key learning goals for community-based care, raising population-based awareness, and promoting cultural awareness and sensitivity. In addition, this college of nursing overcame the challenges of initiating and maintaining clinical placement in a prison facility, collaboratively developed strategies

  9. [A Maternal Health Care System Based on Mobile Health Care].

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Zeng, Weijie; Li, Chengwei; Xue, Junwei; Wu, Xiuyong; Liu, Yinjia; Wan, Yuxin; Zhang, Yiru; Ji, Yurong; Wu, Lei; Yang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Bin; Huang, Yueshan; Wu, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Wearable devices are used in the new design of the maternal health care system to detect electrocardiogram and oxygen saturation signal while smart terminals are used to achieve assessments and input maternal clinical information. All the results combined with biochemical analysis from hospital are uploaded to cloud server by mobile Internet. Machine learning algorithms are used for data mining of all information of subjects. This system can achieve the assessment and care of maternal physical health as well as mental health. Moreover, the system can send the results and health guidance to smart terminals.

  10. The effect of personal lifestyle intervention among health care providers on their patients and clinics; the Promoting Health by Self Experience (PHASE) randomized controlled intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Shai, Iris; Erlich, Dorit; Cohen, Arnon D; Urbach, Marianna; Yosef, Noga; Levy, Orna; Shahar, Danit R

    2012-10-01

    To determine the effect of self-experience multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on health care providers (HCPs), patients and clinics. We randomized 15 primary-care clinics (serving 93,821 members), matched by patient profile, to provide the HCPs, either intervention or control HMO program. We followed personally 77 HCPs and 496 patients, and evaluated clinical measurement rate (CMR) changes (January-September 2010; Israel). HCPs within the intervention group demonstrated personal improvement in health initiative attitudes (p<0.05 vs. baseline), and a decrease in salt intake (p<0.05 vs. control). HCP intervention group's patients exhibited overall improvement in dietary patterns, specifically in salt, red meat (p<0.05 vs. baseline), fruit, and vegetable (p<0.05 vs. control) intake. Height, lipids, HbA1(C) and CMR increased within the intervention group's clinics (p<0.05 vs. baseline) with increased referral to angiography tests (p<0.05 vs. control). Within the intervention group, HCPs' salt pattern improvement was associated with increased lipid CMR (r=0.71; p=0.048), and lower HCPs' body weight was associated with increased blood pressure (r=-0.81; p=0.015) and lipid (r=-0.69; p=0.058) CMR. HCPs' personal lifestyles are directly correlated with their clinical performance. Interventions to promote health through HCP's self-experience are valuable and somewhat haloed to patients and clinics, suggesting an adjunct strategy in primary prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Care Delivery Practices in Huntington’s Disease Specialty Clinics: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Frich, Jan C.; Rae, Daniela; Roxburgh, Richard; Miedzybrodzka, Zofia H.; Edmondson, Mary; Pope, Erika Bjorklund; Goodman, LaVonne; Haddad, Monica S.; Giuliano, Joe; Nelson, Eugene C.; Guttman, Mark; Nance, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the organization of clinical services for Huntington’s disease (HD). Objective: To describe how health care services are organized and delivered in HD-clinics taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. Methods: In 2014, a 69-item survey was administered to sites taking part in or eligible for the Enroll-HD study. Results: Of 231 sites surveyed, 121 (52.2%) sites in Europe, North America, Latin America, and Oceania responded. Most sites in the sample serve large populations, with 61.1% serving more than 1.5 million people, and a further 33% serving >500,000. Almost all (86.0%) centers see patients from outside their region. The majority of centers (59.7%) follow 50–199 patients, 21.9% care for more than 200. Most centers provide care in all stages of HD, and nearly all review pre-symptomatic cases. Multidisciplinary case reviews are offered in 54.5% of sites, with outreach clinics offered by 48.1%. Videoconferencing and telemedicine are used by 23.6%. Separate consultations for caregivers are offered in more than half of the centers. Most centers (70.4%) report following published guidelines or local care pathways for HD. Conclusions: Most centers serve a large population and use a multidisciplinary approach. The survey gives insight into factors underpinning HD service delivery globally. There is a need for more in-depth studies of clinical practice to understand how services are organized and how such features may be associated with quality of care. PMID:27372053

  12. Master's level in primary health care education - students' and preceptors' perceptions and experiences of the alteration in the clinical areas.

    PubMed

    Löfmark, Anna; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta

    2010-06-16

    Many Western European countries are undergoing reforms with changes in higher education according to the Bologna declaration for Higher European Education Area. In accordance with these changes, the Master's degree was introduced in specialist nurse education in Sweden in 2007, and as a result changed the curriculum and modified theoretical and clinical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate students' and preceptors' perceptions and experiences of Master's level education in primary health care with a focus on the clinical area. A descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Interviews with ten students and ten preceptors were performed twice, before and after the clinical practice period. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and themes formulated. Students perceived alteration in the content of the education at the Master's level such as more independence and additional assignments. The preceptors perceived benefits with the Master's level but were unsure of how to transform theoretical and abstract knowledge into practice. Writing the Master's thesis was seen by students to take time away from clinical practice. For some students and preceptors the content of the Master's level clinical practice area was experienced as vague and indistinct. The students had not expected supervision to be different from earlier experiences, while preceptors felt higher demands and requested more knowledge. Both students and preceptors perceived that education at the Master's level might lead to a higher status for the nurses' profession in primary health care. Students and preceptors experienced both advantages and disadvantages concerning the change in specialist nurse education in primary health care at the Master's level. The altered educational content was experienced as a step forward, but they also questioned how the new knowledge could be used in practice. The relevance of the Master's thesis was questioned. Supervision was seen by students

  13. Master's level in primary health care education - students' and preceptors' perceptions and experiences of the alteration in the clinical areas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many Western European countries are undergoing reforms with changes in higher education according to the Bologna declaration for Higher European Education Area. In accordance with these changes, the Master's degree was introduced in specialist nurse education in Sweden in 2007, and as a result changed the curriculum and modified theoretical and clinical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate students' and preceptors' perceptions and experiences of Master's level education in primary health care with a focus on the clinical area. Methods A descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Interviews with ten students and ten preceptors were performed twice, before and after the clinical practice period. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and themes formulated. Results Students perceived alteration in the content of the education at the Master's level such as more independence and additional assignments. The preceptors perceived benefits with the Master's level but were unsure of how to transform theoretical and abstract knowledge into practice. Writing the Master's thesis was seen by students to take time away from clinical practice. For some students and preceptors the content of the Master's level clinical practice area was experienced as vague and indistinct. The students had not expected supervision to be different from earlier experiences, while preceptors felt higher demands and requested more knowledge. Both students and preceptors perceived that education at the Master's level might lead to a higher status for the nurses' profession in primary health care. Conclusions Students and preceptors experienced both advantages and disadvantages concerning the change in specialist nurse education in primary health care at the Master's level. The altered educational content was experienced as a step forward, but they also questioned how the new knowledge could be used in practice. The relevance of the Master's thesis was

  14. The Impact of Structured Inter-professional Education on Health Care Professional Students' Perceptions of Collaboration in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sam; Lombardo, Samantha; Salama, Mariam; Ellis, Sandi; Kay, Theresa; Davies, Robyn; Landry, Michel D.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine how a structured inter-professional education (IPE) clinical placement influences health care professional (HCP) students' perceptions of inter-professional collaboration (IPC) relative to that of students in a traditional clinical placement. Methods: This study used a mixed-methods design. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was administered to HCP students (n=36) in two Toronto hospitals before and after a structured 5-week IPE clinical placement to examine changes in their perceptions of IPC. Students in a traditional clinical placement (n=28) were used as a control group. Focus groups were then conducted with seven students who took part in the structured IPE clinical placement. A coding framework was devised a priori, and the qualitative results were used to explain the quantitative findings. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups after the structured IPE clinical placement, but the intervention group showed a greater positive trend in total IEPS scores from baseline to follow-up. Qualitative data suggest that students valued the knowledge and skills gained through the structured IPE clinical placement. Conclusions: Findings suggest that structured IPE clinical placements may provide students with valuable collaborative learning opportunities, enhanced respect for other professionals, and insight into the value of IPC in healthcare delivery. More research is needed to explore other factors that influence specific perceptions among physical therapy students. PMID:23450044

  15. Keep it simple? Predicting primary health care costs with clinical morbidity measures

    PubMed Central

    Brilleman, Samuel L.; Gravelle, Hugh; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Purdy, Sarah; Salisbury, Chris; Windmeijer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Models of the determinants of individuals’ primary care costs can be used to set capitation payments to providers and to test for horizontal equity. We compare the ability of eight measures of patient morbidity and multimorbidity to predict future primary care costs and examine capitation payments based on them. The measures were derived from four morbidity descriptive systems: 17 chronic diseases in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF); 17 chronic diseases in the Charlson scheme; 114 Expanded Diagnosis Clusters (EDCs); and 68 Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs). These were applied to patient records of 86,100 individuals in 174 English practices. For a given disease description system, counts of diseases and sets of disease dummy variables had similar explanatory power. The EDC measures performed best followed by the QOF and ACG measures. The Charlson measures had the worst performance but still improved markedly on models containing only age, gender, deprivation and practice effects. Comparisons of predictive power for different morbidity measures were similar for linear and exponential models, but the relative predictive power of the models varied with the morbidity measure. Capitation payments for an individual patient vary considerably with the different morbidity measures included in the cost model. Even for the best fitting model large differences between expected cost and capitation for some types of patient suggest incentives for patient selection. Models with any of the morbidity measures show higher cost for more deprived patients but the positive effect of deprivation on cost was smaller in better fitting models. PMID:24657375

  16. Progress in Geriatrics: A Clinical Care Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Patricia Lanoie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This issue includes 18 theme articles that examine clinical care, conditions, and practice as they relate to older adults. It contains articles on the following: men's and women's health, depression, dementia, hypertension, incontinence, bone pain, infections, preventive medicine, geriatric medicine, health care delivery, managed care, long-term…

  17. Progress in Geriatrics: A Clinical Care Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Patricia Lanoie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This issue includes 18 theme articles that examine clinical care, conditions, and practice as they relate to older adults. It contains articles on the following: men's and women's health, depression, dementia, hypertension, incontinence, bone pain, infections, preventive medicine, geriatric medicine, health care delivery, managed care, long-term…

  18. Health care's service fanatics.

    PubMed

    Merlino, James I; Raman, Ananth

    2013-05-01

    The Cleveland Clinic has long had a reputation for medical excellence. But in 2009 the CEO acknowledged that patients did not think much of their experience there and decided to act. Since then the Clinic has leaped to the top tier of patient-satisfaction surveys, and it now draws hospital executives from around the world who want to study its practices. The Clinic's journey also holds Lessons for organizations outside health care that must suddenly compete by creating a superior customer experience. The authors, one of whom was critical to steering the hospital's transformation, detail the processes that allowed the Clinic to excel at patient satisfaction without jeopardizing its traditional strengths. Hospital leaders: Publicized the problem internally. Seeing the hospital's dismal service scores shocked employees into recognizing that serious flaws existed. Worked to understand patients' needs. Management commissioned studies to get at the root causes of dissatisfaction. Made everyone a caregiver. An enterprisewide program trained everyone, from physicians to janitors, to put the patient first. Increased employee engagement. The Clinic instituted a "caregiver celebration" program and redoubled other motivational efforts. Established new processes. For example, any patient, for any reason, can now make a same-day appointment with a single call. Set patients' expectations. Printed and online materials educate patients about their stays--before they're admitted. Operating a truly patient-centered organization, the authors conclude, isn't a program; it's a way of life.

  19. Interprofessional clinical training improves self-efficacy of health care students.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva; Vestergaard, Erik; Odgaard, Eva; Jensen, Didde Cramer; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Interprofessional collaboration potentially enhances patient safety and satisfaction, and reduces tensions and conflicts among health professionals. However, health professionals often lack sufficient knowledge of other professional roles and competences to engage in interprofessional teamwork. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an interprofessional training programme on students' perceived self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental study with an intervention group (239 students) and a control group (405 students). The intervention was an interprofessional clinical study (ICS) unit including students from nursing, medicine, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, laboratory technology and radiography. Data on students' perceived self-efficacy were collected through web-based questionnaires. Aspects of self-efficacy measured were: (1) collaboration with other professions in planning goals and actions for patients; (2) collaboration with other professions for rehabilitation; (3) identifying the functions of other professions and (4) assessing and describing patients' needs and problems. All scores of perceived self-efficacy for the ICS group improved over time although one score change was non-significant (p = 0.08). After adjustment for baseline differences and the score change for the control group, the ICS group's self-efficacy score gain remained statistically significant. The study showed that interprofessional training improved students' perception of self-efficacy more than traditional clinical training.

  20. Health economics in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden J

    2015-01-01

    The pressure for health care systems to provide more resource intensive health care and newer, more costly, therapies is significant, despite limited health care budgets. As such, demonstration that a new therapy is effective is no longer sufficient to ensure that it is funded within publicly funded health care systems. The impact of a therapy on health care costs is also an important consideration for decision-makers who must allocate scarce resources. The clinical benefits and costs of a new therapy can be estimated simultaneously using economic evaluation, the strengths and limitations of which are discussed herein. In addition, this chapter includes discussion of the important economic outcomes that can be collected within a clinical trial (alongside the clinical outcome data) enabling consideration of the impact of the therapy on overall resource use, thus enabling performance of an economic evaluation, if the therapy is shown to be effective.

  1. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province.

    PubMed

    Vhuromu, E N; Davhana-Maselesele, M

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS) in Limpopo Province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch 's method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  2. Equity in health care.

    PubMed

    La Rosa-Salas, Virginia; Tricas-Sauras, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    It has long been known that a segment of the population enjoys distinctly better health status and higher quality of health care than others. To solve this problem, prioritization is unavoidable, and the question is how priorities should be set. Rational priority setting would seek equity amongst the whole population, the extent to which people receive equal care for equal needs. Equity in health care is an ethical imperative not only because of the intrinsic worth of good health, or the value that society places on good health, but because, without good health, people would be unable to enjoy life's other sources of happiness. This paper also argues the importance of the health care's efficiency, but at the same time, it highlights how any innovation and rationalization undertaken in the provision of the health system should be achieved from the consideration of human dignity, making the person prevail over economic criteria. Therefore, the underlying principles on which this health care equity paper is based are fundamental human rights. The main aim is to ensure the implementation of these essential rights by those carrying out public duties. Viewed from this angle, equity in health care means equality: equality in access to services and treatment, and equality in the quality of care provided. As a result, this paper attempts to address both human dignity and efficiency through the context of equity to reconcile them in the middle ground.

