Sample records for health clinic services

  1. 42 CFR 447.371 - Services furnished by rural health clinics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Institutional and Noninstitutional Services Rural Health Clinic Services § 447.371 Services furnished by rural health clinics. The agency must pay for rural health clinic services, as defined in § 440.20(b) of this subchapter, and for other ambulatory services furnished by a rural health clinic, as defined in § 440.20(c...

  2. Clinical Preventive Services for Older Adults: The Interface Between Personal Health Care and Public Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Chesley L.; Shenson, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging must become a priority objective for both population and personal health services, and will require innovative prevention programming to span those systems. Uptake of essential clinical preventive services is currently suboptimal among adults, owing to a number of system- and office-based care barriers. To achieve maximum health results, prevention must be integrated across community and clinical settings. Many preventive services are portable, deliverable in either clinical or community settings. Capitalizing on that flexibility can improve uptake and health outcomes. Significant reductions in health disparities, mortality, and morbidity, along with decreases in health spending, are achievable through improved collaboration and synergy between population health and personal health systems. PMID:22390505

  3. Service quality and clinical outcomes: an example from mental health rehabilitation services in England.

    PubMed

    Killaspy, Helen; Marston, Louise; Omar, Rumana Z; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Lean, Melanie; Holloway, Frank; Craig, Tom; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Current health policy assumes better quality services lead to better outcomes. To investigate the relationship between quality of mental health rehabilitation services in England, local deprivation, service user characteristics and clinical outcomes. Standardised tools were used to assess the quality of mental health rehabilitation units and service users' autonomy, quality of life, experiences of care and ratings of the therapeutic milieu. Multiple level modelling investigated relationships between service quality, service user characteristics and outcomes. A total of 52/60 (87%) National Health Service trusts participated, comprising 133 units and 739 service users. All aspects of service quality were positively associated with service users' autonomy, experiences of care and therapeutic milieu, but there was no association with quality of life. Quality of care is linked to better clinical outcomes in people with complex and longer-term mental health problems. Thus, investing in quality is likely to show real clinical gains.

  4. 42 CFR 405.2462 - Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic and Federally... AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2462 Payment for rural health clinic...

  5. 42 CFR 410.165 - Payment for rural health clinic services and ambulatory surgical center services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for rural health clinic services and... (SMI) BENEFITS Payment of SMI Benefits § 410.165 Payment for rural health clinic services and ambulatory surgical center services: Conditions. (a) Medicare Part B pays for covered rural health clinic and...

  6. Support for Offering Sexual Health Services through School-Based Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Barr, Elissa; Wilson, Kristina; Griner, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education in the schools. However, there is a dearth of research assessing support for sexual health services offered through school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The purpose of this study was to assess voter support for offering 3 sexual health services (STI/HIV testing, STI/HIV…

  7. 42 CFR 440.365 - Coverage of rural health clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of rural health clinic and federally... clinic and federally qualified health center (FQHC) services. If a State provides benchmark or benchmark... otherwise, to rural health clinic services and FQHC services as defined in subparagraphs (B) and (C) of...

  8. Assessing uncertainty in outsourcing clinical services at tertiary health centers.

    PubMed

    Billi, John E; Pai, Chih-Wen; Spahlinger, David A

    2007-01-01

    When tertiary health centers face capacity constraint, one feasible strategy to meet service demand is outsourcing clinical services to qualified community providers. Clinical outsourcing enables tertiary health centers to meet the expectations of service timeliness and provides good opportunities to collaborate with other health care providers. However, outsourcing may result in dependence and loss of control for the tertiary health centers. Other parties involved in clinical outsourcing such as local partners, patients, and payers may also encounter potential risks as well as enjoy benefits in an outsourcing arrangement. Recommendations on selecting potential outsourcing partners are given to minimize the risks associated with an outsourcing contract. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Financial Analysis of Behavioral Health Services in a Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Yarbro, Jessica L; Mehlenbeck, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    This article addresses a current need in psychological practice by describing a financially feasible model that moves toward integrated care of behavioral health services in a pediatric endocrinology clinic. Financial information (costs and revenue associated with behavioral health services) for the clinic, over an 18-month period (July 2012 to December 2013), was obtained through the hospital's financial department. The clinic meets one half day per week. Over the 18-month period, the behavioral health services generated a net gain of $3661.45 in the favor of the clinic. We determined that the psychologist and clinical psychology residents needed to see a total of four patients per half-day clinic for the clinic to "break-even." We describe one financially feasible way of integrating behavioral health services into a pediatric endocrinology clinic in the hope that this will be generalizable to other medical settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Introducing clinical supervision across Western Australian public mental health services.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Monica; Harrison, Carole A

    2010-08-01

    Retention and recruitment of the mental health nursing workforce is a critical issue in Australia and more specifically in Western Australia (WA), partly due to the isolation of the state. It has been suggested that these workforce issues might be minimized through the introduction of clinical supervision within WA mental health services, where, historically, it has been misunderstood and viewed with caution by mental health nurses. This may have been partly due to a lack of understanding of clinical supervision, its models, and its many benefits, due to a paucity of information delivered into initial nurse education programs. The aim of this pilot project is to explore and evaluate the introduction of clinical supervision in WA public mental health services. A quantitative approach informed the study and included the use of an information gathering survey initially, which was followed with evaluation questionnaires. The findings show that education can increase the uptake of clinical supervision. Further, the findings illustrate the importance of linking clinicians from all professional groups via a clinical supervision web-based database.

  11. Experience from mental health clinics held during medical service camps in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Hemalatha; George, Kuruvilla; Naker, Gunu; Nadanachandran, Kathir

    2015-12-01

    We aim to describe the experience and findings of mental health clinics held during medical service camps in the rural settings of Fiji. Descriptive data collated at the end of the medical camps across 2011-2014 are used to highlight the main findings. The exposure to mental health assessments and brief interventions at these camps was a validating experience for both individuals and medical students attending the clinics. The most common presentations can be categorised under symptoms of depression, anxiety and relationship problems. The accessibility of mental health support services is a challenge in Fiji. Medical service camps can form an important pathway in promoting mental health awareness, especially amongst the rural communities of Fiji, and a useful platform for medical students to acquire some clinical exposure. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Service quality in public health clinics: perceptions of users and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; Negromonte Filho, Rinaldo Bezerra; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-10-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expectations and quality gaps in services provided at city public health clinics in the city of Natal, Brazil, from the perspective of patients and healthcare service providers. Design/methodology/approach The research sample consisted of 1,200 patients who used public health services and 265 providers - doctors, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, pharmacists and managers at three health clinics in the city of Natal, Brazil. A scale with 25 health service attributes was used in data collection. Summary statistics and t-test were used to analyze the data. Findings The results show that the providers think that users have lower levels of expectations than those indicated by the users in all attributes. Providers and users have the most approximate insights into what attributes are considered most important: explanations, level of knowledge and attention dispensed by health professionals. Users and providers perceived similar quality gaps for most of the attributes. The gaps were statistically the same, when comparing the mean quality shortcomings by means of a Student's test, considering a significance level of 5 percent, obtained independently by the manifestation of users and providers. Research limitations/implications The results reveal only a photograph of the moment. The study did not consider the differences that may exist between groups with different income levels, genders or age groups. A qualitative study could improve the understanding of the differences and coincidences of the diverse points of views. A more advanced research could even study possibilities so that health managers could promote changes in the service, some of them low cost, as the health professionals training for contact with patients. Practical implications The evaluation of the service quality complemented by the matrix of opportunities, importance × quality gaps generates information to help make decisions in the

  13. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR...

  14. Adoption of Clinical Information Systems in Health Services Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Charles J.; Holland, Gloria J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of factors which influence organizational decisions to invest in the installation of clinical information systems. Using results of previous research as a framework, the relative influence of clinical, fiscal, and strategic-institutional decision structures are examined. These adoption decisions are important in health services organizations because clinical information is essential for managing demand and allocating resources, managing quality of care, and controlling costs.

  15. Enrollment of Specialty Mental Health Clinics in a State Medicaid Program to Promote Physical Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Yu, Hao; Horvitz-Lennon, Marcela; Leckman-Westin, Emily; Scharf, Deborah M.; Connor, Kathryn; Finnerty, Molly T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To promote integrated physical health care for individuals with serious mental illness, the New York State Office of Mental Health (NYOMH) established regulations allowing specialty mental health clinics to provide Medicaid-reimbursable health monitoring (HM) and health physicals (HP). This paper examines clinics’ enrollment in this program to understand its potential to reach individuals with serious mental illness. METHODS Information on enrollment and clinic characteristics (N=500) were drawn from NYOMH administrative databases. Clinic enrollment in the HM/HP program was examined from the program’s first five years (2010–2015). Logistic regression models accounting for the clustering of multiple clinics within agencies were used to examine characteristics associated with enrollment. RESULTS Two-hundred ninety one of 500 clinics (58%) enrolled in the HM/HP program, potentially reaching 62.5% of all Medicaid enrollees with serious mental illness seen in specialty mental health clinics in the state. State-operated clinics were required to participate, and had 91.8% enrollment. Over half of hospital-affiliated and freestanding mental health clinics elected to enroll in the program (52.6% and 53.7% respectively). In adjusted models, enrollment was higher among freestanding clinics relative to hospital-affiliated clinics, higher in larger relative to smaller clinics, and higher in county-operated relative to private non-profit clinics. CONCLUSIONS The high level of enrollment in the HM/HP program indicates strong interest among mental health clinics in providing physical health care services. However, supplemental policies may be needed to extend the program to areas of the mental health system where barriers to physical health care services are highest. PMID:27524372

  16. Clinical peripherality: development of a peripherality index for rural health services

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gillian M; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam; Godden, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background The configuration of rural health services is influenced by geography. Rural health practitioners provide a broader range of services to smaller populations scattered over wider areas or more difficult terrain than their urban counterparts. This has implications for training and quality assurance of outcomes. This exploratory study describes the development of a "clinical peripherality" indicator that has potential application to remote and rural general practice communities for planning and research purposes. Methods Profiles of general practice communities in Scotland were created from a variety of public data sources. Four candidate variables were chosen that described demographic and geographic characteristics of each practice: population density, number of patients on the practice list, travel time to nearest specialist led hospital and travel time to Health Board administrative headquarters. A clinical peripherality index, based on these variables, was derived using factor analysis. Relationships between the clinical peripherality index and services offered by the practices and the staff profile of the practices were explored in a series of univariate analyses. Results Factor analysis on the four candidate variables yielded a robust one-factor solution explaining 75% variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.83 to 0.89. Rural and remote areas had higher median values and a greater scatter of clinical peripherality indices among their practices than an urban comparison area. The range of services offered and the profile of staffing of practices was associated with the peripherality index. Conclusion Clinical peripherality is determined by the nature of the practice and its location relative to secondary care and administrative and educational facilities. It has features of both gravity model-based and travel time/accessibility indicators and has the potential to be applied to training of staff for rural and remote locations and to other aspects

  17. Clinical peripherality: development of a peripherality index for rural health services.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gillian M; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam; Godden, David J

    2008-01-25

    The configuration of rural health services is influenced by geography. Rural health practitioners provide a broader range of services to smaller populations scattered over wider areas or more difficult terrain than their urban counterparts. This has implications for training and quality assurance of outcomes. This exploratory study describes the development of a "clinical peripherality" indicator that has potential application to remote and rural general practice communities for planning and research purposes. Profiles of general practice communities in Scotland were created from a variety of public data sources. Four candidate variables were chosen that described demographic and geographic characteristics of each practice: population density, number of patients on the practice list, travel time to nearest specialist led hospital and travel time to Health Board administrative headquarters. A clinical peripherality index, based on these variables, was derived using factor analysis. Relationships between the clinical peripherality index and services offered by the practices and the staff profile of the practices were explored in a series of univariate analyses. Factor analysis on the four candidate variables yielded a robust one-factor solution explaining 75% variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.83 to 0.89. Rural and remote areas had higher median values and a greater scatter of clinical peripherality indices among their practices than an urban comparison area. The range of services offered and the profile of staffing of practices was associated with the peripherality index. Clinical peripherality is determined by the nature of the practice and its location relative to secondary care and administrative and educational facilities. It has features of both gravity model-based and travel time/accessibility indicators and has the potential to be applied to training of staff for rural and remote locations and to other aspects of health policy and planning. It may

  18. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  19. Developing the public health role of a front line clinical service: integrating stop smoking advice into routine podiatry services.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jackie; Eden, Gary; Williams, Maria

    2007-06-01

    Although smoking is a major public health problem, many clinicians do not routinely provide evidence-based health improvement advice to smokers to help them to quit. Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle methodology was used to design and implement a service development so that health improvement advice for smokers featured in all podiatry consultations provided by a Primary Care Trust in North East England. IT systems were developed to record the number and proportion of patients for whom smoking status was assessed, and the number and proportion of smokers who were given advice to quit and referred for specialist support. A questionnaire to staff explored their perceptions of the development on their clinics and consultations. During a 6-month period, smoking status was recorded for all 8831 (100%) patients attending podiatry clinics; 83% of smokers were given brief advice to quit; 7% of smokers were given help to access specialist stop smoking support services. Improvements were introduced within existing budgets and did not prolong clinics. It is straightforward and inexpensive to develop clinical services so that public health guidance is routinely implemented. More widespread implementation of similar service developments could lead to national improvements in public health.

  20. Web-based health services and clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Jegelevicius, Darius; Marozas, Vaidotas; Lukosevicius, Arunas; Patasius, Martynas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of a Web-based e-health service for comprehensive assistance and clinical decision support. The service structure consists of a Web server, a PHP-based Web interface linked to a clinical SQL database, Java applets for interactive manipulation and visualization of signals and a Matlab server linked with signal and data processing algorithms implemented by Matlab programs. The service ensures diagnostic signal- and image analysis-sbased clinical decision support. By using the discussed methodology, a pilot service for pathology specialists for automatic calculation of the proliferation index has been developed. Physicians use a simple Web interface for uploading the pictures under investigation to the server; subsequently a Java applet interface is used for outlining the region of interest and, after processing on the server, the requested proliferation index value is calculated. There is also an "expert corner", where experts can submit their index estimates and comments on particular images, which is especially important for system developers. These expert evaluations are used for optimization and verification of automatic analysis algorithms. Decision support trials have been conducted for ECG and ophthalmology ultrasonic investigations of intraocular tumor differentiation. Data mining algorithms have been applied and decision support trees constructed. These services are under implementation by a Web-based system too. The study has shown that the Web-based structure ensures more effective, flexible and accessible services compared with standalone programs and is very convenient for biomedical engineers and physicians, especially in the development phase.