  3. Assessment of HIV transmission risks in clinical situations in health care students from Germany, Lithuania and Namibia.

    PubMed

    Klewer, J; Lauschke, H; Raulinaviciute, J; Sasnauskaite, L; Pavilonis, A; Kugler, J

    2001-03-01

    Due to the increasing global HIV prevalence, comprehensive knowledge about clinical HIV transmission risks in health care professionals is essential. Mainly medical and nursing students are at risk, because they are working close to infected patients. By using an anonymous questionnaire, the study analysed the assessments of German medical/dental students (n = 182), Lithuanian medical students (n = 176) and Namibian student nurses (n = 135) on the risk of getting HIV infected in different clinical situations. It became obvious that the Namibian student nurses overestimated the risk of HIV transmission in several situations (eg changing dirty linen, physical examination). In comparison, the Lithuanian students showed the most realistic assessments, while the German students also tended to overestimate the risks of HIV transmission. The results indicate that assessments on the risk of HIV transmission in clinical situations are influenced by the national prevalence and daily contacts with HIV patients. Education of health care students should consider this and focus more on epidemiological aspects and infection control procedures, to avoid endangering students and patients.

  4. [Detection of domestic violence against women. Survey in a primary health care clinic].

    PubMed

    Pontecorvo, Carla; Mejía, Raúl; Aleman, María; Vidal, Alfredo; Majdalani, María Pia; Fayanás, Roberto; Fernández, Alicia; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J

    2004-01-01

    According to Pan American Health Organization nearly 50% of women suffer chronic domestic violence in Latin America. We evaluated the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) in women assisted in a University Outpatient Clinic in Buenos Aires. We used a survey originally developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Spanish. The survey was distributed to a consecutive sample of women more than 18 years of age who attended the clinic. Participants were randomized to fill out the questionnaire anonymously (self-administered) or during an interview with the physician in order to test the sensitivity of these two different modalities of data collection. Of 360 eligible women 270, (75%) completed the questionnaire. The respondents had a median age of 45.4 years, only 33% had more than 7 years of formal education and 48% did not live with a partner. Of the 270 respondents, 120 (44%) women reported mistreatment at least once during their lifetime. Of these, 108 (40%) reported psychological GBV, 53 physical GBV and 45 reported sexual GBV. Most of the respondents suffered more than one type of violence. 46 (17%) women reported sexual abuse during childhood, 219 (81%) of participants never had been asked by their physician about domestic violence. Women interviewed by the physician reported GBV more frequently than those completing the self-administered survey (p <0.005). The survey developed by the IPPF is considered a useful tool for screening in a clinical setting.

  5. Clinical and health care use characteristics of patients newly starting allopurinol, febuxostat, and colchicine for the treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyoung C; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Franklin, Jessica M; Liu, Jun; Solomon, Daniel H; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis with an increasing prevalence in developed countries. It is well known that many patients with gout have significant comorbidities and high health care utilization. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and health care utilization patterns in patients with gout who were newly prescribed allopurinol, febuxostat, or colchicine. We used US insurance claims data (2009-2011) to conduct a population-based cohort study. There were 25,051 allopurinol, 4,288 febuxostat, and 6,238 colchicine initiators. The mean age was 53 years and 83-87% were men. More than one-half of the patients had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 20% had diabetes mellitus, and 10% had cardiovascular disease. The mean uric acid level was similar across the groups at baseline, ranging from 8.1-8.5 mg/dl. Compared with allopurinol or colchicine initiators, febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater health care utilization, including outpatient, inpatient, or emergency room visits, both at baseline and during followup. Use of gout-related drugs such as opioids, steroids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was most common in febuxostat initiators and least common in colchicine initiators. The median daily doses at both the start and end of treatment were 300 mg for allopurinol, 40 mg for febuxostat, and 1.2 mg for colchicine. The doses of allopurinol and febuxostat were rarely increased during followup. Patients who started allopurinol, febuxostat, or colchicine for gout generally had hyperuricemia and multiple comorbidities. Febuxostat initiators had more comorbidities and greater use of health care resources and gout-related drugs than the other groups. Overall, the doses of allopurinol or febuxostat remained unchanged over time. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. A General Survey of Free Clinics As Alternatives To Existing Health Care Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC. Div. of Youth Activities.

    This survey reports on 13 free clinics in Ann Arbor, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Washington, D. C., Somerville (Mass.), New Orleans, and Metropolitan Los Angeles. It defines free clinics and notes various types, such as street clinics, neighborhood free clinics, women's free clinics, youth clinics and sponsored clinics. A short history and philosophy…

  7. Pragmatic trial of health care technologies to improve adherence to pediatric asthma treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G; Cvietusa, Peter J; Goodrich, Glenn K; Lowe, Ryan; Nuanes, Heather A; Rand, Cynthia; Shetterly, Susan; Tacinas, Cathy; Vollmer, William M; Wagner, Nicole; Wamboldt, Frederick S; Xu, Stanley; Magid, David J

    2015-04-01

    Most patients with asthma take fewer than half of prescribed doses of controller medication. Interventions to improve adherence have typically been costly, impractical, and at best only minimally successful. To test a speech recognition (SR) intervention to improve adherence to pediatric asthma controller medication. The Breathe Well study was a 24-month pragmatic randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted within Kaiser Permanente Colorado, a large, group-model health maintenance organization. A total of 1187 children aged 3 to 12 years with a persistent asthma diagnosis and prescription for an inhaled corticosteroid were randomized to the computerized SR intervention or usual care condition and followed up for 24 months between October 2009 and February 2013. Speech recognition telephone calls to parents in the intervention condition were triggered when an inhaled corticosteroid refill was due or overdue. Calls were automatically tailored with medical and demographic information from the electronic health record and from parent answers to questions in the call regarding recent refills or a desire to receive help refilling, learn more about asthma control, or speak with an asthma nurse or pharmacy staff member. Adherence to pediatric asthma controller medication, measured as the medication possession ratio over 24 months. In the intention-to-treat analysis, inhaled corticosteroid adherence was 25.4% higher in the intervention group than in the usual care group (24-month mean [SE] adherence, 44.5% [1.2%] vs 35.5% [1.1%], respectively; P < .001). Asthma-related urgent care events did not differ between the 2 groups. The intervention effect was consistent in subgroups stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and disease-related characteristics. The intervention's significant impact on adherence demonstrates strong potential for low-cost SR adherence programs integrated with an electronic health record. The absence of change in urgent care

  8. Women's mental health clinic: a naturalistic description of the population attended in the San Diego VA Health Care System during a one year period.

    PubMed

    Correa, R; Parry, B

    2012-12-15

    Due to specific gender predispositions to present certain illnesses, increasing incorporation of women in the U.S. military system represents an important challenge to both medical and mental health providers. The aim of this report is to describe the main characteristics of the population attended in a mental health women's clinic at the San Diego Veterans Administration (VA) health care system. Present study is a comprehensive clinical report based on a retrospective analysis of data. The authors searched the San Diego VA Health Care database to find the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the population attended during a one year period. Epidemiological and clinical features of the sample are presented. Authors also describe, using clinical examples, the most important psychopathological expressions. The most prevalent psychiatric diagnosis was major depressive disorder (n=28; 19.51%) followed by dysthymic disorder (n=8; 19.51%) and bipolar disorder (n=3; 7.31%). Authors discuss the importance of three variables: social isolation, quality of adaptive mechanisms and the role of self-stigmatization as crucial factors related to patient's clinical outcomes. The main limitation of this review derives from its naturalistic and descriptive methodology. The majority of patients treated in our clinic experience some type of affective disorder. Main factors associated to recovery are: social integration and spiritual support, utilization of mature defense mechanisms and upper-level coping strategies and psycho-educational interventions directed to prevent self stigmatization. Clinicians should be aware of these factors in order to promote "upper-level coping strategies". Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Psychosocial health in displaced Iraqi care-seekers in non-governmental organization clinics in Amman, Jordan: an unmet need.

    PubMed

    Bader, Farah; Sinha, Rakhi; Leigh, Jennifer; Goyal, Neerav; Andrews, Allen; Valeeva, Natalia; Sirois, Adam; Doocy, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Populations displaced by conflict face numerous threats to their psychological well-being; consequently, the prevalence of mental health problems, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder can be elevated as compared to populations who have not experienced forced displacement. Little is known about the mental health needs of displaced Iraqis. The factors associated with a need for psychological services among patients at seven clinics served by two NGOs that are known sources of care for the displaced Iraqi population in Amman, Jordan were explored. The survey was conducted in January and February 2008 and included a random sample of care seekers from seven clinics selected using interval sampling. Interviews on the health needs of displaced Iraqis and their access to services, including mental health services lasting approximately 20 minutes were conducted. Of the 664 survey participants, 49% (95% CI = 45-53%) of respondents reported needing mental health services and 5% (95% CI = 3-8%) of those in need had access to services. The length of time spent in Jordan (adjusted OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00-1.11) was associated with the need for mental health services and the adjusted odds of requiring psychological services was 39% less for individuals from outside of Baghdad as compared to Baghdad residents (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.38-0.98). Responders citing violence as a factor were twice as likely to be from Baghdad (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.03-6.91), while interviewees reporting displacement as a cause for needing mental health services were twice as likely to be female (OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.12-4.18). In individuals 35-44 years of age (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) the need for mental health services due to displacement decreased by 64%, while being a part of a female-headed household decreased the need by 81% (OR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.06-0.57%). More attention should be given to expanding the local Jordanian health system capacity for the provision of

  10. Harmonizing and consolidating the measurement of patient-reported information at health care institutions: a position statement of the Mayo Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Eton, David T; Beebe, Timothy J; Hagen, Philip T; Halyard, Michele Y; Montori, Victor M; Naessens, James M; Sloan, Jeff A; Thompson, Carrie A; Wood, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) capture how patients perceive their health and their health care; their use in clinical research is longstanding. Today, however, PROs increasingly are being used to inform the care of individual patients, and document the performance of health care entities. We recently wrote and internally distributed an institutional position statement titled “Harmonizing and Consolidating the Measurement of Patient-Reported Outcomes at Mayo Clinic: A Position Statement for the Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery”. The statement is meant to educate clinicians, clinical teams, and institutional administrators about the merits of using PROs in a systematic manner for clinical care and quality measurement throughout the institution. The present article summarizes the most important messages from the statement, describing PROs and their use, identifying practical considerations for implementing them in routine practice, elucidating potential barriers to their use, and formulating strategies to overcome these barriers. The lessons learned from our experience – including pitfalls, challenges, and successes – may inform other health care institutions that are interested in systematically using PROs in health care delivery science and practice. PMID:24550683

  11. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Singer, Naphtale; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1991-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10112766

  12. HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient’s year of admission – P1 (1999-2002), P2 (2003-2006), and P3 (2007-2010) – for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner’s seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. PMID:25741647

  13. Health care professionals' comprehension of the legal status of end-of-life practices in Quebec: study of clinical scenarios.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, Isabelle; Boivin, Antoine; Arsenault, Claude; Toupin, Mélanie; Youssef, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    To determine health care professionals' understanding of the current legal status of different end-of-life practices and their future legal status if medical aid in dying were legalized, and to identify factors associated with misunderstanding surrounding the current legal status. Cross-sectional survey using 6 clinical scenarios developed from a validated European questionnaire and from a validated classification of end-of-life practices. Quebec. Health care professionals (physicians and nurses). Perceptions of the current legal status of the given scenarios and whether or not the practices would be authorized in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized. Among the respondents (n = 271, response rate 88.0%), more than 98% knew that the administration or prescription of lethal medication was currently illegal. However, 45.8% wrongly thought that it was not permitted to withdraw a potentially life-prolonging treatment at the patient's request, and this misconception was more common among nurses and professionals who had received their diplomas longer ago. Only 39.5% believed that, in the event that medical aid in dying were legalized, the use of lethal medication would be permitted at the patient's request, and 34.6% believed they would be able to give such medication to an incompetent patient upon a relative's request. Health care professionals knew which medical practices were illegal, but some wrongly believed that current permitted practices were not legal. There were various interpretations of what would or would not be allowed if medical aid in dying were legalized. Education on the clinical implications of end-of-life practice legislation should be promoted.

  14. Effect of continued professional development on clinical performance in a public sector health care setting.

    PubMed

    Azam, Naila; Hassan, Uzma; Farooq, Ayesha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intervention by education of doctors in improving the referral rate and quality in a public-sector healthcare setting. The quasi-experimental study was conducted from March to September 2012 at PNS Rahat Hospital in naval sailors' residential estate, Karsaz, Karachi. Two awareness sessions were held three months apart by a gynaecologist and a paediatrician. The sessions were aimed at communicating the consultant practice to female general practitioners employed at the two family welfare centres. Pre- and post-intervention data was collected manually from the record registers at the two centers as well as gynaecology and paediatrics outpatient clinics. The study comprised 10 female GPs. In paediatric clinic, there was 47% (118 post intervention/ 187 pre intervention) reduction in referrals for acute gastroenteritis and fever of unknown origin (32 post intervention/75 pre intervention). In gynaecology, 30% (50 post intervention/61 pre intervention) reduction was seen in referrals for severe anaemia in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, and an increase in referrals (35 post intervention/19 pre intervention) for high-risk cases indicating better counselling and case identification. Improved standard of counselling was also reflected by 31% reduced referrals (40 post intervention/ 58 pre intervention) for hyper-emesis gravidarum during the first trimester. The difference in referrals was not statistically significant (p>0.05) for paediatrics, but it was highly significant (p<0.001) for gynaecology. Healthcare system can function optimally with focus on referral standards and by improving the communication between the primary care physicians and consultants.

  15. Innovation sustainability in challenging health-care contexts: embedding clinically led change in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham P; Weaver, Simon; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    The need for organizational innovation as a means of improving health-care quality and containing costs is widely recognized, but while a growing body of research has improved knowledge of implementation, very little has considered the challenges involved in sustaining change - especially organizational change led 'bottom-up' by frontline clinicians. This study addresses this lacuna, taking a longitudinal, qualitative case-study approach to understanding the paths to sustainability of four organizational innovations. It highlights the importance of the interaction between organizational context, nature of the innovation and strategies deployed in achieving sustainability. It discusses how positional influence of service leads, complexity of innovation, networks of support, embedding in existing systems, and proactive responses to changing circumstances can interact to sustain change. In the absence of cast-iron evidence of effectiveness, wider notions of value may be successfully invoked to sustain innovation. Sustainability requires continuing effort through time, rather than representing a final state to be achieved. Our study offers new insights into the process of sustainability of organizational change, and elucidates the complement of strategies needed to make bottom-up change last in challenging contexts replete with competing priorities.