  1. Health Care Professionals’ Opinions and Expectations of Clinical Pharmacy Services on a Surgical Ward

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Bernadette; Neville, Heather L; Thompson, Kara; Nodwell, Lisa; MacNeil, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Pharmacists have made significant contributions to patient care and have been recognized as integral members of the interprofessional team. Health care professionals differ in their opinions and expectations of clinical pharmacy services. Very little has been published about health care professionals’ perspectives on advanced clinical pharmacy roles, such as prescriptive authority or administration of vaccines. In 2013, clinical pharmacy services were introduced in a vascular and general surgery ward where a pharmacist had not previously been assigned. Objectives To explore surgical nurses’ and physicians’ opinions and expectations of clinical pharmacy services and to determine how these views changed over time; to compare pharmacists’ views of clinical pharmacy services with those of nurses and physicians; and to develop validated survey tools. Methods Three survey tools were created and validated, one for each profession. Surveys were distributed to nurses and physicians assigned to the general and vascular surgery ward before introduction of clinical pharmacy services and 8 months after implementation. Hospital pharmacists were invited to complete the survey at one time point. Results Differences existed in the opinions of nurses, physicians, and pharmacists about some traditional activities. Nurses and physicians indicated stronger agreement with pharmacists participating in medication reconciliation activities than did pharmacists (p < 0.001), whereas a greater proportion of pharmacists felt that they were the most appropriate health care professionals to provide medication discharge counselling, relative to nurses and physicians (p = 0.001). Respondents supported advanced roles for pharmacists, such as collaborative practice agreements, but there was less support for prescribing, physical assessments, and administration of vaccines. Nurses indicated the strongest agreement with pharmacist prescribing (82% versus 69% among pharmacists and 27

  2. Patterns of health service utilization at a medical school clinic in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Yawson, A E; Malm, K L; Adu, A A; Wontumi, G-M; Biritwum, R B

    2012-09-01

    The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) Clinic provides healthcare service which is free at point of service to students, staff, retired staff and dependents of staff of the College of Health Sciences. However, since 1983, no in-depth review of health service provision or utilization has been undertaken. This study reviewed client characteristics, utilization and disease patterns at the clinic and also compared the disease patterns to that of other primary health facilities nationwide. This was an analytical cross-sectional study undertaken at the UGMS clinic in Korle-Bu. It was a retrospective review of records of all clients attending the facility from January 2002 to December, 2004. More males than females attended the clinic and majority (63.9%) of clients were between 15-44 years (median age was 26 years). Dependents of staff constituted the highest attendants (41%) to the clinic. Among staff, junior staffs were in the majority. Malaria, respiratory tract infection and musculoskeletal pain were the most common conditions seen. Overall, 83% of clients were treated and discharged per visit without the need for review visits. Dependents of staff used the facility the most and they live in many different part of the city of Accra, and to ask them to attend the clinic for care is not efficient. It will be better to provide or supplement their securing of insurance so that they could access health care close to their homes and save time and attention to students and staff.

  3. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's or clinical social worker's services are reimbursable under this subpart if the service or supply is— (1) Of a...

  4. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's or clinical social worker's services are reimbursable under this subpart if the service or supply is— (1) Of a...

  5. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's or clinical social worker's services are reimbursable under this subpart if the service or supply is— (1) Of a...

  6. Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed asthma clinic in an Indian Health Service clinic.

    PubMed

    Pett, Ryan G; Nye, Shane

    2016-01-01

    To observe whether American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) patients at the Yakama Indian Health Service seen at the pharmacist-managed asthma clinic improved asthma outcomes. Retrospective chart review, single group, preintervention and postintervention. Pharmacist-managed asthma clinic at an Indian Health Service ambulatory care clinic. Sixty-one AI/AN patients who were seen at least once in the asthma clinic from 2010 to 2014. Pharmacist-provided asthma education and medication management. Asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care (ED) visits. The total number of asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits between the 12-month periods preceding and following the initial asthma clinic visit were 11 versus 2 hospitalizations (P = 0.02) and 43 versus 25 ED visits (P = 0.02), respectively. Over the same period, asthma-related oral corticosteroid use showed a nonsignificant decrease in the number of prescriptions filled (n = 59, P = 0.08). In contrast, inhaled corticosteroid prescription fills significantly increased (n = 42, P = 0.01). A reduction of asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits were observed during the course of the intervention. Increased access to formal asthma education and appropriate asthma care benefit the Yakama AI/AN people. A controlled trial is needed to confirm that the intervention causes the intended effect. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2450 Section 405.2450 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural...

  8. Contracting out to improve the use of clinical health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, Willem A; Ward, Kim; Uneke, Jesse; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Chitama, Dereck; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Kredo, Tamara

    2018-04-03

    Contracting out of governmental health services is a financing strategy that governs the way in which public sector funds are used to have services delivered by non-governmental health service providers (NGPs). It represents a contract between the government and an NGP, detailing the mechanisms and conditions by which the latter should provide health care on behalf of the government. Contracting out is intended to improve the delivery and use of healthcare services. This Review updates a Cochrane Review first published in 2009. To assess effects of contracting out governmental clinical health services to non-governmental service provider/s, on (i) utilisation of clinical health services; (ii) improvement in population health outcomes; (iii) improvement in equity of utilisation of these services; (iv) costs and cost-effectiveness of delivering the services; and (v) improvement in health systems performance. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EconLit, ProQuest, and Global Health on 07 April 2017, along with two trials registers - ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform - on 17 November 2017. Individually randomised and cluster-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and repeated measures studies, comparing government-delivered clinical health services versus those contracted out to NGPs, or comparing different models of non-governmental-delivered clinical health services. Two authors independently screened all records, extracted data from the included studies and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated the net effect for all outcomes. A positive value favours the intervention whilst a negative value favours the control. Effect estimates are presented with 95% confidence intervals. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the certainty of the evidence and we prepared a Summary of Findings table

  9. A model for consolidation of clinical microbiology laboratory services within a multihospital health-care system.

    PubMed

    Carter, Elliot; Stubbs, James R; Bennett, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of consolidating clinical microbiology services in a three-hospital health-care network while maintaining high-quality laboratory services, a retrospective review of the total costs of maintaining separate clinical microbiology laboratories within our health-care system was compared to the cost of providing these services after consolidation. Turnaround times before and after consolidation were compared to assess efficiency of the consolidated services. Input of clinicians was also solicited to ensure that quality of services and customer satisfaction remained high. The results of the consolidation project show that the net fiscal saving because of consolidation of clinical microbiology services within our health-care system will be approximately 100,000 dollars per fiscal year. This value includes increased courier charges as well as personnel savings. Although fiscal savings are an integral part of any laboratory consolidation plan, the financial considerations must be balanced by quality of service. The response to consolidation from clinicians was decidedly mixed before implementation of the plan because of fear of increased turnaround times and limited access to laboratory information. The consolidation process, however, was smooth with few physician complaints. The consolidation of our clinical microbiology services illustrates that significant financial savings can be achieved without compromise of efficiency or quality of service.

  10. Using mobile clinics to deliver HIV testing and other basic health services in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, T G; Deutsch, K; Schell, E; Bvumbwe, A; Hart, K B; Laviwa, J; Rankin, S H

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Malawians are impoverished and primarily dependant on subsistence farming, with 85% of the population living in a rural area. The country is highly affected by HIV and under-resourced rural health centers struggle to meet the government's goal of expanding HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment, and other basic services. This report describes the work of two four-wheel drive mobile clinics launched in 2008 to fill an identified service gap in the remote areas of Mulanje District, Malawi. The program was developed by an international non-governmental organization, Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance (GAIA), and the Mulanje District Health Office, with funding from the Elizabeth Taylor HIV/AIDS Foundation. The clinics provide: (1) rapid HIV testing and treatment referral; (2) diagnosis and treatment of malaria; (3) sputum collection for TB screening; (4) diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted and opportunistic infections; and (5) pre-natal care. The clinic vehicles provide medical supplies and personnel (a clinical officer, nurse, and nurse aide) to set up clinics in community buildings such as churches or schools. In such a project, the implementation process and schedule can be affected by medication, supply chain and infrastructural issues, as well as governmental and non-governmental requirements. Timelines should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate unexpected delays. Once established, service scheduling should be flexible and responsive; for instance, malaria treatment rather than HIV testing was most urgently needed in the season when these services were launched. Assessing the impact of healthcare delivery in Malawi is challenging. Although mobile clinic and the government Health Management Information System (HMIS) data were matched, inconsistent variables and gaps in data made direct comparisons difficult. Data collection was compromised by the competing demand of high patient volume; however, rather than reducing the

  11. 42 CFR 440.90 - Clinic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinic services. 440.90 Section 440.90 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.90 Clinic services. Clinic... furnished at the clinic by or under the direction of a physician or dentist. (b) Services furnished outside...

  12. Racial variation in wanting and obtaining mental health services among women veterans in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, H. B.; Parsey, K. S.; Butterfield, M. I.; McIntyre, L. M.; Oddone, E. Z.; Stechuchak, K. M.; Bastian, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that African-American women may be less likely to obtain mental health services. Racial differences were explored in wanting and obtaining mental health services among women in an equal access primary care clinic setting after adjusting for demographics, mental disorder symptoms, and a history of sexual trauma. Participating in the study were women veterans at a primary care clinic at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Consecutive women patients (n = 526) between the ages of 20 and 49 years were screened for a desire to obtain mental health services. Patients were given the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders questionnaire (PRIME-MD) and a sexual trauma questionnaire. Mental health service utilization was monitored for 12 months. The median age of the women was 35.8 years; 54.4% of them were African-American. African-American women expressed a greater desire for mental health services than whites, yet mental health resources at the clinic were similarly used by both racial groups. African-American women may want more mental health services; however, given an equal access system, there were no racial differences in mental health use. PMID:10881472

  13. Key components of a service model providing early childhood support for women attending opioid treatment clinics: an Australian state health service review.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Susan R; Schmied, Virginia; Nicholls, Daniel; Dahlen, Hannah

    2012-09-01

    To report the findings of a service review--specifically the strategy to provide early childhood services 'on site' at opioid treatment clinics to address access difficulties. Child and family health nurses are skilled in the assessment and support of families during early childhood. However, women with a history of substance abuse are often cautious when engaging with universal and other health services, with the result that the infant may miss recommended developmental screening and early referral to improve health outcomes. In 2006, an internal review was undertaken of the integration of early childhood and parenting services at opioid treatment clinics in a large Area Health Service of New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative study design, using semi-structured interview questions was used. Data were collected via six focus groups (4-15 participants in each group) and individual interview of child and family health nurses, nurse unit managers and clinical staff (n=58). Three key components of a model for providing early childhood support in collaboration with opioid treatment services were identified. First, the importance of building a trusting relationship between the woman and the child and family health nurses, second, maintaining continuity of care and a multidisciplinary/multiagency approach, and finally the importance of staff education, support and professional development. The provision of early childhood and parenting services on site, as part of a multidisciplinary 'one stop shop' approach to service delivery was a clear recommendation of the review. Reduction of access difficulties to specialised early childhood support is of benefit to clients, community health services attempting to provide a service to this difficult to reach population and to drug and alcohol services seeking to provide a high level of holistic care for clients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be— (1...

  15. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be— (1...

  16. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be— (1...

  17. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or clinical social worker professional services to be payable under this subpart, the services must be— (1...

  18. Reducing barriers to mental health and social services for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: outcomes of an integrated primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Seal, Karen H; Cohen, Greg; Bertenthal, Daniel; Cohen, Beth E; Maguen, Shira; Daley, Aaron

    2011-10-01

    Despite high rates of post-deployment psychosocial problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, mental health and social services are under-utilized. To evaluate whether a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) integrated care (IC) clinic (established in April 2007), offering an initial three-part primary care, mental health and social services visit, improved psychosocial services utilization in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans compared to usual care (UC), a standard primary care visit with referral for psychosocial services as needed. Retrospective cohort study using VA administrative data. Five hundred and twenty-six Iraq and Afghanistan veterans initiating primary care at a VA medical center between April 1, 2005 and April 31, 2009. Multivariable models compared the independent effects of primary care clinic type (IC versus UC) on mental health and social services utilization outcomes. After 2007, compared to UC, veterans presenting to the IC primary care clinic were significantly more likely to have had a within-30-day mental health evaluation (92% versus 59%, p < 0.001) and social services evaluation [77% (IC) versus 56% (UC), p < 0.001]. This exceeded background system-wide increases in mental health services utilization that occurred in the UC Clinic after 2007 compared to before 2007. In particular, female veterans, younger veterans, and those with positive mental health screens were independently more likely to have had mental health and social service evaluations if seen in the IC versus UC clinic. Among veterans who screened positive for  ≥ 1 mental health disorder(s), there was a median of 1 follow-up specialty mental health visit within the first year in both clinics. Among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans new to primary care, an integrated primary care visit further improved the likelihood of an initial mental health and social services evaluation over background increases, but did not improve retention in specialty mental health services.

  19. Patient satisfaction with health care services provided at HIV clinics at Amana and Muhimbili hospitals in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Kagashe, G A B; Rwebangila, F

    2011-08-01

    Since the establishment of free HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in Tanzania a lot of research has been done to assess how health care providers discharge their duties in these clinics. Little research however has been done regarding satisfaction of HIV patients with free health care services provided. To determine satisfaction of HIV patients with health care services provided at the HIV clinics and specifically, to determine patients' satisfaction with the general physical environment of the clinic and with services offered by doctors, nurses, laboratory, and pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) and Amana hospital. A total of 375 patients attending outpatient HIV clinics were selected randomly and interviewed using a questionnaire, after obtaining a verbal consent. Data collected was analyzed using Epi-info program version 6. Patients at Amana Hospital clinic were either very satisfied (44.3%) or satisfied (55.7%) and none were unsatisfied, while at MNH clinic 1.1% patients were very satisfied while (94.7%) were satisfied and (4.2%) were unsatisfied with health care services provided. Lack of privacy when consulting with doctors and the dispenser contributed to patients' unsatisfaction with the services. Most of the participants were satisfied with the services provided at the two clinics. However at MNH, a few patients were unsatisfied due to lack of privacy during consultation with doctors and with the pharmacy services.

  20. 'Governance of' and 'Governance by': implementing a clinical governance framework in an area mental health service.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nick; Paton, Michael

    2008-04-01

    A framework developed to promote the understanding and application of clinical governance principles in an area mental health service is described. The framework is operationalized through systems, processes, roles and responsibilities. The development of an explicit and operationalizable framework for clinical governance arose from the authors' experiences in leading and managing mental health services. There is a particular emphasis on improvement of quality of care and patient safety. The framework is informed by recent developments in thinking about clinical governance, including key documents from Australia and the United Kingdom. The operational nature of the framework allows for key components of clinical governance to be described explicitly, communicated effectively, and continually tested and improved. Further consideration and assessment of the value of differing approaches to this task are required. For example, a general, illustrative approach to raise clinician awareness can be contrasted with prescriptive and specified approaches which progressively encompass the many functions and processes of a mental health service. Mental health clinicians and managers can be guided by a framework that will ensure safe, high quality and continually improving processes of care.

  1. How to Integrate HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Namibia, the Epako Clinic Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Norbert; Campuzano, Pedro; Kambapani, Rejoice; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Hidinua, Grace; Turay, Mohamed; Ikandi, Simon Kimathi; Kabongo, Leonard; Zariro, Farai

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: During the past two decades, HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services in Namibia have been provided in silos, with high fragmentation. As a consequence of this, quality and efficiency of services in Primary Health Care has been compromised. Methods: We conducted an operational research (observational pre-post study) in a public health facility in Namibia. A health facility assessment was conducted before and after the integration of health services. A person-centred integrated model was implemented to integrate all health services provided at the health facility in addition to HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services. Comprehensive services are provided by each health worker to the same patients over time (longitudinality), on a daily basis (accessibility) and with a good external referral system (coordination). Prevalence rates of time flows and productivity were done. Results: Integrated services improved accessibility, stigma and quality of antenatal care services by improving the provider-patient communication, reducing the time that patients stay in the clinic in 16% and reducing the waiting times in 14%. In addition, nurse productivity improved 85% and the expected time in the health facility was reduced 24% without compromising the uptake of TB, HIV, outpatient, antenatal care or first visit family planning services. Given the success on many indicators resulting from integration of services, the goal of this paper was to describe “how” health services have been integrated, the “process” followed and presenting some “results” from the integrated clinic. Conclusions: Our study shows that HIV and SRH services can be effectively integrated by following the person-centred integrated model. Based on the Namibian experience on “how” to integrate health services and the “process” to achieve it, other African countries can replicate the model to move away from the silo approach and contribute to the achievement of

  2. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  3. Improving the Implementation of Evidence-Based Clinical Practices in Adolescent Reproductive Health Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lisa M.; Middleton, Dawn; Mueller, Trisha; Avellino, Lia; Hallum-Montes, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of the study were to describe baseline data in the implementation of evidence-based clinical practices among health center partners as part of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative and to identify opportunities for health center improvement. Methods Health center partner baseline data were collected in the first year (2011) and before program implementation of a 5-year community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative. A needs assessment on health center capacity and implementation of evidence-based clinical practices was administered with 51 health centers partners in 10 communities in the United States with high rates of teen pregnancy. Results Health centers reported inconsistent implementation of evidence-based clinical practices in providing reproductive health services to adolescents. Approximately 94.1% offered same-day appointments, 91.1% had infrastructure to reduce cost barriers, 90.2% offered after-school appointments, and 80.4% prescribed hormonal contraception without prerequisite examinations or testing. Approximately three quarters provided visual and audio privacy in examination rooms (76.5%) and counseling areas (74.5%). Fewer offered a wide range of contraceptive methods (67.8%) and took a sexual health history at every visit (54.9%). Only 45.1% reported Quick Start initiation of hormonal contraception, emergency contraception (43.1%), or intrauterine devices (12.5%) were “always” available to adolescents. Conclusions The assessment highlighted opportunities for health center improvement. Strategies to build capacity of health center partners to implement evidence-based clinical practices may lead to accessibility and quality of reproductive health services for adolescents in the funded communities. PMID:26381918

  4. The internal audit of clinical areas: a pilot of the internal audit methodology in a health service emergency department.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alison; Santilli, Mario; Scott, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Governing bodies of health services need assurance that major risks to achieving the health service objectives are being controlled. Currently, the main assurance mechanisms generated within the organization are through the review of implementation of policies and procedures and review of clinical audits and quality data. The governing bodies of health services need more robust, objective data to inform their understanding of the control of clinical risks. Internal audit provides a methodological framework that provides independent and objective assurance to the governing body on the control of significant risks. The article describes the pilot of the internal audit methodology in an emergency unit in a health service. An internal auditor was partnered with a clinical expert to assess the application of clinical criteria based on best practice guidelines. The pilot of the internal audit of a clinical area was successful in identifying significant clinical risks that required further management. The application of an internal audit methodology to a clinical area is a promising mechanism to gain robust assurance at the governance level regarding the management of significant clinical risks. This approach needs further exploration and trial in a range of health care settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  5. Suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services: national clinical survey

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny; Amos, Tim; McDonnell, Ros; Harris, Catherine; McCann, Kerry; Kiernan, Katy; Davies, Sue; Bickley, Harriet; Parsons, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical circumstances in which psychiatric patients commit suicide. Design National clinical survey. Setting England and Wales. Subjects A two year sample of people who had committed suicide, in particular those who had been in contact with mental health services in the 12 months before death. Main outcome measures Proportion of suicides in people who had had recent contact with mental health services; proportion of suicides in inpatients; proportion of people committing suicide and timing of suicide within three months of hospital discharge; proportion receiving high priority under the care programme approach; proportion who were recently non-compliant and not attending. Results 10 040 suicides were notified to the study between April 1996 and March 1998, of whom 2370 (24%; 95% confidence interval 23% to 24%) had had contact with mental health services in the year before death. Data were obtained on 2177, a response rate of 92%. In general these subjects had broad social and clinical needs. Alcohol and drug misuse were common. 358 (16%; 15% to 18%) were psychiatric inpatients at the time of death, 21% (17% to 25%) of whom were under special observation. Difficulties in observing patients because of ward design and nursing shortages were both reported in around a quarter of inpatient suicides. 519 (24%; 22% to 26%) suicides occurred within three months of hospital discharge, the highest number occurring in the first week after discharge. 914 (43%; 40% to 44%) were in the highest priority category for community care. 488 (26% excluding people whose compliance was unknown; 24% to 28%) were non-compliant with drug treatment while 486 (28%; 26% to 30%) community patients had lost contact with services. Most people who committed suicide were thought to have been at no or low immediate risk at the final service contact. Mental health teams believed suicide could have been prevented in 423 (22%; 20% to 24%) cases. Conclusions Several suicide

  6. The impact of clinical librarian services on patients and health care organisations.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison; Maden, Michelle; Payne, Clare

    2016-06-01

    Systematic reviews have found limited evidence of effectiveness and impact of clinical librarians (CLs) due to the poor quality of reporting, scale and design of previous studies. To measure specific CL impact on organisational and patient outcomes using a robust approach that helps CLs develop research skills. Questionnaire and interviews. Clinical librarians contribute to a wide range of outcomes in the short and longer term reflecting organisational priorities and objectives. These include direct contributions to choice of intervention (36%) diagnosis (26%) quality of life (25%), increased patient involvement in decision making (26%) and cost savings and risk management including avoiding tests, referrals, readmissions and reducing length of stay (28%). Interventions provided by CL's are complex and each contributes to multiple outcomes of importance to health care organisations. This study is unique in taking a wide view of potential and specific impacts to which CLs contribute across health care organisations. It is the largest UK evaluation of CL services to date and demonstrates CLs affect direct patient care, improve quality and save money. Future researchers are urged to use the tools presented to collect data on the same outcomes to build a significant and comprehensive international evidence base about the effectiveness and impact of clinical librarian services. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  7. Hospital clinical pharmacy services in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne

    2018-04-07

    Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.

  8. Evaluating clinical librarian services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison; Maden-Jenkins, Michelle; Anderson, Lucy; McNally, Rosalind; Pratchett, Tracey; Tancock, Jenny; Thornton, Debra; Webb, Anne

    2011-03-01

      Previous systematic reviews have indicated limited evidence and poor quality evaluations of clinical librarian (CL) services. Rigorous evaluations should demonstrate the value of CL services, but guidance is needed before this can be achieved.   To undertake a systematic review which examines models of CL services, quality, methods and perspectives of clinical librarian service evaluations.   Systematic review methodology and synthesis of evidence, undertaken collaboratively by a group of 8 librarians to develop research and critical appraisal skills.   There are four clear models of clinical library service provision. Clinical librarians are effective in saving health professionals time, providing relevant, useful information and high quality services. Clinical librarians have a positive effect on clinical decision making by contributing to better informed decisions, diagnosis and choice of drug or therapy. The quality of CL studies is improving, but more work is needed on reducing bias and providing evidence of specific impacts on patient care. The Critical Incident Technique as part of a mixed method approach appears to offer a useful approach to demonstrating impact.   This systematic review provides practical guidance regarding the evaluation of CL services. It also provides updated evidence regarding the effectiveness and impact of CL services. The approach used was successful in developing research and critical appraisal skills in a group of librarians. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  9. Attitude and satisfaction of health care providers towards clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: A post-deployment survey.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Arebu Issa; Tilahun, Zelalem; Beedemariam, Gebremedhin; Ayalneh, Belete; Hailemeskel, Bisrat; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy service has evolved steadily over the past few decades and is contributing to the 'patient care journey' at all stages. The service improves safety and effectiveness of medicines, thereby avoiding medication errors. As part of this global shift in pharmacy education and practice, Ethiopian Universities revamped the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and the first graduates came out in July 2013. These graduates were immediately deployed in public hospital settings, with the ultimate aim of providing clinical pharmacy services. As such an initiative is new to the Ethiopian pharmacy sector, there is a need to do assessment of the health care providers' perception and satisfaction towards the service. A cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire was conducted in six regions and one-city administration of the country. Physicians, Health officers and Nurses working along with the new pharmacy graduates formed the study population. A total of 650 healthcare professionals participated in the study. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Majority of the health care providers agreed that clinical pharmacy service could have a significant contribution to the patient care. A large proportion of them (70-90 %) had a positive attitude, although there appeared to be some differences across professions. About 50 % of the professionals were of the opinion that patient care should be left to the health care providers and pharmacists should concentrate on drug products. In addition, the same proportion of respondents said that the setup in their respective hospital was appropriate for provision of clinical pharmacy service. Multivariable analysis indicated that attitude of the health care providers was significantly associated with year of experience. A large proportion of the health care providers had positive attitude towards the service, although the extent of the service was below their expectation. Hence

  10. Education and the improvement of clinical ethics services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of clinical ethics in health care institutions around the world has raised the question about the qualifications of those who serve on ethics committees and ethics consultation services. This paper discusses some of weaknesses associated with the most common educational responses to this concern and proposes a complementary approach. Since the majority of those involved in clinical ethics are practicing health professionals, the question of qualification is especially challenging as the role of ethics committees and, increasingly, ethics consultation services are becoming increasingly important to the functioning of health care institutions. Since the challenging nature of health care finances often leads institutions to rely on voluntary participation of committed health professional with only token administrative or clerical support to provide the needed ethics services, significant challenges are created for attaining competence and functional effectiveness. The article suggests that a complementary approach should be adopted for sustaining and building capacity in clinical ethics. Ethics committees and consultation services should systematically adopt quality improvement techniques to effect designed changes in clinical ethics performance and to build ethical capacity within targeted clinical units and services. Demonstrating improvements in functioning can go a long way to build confidence and capacity for clinical ethics and can help in justifying the need for support. To do so, however, requires that ethics committees and consultation services first shift attention to those areas that demonstrate weak or questionable ethical performance, including the established practices of the ethics committee and consultation service, and second seek collaboration with the involved health care providers to pursue demonstrable change. Such an approach has a much better chance of improving the capacity for clinical ethics in health care institutions than

  11. Getting Paid for Clinical Services.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2018-05-01

    Increasingly, pharmacists are providing advanced, patient-centered clinical services. However, pharmacists are not currently included in key sections of the Social Security Act, which determines eligibility to bill and be reimbursed by Medicare. Many state and private health plans also cite the omission from Medicare as the rationale for excluding reimbursement of pharmacists for clinical services. This has prompted forward-thinking pharmacists to seek opportunities for reimbursement in other ways, allowing them to provide value to the health care system, while carving out unique niches for pharmacists to care for patients.

  12. US Public Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinical Services in an Era of Declining Public Health Funding: 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Leichliter, Jami S; Heyer, Kate; Peterman, Thomas A; Habel, Melissa A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Arnold Pang, Stephanie S; Stenger, Mark R; Weiss, Gretchen; Gift, Thomas L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the infrastructure for US public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinical services. In 2013 to 2014, we surveyed 331 of 1225 local health departments (LHDs) who either reported providing STD testing/treatment in the 2010 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey or were the 50 local areas with the highest STD cases or rates. The sample was stratified by jurisdiction population size. We examined the primary referral clinics for STDs, the services offered and the impact of budget cuts (limited to government funding only). Data were analyzed using SAS, and analyses were weighted for nonresponse. Twenty-two percent of LHDs cited a specialty STD clinic as their primary referral for STD services; this increased to 53.5% of LHDs when combination STD-family planning clinics were included. The majority of LHDs (62.8%) referred to clinics providing same-day services. Sexually transmitted disease clinics more frequently offered extragenital testing for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (74.7%) and gonorrhea culture (68.5%) than other clinics (52.9%, 46.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). The majority of LHDs (61.5%) reported recent budget cuts. Of those with decreased budgets, the most common impacts were fewer clinic hours (42.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-61.2), reduced routine screening (40.2%; 95% CI, 21.7-58.8) and reductions in partner services (42.1%; 95% CI, 23.6-60.7). One quarter of those with reduced STD budgets increased fees or copays for clients. Findings demonstrate gaps and reductions in US public STD services including clinical services that play an important role in reducing disease transmission. Furthermore, STD clinics tended to offer more specialized STD services than other public clinics.