  16. Innovation sustainability in challenging health-care contexts: embedding clinically led change in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Graham P; Weaver, Simon; Currie, Graeme; Finn, Rachael; McDonald, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The need for organizational innovation as a means of improving health-care quality and containing costs is widely recognized, but while a growing body of research has improved knowledge of implementation, very little has considered the challenges involved in sustaining change – especially organizational change led ‘bottom-up’ by frontline clinicians. This study addresses this lacuna, taking a longitudinal, qualitative case-study approach to understanding the paths to sustainability of four organizational innovations. It highlights the importance of the interaction between organizational context, nature of the innovation and strategies deployed in achieving sustainability. It discusses how positional influence of service leads, complexity of innovation, networks of support, embedding in existing systems, and proactive responses to changing circumstances can interact to sustain change. In the absence of cast-iron evidence of effectiveness, wider notions of value may be successfully invoked to sustain innovation. Sustainability requires continuing effort through time, rather than representing a final state to be achieved. Our study offers new insights into the process of sustainability of organizational change, and elucidates the complement of strategies needed to make bottom-up change last in challenging contexts replete with competing priorities. PMID:23554445

  17. English language proficiency and geographical proximity to a safety net clinic as a predictor of health care access.

    PubMed

    Cordasco, Kristina M; Ponce, Ninez A; Gatchell, Melissa S; Traudt, Brandon; Escarce, José J

    2011-04-01

    Studies suggest that proximity to a safety net clinic (SNC) promotes access to care among the uninsured. Distance-based barriers to care may be greater for people with limited English proficiency (LEP), compared to those who are English proficient (EP), but this has not been explored. We assessed the relationship between distance to the nearest SNC and access in non-rural uninsured adults in California, and examined whether this relationship differs by language proficiency. Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and a list we compiled of California's SNCs, we calculated distance between uninsured interviewee residence and the exact address of the nearest SNC. Using multivariate regression to adjust for other relevant characteristics, we examined associations between this distance and interviewee's probability of having a usual source of health care (USOC) and having visited a physician in the prior 12 months. To examine differences by language proficiency, we included interactions between distance and language proficiency. Uninsured LEP adults living within 2 miles of a SNC were 9.3% less likely than their EP counterparts to have a USOC (P = 0.046). Further, distance to the nearest SNC was inversely associated with the probability of having a USOC among LEP, but not among EP; consequently, the difference between LEP and EP in the probability of having a USOC widened with increasing distance to the nearest SNC. There was no difference between LEP and EP adults living within 2 miles of a SNC in likelihood of having a physician visit; however, as with USOC, distance to the nearest SNC was inversely associated with the probability of having a physician visit among LEP but not EP. The effect sizes diminished, but remained significant, when we included county fixed effects in the models. Having LEP is a barrier to health care access, which compounds when combined with increased distance to the nearest SNC, among uninsured adults. Future studies should explore

  18. [Benchmarking in the clinical arena. A potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health care system].

    PubMed

    Bredl, K; Hüsig, S; Angele, M K; Lüring, C

    2010-08-01

    Current changes in the health system due to economic restrictions leading to increased competition require the introduction of intelligent management tools in the clinical arena. In a world where change and development are the only constants, flexibility and critical judgment of one's own achievements are requirements for success in all parts of society. Benchmarking, a management tool widely used in industry, represents a potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health system. This article deals with the theoretic basis and the clinical implications of benchmarking. The strategic background of benchmarking is the systematic process of comparison and identification with the best (best practice) leading to improved processes and results in one's own department and hospital. It is the aim of benchmarking in the clinical arena to achieve higher quality and patient directed innovation with less financial resources. This might result in better patient care. In summary, the management tool of benchmarking will be introduced into the clinical arena to keep hospitals competitive. Successful benchmarking will result in a leading position of a certain department in a special field.

  19. [Clinical profile in subjects with acquired brain injury in chronic phase in a social and health care center].

    PubMed

    Rubial-Álvarez, Sandra; Veiga-Suárez, María

    2012-10-01

    There are few resources for acquired brain injury (ABI) in post-hospitalary phase in our country. At this level of carefulness, Personal Autonomy Promotion Center in Bergondo contemplates like a social and health care resource in order to facilitate community integration in subjects with ABI. AIMS. To describe clinical profile in the subjects admitted in our unit, and to assess intervention possibilities with clinico-functional recovery goals in the chronic phases in ABI. . Sample of 105 subjects admitted in our center until December 2010. 86 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 32.16 years old and a most frequent evolution time of less than 5 years (64.76%). Variables collected were: sex, age, etiology, evolution time, personality changes diagnosis, admission FIM, previous participation in rehabilitation programmes and have recovery goals. The main etiology was traumatic brain injury (62.5%). The 54.28% of the subjects was taking physical rehabilitation at the moment of admission, while the 49.52% had participated in neuropsychological interventions. Physical recovery goals were identified in the 42.85% of the subjects and the 78.09% had goals in neuropsychology field. The clinical profile observed was young man with sequelae caused by a traumatic brain injury suffered in last five years, who has received poor neuropsychological care and that still takes physiotherapy treatment.

  20. Creating an integrated clinical enterprise at the University of Kentucky: the emergence of UK HealthCare.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Michael; Perman, Jay; Lofgren, Richard; Melgar, Sergio; Butler, Frank; Day, Zed; Clark, Murray; Claypool, Joseph O; Gilbert, Peter; Gombeski, William; Higdon, Courtney M

    2007-12-01

    If the medical system in the United States is to change, as has been recommended, academic medical centers must, in fact, lead this change process. To prepare for the future, the University of Kentucky decided to move aggressively toward developing an integrated clinical enterprise branded as UK HealthCare, where leadership of the various components of the academic medical center make strategic and financial decisions together to achieve common organizational goals. The authors discuss senior leadership's development of the vision for the enterprise and the governance structure that was established to engage board members and faculty of the institution. They examine the rigorous strategic, facilities, financial, and academic planning that ensued, and the early successes achieved. The authors introduce some of the lessons learned by the organization during the emergence of UK HealthCare and describe the corporate structure and senior management team that was established to support the quick and efficient implementation of the planning strategies. It was this corporate structure and senior management team which has proven to be an effective agent of change and a key to the successful development of a truly integrated clinical enterprise.

  1. Modelling Conditions and Health Care Processes in Electronic Health Records: An Application to Severe Mental Illness with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Olier, Ivan; Springate, David A.; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Doran, Tim; Reeves, David; Planner, Claire; Reilly, Siobhan; Kontopantelis, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of Electronic Health Records databases for medical research has become mainstream. In the UK, increasing use of Primary Care Databases is largely driven by almost complete computerisation and uniform standards within the National Health Service. Electronic Health Records research often begins with the development of a list of clinical codes with which to identify cases with a specific condition. We present a methodology and accompanying Stata and R commands (pcdsearch/Rpcdsearch) to help researchers in this task. We present severe mental illness as an example. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK Primary Care Database in which clinical information is largely organised using Read codes, a hierarchical clinical coding system. Pcdsearch is used to identify potentially relevant clinical codes and/or product codes from word-stubs and code-stubs suggested by clinicians. The returned code-lists are reviewed and codes relevant to the condition of interest are selected. The final code-list is then used to identify patients. Results We identified 270 Read codes linked to SMI and used them to identify cases in the database. We observed that our approach identified cases that would have been missed with a simpler approach using SMI registers defined within the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework. Conclusion We described a framework for researchers of Electronic Health Records databases, for identifying patients with a particular condition or matching certain clinical criteria. The method is invariant to coding system or database and can be used with SNOMED CT, ICD or other medical classification code-lists. PMID:26918439

  2. Impact of an electronic clinical decision support system on workflow in antenatal care: the QUALMAT eCDSS in rural health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Nathan; Sukums, Felix; Awine, Timothy; Meid, Andreas; Williams, John; Akweongo, Patricia; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E.; Blank, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of new technology can interrupt established workflows in health care settings. The Quality of Maternal Care (QUALMAT) project has introduced an electronic clinical decision support system (eCDSS) for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery in rural primary health care facilities in Africa. Objective This study was carried out to investigate the influence of the QUALMAT eCDSS on the workflow of health care workers in rural primary health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania. Design A direct observation, time-and-motion study on ANC processes was conducted using a structured data sheet with predefined major task categories. The duration and sequence of tasks performed during ANC visits were observed, and changes after the implementation of the eCDSS were analyzed. Results In 24 QUALMAT study sites, 214 observations of ANC visits (144 in Ghana, 70 in Tanzania) were carried out at baseline and 148 observations (104 in Ghana, 44 in Tanzania) after the software was implemented in 12 of those sites. The median time spent combined for all centers in both countries to provide ANC at baseline was 6.5 min [interquartile range (IQR) =4.0–10.6]. Although the time spent on ANC increased in Tanzania and Ghana after the eCDSS implementation as compared to baseline, overall there was no significant increase in time used for ANC activities (0.51 min, p=0.06 in Ghana; and 0.54 min, p=0.26 in Tanzania) as compared to the control sites without the eCDSS. The percentage of medical history taking in women who had subsequent examinations increased after eCDSS implementation from 58.2% (39/67) to 95.3% (61/64) p<0.001 in Ghana but not in Tanzania [from 65.4% (17/26) to 71.4% (15/21) p=0.70]. Conclusions The QUALMAT eCDSS does not increase the time needed for ANC but partly streamlined workflow at sites in Ghana, showing the potential of such a system to influence quality of care positively. PMID:25630707

  3. Impact of an electronic clinical decision support system on workflow in antenatal care: the QUALMAT eCDSS in rural health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Nathan; Sukums, Felix; Awine, Timothy; Meid, Andreas; Williams, John; Akweongo, Patricia; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of new technology can interrupt established workflows in health care settings. The Quality of Maternal Care (QUALMAT) project has introduced an electronic clinical decision support system (eCDSS) for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery in rural primary health care facilities in Africa. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of the QUALMAT eCDSS on the workflow of health care workers in rural primary health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania. A direct observation, time-and-motion study on ANC processes was conducted using a structured data sheet with predefined major task categories. The duration and sequence of tasks performed during ANC visits were observed, and changes after the implementation of the eCDSS were analyzed. In 24 QUALMAT study sites, 214 observations of ANC visits (144 in Ghana, 70 in Tanzania) were carried out at baseline and 148 observations (104 in Ghana, 44 in Tanzania) after the software was implemented in 12 of those sites. The median time spent combined for all centers in both countries to provide ANC at baseline was 6.5 min [interquartile range (IQR) =4.0-10.6]. Although the time spent on ANC increased in Tanzania and Ghana after the eCDSS implementation as compared to baseline, overall there was no significant increase in time used for ANC activities (0.51 min, p=0.06 in Ghana; and 0.54 min, p=0.26 in Tanzania) as compared to the control sites without the eCDSS. The percentage of medical history taking in women who had subsequent examinations increased after eCDSS implementation from 58.2% (39/67) to 95.3% (61/64) p<0.001 in Ghana but not in Tanzania [from 65.4% (17/26) to 71.4% (15/21) p=0.70]. The QUALMAT eCDSS does not increase the time needed for ANC but partly streamlined workflow at sites in Ghana, showing the potential of such a system to influence quality of care positively.

  4. Impact of an electronic clinical decision support system on workflow in antenatal care: the QUALMAT eCDSS in rural health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Nathan; Sukums, Felix; Awine, Timothy; Meid, Andreas; Williams, John; Akweongo, Patricia; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Background The implementation of new technology can interrupt established workflows in health care settings. The Quality of Maternal Care (QUALMAT) project has introduced an electronic clinical decision support system (eCDSS) for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery in rural primary health care facilities in Africa. Objective This study was carried out to investigate the influence of the QUALMAT eCDSS on the workflow of health care workers in rural primary health care facilities in Ghana and Tanzania. Design A direct observation, time-and-motion study on ANC processes was conducted using a structured data sheet with predefined major task categories. The duration and sequence of tasks performed during ANC visits were observed, and changes after the implementation of the eCDSS were analyzed. Results In 24 QUALMAT study sites, 214 observations of ANC visits (144 in Ghana, 70 in Tanzania) were carried out at baseline and 148 observations (104 in Ghana, 44 in Tanzania) after the software was implemented in 12 of those sites. The median time spent combined for all centers in both countries to provide ANC at baseline was 6.5 min [interquartile range (IQR) =4.0-10.6]. Although the time spent on ANC increased in Tanzania and Ghana after the eCDSS implementation as compared to baseline, overall there was no significant increase in time used for ANC activities (0.51 min, p=0.06 in Ghana; and 0.54 min, p=0.26 in Tanzania) as compared to the control sites without the eCDSS. The percentage of medical history taking in women who had subsequent examinations increased after eCDSS implementation from 58.2% (39/67) to 95.3% (61/64) p<0.001 in Ghana but not in Tanzania [from 65.4% (17/26) to 71.4% (15/21) p=0.70]. Conclusions The QUALMAT eCDSS does not increase the time needed for ANC but partly streamlined workflow at sites in Ghana, showing the potential of such a system to influence quality of care positively.

  5. Collaborative and Bidirectional Feedback Between Students and Clinical Preceptors: Promoting Effective Communication Skills on Health Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kara; Chou, Calvin L

    2016-11-01

    Current literature on feedback suggests that clinical preceptors lead feedback conversations that are primarily unidirectional, from preceptor to student. While this approach may promote clinical competency, it does not actively develop students' competency in facilitating feedback discussions and providing feedback across power differentials (ie, from student to preceptor). This latter competency warrants particular attention given its fundamental role in effective health care team communication and its related influence on patient safety. Reframing the feedback process as collaborative and bidirectional, where both preceptors and students provide and receive feedback, maximizes opportunities for role modeling and skills practice in the context of a supportive relationship, thereby enhancing team preparedness. We describe an initiative to introduce these fundamental skills of collaborative, bidirectional feedback in the nurse-midwifery education program at the University of California, San Francisco. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. [Polish health care system].