  13. Patients' satisfaction with sexual and reproductive health services delivered in HIV clinics across European regions.

    PubMed

    Platteau, Tom; Müller, Matthias C; Nideröst, Sibylle; Csepe, Peter; Dedes, Nikos; Apers, Ludwig; Schrooten, Ward; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2013-09-01

    Throughout Europe, differences in satisfaction with HIV-care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) persist, despite a tendency towards harmonisation of policy and management. A European sample of 1,549 PLHIV responded to an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographic background, general health, mental health, sexual health, and HIV-service provision. We compared the results across 3 regions: Western, Southern and Central/Eastern Europe. PLHIV differed in several socio-demographic variables (gender, migrant status, sexual orientation, and financial situation) as well as specific psychosocial aspects (HIV-related discrimination, satisfaction with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in HIV-care settings, and complaints about service provision). Using multivariate analysis, a predictive model for satisfaction with SRH services in HIV clinics was developed, resulting into region of residence, and participants' satisfaction with their own health status as significant predictors. Better integration of SRH services in HIV-care should be encouraged. Service providers should be trained and encouraged to discuss SRH issues with their patients to create a supportive environment, free of discrimination. More time should be allocated to discuss SRH issues with individual patients.

  14. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-07-08

    Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used. The data of women (N = 2741) who had given birth in the Turku University Hospital area between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009 were collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Comparisons were made between the women who were clients of the maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics. There were no clinically significant differences between the clients of maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics regarding the utilisation of maternity care services or the explored health outcomes. The organisational model of the maternity health clinic does not impact the utilisation of maternity care services or maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Primary maternity care could be provided effectively when integrated with child health services.

  15. Assessing the Changing Landscape of Sexual Health Clinical Service After the Implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Mettenbrink, Christie; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Eggert, Jeffrey; Thrun, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Federal health reform has the potential to impact many public health services, especially sexual health clinics. To assess the impact of such reform within the Denver Sexual Health Clinic (DSHC), we conducted a survey of patients to better understand our client population and their care-seeking behavior. Survey data were collected from patients attending the DSHC at 3 different points in time to ascertain insurance status, reasons for not having insurance, reasons for choosing care at the DSHC, and health care use over the past 12 months. A total of 1603 surveys were completed. Forty-two percent of participants were enrolled in health insurance at the time of visit. The percentage of patients with Medicaid increased more than 200% across the survey cycles. Cost was the main reason cited for not having insurance. Participants identified confidentiality and convenience among the top reasons for seeking care at the DSHC regardless of sex or insurance. Although there was no difference in health care use for sexual health services, individuals with health insurance were more likely to have used nonsexual health services in the past 12 months than those without insurance. Patients continue to visit the DSHC despite having health insurance. Sexual health clinics must work to understand what drives people to seek care so that they can better prepare for the future.

  16. Appointment Template Redesign in a Women's Health Clinic Using Clinical Constraints to Improve Service Quality and Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Verduzco, S

    2015-01-01

    Patient wait time is a critical element of access to care that has long been recognized as a major problem in modern outpatient health care delivery systems. It impacts patient and medical staff productivity, stress, quality and efficiency of medical care, as well as health-care cost and availability. This study was conducted in a Women's Health Clinic. The objective was to improve clinic service quality by redesigning patient appointment template using the clinical constraints. The proposed scheduling template consisted of two key elements: the redesign of appointment types and the determination of the length of time slots using defined constraints. The re-classification technique was used for the redesign of appointment visit types to capture service variation for scheduling purposes. Then, the appointment length was determined by incorporating clinic constraints or goals, such as patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime, finish time, lunch hours, when the last appointment was scheduled, and the desired number of appointment slots, to converge the optimal length of appointment slots for each visit type. The redesigned template was implemented and the results indicated a 73% reduction in average patient waiting from the reported 40 to 11 minutes. The patient no-show rate was reduced by 4% from 24% to 20%. The morning section on average finished about 11:50 am. The clinic day was finished around 4:45 pm. Provider average idle time was estimated to be about 5 minutes, which can be used for charting/documenting patients. This study provided an alternative method of redesigning appointment scheduling templates using only the clinical constraints rather than the traditional way that required an objective function. This paper also documented the employed methods step by step in a real clinic setting. The implementation results concluded a significant improvement on patient wait time and no-show rate.

  17. A Comparison of Medical Birth Register Outcomes between Maternity Health Clinics and Integrated Maternity and Child Health Clinics in Southwest Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Methods: A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used. The data of women (N = 2741) who had given birth in the Turku University Hospital area between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009 were collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Comparisons were made between the women who were clients of the maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics. Results: There were no clinically significant differences between the clients of maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics regarding the utilisation of maternity care services or the explored health outcomes. Conclusions: The organisational model of the maternity health clinic does not impact the utilisation of maternity care services or maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Primary maternity care could be provided effectively when integrated with child health services. PMID:27761106

  18. Clinical Uncertainties, Health Service Challenges, and Ethical Complexities of HIV “Test-and-Treat”: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kavita R.; Sarma, Karthik V.; Mahajan, Anish P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the HIV “test-and-treat” strategy’s promise, questions about its clinical rationale, operational feasibility, and ethical appropriateness have led to vigorous debate in the global HIV community. We performed a systematic review of the literature published between January 2009 and May 2012 using PubMed, SCOPUS, Global Health, Web of Science, BIOSIS, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO Africa-Wide Information, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus databases to summarize clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities that may affect the test-and-treat strategy’s success. A thoughtful approach to research and implementation to address clinical and health service questions and meaningful community engagement regarding ethical complexities may bring us closer to safe, feasible, and effective test-and-treat implementation. PMID:23597344

  19. Predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need as predictors of utilization and clinical outcomes for veterans receiving mental health services.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, DiJon R; Glickman, Mark E; Eisen, Susan V

    2010-04-01

    Though demand for mental health services (MHS) among US veterans is increasing, MHS utilization per veteran is decreasing. With health and social service needs competing for limited resources, it is important to understand the association between patient factors, MHS utilization, and clinical outcomes. We use a framework based on Andersen's behavioral model of health service utilization to examine predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and clinical need as predictors of MHS utilization and clinical outcomes. This was a prospective observational study of veterans receiving inpatient or outpatient MHS through Veterans Administration programs. Clinician ratings (Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]) and self-report assessments (Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24) were completed for 421 veterans at enrollment and 3 months later. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine: (1) predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and need as predictors of MHS inpatient, residential, and outpatient utilization and (2) the association between individual characteristics, utilization, and clinical outcomes. Being older, female, having greater clinical need, lack of enabling resources (employment, stable housing, and social support), and easy access to treatment significantly predicted greater MHS utilization at 3-month follow-up. Less clinical need and no inpatient psychiatric hospitalization predicted better GAF and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24 scores. White race and residential treatment also predicted better GAF scores. Neither enabling resources, nor number of outpatient mental health visits predicted clinical outcomes. This application of Andersen's behavioral model of health service utilization confirmed associations between some predisposing characteristics, need, and enabling resources on MHS utilization but only predisposing characteristics, need, and utilization were associated with clinical outcomes.

  20. Managed Care, School Health Programs, and Adolescent Health Services: Opportunities for Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John; Vernon, Mary; Lowry, Richard; Osorio, Jenny; DuShaw, Martha; Lancaster, Mary Sue; Pham, Ngoc; Song, Elisa; Ginn, Elizabeth; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1998-01-01

    Managed care organizations (MCOs) and school health programs share some common goals and some competing, conflicting priorities. Partnerships between the two are important for the effective coordination and delivery of comprehensive adolescent health services. This paper discusses adolescent clinical preventive services, school health services,…

  1. SANDS: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. PMID:18434256

  2. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  3. Clinical pharmacy cardiac risk service for managing patients with coronary artery disease in a health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Sandhoff, Brian G; Nies, Leslie K; Olson, Kari L; Nash, James D; Rasmussen, Jon R; Merenich, John A

    2007-01-01

    A clinical pharmacy service for managing the treatment of coronary artery disease in a health maintenance organization is described. Despite the proven benefits of aggressive risk factor modification for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), there remains a treatment gap between consensus- and evidence-based recommendations and their application in patient care. In 1998, Kaiser Permanente of Colorado developed the Clinical Pharmacy Cardiac Risk Service (CPCRS) to focus on the long-term management of patients with CAD to improve clinical outcomes. The primary goals of the CPCRS are to increase the number of CAD patients on lipid-lowering therapy, manage medications shown to decrease the risk of future CAD-related events, assist in the monitoring and control of other diseases that increase cardiovascular risk, provide patient education and recommendations for nonpharmacologic therapy, and act as a CAD information resource for physicians and other health care providers. Using an electronic medical record and tracking database, the service works in close collaboration with primary care physicians, cardiologists, cardiac rehabilitation nurses, and other health care providers to reduce cardiac risk in the CAD population. Particular attention is given to dyslipidemia, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco cessation. Treatment with evidence-based regimens is initiated and adjusted as necessary. Over 11,000 patients are currently being followed by the CPCRS. A clinical pharmacy service in a large health maintenance organization provides cardiac risk reduction for patients with CAD and helps close treatment gaps that may exist for these patients.

  4. 42 CFR 410.76 - Clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical nurse specialists' services. 410.76... § 410.76 Clinical nurse specialists' services. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term...) Qualifications. For Medicare Part B coverage of his or her services, a clinical nurse specialist must— (1) Be a...

  5. The Resource Team: an innovative service delivery support model for mental health services.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Julie; Powell, Jacinta; Gibbon, Peter; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-04-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Resource Team, an innovative service delivery model supporting clinical services at the Inner North Brisbane Mental Health Service, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital Health Service District. The team aims to provide a base for specialist mental health support staff, improve knowledge management and support the development of meaningful community partnerships. Development of the team included a literature review and consultation with internal and external stakeholders. From this, the objectives, roles and functions of the team were clarified and disseminated to stakeholders. The team currently encompasses 12 positions and has initiated a number of programs and service developments. These include improved IT management of clinical resources and the development of partnerships with the community and non-government sectors. The Resource Team effectively coordinates specialist clinical support positions, addresses knowledge management issues and facilitates meaningful engagement with the community and non-government sectors. The model could easily be applied in other mental health and general health services.

  6. Appointment Template Redesign in a Women’s Health Clinic Using Clinical Constraints to Improve Service Quality and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Verduzco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Patient wait time is a critical element of access to care that has long been recognized as a major problem in modern outpatient health care delivery systems. It impacts patient and medical staff productivity, stress, quality and efficiency of medical care, as well as health-care cost and availability. Objectives This study was conducted in a Women’s Health Clinic. The objective was to improve clinic service quality by redesigning patient appointment template using the clinical constraints. Methods The proposed scheduling template consisted of two key elements: the redesign of appointment types and the determination of the length of time slots using defined constraints. The re-classification technique was used for the redesign of appointment visit types to capture service variation for scheduling purposes. Then, the appointment length was determined by incorporating clinic constraints or goals, such as patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime, finish time, lunch hours, when the last appointment was scheduled, and the desired number of appointment slots, to converge the optimal length of appointment slots for each visit type. Results The redesigned template was implemented and the results indicated a 73% reduction in average patient waiting from the reported 40 to 11 minutes. The patient no-show rate was reduced by 4% from 24% to 20%. The morning section on average finished about 11:50 am. The clinic day was finished around 4:45 pm. Provider average idle time was estimated to be about 5 minutes, which can be used for charting/documenting patients. Conclusions This study provided an alternative method of redesigning appointment scheduling templates using only the clinical constraints rather than the traditional way that required an objective function. This paper also documented the employed methods step by step in a real clinic setting. The implementation results concluded a significant improvement on patient wait time and no-show rate

  7. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree in...

  8. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree in...

  9. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree in...

  10. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree in...

  11. 42 CFR 410.73 - Clinical social worker services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical social worker services. 410.73 Section 410... Clinical social worker services. (a) Definition: clinical social worker. For purposes of this part, a clinical social worker is defined as an individual who— (1) Possesses a master's or doctor's degree in...

  12. Trade in health-related services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Chanda, Rupa; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2009-02-14

    The supervision of a domestic health system in the context of the trade environment in the 21st century needs a sophisticated understanding of how trade in health services affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy. This notion places a premium on people engaged in the health sector understanding the importance of a comprehensive outlook on trade in health services. However, establishment of systematic comparative data for amounts of trade in health services is difficult to achieve, and most trade negotiations occur in isolation from health professionals. These difficulties compromise the ability of a health system to not just minimise the risks presented by trade in health services, but also to maximise the opportunities. We consider these issues by presenting the latest trends and developments in the worldwide delivery of health-care services, using the classification provided by the World Trade Organization for the General Agreement on Trade in Services. This classification covers four modes of service delivery: cross-border supply of services; consumption of services abroad; foreign direct investment, typically to establish a new hospital, clinic, or diagnostic facility; and the movement of health professionals. For every delivery mode we discuss the present magnitude and pattern of trade, main contributors to this trade, and key issues arising.