    PubMed

    Piontkovski, V; Novakovska, L; Pasternak, V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the discussion is to evaluate certain aspects of the Polish health care system - its ability to respond to contemporary dynamic social, economic and epidemiological changes (including the spread of chronic diseases, aging population or family crisis - its possibilities for providing care of the sick). The analysis of such a problem was based on a critically-oriented perspective that is developed in the field of the sociology of health and illness. The text pays particular attention to the problem of deepening social inequalities, which can be considered as one of the major factors that hinder access to health care and influence poorer health condition: In this context the mechanism of "saving health" and borrowing in order to satisfy the health needs in the face of financial difficulties was mentioned. Moreover, the text includes the attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of health promo- tion programs in our country as potentially the most effective way of raising the level of public health. There is also the issue of public confidence in health care institutions and the approval of attempts towards reforming the medical system in our country. A separate part of the discussion was devoted to criticism of the idea of reducing the role of the state in the health care sector.

  7. Cost of installing and operating an electronic clinical decision support system for maternal health care: case of Tanzania rural primary health centres.

    PubMed

    Saronga, Happiness Pius; Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Dong, Hengjin; Leshabari, Melkizedeck; Sauerborn, Rainer; Sukums, Felix; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla

    2015-04-02

    Poor quality of care is among the causes of high maternal and newborn disease burden in Tanzania. Potential reason for poor quality of care is the existence of a "know-do gap" where by health workers do not perform to the best of their knowledge. An electronic clinical decision support system (CDSS) for maternal health care was piloted in six rural primary health centers of Tanzania to improve performance of health workers by facilitating adherence to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and ultimately improve quality of maternal health care. This study aimed at assessing the cost of installing and operating the system in the health centers. This retrospective study was conducted in Lindi, Tanzania. Costs incurred by the project were analyzed using Ingredients approach. These costs broadly included vehicle, computers, furniture, facility, CDSS software, transport, personnel, training, supplies and communication. These were grouped into installation and operation cost; recurrent and capital cost; and fixed and variable cost. We assessed the CDSS in terms of its financial and economic cost implications. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis on the estimations. Total financial cost of CDSS intervention amounted to 185,927.78 USD. 77% of these costs were incurred in the installation phase and included all the activities in preparation for the actual operation of the system for client care. Generally, training made the largest share of costs (33% of total cost and more than half of the recurrent cost) followed by CDSS software- 32% of total cost. There was a difference of 31.4% between the economic and financial costs. 92.5% of economic costs were fixed costs consisting of inputs whose costs do not vary with the volume of activity within a given range. Economic cost per CDSS contact was 52.7 USD but sensitive to discount rate, asset useful life and input cost variations. Our study presents financial and economic cost estimates of installing and operating an

  8. Health Care Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The article on health care options for children with disabilities includes a review of the changes in hospital and doctor coverage and newer types of health insurance, including Health Maintenance Organizations and Independent Practice Associations. Suggestions for parents of disabled children are offered. (CL)

  9. [Correctional health care].

    PubMed

    Fix, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Court decisions taking away someone's freedom by requiring them to serve a jail sentence should not deny them access to the same health care available to free citizens in full compliance with patient confidentiality. Health institutions, responsible for administering somatic care, offer a comprehensive response to the medical needs of those under justice control, both in jails and conventional care units. For a physician, working in the correctional setting implies accepting its constraints, and violence, and protecting and enforcing fundamental rights, as well as rights to dignity, confidential care and freedom to accept or refuse a treatment.

  10. Impact of clinical registries on quality of patient care and health outcomes: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Kumari, Varuni; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Romero, Lorena; Evans, Sue M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many developed countries have regional and national clinical registries aimed at improving health outcomes of patients diagnosed with particular diseases or cared for in particular healthcare settings. Clinical quality registries (CQRs) are clinical registries established with the purpose of monitoring quality of care and providing feedback to improve health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to understand the impact of CQRs on (1) mortality/survival; (2) measures of outcome that reflect a process or outcome of healthcare; (3) healthcare utilisation and (4) costs. Methods and analysis The PRISMA-P methodology, checklist and standard strategy using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and structured data abstraction tools will be followed. A search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and CINAHL will be undertaken, in addition to Google Scholar and grey literature, to identify studies in English covering the period January 1980 to December 2014. Case–control, cohort, randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials which describe the registry as an intervention will be eligible for inclusion. Narrative synthesis of study findings will be conducted, guided by a conceptual framework developed to analyse the outcome measure of the registry using defined criteria. If sufficient studies are identified with a similar outcome of interest and measure using the same comparator and time of interval, results will be pooled for random-effects meta-analysis. Test for heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis will be conducted. To identify reporting bias, forest plots and funnel plots will be created and, if required, Egger's test will be conducted. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. Review results will be published as a part of thesis, peer-reviewed journal and conferences. Trial registration number CRD

  11. Impact of clinical registries on quality of patient care and health outcomes: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Kumari, Varuni; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Romero, Lorena; Evans, Sue M

    2016-04-26

    Many developed countries have regional and national clinical registries aimed at improving health outcomes of patients diagnosed with particular diseases or cared for in particular healthcare settings. Clinical quality registries (CQRs) are clinical registries established with the purpose of monitoring quality of care and providing feedback to improve health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to understand the impact of CQRs on (1) mortality/survival; (2) measures of outcome that reflect a process or outcome of healthcare; (3) healthcare utilisation and (4) costs. The PRISMA-P methodology, checklist and standard strategy using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and structured data abstraction tools will be followed. A search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and CINAHL will be undertaken, in addition to Google Scholar and grey literature, to identify studies in English covering the period January 1980 to December 2014. Case-control, cohort, randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials which describe the registry as an intervention will be eligible for inclusion. Narrative synthesis of study findings will be conducted, guided by a conceptual framework developed to analyse the outcome measure of the registry using defined criteria. If sufficient studies are identified with a similar outcome of interest and measure using the same comparator and time of interval, results will be pooled for random-effects meta-analysis. Test for heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis will be conducted. To identify reporting bias, forest plots and funnel plots will be created and, if required, Egger's test will be conducted. Ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. Review results will be published as a part of thesis, peer-reviewed journal and conferences. CRD42015017319. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  12. Health care in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S

    1984-07-01

    This is the third and last article reporting professional exchange tours between American nurses and nurses of other countries. In this article, the health care system of Kenya is discussed and comparisons made between this system and our own. Out of this comparison come several insights into our own way of doing things and possibilities for improving them. "Health Care in the Soviet Union" appeared in the April 1984 issue of The Nurse Practitioner. "Health Care in China" appeared in the May 1984 issue of the journal.

  13. Clinical toxicology: clinical science to public health.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D N

    2005-11-01

    1. The aims of the present paper are to: (i) review progress in clinical toxicology over the past 40 years and to place it in the context of modern health care by describing its development; and (ii) illustrate the use of clinical toxicology data from Scotland, in particular, as a tool for informing clinical care and public health policy with respect to drugs. 2. A historical literature review was conducted with amalgamation and comparison of a series of published and unpublished clinical toxicology datasets from NPIS Edinburgh and other sources. 3. Clinical databases within poisons treatment centres offer an important method of collecting data on the clinical effects of drugs in overdose. These data can be used to increase knowledge on drug toxicity mechanisms that inform licensing decisions, contribute to evidence-based care and clinical management. Combination of this material with national morbidity datasets provides another valuable approach that can inform public health prevention strategies. 4. In conclusion, clinical toxicology datasets offer clinical pharmacologists a new study area. Clinical toxicology treatment units and poisons information services offer an important health resource.

  14. Clinical ethics and patient advocacy: the power of communication in health care.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Inken Annegret; Fröhlich-Güzelsoy, Leyla; Bruns, Florian; Friedrich, Bernd; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the rights of patients have assumed a more pivotal role in international discussion. Stricter laws on the protection of patients place greater priority on the perspective and the status of patients. The purpose of this study is to emphasize ethical aspects in communication, the role of patient advocates as contacts for the concerns and suggestions of patients, and how many problems of ethics disappear when communication is highlighted. We reviewed 680 documented cases of consultation in a 10-year period of patient advocates' activity at a big German university hospital with 1,300 beds. On the basis of this extensive material, the article will focus on the intersection of the advocate's work with the problems of patients in hospitals. Deficits in the level of communication between health care professionals and patients were frequently uncovered. Patients primarily complain about the lack of dialogue and empathy. Middle-aged patients consulted the patients' advocate disproportionately more often. Measured against this baseline, the group of 65 and older complained less frequently. Besides complaints the advocate was asked in more than one-third of all cases for information about medical matters, hospital regulations or administrative problems. Patients obviously see the advocate as a well-connected and ideally unbiased contact person for uncertainties concerning their malady or a potential stay in hospital. Those seeking help often set hope in the information given by the voluntary patient representative. It should be highly recommended for every German hospital to establish the position of a patient advocate. Furthermore, patients can profit from regular exchange between the advocate and the Ethics Committee, also, to help ensure that their rights are taken into account and implemented in an ethically desirable context.

  15. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia Ozida; Rispel, Laetitia Charmaine; Chirwa, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic to work in, the prevention of violence

  16. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic

  17. Establishing and harmonizing ontologies in an interdisciplinary health care clinical research environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Barry; Brochhausen, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Ontologies are being ever more commonly used in biomedical informatics. The paper provides a survey of some of these uses, and of the relations between ontologies and other terminology resources. In order for ontologies to become truly useful, two objectives must be met. First, ways must be found for the transparent evaluation of ontologies. Second, existing ontologies need to be harmonized. The authors argue that one key foundation for both ontology evaluation and harmonization is the adoption of a realist paradigm in ontology development. For science-based ontologies of the sort which concern us in the eHealth arena, it is reality that provides the common benchmark against which ontologies can be evaluated and aligned within larger frameworks. Given the current multitude of ontologies in the biomedical domain the need for harmonization is becoming ever more urgent. An example of such harmonization within the ACGT project is described, which draws on ontology-based computing as a basis for sharing clinical and laboratory data on cancer research.

  18. Education leadership in the clinical health care setting: a framework for nursing education development.

    PubMed

    Mockett, Lynda; Horsfall, Janine; O'Callaghan, Wendy

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes how a new framework for clinical nursing education was introduced at Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB), New Zealand. The project was initiated in response to the significant legislative and post registration nursing education changes within New Zealand. The journey of change has been a significant undertaking, and has required clear management, strong leadership, perseverance and understanding of the organisation's culture. The approach taken to managing the change had four stages, and reflects various change management models. The first stage, the identification process, identified the impetus for change. Creating the vision is the second stage and identified what the change would look like within the organisation. To ensure success and to guide the process of change a realistic and sustainable vision was developed. Implementing the vision was the third stage, and discusses the communication and pilot phase of implementing the nursing education framework. Stage four, embedding the vision, explores the process and experiences of changing an education culture and embedding the vision into an organisation. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of implementing robust, consistent, strategic and collaborative processes--that reflect and evaluate best educational nursing practice.

  19. A systematic literature review assessing the directional impact of managed care formulary restrictions on medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and health care resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Happe, Laura E; Clark, Deanna; Holliday, Edana; Young, Tramaine

    2014-07-01

    There is extensive literature demonstrating that formulary restrictions reduce the pharmacy costs and utilization of restricted drugs. However, some research suggests that there may be unintended consequences of formulary restrictions on other patient outcomes. While several literature reviews have assessed the relationship between formulary restrictions and medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, or health care resource utilization, these reviews were either not systematic, were conducted more than 5 years ago, or did not assess the aggregate directional impact of the relationships. To conduct a systematic literature review assessing the direction (positive, negative, or neutral) of the relationship between managed care formulary restrictions (including step therapy, cost sharing, prior authorization, preferred drug lists, and quantity limits) on medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and health care resource utilization.  Articles published in 1993 or later were identified from PubMed using 2 lists of search terms. List A included 12 formulary restriction terms and List B included 12 patient outcomes terms, resulting in 144 unique search term combinations. Each article was evaluated by 2 investigators against the following exclusion criteria using a stepwise approach: (a) the article was a commentary or review article; (b) the article did not assess the impact of managed care formulary restrictions on outcomes; and (c) the study was conducted outside the United States. The total number of studies was reported by formulary restriction type. Next, the total number of outcomes reported in each study was summed to conduct an outcomes-level analysis. The outcomes were categorized by type of outcome (medication adherence, clinical, economic, or health care resource utilization) and direction of association (positive, negative, or neutral/not significant) based on the relationship reported in each study. The frequencies of each

  20. Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care using electronic health record information in family medicine clinics of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care (ANC) using indicators should be part of the efforts to improve primary care services in developing countries. The growing use of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential of making the evaluation more efficient. The objectives of this study were: (a) to develop quality indicators for ANC and (b) to evaluate the quality of ANC using EHR information in family medicine clinics (FMCs) of Mexico City. Methods We used a mixed methods approach including: (a) in-depth interviews with health professionals; (b) development of indicators following the RAND-UCLA method; (c) a retrospective cohort study of quality of care provided to 5342 women aged 12–49 years who had completed their pregnancy in 2009 and attended to at least one ANC visit with their family doctor. The study took place in four FMCs located in Mexico City. The source of information was the EHR. SAS statistical package served for programing and performing the descriptive statistical analysis. Results 14 ANC quality indicators were developed. The evaluation showed that 40.6% of women began ANC in the first trimester; 63.5% with low-risk pregnancy attended four or more ANC visits; 4.4% were referred for routine obstetric ultrasound, and 41.1% with vaginal infection were prescribed metronidazole. On average, the percentage of recommended care that women received was 32.7%. Conclusions It is feasible to develop quality indicators suitable for evaluating the quality of ANC using routine EHR data. The study identified the ANC areas that require improvement; which can guide future strategies aimed at improving ANC quality. PMID:24885103

  1. Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care using electronic health record information in family medicine clinics of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2014-05-16

    Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care (ANC) using indicators should be part of the efforts to improve primary care services in developing countries. The growing use of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential of making the evaluation more efficient. The objectives of this study were: (a) to develop quality indicators for ANC and (b) to evaluate the quality of ANC using EHR information in family medicine clinics (FMCs) of Mexico City. We used a mixed methods approach including: (a) in-depth interviews with health professionals; (b) development of indicators following the RAND-UCLA method; (c) a retrospective cohort study of quality of care provided to 5342 women aged 12-49 years who had completed their pregnancy in 2009 and attended to at least one ANC visit with their family doctor. The study took place in four FMCs located in Mexico City. The source of information was the EHR. SAS statistical package served for programing and performing the descriptive statistical analysis. 14 ANC quality indicators were developed. The evaluation showed that 40.6% of women began ANC in the first trimester; 63.5% with low-risk pregnancy attended four or more ANC visits; 4.4% were referred for routine obstetric ultrasound, and 41.1% with vaginal infection were prescribed metronidazole. On average, the percentage of recommended care that women received was 32.7%. It is feasible to develop quality indicators suitable for evaluating the quality of ANC using routine EHR data. The study identified the ANC areas that require improvement; which can guide future strategies aimed at improving ANC quality.