  13. Integrative Health Services in School Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Milosavljevic, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mental health treatment today incorporates neurobiology, genetics, neuro-imaging, and pharmacologic mechanisms, offering more options to patients. For some, these modern approaches are not viable choices due to reasons such as limited access to care, cost, intolerable side effects, and, in the pediatric population, fears of potential long-term effects. With the growing prevalence of chronic health conditions, concerns for age of onset, (McGorry, Purcell, Goldstone, & Amminger, 2011) and a growing population of mental health patients, cost-effective and evidence-based treatment options should be evaluated. Integrative treatments, also known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), may offer interventions that meet today’s clinical needs. Method: To evaluate evidence-based treatment options, we initiated the school-based integrative health program (IHP) in January 2011 at three high schools located in Massachusetts. Our goal was two-fold: first, to design a holistic treatment program and evaluate several integrative modalities, and; second, to determine the feasibility of providing a CAM health program through school clinics. Our protocol utilized three integrative treatments that addressed stress and anxiety conditions. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness affecting over 40 million adults in the US (Anxiety and Depression Association of America). Results: The program has been successfully implemented. Preliminary results indicate that this intervention decreased anxiety in these youth. Conclusion: Providing integrative techniques to students in the school setting has the potential to decrease barriers to accessing care, lowering treatment costs and decreasing school absenteeism by instituting care on-site. Offering a holistic approach to treatment in schools is feasible. Because utilizing these approaches involves their active participation, adolescents can acquire life-long skills that improve their ability to cope and confront

  14. Free Tax Services in Pediatric Clinics.

    PubMed

    Marcil, Lucy E; Hole, Michael K; Wenren, Larissa M; Schuler, Megan S; Zuckerman, Barry S; Vinci, Robert J

    2018-06-01

    The earned income tax credit (EITC), refundable monies for America's working poor, is associated with improved child health. Yet, 20% of eligible families do not receive it. We provided free tax preparation services in clinics serving low-income families and assessed use, financial impact, and accuracy. Free tax preparation services ("StreetCred") were available at 4 clinics in Boston in 2016 and 2017. We surveyed a convenience sample of clients ( n = 244) about experiences with StreetCred and previous tax services and of nonparticipants ( n = 100; 69% response rate) and clinic staff ( n = 41; 48% response rate) about acceptability and feasibility. A total of 753 clients received $1 619 650 in federal tax refunds. StreetCred was associated with significant improvement in tax filing rates. Of surveyed clients, 21% were new filers, 47% were new users of free tax preparation, 14% reported new receipt of the EITC, and 21% reported new knowledge of the EITC. StreetCred had high client acceptability; 96% would use StreetCred again. Families with children were significantly more likely to report StreetCred made them feel more connected to their doctor ( P = .02). Clinic staff viewed the program favorably (97% approval). Free tax services in urban clinics are a promising, feasible financial intervention to increase tax filing and refunds, save fees, and link clients to the EITC. With future studies, we will assess scalability and measure impact on health. StreetCred offers an innovative approach to improving child health in primary care settings through a financial intervention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. An innovation for improving maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria: a qualitative study of stakeholders' perceptions about clinical mentoring.

    PubMed

    Okereke, Ekechi; Tukur, Jamilu; Aminu, Amina; Butera, Jean; Mohammed, Bello; Tanko, Mustapha; Yisa, Ibrahim; Obonyo, Benson; Egboh, Mike

    2015-02-15

    An effective capacity building process for healthcare workers is required for the delivery of quality health care services. Work-based training can be applied for the capacity building of health care workers while causing minimum disruption to service delivery within health facilities. In 2012, clinical mentoring was introduced into the Jigawa State Health System through collaboration between the Jigawa State Ministry of Health and the Partnership for Transforming Health Systems Phase 2 (PATHS2). This study evaluates the perceptions of different stakeholders about clinical mentoring as a strategy for improving maternal, newborn and child health service delivery in Jigawa State, northern Nigeria. Interviews were conducted in February 2013 with different stakeholders within Jigawa State in Northern Nigeria. There were semi-structured interviews with 33 mentored health care workers as well as the health facility departmental heads for Obstetrics and Pediatrics in the selected clinical mentoring health facilities. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the clinical mentors and two senior government health officials working within the Jigawa State Ministry of Health. The qualitative data were audio-recorded; transcribed and thematically analysed. The study findings suggest that clinical mentoring improved service delivery within the clinical mentoring health facilities. Significant improvements in the professional capacity of mentored health workers were observed by clinical mentors, heads of departments and the mentored health workers. Best practices were introduced with the support of the clinical mentors such as appropriate baseline investigations for pediatric patients, the use of magnesium sulphate and misoprostol for the management of eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage respectively. Government health officials indicate that clinical mentoring has led to more emphasis on the need for the provision of better quality health services. Stakeholders report that

  16. Healthcare professionals' perceptions related to the provision of clinical pharmacy services in the public health sector of Mexico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Díaz de León-Castañeda, Christian; Gutiérrez-Godínez, Jéssica; Colado-Velázquez, Juventino Iii; Toledano-Jaimes, Cairo

    2018-04-22

    In Mexico, the Modelo Nacional de Farmacia Hospitalaria (MNFH, or National Hospital Pharmacy Model), published in 2009, mainly aims to promote the provision of clinical pharmacy services in private and public hospitals. However, there is little scientific documentation about the quality of these services. To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions related to the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. A case-study based on a qualitative approach was performed at the pharmaceutical services unit at a public hospital located in Mexico City, which operates under the administrative control of the Ministry of Health. Donabedian's conceptual model was adapted to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacists, physicians and nurses and then transcribed and analyzed via discourse analysis and codification techniques, using the software package Atlas. ti. Limitations in pharmaceutical human resources were identified as the main factor affecting coverage and quality in clinical pharmacy services provision. However, the development in pharmacy staff of technical competences and skills for clinical pharmacy service provision were recognized. Significant improvements in the rational use of medicines were associated with clinical pharmacy services provision. The perception analysis performed in this study suggested that it is necessary to increase pharmacy staff in order to improve interprofessional relationships and the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A school-linked health service for adolescents in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Hardoff, D; Knishkowy, B; Palti, H

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Health Service (AHS) and its multidisciplinary, school-linked, community-based adolescent health clinic located in a western neighborhood of Jerusalem. Files of the first 134 adolescents who completed or discontinued treatment in the clinic during the first two years of operation were reviewed for demographic data, referral source, number of visits, health concerns and clinical impressions. The clinic population included Jewish Jerusalem residents, ages 12-18, 75% of whom were female. Most referrals came from schools. The average number of visits per patient was five (range 1-20). The most frequent presenting concerns as well as the most frequent clinical impressions were in the psychosocial and nutritional domains. Concordance between presenting concern and clinical impression was 61% (k = 0.47). Health problems of Israeli high school students attending the clinic mainly were psychosocial and nutritional. The school-linked health service applied a comprehensive approach to the biopsychosocial needs of adolescents, not addressed at other health services.

  18. Integration of comprehensive abortion-care services in a Maternal and Child Health clinic in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Thérèse; Soeur, Sophal; Rathavy, Tung; Crabbé, François; Buvé, Anne

    2008-08-01

    To document the pilot experience of provision of safe abortion/post-abortion services implemented in 2002 at the Mother Child Health clinic in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, and to profile clients and assess their uptake of post-abortion contraception. The initial package of safe abortion/post-abortion clinics (SAPAC) services included counselling on family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, pain management, Manual Vacuum Aspiration procedure and standard universal precautions at an affordable price (US$12.5). SAPAC services became operational in August 2002. The data of medical records from 1 August 2002 to 31 December 2005 (2224 clients) were analysed. The mean number of clients per month attending SAPAC services ranged from 26 in 2002 to 64 in 2005. Fifty-three per cent were housewives, 24% worked in sales or services, 8% in factories, 11% in bars or karaoke lounges and 3% were brothel-based sex workers. Ninety-three per cent of clients came for induced abortion and 7% sought post-abortion care. Pain management was used in 99% of cases. The overall rate of complications during intervention was 2.1% and dropped from 9.4% in 2002 to 1.3% in 2005. After SAPAC implementation, fewer women in Sihanoukville sought abortion services without any quality control and a safer technique was used. On average, 40% of patients took up contraception after the abortion. Integrating comprehensive abortion-care services at a peripheral government health facility is feasible. There is a demand for such services provided at an affordable price in Sihanoukville, Cambodia.

  19. Service quality in health care.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, J W; Berwick, D M; Shore, M F

    1999-02-17

    Although US health care is described as "the world's largest service industry," the quality of service--that is, the characteristics that shape the experience of care beyond technical competence--is rarely discussed in the medical literature. This article illustrates service quality principles by analyzing a routine encounter in health care from a service quality point of view. This illustration and a review of related literature from both inside and outside health care has led to the following 2 premises: First, if high-quality service had a greater presence in our practices and institutions, it would improve clinical outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction while reducing cost, and it would create competitive advantage for those who are expert in its application. Second, many other industries in the service sector have taken service quality to a high level, their techniques are readily transferable to health care, and physicians caring for patients can learn from them.

  20. Benchmarking clinical photography services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking is used in services across the National Health Service (NHS) using various benchmarking programs. Clinical photography services do not have a program in place and services have to rely on ad hoc surveys of other services. A trial benchmarking exercise was undertaken with 13 services in NHS Trusts. This highlights valuable data and comparisons that can be used to benchmark and improve services throughout the profession.

  1. A 10-Year Cross-Sectional Analysis of Air Force Flight and Operational Medicine Clinic Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M; Fouts, Brittany L

    2016-05-01

    This study described the patient population and the health care services delivered in the Air Force Flight and Operational Medicine Clinics (FOMCs) over the past 10 years. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the retrospective cohort of patients who received care at a FOMC from 2003 to 2012. A total of 714,157 individuals, generating 4,829,626 encounters, were included in the cohort. They were predominately male service members under the age of 41. One-fifth of individuals were retirees and family members, with one-third being in the pediatric age range. The cohort accessed health care services for three primary reasons: health examinations (28%), occupational dispositions (18%), and primary care (54%). When primary care was sought, the predominate health conditions were upper respiratory infections, back problems, and nontraumatic joint disorders. When services and procedures were a component of the care, they were predominately associated with health examinations involving ophthalmologic, auditory, and cardiac screening tests. Individuals accessing the FOMCs had relatively low need for access to health care services, requiring a median of two annual encounters. This study provided insight into the health care delivered in FOMCs and establishes a foundation for future planning and management of FOMC health care delivery. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Formalize clinical processes into electronic health information systems: Modelling a screening service for diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Eguzkiza, Aitor; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Andonegui, José

    2015-08-01

    Most healthcare services use information and communication technologies to reduce and redistribute the workload associated with follow-up of chronic conditions. However, the lack of normalization of the information handled in and exchanged between such services hinders the scalability and extendibility. The use of medical standards for modelling and exchanging information, especially dual-model based approaches, can enhance the features of screening services. Hence, the approach of this paper is twofold. First, this article presents a generic methodology to model patient-centered clinical processes. Second, a proof of concept of the proposed methodology was conducted within the diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening service of the Health Service of Navarre (Spain) in compliance with a specific dual-model norm (openEHR). As a result, a set of elements required for deploying a model-driven DR screening service has been established, namely: clinical concepts, archetypes, termsets, templates, guideline definition rules, and user interface definitions. This model fosters reusability, because those elements are available to be downloaded and integrated in any healthcare service, and interoperability, since from then on such services can share information seamlessly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 42 CFR 414.62 - Fee schedule for clinical psychologist services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee schedule for clinical psychologist services... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.62 Fee schedule for clinical psychologist services. The fee schedule for clinical psychologist services is set at 100 percent of the amount determined for corresponding...

  4. Clinical-outcome-based demand management in health services.

    PubMed

    Brogan, C; Lawrence, D; Mayhew, L

    2008-01-01

    THE PROBLEM OF MANAGING DEMAND: Most healthcare systems have 'third-party payers' who face the problem of keeping within budgets despite pressures to increase resources due to the ageing population, new technologies and patient demands to lower thresholds for care. This paper uses the UK National Health Service as a case study to suggest techniques for system-based demand management, which aims to control demand and costs whilst maintaining the cost-effectiveness of the system. The technique for managing demand in primary, elective and urgent care consists of managing treatment thresholds for appropriate care, using a whole-systems approach and costing the care elements in the system. It is important to analyse activity in relation to capacity and demand. Examples of using these techniques in practice are given. The practical effects of using such techniques need evaluation. If these techniques are not used, managing demand and limiting healthcare expenditure will be at the expense of clinical outcomes and unmet need, which will perpetuate financial crises.

  5. Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture, climate, and service structure.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Mayberg, Stephen; Green, Philip

    2008-03-01

    The present study incorporates organizational theory and organizational characteristics in examining issues related to the successful implementation of mental health services. Following the theoretical foundations of socio-technical and cultural models of organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, culture, legal and service structures, and workforce characteristics are examined as correlates of therapist turnover and new program sustainability in a nationwide sample of mental health clinics. Results of General Linear Modeling (GLM) with the organization as the unit of analysis revealed that organizations with the best climates as measured by the Organizational Social Context (OSC) profiling system, had annual turnover rates (10%) that were less than half the rates found in organizations with the worst climates (22%). In addition, organizations with the best culture profiles sustained new treatment or service programs over twice as long (50 vs. 24 months) as organizations with the worst cultures. Finally, clinics with separate children's services units had higher turnover rates than clinics that served adults and children within the same unit. The findings suggest that strategies to support the implementation of new mental health treatments and services should attend to organizational culture and climate, and to the compatibility of organizational service structures with the demand characteristics of treatments.

  7. Objections to routine clinical outcomes measurement in mental health services: any evidence so far?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alastair J D; Trauer, Tom

    2010-12-01

    Routine clinical outcomes measurement (RCOM) is gaining importance in mental health services. To examine whether criticisms published in advance of the development of RCOM have been borne out by data now available from such a programme. This was an observational study of routine ratings using HoNOS65+ at inception/admission and again at discharge in an old age psychiatry service from 1997 to 2008. Testable hypotheses were generated from each criticism amenable to empirical examination. Inter-rater reliability estimates were applied to observed differences between scores between community and ward patients using resampling. Five thousand one hundred eighty community inceptions and 862 admissions had HoNOS65+ ratings at referral/admission and discharge. We could find no evidence of gaming (artificially worse scores at inception and better at discharge), selection, attrition or detection bias, and ratings were consistent with diagnosis and level of service. Anticipated low levels of inter-rater reliability did not vitiate differences between levels of service. Although only hypotheses testable from within RCOM data were examined, and only 46% of eligible episodes had complete outcomes data, no evidence of the alleged biases were found. RCOM seems valid and practical in mental health services.