  2. A clinical management system for patient participatory health care support. Assuring the patients' rights and confirming operation of clinical treatment and hospital administration.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kiyomu; Konishi, Nakao; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Tsuru, Satoko; Kawamura, Akie; Iwata, Norikazu; Tanaka, Takeshi

    2004-03-31

    We conducted a drastic change in our hospital information system to support patient participatory health care provided in the New Hiroshima University Hospital (HUH). The new information system in HUH (HU-MIND II-Hiroshima University Hospital Medical Intelligence and Notice Delivery system II) is designed as "clinical management system" (CMS). The core of this CMS is the electronic health record (EHR), which aims to assure both the patients' right to know, and the attendants' accountability. It is evident that the team practice including patients requires close communication. Data in the EHR are written not only by physicians, but also by all coworkers, which will enable them to realize the team communication and the ordering in a reliable way and to leave the evidence of conducted practices. Moreover, the bedside information systems were set-up at all 700 beds. Patients can access their anamnesis and future clinical care procedures themselves. Based on the demand outlined above, the new regulations of HUH are composed of 21 requirements, conditions of information collection, accumulation and use. Our focus was how to make patients' right compatible with attendants' accountability. As the data owners, patients have the facility to access their own data at their bedsides. They can view their own health condition and treatment program and can control the data flow.

  3. Health care automation companies.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Health care automation companies: card transaction processing/EFT/EDI-capable banks; claims auditing/analysis; claims processors/clearinghouses; coding products/services; computer hardware; computer networking/LAN/WAN; consultants; data processing/outsourcing; digital dictation/transcription; document imaging/optical disk storage; executive information systems; health information networks; hospital/health care information systems; interface engines; laboratory information systems; managed care information systems; patient identification/credit cards; pharmacy information systems; POS terminals; radiology information systems; software--claims related/computer-based patient records/home health care/materials management/supply ordering/physician practice management/translation/utilization review/outcomes; telecommunications products/services; telemedicine/teleradiology; value-added networks.

  4. Managed health care.

    PubMed

    Curtiss, F R

    1989-04-01

    The fundamental components of managed-care plans are described; the development of managed-care programs is discussed; and the impact of managed care on pharmacy services and the price, quality, and accessibility of health care are reviewed. Health care can be considered to be managed when at least one of the following fundamental components is present: prospective pricing, "UCR" (usual, customary, and reasonable) pricing of services, peer review, mandatory use review, benefit redesign, capitation payments, channeling, quality criteria, and health promotion. The managed-care industry consists of health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), and managed fee-for-service plans. Managed-care reimbursement principles involve transferring some or all of the impetus for controlling use of services to the health-care provider. Means by which this is done include prospective pricing, services bundling, price discounts and negotiated fees, and capitation financing and reimbursement. Financial risk-sharing arrangements with providers--including hospitals, physicians, pharmacies, and home-care companies--are necessary for any managed-care plan to attain true control over its service costs. Use-review and use-management services are also fundamental to containing health-care spending. These include retrospective, concurrent, and prospective reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of medical services. Use management, like services bundling and prospective pricing, has been more effective in reducing costs of hospital inpatient services than costs associated with ambulatory care. Per case payments and services bundling have made individual charges for items irrelevant to hospital revenue. This has forced hospital pharmacy managers to become more sensitive to cost management. Drug formularies, improved productivity, and use of prescribing protocols are means by which hospital pharmacies have controlled costs. However, since shorter hospital

  5. Electronic Patient Registries Improve Diabetes Care and Clinical Outcomes in Rural Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Cecil; Bailey, Kelly A.; Petitte, Trisha; Baus, Adam; Swim, Mary; Hendryx, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Diabetes care is challenging in rural areas. Research has shown that the utilization of electronic patient registries improves care; however, improvements generally have been described in combination with other ongoing interventions. The level of basic registry utilization sufficient for positive change is unknown. Purpose: The goal of…

  6. Electronic Patient Registries Improve Diabetes Care and Clinical Outcomes in Rural Community Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Cecil; Bailey, Kelly A.; Petitte, Trisha; Baus, Adam; Swim, Mary; Hendryx, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context: Diabetes care is challenging in rural areas. Research has shown that the utilization of electronic patient registries improves care; however, improvements generally have been described in combination with other ongoing interventions. The level of basic registry utilization sufficient for positive change is unknown. Purpose: The goal of…

  7. Beyond "health care reform".

    PubMed

    Heyssel, R M

    1993-03-01

    The author discusses the need to make corrections in the U.S. health care system, describes the simplistic and money-oriented definition that many persons have of "health care reform," and discusses the issues he thinks will and will not be dealt with in the coming reforms of the health care system. He maintains that true reform would deal with matters such as restraining expansion of the health care industry, setting reasonable fees, and confronting the harmful social and environmental conditions that result in high "medical" care costs and poor health statistics. The medical profession--including academic medical centers--has a large role to play in true health care reform, which will involve facing the major barriers (which he outlines) that are now impeding important reforms (e.g., increasing the number of generalist physicians; finding better ways to pay for medical students' and residents' education). The profession cannot make progress in true reform without developing a vision of what the U.S. health care system should be and becoming active in moving toward that vision, acting in the interests of both the individual patient and the community as a whole. The author outlines some of the barriers to finding that vision (such as the influence of third-party payers on the doctor-patient relationship and the fragmentation of medicine and medical education by specialties and subspecialties) and proposes the characteristics and values of the kind of medical education and community involvement of academic medical centers that can help create the needed vision, regain the trust of the public, and thereby reform health care in the interests of both the community and the profession.

  8. Mercury and health care

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  9. Learning curves in health care.

    PubMed

    Waldman, J Deane; Yourstone, Steven A; Smith, Howard L

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the uses of learning curve theory in medicine. Though effective application of learning curve theory in health care can result in higher quality and lower cost, it is seldom methodically applied in clinical practice. Fundamental changes are necessary in the corporate culture of medicine in order to capitalize maximally on the benefits of learning.

  10. High-risk alcohol use and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection in three primary health care clinics in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking

  11. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    PubMed

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-12-01

    Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care.

  12. Value in Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery Health Care: the Role of Time-driven Activity-based Cost Accounting (TDABC) and Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs).

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The continuing increases in health care expenditures as well as the importance of providing safe, effective, timely, patient-centered care has brought government and commercial payer pressure on hospitals and providers to document the value of the care they deliver. This article introduces work at Boston Children's Hospital on time-driven activity-based accounting to determine cost of care delivery; combined with Systemic Clinical Assessment and Management Plans to reduce variation and improve outcomes. The focus so far has been on distal radius fracture care for children and adolescents.

  13. Prescribing Patterns and Perceptions of Health Care Professionals About Rational Drug use in a Specialist Hospital Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Igwilo, Cecilia I.; Emedoh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Irrational drug use is associated with adverse consequences including drug resistance and avoidable adverse drug reactions. Studies of rational drug use in psychiatric facilities are scanty. This study evaluated prescription practices and perception of health care professionals regarding causes of irrational drug use. A retrospective study conducted at the outpatient clinic of Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos. Data on drug use indicators were analyzed. A cross-sectional assessment of perception of prescribers and dispensers regarding rational drug use was conducted. A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed. Mean number of drugs per encounter was 3.5 and percentage generic prescribed was 58.5%. Poly-pharmacy (P=0.024, 95% CI=1.082-1.315) and non-generic prescribing (P=0.032, 95% CI=1.495-1.821) were significantly associated with young prescribers. Factors associated with irrational drug use include demand from patients, patients’ beliefs about injection drugs and influence of pharmaceutical sale representatives. Certain aspect of prescribers indicators are still poor in the hospital studied. Health care professionals identified possible associated factors for irrational drug use. Concerted efforts are required to ensure rational drug use especially in psychiatric facilities in Nigeria. PMID:28299123

  14. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    PubMed

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2000-01-01

    Hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The design issues of health care information system can be classified into three categories: 1) time-oriented and event-labelled storage of patient data; 2) contextual support of decision-making; 3) capabilities for modular upgrading. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualize clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the field of blood transfusion. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to identify its main components: activity, sub-process, resources, constrains, guidelines, parameters and indicators. Although some aspects of activity, such as "where", "what else", and "why" are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for this approach to be generalised within the organisation, for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared.

  15. Application and Feasibility of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Reproductive Health Care Quality Indicators at a Public Urban Rheumatology Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Quinzanos, Itziar; Davis, Lisa; Keniston, Angela; Nash, Alyssa; Yazdany, Jinoos; Fransen, Rebecca; Hirsh, Joel M.; Zell, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    Objective Quality indicators (QIs) are evidence-based processes of care designed to represent the current standard of care. Reproductive health QIs for the care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have recently been developed, and examine areas such as pregnancy screening for autoantibodies, treatment of pregnancy associated antiphospholipid syndrome, and contraceptive counseling. This study was designed to investigate our performance on these QIs and to explore potential gaps in care and demographic predictors of adherence to the QIs in a safety net hospital. METHODS We performed a retrospective record review of patients with a diagnosis of SLE at Denver Health Medical Center (DH) through an electronic query of existing medical records and via chart review. Data was limited to female patients between the ages of 18–50 who were seen between July 2006 and August 2011. RESULTS One hundred and thirty-seven female patients between the ages of 18–50 were identified by ICD-9 code and confirmed by chart review to have SLE. Of these, 122 patients met the updated 1997 American College of Rheumatology SLE criteria and had an intact reproductive system. Only 15 pregnancies were documented during this 5-year period and adherence to autoantibody screening was 100 percent. We did not have any patients who were pregnant and met criteria for pregnancy associated antiphospholipid syndrome. Sixty-five patients (53%) received potentially teratogenic medications and 30 (46%) had documented discussions about these medications’ potential risk upon their initiation. Predictors of whether patients received appropriate counseling included younger age (OR 0.93, CI 0.87-0.98) and those who did not describe English as their primary language (OR 0.29, CI 0.09-0.96). These remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS We were able to detect an important gap in care regarding teratogenic medication education to SLE patients of childbearing

  16. Clinical Effectiveness of Integrating Depression Care Management into Medicare Home Health: The Depression CAREPATH Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Martha L.; Raue, Patrick J.; Reilly, Catherine F.; Greenberg, Rebecca L.; Meyers, Barnett S.; Banerjee, Samprit; Pickett, Yolonda R.; Sheeran, Thomas F.; Ghesquiere, Angela; Zukowski, Diane; Rosas, Vianca H.; McLaughlin, Jeanne; Pledger, Lori; Doyle, Joan; Joachim, Pamela; Leon, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    at any follow-up. Among 208 participants with HDRS≥10, CAREPATH demonstrated effectiveness (P=0.02) with lower HDRS at three (14.1 vs 16.1; P=0.04), six (12.0 vs 14.7; P=0.02) and twelve months (11.8 vs 15.7; P=0.005). Exploratory analyses found no differences in number or length of home visits. Conclusion and Relevance Home health nurses can effectively integrate depression care management into routine practice. However, clinical benefit appears limited to only patients with moderate to severe depression. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01979302 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01979302 PMID:25384017

  17. Handling anticipated exceptions in clinical care: investigating clinician use of ‘exit strategies’ in an electronic health records system

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A; Padman, Rema; Johnson, Michael P; Hussain, Anwar A; Ye, Wen; Zhou, Xiaomu; Diamond, Herbert S

    2011-01-01

    Unpredictable yet frequently occurring exception situations pervade clinical care. Handling them properly often requires aberrant actions temporarily departing from normal practice. In this study, the authors investigated several exception-handling procedures provided in an electronic health records system for facilitating clinical documentation, which the authors refer to as ‘data entry exit strategies.’ Through a longitudinal analysis of computer-recorded usage data, the authors found that (1) utilization of the exit strategies was not affected by postimplementation system maturity or patient visit volume, suggesting clinicians' needs to ‘exit’ unwanted situations are persistent; and (2) clinician type and gender are strong predictors of exit-strategy usage. Drilldown analyses further revealed that the exit strategies were judiciously used and enabled actions that would be otherwise difficult or impossible. However, many data entries recorded via them could have been ‘properly’ documented, yet were not, and a considerable proportion containing temporary or incomplete information was never subsequently amended. These findings may have significant implications for the design of safer and more user-friendly point-of-care information systems for healthcare. PMID:21676941

  18. Primary health care models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; French, Reta; McCulloch, Amy; Clendinning, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the knowledge and perceptions of fourth-year medical students regarding the new models of primary health care (PHC) and to ascertain whether that knowledge influenced their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario in London. Participants Fourth-year medical students graduating in 2009 who indicated family medicine as a possible career choice on their Canadian Residency Matching Service applications. Methods Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted between January and April of 2009. Data were analyzed using an iterative and interpretive approach. The analysis strategy of immersion and crystallization assisted in synthesizing the data to provide a comprehensive view of key themes and overarching concepts. Main findings Four key themes were identified: the level of students’ knowledge regarding PHC models varied; the knowledge was generally obtained from practical experiences rather than classroom learning; students could identify both advantages and disadvantages of working within the new PHC models; and although students regarded the new PHC models positively, these models did not influence their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Conclusion Knowledge of the new PHC models varies among fourth-year students, indicating a need for improved education strategies in the years before clinical training. Being able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the PHC models was not enough to influence participants’ choice of specialty. Educators and health care policy makers need to determine the best methods to promote and facilitate knowledge transfer about these PHC models. PMID:22518904

  19. The clinical safety of disabled patients: Proposal for a methodology for analysis of health care risks and specific measures for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Pérez, Bernardo; Bratos-Murillo, Manuel; Santiago-Sáez, Andrés; Albarrán-Juan, Elena; Villa-Vigil, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The clinical risks associated with health care have been a known factor since ancient times, and their prevention has constituted one of the foundations of health care. However, concern for the risks involved in health care treatments has risen very significantly in recent years, becoming a modern current of concern for clinical health care risks which is referred to by the name of “patient safety” in the scientific literature. Unfortunately, there are no studies on patient safety in dental practice or case studies of adverse events in this practice. In addition to the lack of studies on adverse events in regular dental practice, there are even fewer references to treatment for disabled patients. In this article, we provide a “proposal for analysis” of the clinical risks associated with treating disabled patients, which will make it possible to evaluate the health care risks associated with the treatment of patients who have a specific disability, at one determined moment and in one specific environment. Key words:Patient safety, disabled patients, health care risk. PMID:23385500

  20. Genes, Race, and Culture in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Linda M.; Truesdell, Nicole D.; Kreiner, Meta J.