  8. On Line Service Composition in the Integrated Clinical Environment for eHealth and Medical Systems

    PubMed Central

    García-Valls, Marisol; Touahria, Imad Eddine

    2017-01-01

    Medical and eHealth systems are progressively realized in the context of standardized architectures that support safety and ease the integration of the heterogeneous (and often proprietary) medical devices and sensors. The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) architecture appeared recently with the goal of becoming a common framework for defining the structure of the medical applications as concerns the safe integration of medical devices and sensors. ICE is simply a high level architecture that defines the functional blocks that should be part of a medical system to support interoperability. As a result, the underlying communication backbone is broadly undefined as concerns the enabling software technology (including the middleware) and associated algorithms that meet the ICE requirements of the flexible integration of medical devices and services. Supporting the on line composition of services in a medical system is also not part of ICE; however, supporting this behavior would enable flexible orchestration of functions (e.g., addition and/or removal of services and medical equipment) on the fly. iLandis one of the few software technologies that supports on line service composition and reconfiguration, ensuring time-bounded transitions across different service orchestrations; it supports the design, deployment and on line reconfiguration of applications, which this paper applies to service-based eHealth domains. This paper designs the integration between ICE architecture and iLand middleware to enhance the capabilities of ICE with on line service composition and the time-bounded reconfiguration of medical systems based on distributed services. A prototype implementation of a service-based eHealth system for the remote monitoring of patients is described; it validates the enhanced capacity of ICE to support dynamic reconfiguration of the application services. Results show that the temporal cost of the on line reconfiguration of the eHealth application is bounded

  9. On Line Service Composition in the Integrated Clinical Environment for eHealth and Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    García-Valls, Marisol; Touahria, Imad Eddine

    2017-06-08

    Medical and eHealth systems are progressively realized in the context of standardized architectures that support safety and ease the integration of the heterogeneous (and often proprietary) medical devices and sensors. The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) architecture appeared recently with the goal of becoming a common framework for defining the structure of the medical applications as concerns the safe integration of medical devices and sensors. ICE is simply a high level architecture that defines the functional blocks that should be part of a medical system to support interoperability. As a result, the underlying communication backbone is broadly undefined as concerns the enabling software technology (including the middleware) and associated algorithms that meet the ICE requirements of the flexible integration of medical devices and services. Supporting the on line composition of services in a medical system is also not part of ICE; however, supporting this behavior would enable flexible orchestration of functions (e.g., addition and/or removal of services and medical equipment) on the fly. iLandis one of the few software technologies that supports on line service composition and reconfiguration, ensuring time-bounded transitions across different service orchestrations; it supports the design, deployment and on line reconfiguration of applications, which this paper applies to service-based eHealth domains. This paper designs the integration between ICE architecture and iLand middleware to enhance the capabilities of ICE with on line service composition and the time-bounded reconfiguration of medical systems based on distributed services. A prototype implementation of a service-based eHealth system for the remote monitoring of patients is described; it validates the enhanced capacity of ICE to support dynamic reconfiguration of the application services. Results show that the temporal cost of the on line reconfiguration of the eHealth application is bounded

  10. Business Models, Vaccination Services, and Public Health Relationships of Retail Clinics: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Bayo C; Fisher, Allison Kennedy; Shoemaker, Sarah J; Pozniak, Alyssa; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of retail clinics (RCs), literature is limited in terms of how these facilities offer preventive services, particularly vaccination services. The purpose of this study was to obtain an in-depth understanding of the RC business model pertaining to vaccine offerings, profitability, and decision making. From March to June 2009, we conducted 15 interviews with key individuals from three types of organizations: 12 representatives of RC corporations, 2 representatives of retail hosts (i.e., stores in which the RCs are located), and 1 representative of an industry association. We analyzed interview transcripts qualitatively. Our results indicate that consumer demand and profitability were the main drivers in offering vaccinations. RCs in this sample primarily offered vaccinations to adults and adolescents, and they were not well integrated with local public health and immunization registries. Our findings demonstrate the potential for stronger linkages with public health in these settings. The findings also may help inform future research to increase patient access to vaccination services at RCs.

  11. Impact of an Onsite Clinic on Utilization of Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Ostovari, Mina; Yu, Denny; Yih, Yuehwern; Steele-Morris, Charlotte Joy

    2017-07-01

    To assess impact of an onsite clinic on healthcare utilization of preventive services for employees of a public university and their dependents. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and classification tree techniques were used to assess health claim data to identify changes in patterns of healthcare utilization and factors impacting usage of onsite clinic. Utilization of preventive services significantly increased for women and men employees by 9% and 14% one year after implementation of the onsite clinic. Hourly-paid employees, employees without diabetes, employees with spouse opt out or no coverage were more likely to go to the onsite clinic. Adapted framework for assessing performance of onsite clinics based on usage of health informatics would help to identify health utilization patterns and interaction between onsite clinic and offsite health providers.

  12. Clinical negligence in ophthalmology: fifteen years of national health service litigation authority data.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Rashmi G; Ferguson, Veronica; Hingorani, Melanie

    2013-04-01

    To categorize and understand the reasons behind ophthalmic clinical negligence claims in the National Health Service and how such claims can be avoided. Retrospective analyses of all ophthalmic clinical negligence claims between 1995 and 2009 were carried out. Data were obtained from the National Health Service Litigation Authority through the Freedom of Information Act. Claims were classified according to ophthalmic subspecialty, mean payment per subspecialty, severity, paid-to-closed ratio, and cost. One thousand two hundred fifty-three ophthalmology-related claims occurring from 1995 through 2009. Of these, 963 claims were closed over the 15-year period. Eighty-four were excluded because of insufficient case data. Retrospective analysis of all public sector ophthalmology litigation claims over a 15-year period in England. Subspecialty pertaining to claim, mean payment per claim, and severity of outcome of clinical incident. Nine hundred sixty-three claims were closed over a 15-year period, of which 67% resulted in payment. The total cost of claims was £32.1 million ($50.3 million), with a mean payment per claim of £33 300 ($52 300). The specialties with the highest mean payment per claim were neuro-ophthalmology and pediatric ophthalmology. Cataract subspecialty had the highest number of claims, accounting for 34% of all claims. Overall, the number of litigation claims in ophthalmology is low, relative to the high volume of outpatient and surgical workload. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An exploration of the role and scope of the clinical nurse consultant (CNC) in a metropolitan health service.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Melissa J; Cross, Wendy M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical nurse consultants have been a part of the nursing workforce for some time however a lack of clarity regarding this role has led to significant variations in health service expectations, workloads and scope for the Clinical nurse consultants working within this metropolitan health service. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the CNC as it is perceived by them, in the context of this health service. A qualitative approach was used for this study. Following ethics approval a single audio-taped focus group was undertaken to gather data. Guiding questions were used to elicit responses from the group, moderated by the co-investigators. The focus group was transcribed verbatim. Each researcher independently analysed the narrative data, using coding and clustering the data to develop primary and sub-themes. Whilst each participant experiences their role individually, there were four themes derived from comments expressed by the participants: 'Diversity and conflict', 'Leaders but powerless', 'Support systems' and 'The portfolio holder role'. The role of the Clinical nurse consultant is complex and diverse. The variability in the role suggests that organisational consensus of the role, scope and purpose of the CNC position has not been actualised, resulting in a lack of support systems, and an underutilisation of the Clinical nurse consultants as leaders, where they can challenge existing practice and guide future directions in care delivery.

  14. Updated Priorities Among Effective Clinical Preventive Services

    PubMed Central

    Maciosek, Michael V.; LaFrance, Amy B.; Dehmer, Steven P.; McGree, Dana A.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Xu, Zack; Solberg, Leif I.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s provisions for first-dollar coverage of evidence-based preventive services have reduced an important barrier to receipt of preventive care. Safety-net providers, however, still serve a substantial uninsured population, and clinician and patient time remain limited in all primary care settings. As a consequence, decision makers continue to set priorities to help focus their efforts. This report updates estimates of relative health impact and cost-effectiveness for evidence-based preventive services. METHODS We assessed the potential impact of 28 evidence-based clinical preventive services in terms of their cost-effectiveness and clinically preventable burden, as measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. Each service received 1 to 5 points on each of the 2 measures—cost-effectiveness and clinically preventable burden—for a total score ranging from 2 to 10. New microsimulation models were used to provide updated estimates of 12 of these services. Priorities for improving delivery rates were established by comparing the ranking with what is known of current delivery rates nationally. RESULTS The 3 highest-ranking services, each with a total score of 10, are immunizing children, counseling to prevent tobacco initiation among youth, and tobacco-use screening and brief intervention to encourage cessation among adults. Greatest population health improvement could be obtained from increasing utilization of clinical preventive services that address tobacco use, obesity-related behaviors, and alcohol misuse, as well as colorectal cancer screening and influenza vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS This study identifies high-priority preventive services and should help decision makers select which services to emphasize in quality-improvement initiatives. PMID:28376457

  15. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414.510 Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a...

  16. Satisfaction among soldiers with secondary medical services within military and civilian clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Avishay; Pliskin, Joseph S; Peterburg, Yitzhak

    2002-08-01

    The medical services system of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is founded on a principle that by definition considers it the military's role to maintain the health of its personnel in uniform. The 1994 Compulsory Health Insurance Law, Section 55 addresses health services for soldiers, stating that a soldier is entitled to health services from the Medical Corps of the IDF or an agent operating on its behalf. In the implementation of its responsibilities, the IDF Medical Corps operates an array of medical services, including secondary care. This study deals with the scope of utilization of secondary medical services by IDF personnel visiting military medical clinics and civilian hospital outpatient clinics: their character, the subjective health status of the respondents, and their degree of satisfaction with medical services. The results indicate that most of those seeking medical treatment at military and civilian clinics are not chronically ill. Most consider their health status to be good to excellent, but many of those referred for secondary care--more than half of the respondents who visited military specialist clinics-visited the clinics many times and even visited other clinics. No problem of access to clinics was found, but availability was problematic. There was a marked preference among patients to receive secondary health sevices from outside civilian agents rather than the military system.

  17. Wholistic Health Care for a Campus Student Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ness, John H.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the importance of environmental and emotional considerations in medical care. Outlines the basic principles of holistic health care and provides a rationale for a campus-based center. Describes an existing holistic student health service and proposes a basic program for a campus holistic health clinic. (RC)

  18. Integrating primary care with occupational health services: a success story.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Karen; Strasser, Patricia B

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the process used by a large U.S. manufacturing company to successfully integrate full-service primary care centers at two locations. The company believed that by providing employees with health promotion and disease prevention services, including screening, early diagnosis, and uncomplicated illness treatment, its health care costs could be significantly reduced while saving employees money. To accurately demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of adding primary care to existing occupational health services, a thorough financial analysis projected the return on investment (ROI) of the program. Decisions were made about center size, the scope of services, and staffing. A critical part of the ROI analysis involved evaluating employee health claim data to identify the actual cost of health care services for each center and the projected costs if the services were provided on-site. The pilot initiative included constructing two on-site health center facilities staffed with primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. Key outcome metrics from the pilot clinics exceeded goals in three of four categories. In addition, clinic use after 12 months far exceeded benchmarks for similar clinics. Most importantly, the pilot clinics were operating with a positive cash flow within the first year and demonstrated an increasingly positive ROI. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Centralized vs. Decentralized Child Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Milton S.

    1977-01-01

    One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here. PMID:904014

  20. Centralized vs. decentralized child mental health services.

    PubMed

    Adams, M S

    1977-09-01

    One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.

  1. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the service. For assistant-at-surgery services, allowed amounts for the services of a nurse... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical...

  2. The Hotel Study-Clinical and Health Service Effectiveness in a Cohort of Homeless or Marginally Housed Persons.

    PubMed

    Honer, William G; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Jones, Andrea A; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Montaner, Julio S; Tran, Howard; Nham, Jimmy; Panenka, William J; Lang, Donna J; Thornton, Allen E; Vertinsky, Talia; Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Smith, Geoffrey N; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; MacEwan, G William; Gicas, Kristina M; Leonova, Olga; Langheimer, Verena; Rauscher, Alexander; Schultz, Krista

    2017-07-01

    The Hotel Study was initiated in Vancouver's Downtown East Side (DTES) neighborhood to investigate multimorbidity in homeless or marginally housed people. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of existing, illness-specific treatment strategies and assessed the effectiveness of health care delivery for multimorbid illnesses. For context, we mapped the housing locations of patients presenting for 552,062 visits to the catchment hospital emergency department (2005-2013). Aggregate data on 22,519 apprehensions of mentally ill people were provided by the Vancouver Police Department (2009-2015). The primary strategy was a longitudinal cohort study of 375 people living in the DTES (2008-2015). We analysed mortality and evaluated the clinical and health service delivery effectiveness for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, opioid dependence, and psychosis. Mapping confirmed the association between poverty and greater number of emergency visits related to substance use and mental illness. The annual change in police apprehensions did not differ between the DTES and other policing districts. During 1581 person-years of cohort observation, the standardized mortality ratio was 8.43 (95% confidence interval, 6.19 to 11.50). Physician visits were common (84.3% of participants over 6 months). Clinical treatment effectiveness was highest for HIV/AIDS, intermediate for opioid dependence, and lowest for psychosis. Health service delivery mechanisms provided examples of poor access, poor treatment adherence, and little effect on multimorbid illnesses. Clinical effectiveness was variable, and illness-specific service delivery appeared to have little effect on multimorbidity. New models of care may need to be implemented.