    2015-01-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals. [race and genetics, primary care, health disparities, racial profiling] PMID:23804331

  1. Local Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention at Five Veterans Health Administration Primary Care Clinics: Perspectives of Clinical and Administrative Staff.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily C; Achtmeyer, Carol E; Young, Jessica P; Rittmueller, Stacey E; Ludman, Evette J; Lapham, Gwen T; Lee, Amy K; Chavez, Laura J; Berger, Douglas; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-01-01

    Population-based alcohol screening, followed by brief intervention for patients who screen positive for unhealthy alcohol use, is widely recommended for primary care settings and considered a top prevention priority, but is challenging to implement. However, new policy initiatives in the U.S., including the Affordable Care Act, may help launch widespread implementation. While the nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VA) has achieved high rates of documented alcohol screening and brief intervention, research has identified quality problems with both. We conducted a qualitative key informant study to describe local implementation of alcohol screening and brief intervention from the perspectives of frontline adopters in VA primary care in order to understand the process of implementation and factors underlying quality problems. A purposive snowball sampling method was used to identify and recruit key informants from 5 VA primary care clinics in the northwestern U.S. Key informants completed 20-30 minute semi-structured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed using template analysis. Key informants (N=32) included: clinical staff (n=14), providers (n=14), and administrative informants (n=4) with varying participation in implementation of and responsibility for alcohol screening and brief intervention at the medical center. Ten inter-related themes (5 a priori and 5 emergent) were identified and grouped into 3 applicable domains of Greenhalgh's conceptual framework for dissemination of innovations, including values of adopters (theme 1), processes of implementation (themes 2 and 3), and post-implementation consequences in care processes (themes 4-10). While key informants believed alcohol use was relevant to health and important to address, the process of implementation (in which no training was provided and electronic clinical reminders "just showed up") did not address critical training and infrastructure needs. Key informants

  2. Crisis in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1990-01-01

    The health care crisis faced by African Americans must be addressed by the nation as a whole with the same energy that erupts when a natural disaster occurs. On an individual basis, blacks can improve their own health with attention to child nurturing and personal nutrition. (SLD)

  3. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  4. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  5. Lymphoedema care of breast cancer patients in a breast care clinic: a survey of knowledge and health practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y M; Mak, S S; Tse, S M; Chan, S J

    2001-11-01

    Lymphoedema, an accumulation of protein-rich fluid in interstitial tissue, is a well-recognised life-altering result of breast cancer treatment. With the goal of studying the prevalence and management of lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy, 171 patients were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire following completion of treatment for breast cancer. The survey revealed that 82.5% of patients knew they were at-risk of developing lymphoedema. However, the level of knowledge about preventive care in lymphoedema was inadequate, with a mean score of 4.07 out of a full mark of 10 (SD=2.35, mode=2). A substantial proportion (45.6%; n=78) of respondents reported that they had experienced lymphoedema and subsequently developed multiple sites of lymphoedema, but only 34.7% (n=26) had been referred for physiotherapy. The study also revealed that patients who had received the combined regimen of mastectomy, lymph node dissection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were at a higher risk of developing lymphoedema (chi2=6.305, P=0.043). Interestingly, it was found that nurses were the most frequently cited resource for information, but the least consulted professionals for discussion on treatment. It is apparent from our patient survey that there is a lack of knowledge on lymphoedema care amongst breast cancer patients. In order to improve patients' level of knowledge and their awareness of lymphoedema care, the provision for systematic and comprehensive patient education, including management protocols for lymphoedema, needs to be addressed. Education and training, will be essential components of efforts to ensure appropriate care for lymphoedema patients.

  6. [Group health care].

    PubMed

    Hermida, C

    1986-01-01

    The transition from individual to group health care entails a response to multidisciplinary scientific systems, the enlistment of community participation, and an effort to make the professionals aware of the need to work as a team. The author points to the need to change the information system so that the professional-to-be will acquire a mentality and method of work appropriate for group care. In the architecture of service facilities structural changes must also be provided for the care of groups rather than individuals. In short, the change entails a review of all the elements of care.

  7. Enhancing transgender health care.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, E

    2001-01-01

    As awareness of transgender men and women grows among health care educators, researchers, policymakers, and clinicians of all types, the need to create more inclusive settings also grows. Greater sensitivity and relevant information and services are required in dealing with transgender men and women. These individuals need their identities to be recognized as authentic, they need better access to health care resources, and they need education and prevention material appropriate to their experience. In addition, a need exists for activities designed to enhance understanding of transgender health issues and to spur innovation. PMID:11392924

  8. Impact of deploying multiple point-of-care tests with a 'sample first' approach on a sexual health clinical care pathway. A service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harding-Esch, Emma M; Nori, Achyuta V; Hegazi, Aseel; Pond, Marcus J; Okolo, Olanike; Nardone, Anthony; Lowndes, Catherine M; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, S Tariq

    2017-09-01

    To assess clinical service value of STI point-of-care test (POCT) use in a 'sample first' clinical pathway (patients providing samples on arrival at clinic, before clinician consultation). Specific outcomes were: patient acceptability; whether a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) could be used as a POCT in practice; feasibility of non-NAAT POCT implementation for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV); impact on patient diagnosis and treatment. Service evaluation in a south London sexual health clinic. Symptomatic female and male patients and sexual contacts of CT/NG-positive individuals provided samples for diagnostic testing on clinic arrival, prior to clinical consultation. Tests included routine culture and microscopy; CT/NG (GeneXpert) NAAT; non-NAAT POCTs for TV and BV. All 70 (35 males, 35 females) patients approached participated. The 'sample first' pathway was acceptable, with >90% reporting they were happy to give samples on arrival and receive results in the same visit. Non-NAAT POCT results were available for all patients prior to leaving clinic; rapid CT/NG results were available for only 21.4% (15/70; 5 males, 10 females) of patients prior to leaving clinic. Known negative CT/NG results led to two females avoiding presumptive treatment, and one male receiving treatment directed at possible Mycoplasma genitalium infection causing non-gonococcal urethritis. Non-NAAT POCTs detected more positives than routine microscopy (TV 3 vs 2; BV 24 vs 7), resulting in more patients receiving treatment. A 'sample first' clinical pathway to enable multiple POCT use was acceptable to patients and feasible in a busy sexual health clinic, but rapid CT/NG processing time was too long to enable POCT use. There is need for further development to improve test processing times to enable POC use of rapid NAATs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  9. Development of training-related health care software by a team of clinical educators: their experience, from conception to piloting.

    PubMed

    Ap Dafydd, Derfel; Williamson, Ruth; Blunt, Philip; Blunt, Dominic M

    2016-01-01

    The difficulties of producing useful, bespoke, and affordable information technology systems for large health care organizations are well publicized, following several high-profile endeavors in the UK. This article describes the experience of a small group of clinical radiologists and their collaborators in producing an information technology system - from conception to piloting. This system, called Trainee Tracker, enables automated target date recalculation of trainee milestones, depending on their work patterns and other individual circumstances. It utilizes an automated email alert system to notify the educational supervisors and trainees of approaching and elapsed target dates, in order to identify trainees in difficulty early and address their training needs accordingly. The challenges and advantages, both common to and contrasting with larger-scale projects, are also considered. The benefits of the development team's "agile" approach to software development and the lessons learned will be of interest to medical educators, particularly those with expertise in e-portfolios and other training-related software.

  10. Strategic marketing and clinical management in health care: a possible way forward.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, S; Conway, T

    1998-01-01

    This article examines and comments on the role of clinical directors in the NHS (UK), with specific reference to the relevance of a strategic marketing emphasis. It utilises qualitative methodologies to collect data from stakeholders--in particular, clinical directors and other managers--from two NHS trust hospitals. It examines the extent to which a marketing approach is applicable to clinical managers working in these two hospitals. It utilises a conceptual framework devised by Kottler and Andreason, to highlight whether a marketing approach is, in fact, utilised by these managers. It suggests that a strategic marketing approach (based upon relationships), remains relevant to clinical management, notwithstanding recent changes in government policy.

  11. Containing Health Care Costs

    PubMed Central

    Derzon, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

  12. Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Mehus, Christopher J.; Hawkins, J. David; Boat, Thomas; McCabe, Mary Ann; Barkin, Shari; Perrin, Ellen C.; Metzler, Carol W.; Prado, Guillermo; Tait, V. Fan; Brown, Randall; Beardslee, William

    2017-01-01

    Family-focused prevention programs have been shown to effectively reduce a range of negative behavioral health outcomes but have had limited reach. Three key barriers must be overcome to expand the reach of family-focused prevention programs and thereby achieve a significant public health impact. These barriers are: (1) current social norms and perceptions of parenting programs; (2) concerns about the expertise and legitimacy of sponsoring organizations to offer parenting advice; and (3) a paucity of stable, sustainable funding mechanisms. Primary healthcare settings are well positioned to overcome these barriers. Recent changes within health care make primary care settings an increasingly favorable home for family-focused prevention and suggest possibilities for sustainable funding of family-focused prevention programs. This paper discusses the existing advantages of primary care settings and lays out a plan to move toward realizing the potential public health impact of family-focused prevention through widespread implementation in primary healthcare settings. PMID:27498167

  13. A clinical training unit for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections: an intervention for primary health care physicians in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bojalil, R; Guiscafré, H; Espinosa, P; Viniegra, L; Martínez, H; Palafox, M; Gutiérrez, G

    1999-01-01

    In Tlaxcala State, Mexico, we determined that 80% of children who died from diarrhoea or acute respiratory infections (ARI) received medical care before death; in more than 70% of the cases this care was provided by a private physician. Several strategies have been developed to improve physicians' primary health care practices but private practitioners have only rarely been included. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of in-service training on the case management of diarrhoea and ARI among under-5-year-olds provided by private and public primary physicians. The training consisted of a five-day course of in-service practice during which physicians diagnosed and treated sick children attending a centre and conducted clinical discussions of cases under guidance. Each training course was limited to six physicians. Clinical performance was evaluated by observation before and after the courses. The evaluation of diarrhoea case management covered assessment of dehydration, hydration therapy, prescription of antimicrobial and other drugs, advice on diet, and counselling for mothers; that of ARI case management covered diagnosis, decisions on antimicrobial therapy, use of symptomatic drugs, and counselling for mothers. In general the performance of public physicians both before and after the intervention was better than that of private doctors. Most aspects of the case management of children with diarrhoea improved among both groups of physicians after the course; the proportion of private physicians who had five or six correct elements out of six increased from 14% to 37%: for public physicians the corresponding increase was from 53% to 73%. In ARI case management, decisions taken on antimicrobial therapy and symptomatic drug use improved in both groups; the proportion of private physicians with at least three correct elements out of four increased from 13% to 42%, while among public doctors the corresponding increase was from 43% to 78%. Hands

  14. Knowledge Systems, Health Care Teams, and Clinical Practice: A Study of Successful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…

  15. Knowledge Systems, Health Care Teams, and Clinical Practice: A Study of Successful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…

  16. An HIT Solution for Clinical Care and Disaster Planning: How One health Center in Joplin, MO Survived a Tornado and Avoided a Health Information Disaster.

    PubMed

    Shin, Peter; Jacobs, Feygele

    2012-01-01

    Since taking office, President Obama has made substantial investments in promoting the diffusion of health information technology (IT). The objective of the national health IT program is, generally, to enable health care providers to better manage patient care through secure use and sharing of health information. Through the use of technologies including electronic health records, providers can better maintain patient care information and facilitate communication, often improving care outcomes. The recent tornado in Joplin, MO highlights the importance of health information technology in the health center context, and illustrates the importance of secure electronic health information systems as a crucial element of disaster and business continuity planning. This article examines the experience of a community health center in the aftermath of the major tornado that swept through the American Midwest in the spring of 2011, and provides insight into the planning for disaster survival and recovery as it relates to patient records and health center data.

  17. Preventive health care among HIV positive women in a Utah HIV/AIDS clinic: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    preventive care services, including those with fewer socio-demographic risk factors (i.e., insured, stable housing etc.). In addition, failure to provide STI testing, cancer screening, or safe sex counseling to all patients represents a missed opportunity for provision of services that are important from both a clinical and public health perspective. PMID:24592813

  18. Correlation of Internet Use for Health Care Engagement Purposes and HIV Clinical Outcomes Among HIV-Positive Individuals Using Online Social Media.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Parya; Johnson, Mallory O

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to describe cell phone and Internet use and assess the correlation of Internet use for health care engagement purposes and HIV clinical outcomes among HIV-positive individuals. The authors conducted a national survey using online social media to examine cell phone and Internet use, self-reported HIV viral load (detectable vs. undetectable), and antiretroviral adherence rating (excellent vs. less than excellent). Participants (N = 1,494) were asked about their Internet use for health care engagement purposes (including e-mailing health care providers, refilling medications online, and making medical appointments online). Approximately 95% of participants accessed the Internet nearly daily or daily in the past month (mean hours on Internet use per day = 5.2) and 55.5% used the Internet for health care engagement purposes. Those who used the Internet for any health care engagement purposes had a 1.52-fold odds of reporting an undetectable viral load (p = .009) and a 1.49-fold odds of reporting excellent adherence (p = .001). Although Internet access and use were similar across racial/ethnic, educational, and socioeconomic groups, disparities existed with the use of the Internet for health care engagement purposes among racial/ethnic minorities, those with low to moderate financial stability, lower education, and history of incarceration. The authors' data reveal that among HIV-positive users of online social media, use of the Internet for health care engagement purposes is associated with better self-reported virologic and adherence outcomes.