  3. The Hotel Study—Clinical and Health Service Effectiveness in a Cohort of Homeless or Marginally Housed Persons

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Jones, Andrea A.; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Montaner, Julio S.; Tran, Howard; Nham, Jimmy; Panenka, William J.; Lang, Donna J.; Thornton, Allen E.; Vertinsky, Talia; Barr, Alasdair M.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Smith, Geoffrey N.; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; MacEwan, G. William; Gicas, Kristina M.; Leonova, Olga; Langheimer, Verena; Rauscher, Alexander; Schultz, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Hotel Study was initiated in Vancouver’s Downtown East Side (DTES) neighborhood to investigate multimorbidity in homeless or marginally housed people. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of existing, illness-specific treatment strategies and assessed the effectiveness of health care delivery for multimorbid illnesses. Method: For context, we mapped the housing locations of patients presenting for 552,062 visits to the catchment hospital emergency department (2005-2013). Aggregate data on 22,519 apprehensions of mentally ill people were provided by the Vancouver Police Department (2009-2015). The primary strategy was a longitudinal cohort study of 375 people living in the DTES (2008-2015). We analysed mortality and evaluated the clinical and health service delivery effectiveness for infection with human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, opioid dependence, and psychosis. Results: Mapping confirmed the association between poverty and greater number of emergency visits related to substance use and mental illness. The annual change in police apprehensions did not differ between the DTES and other policing districts. During 1581 person-years of cohort observation, the standardized mortality ratio was 8.43 (95% confidence interval, 6.19 to 11.50). Physician visits were common (84.3% of participants over 6 months). Clinical treatment effectiveness was highest for HIV/AIDS, intermediate for opioid dependence, and lowest for psychosis. Health service delivery mechanisms provided examples of poor access, poor treatment adherence, and little effect on multimorbid illnesses. Conclusions: Clinical effectiveness was variable, and illness-specific service delivery appeared to have little effect on multimorbidity. New models of care may need to be implemented. PMID:28199798

  4. Rural access to clinical pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brandon J; Kaboli, Peter J; Tubbs, Traviss; Alexander, Bruce; Lund, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of rural residence and primary care site on use of clinical pharmacy services (CPS) and to describe the use of clinical telepharmacy within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system. Using 2011 national VHA data, the frequency of patients with CPS encounters was compared across patient residence (urban or rural) and principal site of primary care (medical center, urban clinic, or rural clinic). The likelihood of CPS utilization was estimated with random effects logistic regression. Individual service types (e.g., anticoagulation clinics) and delivery modes (e.g., telehealth) were also examined. Of 3,040,635 patients, 711,348 (23.4%) received CPS. Service use varied by patient residence (urban: 24.9%; rural: 19.7%) and principal site of primary care (medical center: 25.9%; urban clinic: 22.5%; rural clinic: 17.6%). However, in adjusted analyses, urban-rural differences were explained primarily by primary care site and less so by patient residence. Similar findings were observed for individual CPS types. Telehealth encounters were common, accounting for nearly one-half of patients receiving CPS. Video telehealth was infrequent (<0.2%), but more common among patients of rural clinics than those receiving CPS at medical centers (odds ratio [OR] = 9.7; 95% CI 9.0-10.5). We identified a potential disparity between rural and urban patients' access to CPS, which was largely explained by greater reliance on community clinics for primary care than on medical centers. Future research is needed to determine if this disparity will be alleviated by emerging organizational changes, including expanding telehealth capacity and integrating pharmacists into primary care teams, and whether lessons learned at VHA translate to other settings.

  5. Challenges and strategies for sustaining youth-friendly health services - a qualitative study from the perspective of professionals at youth clinics in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Thomée, Suzanne; Malm, Desiré; Christianson, Monica; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Wiklund, Maria; Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2016-12-21

    Youth-friendly health-care services - those that are accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective for different youth subpopulations - are beneficial for youth health, but not easy to implement and sustain. Sweden is among the few countries where youth-friendly health-care services have been integrated within the public health system and sustained for a long time. This study explores the challenges and strategies in providing sustainable youth-friendly health-care services, from the perspective of professionals working in youth clinics in northern Sweden. Eleven semi-structured interviews with various health-care professionals working in youth clinics in northern Sweden were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic analysis in relation to the World Health Organization domains of youth friendliness. Four themes emerged from the analysis of the data: 1) 'Meeting youths on their own terms - the key to ensuring a holistic and youth-centred care' was related to the acceptability and appropriateness of the services; 2) 'Organizational challenges and strategies in keeping professionals' expertise on youth updated' referred to the domain of effectiveness; 3) 'Youth clinics are accessible for those who know and can reach them' was related to the domains of accessibility and equity, and 4) 'The challenge of combining strong directions and flexibility in diverse local realities' focused on the struggle to sustain the youth clinics organization and their goals within the broader health system. Professionals working in youth clinics are perceived as motivated, interested and knowledgeable about youth, and the clinics ensure confidentiality and a youth-centred and holistic approach. Challenges remain, especially in terms of ensuring equitable access to different youth subpopulations, improving monitoring routines and ensuring training and competence for all professionals, independently of the location and characteristics of

  6. Identifying the clinical needs and patterns of health service use of adolescent girls and women with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tint, Ami; Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-09-01

    Girls and women in the general population present with a distinct profile of clinical needs and use more associated health services compared to boys and men; however, research focused on health service use patterns among girls and women with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is limited. In the current study, caregivers of 61 adolescent girls and women with ASD and 223 boys and men with ASD completed an online survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to better understand the clinical needs and associated service use patterns of girls and women with ASD. Sex/gender comparisons were made of individuals' clinical needs and service use. Adolescent girls and women with ASD had prevalent co-occurring mental and physical conditions and parents reported elevated levels of caregiver strain. Multiple service use was common across age groups, particularly among adolescent girls and women with intellectual disability. Overall, few sex/gender differences emerged, although a significantly greater proportion of girls and women accessed psychiatry and emergency department services as compared to boys and men. Though the current study is limited by its use of parent report and small sample size, it suggests that girls and women with ASD may share many of the same high clinical needs and patterns of services use as boys and men with ASD. Areas for future research are discussed to help ensure appropriate support is provided to this understudied population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1558-1566. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Improving Service Delivery in a County Health Department WIC Clinic: An Application of Statistical Process Control Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Boe, Debra Thingstad; Parsons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Local public health agencies are challenged to continually improve service delivery, yet they frequently operate with constrained resources. Quality improvement methods and techniques such as statistical process control are commonly used in other industries, and they have recently been proposed as a means of improving service delivery and performance in public health settings. We analyzed a quality improvement project undertaken at a local Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic to reduce waiting times and improve client satisfaction with a walk-in nutrition education service. We used statistical process control techniques to evaluate initial process performance, implement an intervention, and assess process improvements. We found that implementation of these techniques significantly reduced waiting time and improved clients' satisfaction with the WIC service. PMID:19608964

  8. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits. 447.321 Section 447.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits...

  9. 42 CFR 405.2462 - Payment for rural health clinic and Federally qualified health center services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED... this chapter. (6) Payment for treatment of mental psychoneurotic or personality disorders is subject to...

  10. Reimbursement for school nursing health care services: position statement.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Janet; Cagginello, Joan; Compton, Linda

    2014-09-01

    Children come to school with a variety of health conditions, varying from moderate health issues to multiple, severe chronic health illnesses that have a profound and direct impact on their ability to learn. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides medically necessary services in the school setting to improve health outcomes and promote academic achievement. The nursing services provided are reimbursable services in other health care settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and home care settings. The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) believes that school nursing services that are reimbursable nursing services in other health care systems should also be reimbursable services in the school setting, while maintaining the same high quality care delivery standards. Traditionally, local and state tax revenues targeted to fund education programs have paid for school nursing health services. School nurses are in a strategic position to advocate for improving clinical processes to better fit with community health care providers and to align reimbursements with proposed changes. Restructuring reimbursement programs will enable health care funding streams to assist in paying for school nursing services delivered to students in the school setting. Developing new innovative health financing opportunities will help to increase access, improve quality, and reduce costs. The goal is to promote a comprehensive and cost-effective health care delivery model that integrates schools, families, providers, and communities.

  11. Community Mental Health Model for Campus Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, James H.

    University and college mental health services have historically modeled themselves after a traditional clinic model. Few delivery systems have been influenced by the community mental health model. The major reason for this lack of influence appears to be the "in loco parentis" stance of colleges and universities. A campus mental health service…

  12. COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES FOR THE DEAF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALTSHULER, KENNETH Z.; RAINER, JOHN D.

    A THREE YEAR PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEMONSTRATE THE VALUE AND FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH (PSYCHIATRIC) SERVICES FOR THE DEAF ESTABLISHED A CLINICAL UNIT FOR THE DEAF WITH INPATIENT, OUTPATIENT, AND AFTERCARE SERVICES. THE CLINIC SERVED 50 PATIENTS (MINIMUM AGE 16) IN THE WARDS AND 96 PATIENTS (ALL AGES) IN THE…

  13. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services. (a) Rural areas. For services furnished beginning January 1, 1992 and...

  14. 42 CFR 405.515 - Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed by physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services... Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.515 Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed... limitation on reimbursement for markups on clinical laboratory services billed by physicians. If a physician...

  15. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Adolescent health care: improving access by school-based service.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Mulligan, D; Kaufman, A; Davis, S; Hunt, K; Kalishman, N; Wallerstein, N

    1985-10-01

    Participants in this discussion of the potential of school-based health care services for adolescents included family medicine physicians, school health coordinators, a school nurse, and a community worker. It was noted that health care for adolescents tends to be either inaccessible or underutilized, largely because of a lack of sensitivity to adolescent culture and values. An ideal service for adolescents would offer immediate services for crises, strict confidentiality, ready access to prescribed medications, a sliding-scale scheme, and a staff that is tolerant of divergent values and life-styles. School-based pilot adolescent clinics have been established by the University of New Mexico's Department of Family, Community, and Emergency Medicine to test the community-oriented health care model. On-site clinics provide urgent medical care, family planning, pregnancy testing, psychological counseling, alcohol and drug counseling, and classroom health education. Experience with these programs has demonstrated the necessity for an alliance among the health team and the school administration, parents, and students. Financial, ethical, and political factors can serve as constraints to school-based programs. In some cases, school administrators have been resistant to the provision of contraception to students on school grounds and parents have been unwilling to accept the adolescent's right to confidentiality. These problems in part stem from having 2 separate systems, each with its own values, orientation, and responsibilities, housed in 1 facility. In addition, there have been problems generating awareness of the school-based clinic among students. Health education theater groups, peer counseling, and student-run community services have been effective, however, in increasing student participation. It has been helpful to mold clinic services to meet the needs identified by teenagers themselves. There is an interest not only in curative services, but in services focused

  17. Health authority commissioning for quality in contraception services

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M.; Bardsley, M.; Morgan, D.; Jacobson, B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the commissioning of contraception services by London health authorities with accepted models of good practice. DESIGN: Combined interview and postal surveys of all health authorities and National Health Service (NHS) trusts responsible for running family planning clinics in the Greater London area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health authority commissioning was assessed on the presence of four key elements of good practice--strategies, coordination, service specifications, and quality standards in contracts--by monitoring activity and quality. RESULTS: Less than half the health authorities surveyed had written strategies or service specifications for contraception services. Arrangements for coordination of services were limited and monitoring was underdeveloped. CONCLUSION: The process of commissioning services for contraception seems to be relatively underdeveloped despite the importance of health problems associated with unplanned pregnancy in London. These findings raise questions about the capacity of health authorities to improve the quality of these services through the commissioning process. PMID:10185140

  18. Health related vulnerability due to chronic diseases: Impact on clinical services across emergency shelters in mass disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Yordanka Nikolova

    Chronic diseases are increasingly recognized as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Individuals with chronic disease are particularly vulnerable during mass emergencies as they may suffer an interruption in their therapeutic programs, leading to life-threatening conditions and complications. Based on the individual and community risk factors framework, three categories are defined as the most vulnerable to extreme natural events: physically, psychologically, and socially vulnerable. Complex emergencies that occurred in the recent decade have provided evidence that these groups suffer more pronounced effects than others. Individuals seeking community support during emergencies have been predominantly medically dependent, elderly, children, people with chronic health conditions, and lower socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of health-related vulnerability on shelter operations, and to estimate the burden of chronic disease on community resources following catastrophic events. A comprehensive survey data collection conducted by the United States Public Health Service in 2005 was used to evaluate clinical services for populations with health conditions accommodated by Louisiana temporary disaster shelters. Correlation and multiple regression analyses determined the relationship between shelter characteristics and the factors predicting shelters' needs for short-term assistance. Significant predictors were identified in all three explored domains: structural shelter characteristics (sponsor, interpreter needed); clinical characteristics (access to health providers, clinic on site, staff had no days off); population characteristics (census, compromised mental health alone, or in combination with chronic conditions and diseases with epidemic potential). Shelters sponsored by faith-based organizations were less likely to be in risk of rapid resource depletion. Shelters with large census demonstrated association with

  19. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations' (EHOs) and community-based organizations' (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this report provides evidence of the substantive

  20. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin

    2014-01-01

    Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this

  1. Can we risk recovery? A grounded theory of clinical psychologists' perceptions of risk and recovery-oriented mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Anna; Brown, Dora; Hayward, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to explore the views of clinical psychologists towards the concepts of 'risk' and 'recovery' and to set those views against the context of mental health services. An exploratory, social constructionist grounded theory methodology was adopted. Eleven clinical psychologists working in adult mental health services each participated in one individual semistructured interview. The clinical psychologists studied were aware of the emergence of recovery-oriented approaches, but felt unable to incorporate them in practice because of perceptions of being bound by both their own limitations and those of their circumstances, including issues of risk, thus giving rise to dilemmas in professional practice. Narrow definitions of risk as equated to danger dominated over broader conceptualizations of risk with positive consequences. The existing culture of mental health services was seen as emphasizing the need to avoid harmful consequences of taking risks, which in turn was seen to limit innovations in implementing recovery-oriented approaches. Participants' ability to work in a recovery-oriented manner seemed to be limited by the way in which services perceived and responded to risk. Participants did not discuss risks arising from stigma, social exclusion, racism, sexism, or iatrogenic effects of psychiatric treatment. Narrow conceptualizations of risk as related to harm and danger seen in this study contribute to a sense of needing to be risk averse. However, the implications for practice included ideas about what might increase the possibilities for adopting recovery approaches across disciplines. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Experiencing mental health diagnosis: a systematic review of service user, clinician, and carer perspectives across clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amorette; Ridler, Joseph; Browes, Daniel; Peryer, Guy; Notley, Caitlin; Hackmann, Corinna