  19. The Role of the Clinical Laboratory in the Future of Health Care: Lean Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Linoj

    2014-01-01

    This commentary will introduce lean concepts into the clinical microbiology laboratory. The practice of lean in the clinical microbiology laboratory can remove waste, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Lean, Six Sigma, and other such management initiatives are useful tools and can provide dividends but must be accompanied by organizational leadership commitment to sustaining the lean culture in the laboratory setting and providing resources and time to work through the process. PMID:24574289

  20. The role of the clinical laboratory in the future of health care: lean microbiology.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Linoj; Novak-Weekley, Susan

    2014-06-01

    This commentary will introduce lean concepts into the clinical microbiology laboratory. The practice of lean in the clinical microbiology laboratory can remove waste, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Lean, Six Sigma, and other such management initiatives are useful tools and can provide dividends but must be accompanied by organizational leadership commitment to sustaining the lean culture in the laboratory setting and providing resources and time to work through the process. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers’ competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33–9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest

  2. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating for financial management (supervisor

  3. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Background Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating

  4. The effect of relational continuity of care in maternity and child health clinics on parenting self-efficacy of mothers and fathers with loneliness and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services.

  5. Universal health care.

    PubMed

    Meades, Karen; Roberts, Robert

    2007-01-01

    To inaugurate its fifth year of publication, The American Heart Hospital Journal (AHHJ) focused its Winter 2007 issue on health care systems from around the world, with 8 articles contributed by national leaders in their respective countries. Due to the interest and wide range of expertise in the international cardiac community, we continued to publish Special Reports throughout 2007 on this topic. In this issue we present the final two international perspectives, for a total of 12 individual international perspectives plus a final report from Robert Roberts, MD, that surveys the health care systems of an additional 4 countries, including his own, Canada. Our goal in publishing the series: to highlight the variety of systems currently employed worldwide, in the hope that such an international exchange of commentaries would result in debate and reforms where needed. We welcome your comments on the series, as well as your aspirations and ideas for the future of our national system of health care.

  6. Health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  7. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  8. Catastrophic Health Care Bill.

    PubMed

    Reasoner, Susan H; Mercer, Susan O

    1992-06-01

    This report provides a brief historical accounting of the ill-fated Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988. Also included is a summary of the bill's major provisions, followed by a policy analysis wherein such questions as fairness and the issue of long term care are addressed. The analysis examines the adequacy of current health care legislation. In addition, speculation of future options is explored.

  9. Health care prioritization: a clinician's duty.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Donaldson, Cam; Manns, Braden

    2014-01-01

    Publicly funded health care systems are increasingly confronted with fiscal and demographic challenges and face pressure to constrain resource use without impacting clinical outcomes. Clinicians routinely make decisions in the care of their patients that use finite health care resources. Aligning the goal of caring for their patients with ensuring that effective interventions are available for patients who are most likely to benefit is critical to sustaining the publicly funded health care system. Balancing the needs of patients with health care prioritization will require changes to be made across the health care system. Incorporating costs and value for money when caring for patients and making decisions will play an important role in efficiency and value in the health system.

  10. Supervised versus non-supervised implementation of an oral health care guideline in (residential) care homes: a cluster randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increase of the proportion of elderly people has implications for health care services. Advances in oral health care and treatment have resulted in a reduced number of edentulous individuals. An increasing number of dentate elderly people have tooth wear, periodontal disease, oral implants, and sophisticated restorations and prostheses. Hence, they are in need of both preventive and curative oral health care continuously. Weakened oral health due to neglect of self care and professional care and due to reduced oral health care utilization is already present when elderly people are still community-dwelling. At the moment of (residential) care home admittance, many elderly people are in need of oral health care urgently. The key factor in realizing and maintaining good oral health is daily oral hygiene care. For proper daily oral hygiene care, many residents are dependent on nurses and nurse aides. In 2007, the Dutch guideline "Oral health care in (residential) care homes for elderly people" was developed. Previous implementation research studies have revealed that implementation of a guideline is very complicated. The overall aim of this study is to compare a supervised versus a non-supervised implementation of the guideline in The Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an institution as unit of randomization. A random sample of 12 (residential) care homes accommodating somatic as well as psycho-geriatric residents in The Netherlands as well as in Flanders (Belgium) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Representative samples of 30 residents in each of the 24 (residential) care homes are monitored during a 6-months period. The intervention consists of supervised implementation of the guideline and a daily oral health care protocol. Primary outcome variable is the oral hygiene level of the participating residents. To determine the stimulating or inhibiting

  11. Health advance directives, policy and clinical practice: a perspective on the synergy of an effective advance care planning framework.

    PubMed

    Seal, Marion

    2010-03-01

    The delivery of quality care at the end of life should be seamless across all health care settings and independent from variables such as institutional largeness, charismatic leadership, funding sources and blind luck ... People have come to fear the prospect of a technologically protracted death or abandonment with untreated emotional and physical stress.

  12. Yoga for Health Care in Korea: A Protocol for Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiae; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Ju Ah; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of yoga therapy using an evidence-based approach and investigates the relationship between yoga and the meridian energies based on all available clinical studies in Korea. Sixteen electronic databases will be searched from the inception of the study until January 2016. All clinical evidences that evaluate any type of yoga and any type of control in individuals with any type of condition will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for nonrandomized studies. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and the risk of bias, and then they will extract the data. With its extensive, unbiased search of the Korean literature from various databases without any language restrictions, this systematic review will be useful for both practitioners in the field of yoga research as well as for patients.

  13. Perceptions and acceptability of mHealth interventions for improving patient care at a community-based HIV/AIDS clinic in Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help

  14. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  15. Benefits of a primary care clinic co-located and integrated in a mental health setting for veterans with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Pirraglia, Paul A; Rowland, Emily; Wu, Wen-Chih; Friedmann, Peter D; O'Toole, Thomas P; Cohen, Lisa B; Taveira, Tracey H

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy trials have shown that primary care co-located in the mental health setting improves the receipt of high-quality medical care among people with serious mental illness. We tested whether implementation of such a program affected health service use and cardiovascular risk factor control among veterans with serious mental illness who had previously demonstrated limited primary care engagement. We performed a cohort study of veterans enrolled in a co-located, integrated primary care clinic in the mental health outpatient unit through targeted chart review. Two successive 6-month periods in the year before and in the year following enrollment in the co-located primary care clinic were examined for primary care and emergency department use and for goal attainment of blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, body mass index (BMI), and, among patients with diabetes, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We used repeated-measures logistic regression to analyze goal attainment and repeated measures Poisson regression to analyze service use. Compared with the period before enrollment, the 97 veterans enrolled in the clinic had significantly more primary care visits during 6 months and significantly improved goal attainment for blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and BMI. Changes with regard to goal attainment for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c were not significant. Enrollment in a co-located, integrated clinic was associated with increased primary care use and improved attainment of some cardiovascular risk goals among veterans with serious mental illness. Such a clinic can be implemented effectively in the mental health setting.

  16. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Klinefelter Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? Skip sharing on ... karyotype (pronounced care-EE-oh-type ) test. A health care provider will take a small blood or skin ...

  17. Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

  18. Using the Constructivist Tridimensional Design Model for Online Continuing Education for Health Care Clinical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Engelhard, Chalee

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new paradigm for continuing education of Clinical Instructors (CIs): the Constructivist Tridimensional (CTD) model for the design of an online curriculum. Based on problem-based learning, self-regulated learning, and adult learning theory, the CTD model was designed to facilitate interactive, collaborative, and authentic…

  19. Under the Radar: How Unexamined Biases in Decision-Making Processes in Clinical Interactions Can Contribute to Health Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Several aspects of social psychological science shed light on how unexamined racial/ethnic biases contribute to health care disparities. Biases are complex but systematic, differing by racial/ethnic group and not limited to love–hate polarities. Group images on the universal social cognitive dimensions of competence and warmth determine the content of each group's overall stereotype, distinct emotional prejudices (pity, envy, disgust, pride), and discriminatory tendencies. These biases are often unconscious and occur despite the best intentions. Such ambivalent and automatic biases can influence medical decisions and interactions, systematically producing discrimination in health care and ultimately disparities in health. Understanding how these processes may contribute to bias in health care can help guide interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health. PMID:22420809

  20. Under the radar: how unexamined biases in decision-making processes in clinical interactions can contribute to health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Dovidio, John F; Fiske, Susan T

    2012-05-01

    Several aspects of social psychological science shed light on how unexamined racial/ethnic biases contribute to health care disparities. Biases are complex but systematic, differing by racial/ethnic group and not limited to love-hate polarities. Group images on the universal social cognitive dimensions of competence and warmth determine the content of each group's overall stereotype, distinct emotional prejudices (pity, envy, disgust, pride), and discriminatory tendencies. These biases are often unconscious and occur despite the best intentions. Such ambivalent and automatic biases can influence medical decisions and interactions, systematically producing discrimination in health care and ultimately disparities in health. Understanding how these processes may contribute to bias in health care can help guide interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health.

  1. Burnout and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C N; Manning, M R

    1995-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found.

  2. Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Primary Health Care and Secondary Referral Medical Outpatient Clinic Settings at Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chijioke, Chioli; Okolo, Teddy; Ekwe, Esther; Eze, Chukwuemeka; Agunyenwa, Charles; Amah, Christopher; Nwadike, Kenneth; Chijioke, Udunma

    2016-01-01

    Essential hypertension is the most common noncommunicable disease (NCD), affecting more than half the adult population in many countries and being the major NCD contributor to the double burden of disease in developing countries. We undertook a survey of the hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in primary and secondary referral health care clinics in Enugu, Nigeria, and compared these data with those obtained in local community surveys. The prevalence of hypertension in the primary care clinic (9.2%) was lower than in a previously reported community survey (42.2%), while, in the referral clinic, 70.3% of patients attending were hypertensive. Hypertension awareness rates were 91.9%, 29.4%, and 93.2% in these respective health care settings. Treatment and control rates (89.9% and 72.9%) were better in the secondary care clinic than in the primary care centre (87.7% and 46.0%). (Chi-square analysis confirmed statistically significant differences between these rates (p < 0.05).) These data may form a useful index of health care system effectiveness in Nigeria. Possible reasons for the differences observed and effective strategies to address the waxing pandemic of hypertension are discussed. PMID:28050277

  3. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities.

  4. Managed consumerism in health care.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2005-01-01

    The future of market-oriented health policy and practice lies in "managed consumerism," a blend of the patient-centric focus of consumer-driven health care and the provider-centric focus of managed competition. The optimal locus of incentives will vary among health services according to the nature of the illness, the clinical technology, and the extent of discretion in utilization. A competitive market will manifest a variety of comprehensive and limited benefit designs, broad and narrow contractual networks, and single-and multispecialty provider organizations.

  5. Clinical and psycho-social profile of child and adolescent mental health care users and services at an urban child mental health clinic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Janse van Rensburg, A B

    2013-09-01

    National and international child and adolescent mental healthcare policy and action advocate that the health and well being of children should be increasingly given greater attention. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic, socio economic and clinical profile of the users at the child and adolescent mental health clinic of the Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH). A descriptive, retrospective clinical audit from users' clinical files was performed over a one-year period from January to December 2007. Descriptive statistical analyses of demographic and socio-economic variables were made and these variables were compared with the presenting clinical problems. Odds ratios were calculated for variables that showed a statistically significant association (p-value less than 0.05). A total of 303 users attended this clinic. Statistical comparisons between demographic data and disorders revealed that being male increased the likelihood of presenting with AHDH and disruptive behaviour disorders; being female increased the likelihood of being sexually abused. Race showed a significant association with parent-child relationship difficulties. Regarding socio-economic variables, the identity of the caregiver of the child influenced the risk of disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Where the child was placed was a risk factor for disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Whether the mother of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to ADHD and disruptive behaviour and whether the father of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to sexual abuse and academic problems. The education level of the caregiver showed a significant association with sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems; the marital status of the parent (widowed mother) showed a significant association with bereavement. Household income was associated with sexual abuse, neglect and

  6. Managing Conflicts of Interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guidelines Programme: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Alderson, Phil; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI) may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs) are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE’s guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs). We conducted a thematic analysis. Results Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take “on trust” the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial) are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills. Conclusions We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice. PMID:25811754

  7. Continuity of clinical management and information across care levels: perceptions of users of different healthcare areas in the Catalan national health system.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Sina; Vargas, Ingrid; Aller, Marta-Beatriz; Coderch, Jordi; Farré, Joan; Vázquez, M Luisa

    2016-09-02

    The integration of health care has become a priority in most health systems, as patients increasingly receive care from several professionals in various different settings and institutions, particularly those with chronic conditions and multi-morbidities. Continuity of care is defined as one patient experiencing care over time as connected and coherent with his or her health needs and personal circumstances. The objective is to analyse perceptions of continuity of clinical management and information across care levels and the factors influencing it, from the viewpoint of users of the Catalan national health system. A descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was conducted using a phenomenological approach. A two-stage theoretical sample was selected: (i) the study contexts: healthcare areas in Catalonia with different services management models; (ii) users ≥ 18 years of age who were attended to at both care levels for the same health problem. Data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 49). All interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis was conducted segmented by study area, with a mixed generation of categories and triangulation of analysts. Patients in all three areas generally perceived that continuity of clinical management across levels existed, on referring to consistent care (same diagnosis and treatment by doctors of both care levels, no incompatibilities of prescribed medications, referrals across levels when needed) and accessibility across levels (timeliness of appointments). In terms of continuity of information, patients in most areas mentioned the existence of information sharing via computer and its adequate usage. Only a few discontinuity elements were reported such as long waiting times for specific tests performed in secondary care or insufficient use of electronic medical records by locum doctors. Different factors influencing continuity were identified by

  8. Health Care Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    at birth, obesity , and infant mortality, to name a few categories, should be much higher. Quality is not standard for all Americans, and there are...quality health care while controlling cost, slowing the obesity epidemic and the multiple chronic diseases associated with obesity through better...factors as adult and infant mortality rates and per capita health expenditure (WHO, 2000, p.155 and Clemmitt, 2006, p. 292). Given the fact that

  9. Psychological needs, service utilization and provision of care in a specialist mental health clinic for young refugees: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene

    2009-04-01

    This study addressed psychological needs, patterns of service utilization and provision of care in a specialist mental health service for young refugees and asylum seekers in London. Comparisons were made between two groups with different levels of postulated mental health need: unaccompanied minors (UAMs; n = 49) and children accompanied to the UK by one or more primary caregivers (n = 29). Significant differences were observed in referral pathways, with UAMs more likely to be referred by social services and less likely to be referred from medical agencies. UAMs also attended fewer sessions during treatment, and missed a greater proportion of scheduled appointments. Contrary to prediction, group comparisons revealed similar levels of post-migration stress and overall psychological morbidity. However, UAMs experienced significantly more traumatic events prior to resettlement, and were more likely to exhibit symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than their accompanied peers. Despite their elevated risk of PTSD, UAMs were less likely than accompanied children to have received trauma-focused interventions. UAMs were also significantly less likely to have been treated using cognitive therapy, anxiety management and parent/carer training, as well as receiving fewer types of practical assistance with basic social needs. The clinical and service implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. [Active clinical surveillance for detection of Legionnaires' disease: implications for health care structures].

    PubMed

    Marchesi, I; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Concetti, S; Marchegiano, P; Cauteruccio, L; Casolari, C; Borella, P

    2007-01-01

    In an university hospital of about 900 beds, a clinical surveillance was activated to detect cases of Legionnaires' disease in patients affected by community and/or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. In the hospital Legionella spp was detected in the hot water distribution system and various disinfecting and control procedures were adopted to reduce contamination. Contemporary, the clinical surveillance began with the systematic detection of Legionella urinary antigen among recovered pneumonia, seroconversion as confirmation test and the collection of respiratory secretions or other biological materials to isolate the microorganism in patients positive to the urinary antigen. From September 2003 to May 2005, 486 pneumonia were followed, 98 of which considered of nosocomial origin. In total, 15 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease were detected by the urinary test, whereas no cases of nosocomial origin were found. The characteristics of the detected cases are described in comparison with the other pneumonia and the surveillance cost was evaluated. The systematic clinical surveillance for Legionella infections is feasible with limit costs, allows to detect community-acquired cases otherwise unknown and to ascertain the absence/presence of nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, irrespective of the environment contamination.

  11. Statistical lessons learned for designing cluster randomized pragmatic clinical trials from the NIH Health Care Systems Collaboratory Biostatistics and Design Core.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrea J; Delong, Elizabeth; Murray, David M; Vollmer, William M; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2016-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials embedded within health care systems provide an important opportunity to evaluate new interventions and treatments. Networks have recently been developed to support practical and efficient studies. Pragmatic trials will lead to improvements in how we deliver health care and promise to more rapidly translate research findings into practice. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Health Care Systems Collaboratory was formed to conduct pragmatic clinical trials and to cultivate collaboration across research areas and disciplines to develop best practices for future studies. Through a two-stage grant process including a pilot phase (UH2) and a main trial phase (UH3), investigators across the Collaboratory had the opportunity to work together to improve all aspects of these trials before they were launched and to address new issues that arose during implementation. Seven Cores were created to address the various considerations, including Electronic Health Records; Phenotypes, Data Standards, and Data Quality; Biostatistics and Design Core; Patient-Reported Outcomes; Health Care Systems Interactions; Regulatory/Ethics; and Stakeholder Engagement. The goal of this article is to summarize the Biostatistics and Design Core's lessons learned during the initial pilot phase with seven pragmatic clinical trials conducted between 2012 and 2014. Methodological issues arose from the five cluster-randomized trials, also called group-randomized trials, including consideration of crossover and stepped wedge designs. We outlined general themes and challenges and proposed solutions from the pilot phase including topics such as study design, unit of randomization, sample size, and statistical analysis. Our findings are applicable to other pragmatic clinical trials conducted within health care systems. Pragmatic clinical trials using the UH2/UH3 funding mechanism provide an opportunity to ensure that all relevant design issues have been fully considered in order

  12. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Methods/Design Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain). Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Exclusion criteria: Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG) or the intervention group (IG). The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. Primary outcome: sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months) confirmed by urine cotinine test. Secondary outcomes: point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. Discussion CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Trial Registration Current Controlled

  13. Knowledge systems, health care teams, and clinical practice: a study of successful change.

    PubMed

    Olson, Curtis A; Tooman, Tricia R; Alvarado, Carla J

    2010-10-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge Systems as a conceptual framework. The purpose was to describe how teams produced, obtained, and used knowledge and information to bring about successful change. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to maximize variation between cases. Data were collected through interviews, archival document review, and direct observation. Individual case data were analyzed through a two-phase coding process followed by the cross-case analysis. Project teams varied in size and were multidisciplinary. Each project had more than one champion, only some of whom were physicians. Team members obtained relevant knowledge and information from multiple sources including the scientific literature, experts, external organizations, and their own experience. The success of these projects hinged on the teams' ability to blend scientific evidence, practical knowledge, and clinical data. Practice change was a longitudinal, iterative learning process during which teams continued to acquire, produce, and synthesize relevant knowledge and information and test different strategies until they found a workable solution to their problem. This study adds to our understanding of how teams learn and change, showing that innovation can take the form of an iterative, ongoing process in which bits of K&I are assembled from multiple sources into potential solutions that are then tested. It suggests that existing approaches to assessing the impact of continuing education activities may overlook significant contributions and more attention should be given to the role that practical knowledge plays in the change process in addition to scientific knowledge.

  14. Knowledge systems, health care teams, and clinical practice: a study of successful change

    PubMed Central

    Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge Systems as a conceptual framework. The purpose was to describe how teams produced, obtained, and used knowledge and information to bring about successful change. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to maximize variation between cases. Data were collected through interviews, archival document review, and direct observation. Individual case data were analyzed through a two-phase coding process followed by the cross-case analysis. Project teams varied in size and were multidisciplinary. Each project had more than one champion, only some of whom were physicians. Team members obtained relevant knowledge and information from multiple sources including the scientific literature, experts, external organizations, and their own experience. The success of these projects hinged on the teams' ability to blend scientific evidence, practical knowledge, and clinical data. Practice change was a longitudinal, iterative learning process during which teams continued to acquire, produce, and synthesize relevant knowledge and information and test different strategies until they found a workable solution to their problem. This study adds to our understanding of how teams learn and change, showing that innovation can take the form of an iterative, ongoing process in which bits of K&I are assembled from multiple sources into potential solutions that are then tested. It suggests that existing approaches to assessing the impact of continuing education activities may overlook significant contributions and more attention should be given to the role that practical knowledge plays in the change process in addition to scientific knowledge. PMID

  15. Role of technology in the cost of health care: a new parameter in research and clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, Gilbert B.

    1994-12-01

    In 1993 the National Science Foundation and The Whitaker Foundation jointly supported an experimental initiative entitled `Cost Effective Health Care Technologies'. The broad goal of the 1993 program was to `promote innovative multidisciplinary research that can contribute to the containment or reduction of health costs without compromising the quality, effectiveness or accessibility of the health care system'. Proposals were required to contain a section which `describes as quantitatively as possible' the expected impact of the research results on the cost- effectiveness goal of the program--a new parameter for research methodologies. Twelve projects in the categories of Information and Systems, Medical Devices, and Biomaterials were funded. A modified program, `Cost Reducing Health Care Technologies', is planned for Fiscal Year 1995. Insights gained in the planning, conduct, and follow-up review of the 1993 experimental biomedical engineering research grant program provide useful background information on `The Role of Technology in the Cost of Health Care'. The desirability is indicated for engineers to participate in the development of a credible and robust technology assessment process at the basic and applied research stages of health care technology development.

  16. Strategic planning for clinical services: St. Joseph Hospital and Health Care Center.

    PubMed

    Linggi, A; Pelham, L D

    1986-09-01

    A pharmacy department at a 340-bed community hospital based its strategic plan for developing patient-oriented services on a sound drug distribution system, a credible work-measurement program, and fiscal responsibility. In 1982 the department of pharmacy and i.v. therapy implemented a strategic plan for improving pharmaceutical services. The plan involved developing goals and objectives for the department; marketing the department's services and fiscal management to hospital administrators, medical staff, and nursing staff; building teamwork among the pharmacy staff; and improving the drug distribution system before instituting clinical services. Hiring of additional pharmacy staff was justified on the basis of work-measurement data. By adjusting staffing levels every two weeks based on work-measurement data, the department increased the efficiency of drug distribution activities; the pharmacy also implemented cost-saving programs like selection of therapeutic alternates and formulary restrictions. The savings were then reinvested in labor-intensive patient-oriented pharmaceutical services. A staff development program using staff pharmacists as preceptors expanded the breadth and depth of pharmacists' clinical skills. The planning efforts were successful because the needs of hospital administrators, the pharmacy department, and staff members were addressed.

  17. Value as the key concept in the health care system: how it has influenced medical practice and clinical decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Marzorati, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    In the last 10 years, value has played a key role in the health care system. In this concept, innovations in medical practice and the increasing importance of patient centeredness have contributed to draw the attention of the medical community. Nonetheless, a large consensus on the meaning of “value” is still lacking: patients, physicians, policy makers, and other health care professionals have different ideas on which component of value may play a prominent role. Yet, shared clinical decision-making and patient empowerment have been recognized as fundamental features of the concept of value. Different paradigms of health care system embrace different meanings of value, and the absence of common and widely accepted definition does not help to identify a unique model of care in health care system. Our aim is to provide an overview of those paradigms that have considered value as a key theoretical concept and to investigate how the presence of value can influence the medical practice. This article may contribute to draw attention toward patients and propose a possible link between health care system based on “value” and new paradigms such as patient-centered system (PCS), patient empowerment, and P5 medicine, in order to create a predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory, and psycho-cognitive model to treat patients. Indeed, patient empowerment, value-based system, and P5 medicine seem to shed light on different aspects of a PCS, and this allows a better understanding of people under care. PMID:28356752

  18. Value as the key concept in the health care system: how it has influenced medical practice and clinical decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Marzorati, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    In the last 10 years, value has played a key role in the health care system. In this concept, innovations in medical practice and the increasing importance of patient centeredness have contributed to draw the attention of the medical community. Nonetheless, a large consensus on the meaning of "value" is still lacking: patients, physicians, policy makers, and other health care professionals have different ideas on which component of value may play a prominent role. Yet, shared clinical decision-making and patient empowerment have been recognized as fundamental features of the concept of value. Different paradigms of health care system embrace different meanings of value, and the absence of common and widely accepted definition does not help to identify a unique model of care in health care system. Our aim is to provide an overview of those paradigms that have considered value as a key theoretical concept and to investigate how the presence of value can influence the medical practice. This article may contribute to draw attention toward patients and propose a possible link between health care system based on "value" and new paradigms such as patient-centered system (PCS), patient empowerment, and P5 medicine, in order to create a predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory, and psycho-cognitive model to treat patients. Indeed, patient empowerment, value-based system, and P5 medicine seem to shed light on different aspects of a PCS, and this allows a better understanding of people under care.

  19. [Pain and depression; strategies to improve primary health care, based on a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Arboledas Bellón, Josefa

    2009-06-01

    The author describes a case related to pain and depression. A community aid nurse, in conjunction with the nurse responsible to manage all cases, discovered both of these aspects and worked to ensure this patient's well-being in his/her family ambience. This nurse used the Virginia Henderson model, supplementing it with evaluating instruments such as questionnaires, tests, and indexes proposed by the Andalucían Health Service. For this specific case, a series of diagnoses were proposed; these permitted a human resource response aimed at the objectives and interventions derived from these diagnoses, employing as tools "NANDA, NIC and NOC". The author selected result criteria considered most adequate according to most common related factors in this case.

  20. Intraprofessional, team-based treatment planning for oral health students in the comprehensive care clinic.

    PubMed

    Mattheos, Nikos; Storrs, Mark; Foster, Lea; Oberholzer, Theunis

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, Griffith University School of Dentistry and Oral Health, in Queensland, Australia, introduced into its various curricula the concept of team-based treatment planning (TBTP), aiming to facilitate intraprofessional, interdisciplinary training and peer learning among its students. Fifty student teams were organized, each of which included students from three programs (Dental Science, Oral Health Therapy, and Dental Technology) and three years of study (third-, fourth-, and fifth-year students). This study prospectively evaluated the impact of TBTP on students' perceptions and attitudes towards teamwork and their role in a team of peers. A total of 202 students who participated in fifty TBTP teams were prospectively surveyed at baseline and at six and twelve months after introduction of TBTP. "Reliable" and "responsible" were reported to be the most important qualities of both an effective team leader and member. Fifth-year students identified "hard-working" as an important quality of the ideal leader as opposed to the fourth-year students who ranked "supportive" higher. Attitudes of the fifth-year students towards TBTP appeared to have declined significantly from the previous years, while fourth-year students remained consistently more positive. In addition, fourth-year students appeared more likely to enjoy working in a team and considered themselves more effective in a team. No gender differences were observed, other than female students' appearing less confident to lead a team. It was concluded that the function of student-directed interdisciplinary, intraprofessional treatment planning teams might pose disproportionate strain on fifth-year students, impacting their attitudes to such modes of work.

  1. Comparing Methods to Denote Treatment Outcome in Clinical Research and Benchmarking Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; de Heer, Arco; van Duijn, Erik; Goeree, Bob; Kloos, Margot; Kooiman, Kees; Lionarons, Helen; Merks, Andre

    2016-07-01

    Approaches based on continuous indicators (the size of the pre-to-post-test change; effect size or ΔT) and on categorical indicators (Percentage Improvement and the Jacobson-Truax approach to Clinical Significance) are evaluated to determine which has the best methodological and statistical characteristics, and optimal performance, in comparing outcomes of treatment providers. Performance is compared in two datasets from providers using the Brief Symptom Inventory or the Outcome Questionnaire. Concordance of methods and their suitability to rank providers is assessed. Outcome indicators tend to converge and lead to a similar ranking of institutes within each dataset. Statistically and conceptually, continuous outcome indicators are superior to categorical outcomes as change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. However, the Jacobson-Truax approach can complement the change score approach as it presents outcome information in a clinically meaningful manner. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. When comparing various indicators or treatment outcome, statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes, such as the effect size of the pre-post change (effect size or ΔT) as the optimal choice. Expressing outcome in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it is more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff and, last but not the least, by patients. If categorical outcomes are used with small datasets, true differences in institutional performance may get obscured due to diminished power to detect differences. With sufficient data, outcome according to continuous and categorical indicators converge and lead to similar rankings of institutes' performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care.

  3. Clinical care costing method for the Clinical Care Classification System.

    PubMed

    Saba, Virginia K; Arnold, Jean M

    2004-01-01

    To provide a means for calculating the cost of nursing care using the Clinical Care Classification System (CCCS). Three CCCS indicators of care com