    2018-04-18

    Receiving a mental health diagnosis can be pivotal for service users, and it has been described in both positive and negative terms. What influences service-user experience of the diagnostic process is unclear; consequently, clinicians report uncertainty regarding best practice. This Review aims to understand and inform diagnostic practice through a comprehensive synthesis of qualitative data on views and experiences from key stakeholders (service users, clinicians, carers, and family). We searched five databases and identified 78 papers for inclusion, originating from 13 countries and including 2228 participants. Eligible papers were assessed for quality, and data were coded and then developed into themes, which generated a model representing factors to consider for clinicians conveying, and individuals receiving, mental health diagnoses. Themes included disclosure, information provision, collaboration, timing, stigma, and functional value of diagnosis for recovery. Variations between different stakeholders and clinical contexts are explored. Findings support an individualised, collaborative, and holistic approach to mental health diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Barrier, weakness and utilization of pre-pregnancy clinic services.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mizanur; Rahim, Natazcza Abdul; Arif, Mohd Taha

    2017-01-01

    Despite being one of the plausible measures towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), various issues pertaining to pre-pregnancy clinic (PPC) services still need to be pondered upon. Based on this view, an attempt was made to identify and understand the barriers and weaknesses of current utilisation of pre-pregnancy care services, since its establishment and implementation in Sarawak from the year 2011. This cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health care facilities throughout Sarawak. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select the health facilities. An unstructured open-ended questionnaire was administered as a part of quantitative data analysis. The open-ended questions were administered to get the in-depth perceived views and current practice of utilisation of pre-pregnancy clinic services. A total of 553 clients from nine selected health care facilities gave their feedback. The results of the study were narrated in textual form and a thematic analysis was done manually. The identified themes for perceived barriers for utilisation of pre-pregnancy care were perception, attitude and acceptance of PPC services, socio-economic issues, services and client factors. The perceived weaknesses of the services are listed under two main themes: working environment and service factors, whereas, the strength of services produced three thematic areas which are preparation for pregnancy, prevention of mortality and morbidity and comprehensive services. Though there is ample evidence that pre-pregnancy services are beneficial for maternal health and wellbeing, various issues still need to be addressed for the improvement of the quality of services. Lack of awareness among clients, socio-economic barriers, lack of resources, organisational barriers and perceptions towards family planning issues are some of the issues which need to be addressed. Nonetheless, promotional and health educational activities are important keys; in ensuring

  4. Improving clinic- and neighborhood-based smoking cessation services within federally qualified health centers serving low-income, minority neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin; Musick, Judy; Scott, Catina; Miller, J Philip; Gram, Richard; Richardson, Veronica; Clark, Jane; Pachalla, Vani

    2005-04-01

    Within federally qualified health centers serving low-income, African American audiences, participatory approaches to system changes were organized through multidisciplinary committees that (a) drew on evidence-based guidelines, (b) guided system changes including the requirement of documenting smoking status and readiness to quit in encounter forms, (c) tested and refined practice improvements prior to their general adoption, and (d) guided development of neighborhood-based resources and supports for smoking cessation that were linked to clinic-based services. Documentation of smoking status or readiness to quit increased from 2% of encounter forms in the first 3 months to 94.3% in the last 3 months of the 24-month program. This rate remained over 90% throughout the following year. Exit interviews also indicated increased key clinic-based services, including "explained importance of quitting" (to 78% and 82% of interview respondents in the two intervention clinics in year 2), "tell you that you should quit" (to 80% in each), "tell you about nicotine gum...or other medications" (to 69% and 58%), "offer to help you quit" (to 61% and 64%), and "tell you about programs or help in your neighborhood" (to 51% and 56%). These rates exceeded those in one comparison clinic and equaled those in a second that also had launched a smoking cessation initiative. From exit interviews, improvements in neighborhood resources and support (e.g., people and activities that encourage nonsmoking) also exceeded those in comparison clinics. Thus, participatory approaches to system changes and quality improvement can enhance clinic- and neighborhood-based smoking cessation services within health centers serving low-income, minority populations.

  5. Integrating Health and Mental Health Services: A Past and Future History.

    PubMed

    Druss, Benjamin G; Goldman, Howard H

    2018-04-25

    The authors trace the modern history, current landscape, and future prospects for integration between mental health and general medical care in the United States. Research and new treatment models developed in the 1980s and early 1990s helped inform federal legislation, including the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the 2010 Affordable Care Act, which in turn are creating new opportunities to further integrate services. Future efforts should build on this foundation to develop clinical, service-level, and public health approaches that more fully integrate mental, medical, substance use, and social services.

  6. Respiratory health screening for opiate misusers in a specialist community clinic: a mixed-methods pilot study, with integrated staff and service user feedback

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Caroline Anne; Pitt, Alice; Hulin, Joe; Lawson, Rod; Ashby, Fleur; Appelqvist, Ivan; Delaney, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. Setting Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. Participants All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period. The sample included 26 males and 10 females. Outcome measures Spirometry without bronchodilation; health related quality of life EQ-5D-3L; Asthma Control Test; Mini Asthma Quality of Life; Clinical COPD Questionnaire and the Treatment Outcome Profile were used to assess the respiratory health of participants. Findings were discussed with staff and service users in 2 patient and public involvement events and feedback was analysed thematically. Results 34 participants reported that they had smoked heroin. 8 participants diagnosed with asthma, scored under 13 on the Asthma Control Test, suggesting poorly controlled asthma. Participants (n=28), without a diagnosis of asthma completed the Lung Function Questionnaire. Of these, 79% produced scores under 18, indicating symptoms associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Spirometry showed 14% of all participants had forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.7 (without bronchodilator), indicating potential obstructive lung disease. Feedback from service users and staff suggested a willingness and capacity to deliver respiratory health screening programmes. Insight towards the difficulties service users have in accessing services and the burden of respiratory health was also provided. Conclusions It is feasible to undertake respiratory health screening of OMUs in a community clinic. Larger screening studies are warranted to determine the prevalence of respiratory health problems in this

  7. Impact of clinical and health services research projects on decision-making: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Adam, Paula; Guillamón, Imma; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Pons, Joan M V; Escarrabill, Joan

    2013-05-10

    This article reports on the impact assessment experience of a funding program of non-commercial clinical and health services research. The aim was to assess the level of implementation of results from a subgroup of research projects (on respiratory diseases), and to detect barriers (or facilitators) in the translation of new knowledge to informed decision-making. A qualitative study was performed. The sample consisted of six projects on respiratory diseases funded by the Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia between 1996 and 2004. Semi-structured interviews to key informants including researchers and healthcare decision-makers were carried out. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed on an individual (key informant) and group (project) basis. In addition, the differences between achieved and expected impacts were described. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most participants indicated changes in health services or clinical practice had resulted from research. The channels used to transfer new knowledge were mainly conventional ones, but also in less explicit ways, such as with the involvement of local scientific societies, or via debates and discussions with colleagues and local leaders. The barriers and facilitators identified were mostly organizational (in research management, and clinical and healthcare practice), although there were also some related to the nature of the research as well as personal factors. Both the expected and achieved impacts enabled the identification of the gaps between what is expected and what is truly achieved. In this study and according to key informants, the impact of these research projects on decision-making can be direct (the application of a finding or innovation) or indirect, contributing to a more complex change in clinical practice and healthcare organization, both having other contextual factors. The channels used to transfer this new knowledge to clinical practice

  8. Impact of clinical and health services research projects on decision-making: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reports on the impact assessment experience of a funding program of non-commercial clinical and health services research. The aim was to assess the level of implementation of results from a subgroup of research projects (on respiratory diseases), and to detect barriers (or facilitators) in the translation of new knowledge to informed decision-making. Methods A qualitative study was performed. The sample consisted of six projects on respiratory diseases funded by the Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia between 1996 and 2004. Semi-structured interviews to key informants including researchers and healthcare decision-makers were carried out. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed on an individual (key informant) and group (project) basis. In addition, the differences between achieved and expected impacts were described. Results Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted. Most participants indicated changes in health services or clinical practice had resulted from research. The channels used to transfer new knowledge were mainly conventional ones, but also in less explicit ways, such as with the involvement of local scientific societies, or via debates and discussions with colleagues and local leaders. The barriers and facilitators identified were mostly organizational (in research management, and clinical and healthcare practice), although there were also some related to the nature of the research as well as personal factors. Both the expected and achieved impacts enabled the identification of the gaps between what is expected and what is truly achieved. Conclusions In this study and according to key informants, the impact of these research projects on decision-making can be direct (the application of a finding or innovation) or indirect, contributing to a more complex change in clinical practice and healthcare organization, both having other contextual factors. The channels used to transfer

  9. The rare and undiagnosed diseases diagnostic service - application of massively parallel sequencing in a state-wide clinical service.

    PubMed

    Baynam, Gareth; Pachter, Nicholas; McKenzie, Fiona; Townshend, Sharon; Slee, Jennie; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Vasudevan, Anand; Hawkins, Anne; Broley, Stephanie; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Walker, Caroline E; Molster, Caron; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Jamieson, Sarra; Tang, Dave; Lassmann, Timo; Mina, Kym; Beilby, John; Davis, Mark; Laing, Nigel; Murphy, Lesley; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Dawkins, Hugh; Goldblatt, Jack

    2016-06-11

    The Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases Diagnostic Service (RUDDS) refers to a genomic diagnostic platform operating within the Western Australian Government clinical services delivered through Genetic Services of Western Australia (GSWA). GSWA has provided a state-wide service for clinical genetic care for 28 years and it serves a population of 2.5 million people across a geographical area of 2.5milion Km(2). Within this context, GSWA has established a clinically integrated genomic diagnostic platform in partnership with other public health system managers and service providers, including but not limited to the Office of Population Health Genomics, Diagnostic Genomics (PathWest Laboratories) and with executive level support from the Department of Health. Herein we describe report presents the components of this service that are most relevant to the heterogeneity of paediatric clinical genetic care. Briefly the platform : i) offers multiple options including non-genetic testing; monogenic and genomic (targeted in silico filtered and whole exome) analysis; and matchmaking; ii) is delivered in a patient-centric manner that is resonant with the patient journey, it has multiple points for entry, exit and re-entry to allow people access to information they can use, when they want to receive it; iii) is synchronous with precision phenotyping methods; iv) captures new knowledge, including multiple expert review; v) is integrated with current translational genomic research activities and best practice; and vi) is designed for flexibility for interactive generation of, and integration with, clinical research for diagnostics, community engagement, policy and models of care. The RUDDS has been established as part of routine clinical genetic services and is thus sustainable, equitably managed and seeks to translate new knowledge into efficient diagnostics and improved health for the whole community.

  10. A Principal Calling: Professionalism and Health Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Becky Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    As health care professionals, our ''product'' is clinical service. We demonstrate professionalism by attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors that reflect a multi-faceted approach to the standards, regulations, and principles underlying successful clinical practices. The issues facing practitioners who work in health care environments are complex,…

  11. Patterns of mental health service utilization.

    PubMed

    Howard, K I; Cornille, T A; Lyons, J S; Vessey, J T; Lueger, R J; Saunders, S M

    1996-08-01

    How many and which individuals, with which psychiatric disorders, receive (and do not receive) mental health services from which professionals in what settings? This question falls within the purview of mental health services research, which is a multidisciplinary field that brings together the methodologies of epidemiology, econometrics, and clinical research. First, in this article, we present an explication of what is known about those individuals in need of psychotherapy and how they access services. Next, we describe the numbers, professional affiliations, and service sites of professionals who are engaged in the practice of psychotherapy. We summarize our current knowledge about the actual utilization of psychotherapy services relative to the needs of patients and the professional background of therapists. Finally, we identify aspects of psychotherapy service utilization that are, as yet, unaddressed.

  12. An academic-health service partnership in nursing: lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Granger, Bradi B; Prvu-Bettger, Janet; Aucoin, Julia; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Mitchell, Pamela H; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Roth, Deborah; Califf, Robert M; Gilliss, Catherine L

    2012-03-01

    To describe the development of an academic-health services partnership undertaken to improve use of evidence in clinical practice. Academic health science schools and health service settings share common elements of their missions: to educate, participate in research, and excel in healthcare delivery, but differences in the business models, incentives, and approaches to problem solving can lead to differences in priorities. Thus, academic and health service settings do not naturally align their leadership structures or work processes. We established a common commitment to accelerate the appropriate use of evidence in clinical practice and created an organizational structure to optimize opportunities for partnering that would leverage shared resources to achieve our goal. A jointly governed and funded institute integrated existing activities from the academic and service sectors. Additional resources included clinical staff and student training and mentoring, a pilot research grant-funding program, and support to access existing data. Emergent developments include an appreciation for a wider range of investigative methodologies and cross-disciplinary teams with skills to integrate research in daily practice and improve patient outcomes. By developing an integrated leadership structure and commitment to shared goals, we developed a framework for integrating academic and health service resources, leveraging additional resources, and forming a mutually beneficial partnership to improve clinical outcomes for patients. Structurally integrated academic-health service partnerships result in improved evidence-based patient care delivery and in a stronger foundation for generating new clinical knowledge, thus improving patient outcomes. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for New Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Tests § 414.510 Laboratory...

  14. Hypochondriasis, somatization, and perceived health and utilization of health care services.

    PubMed

    Hollifield, M; Paine, S; Tuttle, L; Kellner, R

    1999-01-01

    The authors determined the different effects of hypochondriasis and somatization on health perceptions, health status, and service utilization in a primary care population. The subjects with hypochondriacal responses (HR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had a worse perception of health and variably used more health services than the control subjects, even though the HR and HSC subjects had the same level of chronic medical disorders. Regression analyses determined that somatization contributed more to negative health perception and service utilization than did hypochondriasis, although an interaction between the two contributed to the use of psychiatric care. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization for its implications for research and clinical practice.

  15. The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising within the context of the greater healthcare delivery

  16. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  17. A School-Linked Health Service for Adolescents in Jerusalem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halevy, Ari; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Adolescent Health Service and its multidisciplinary, school-linked, community-based health clinic located in Jerusalem (Israel). Reviews of the files of the clinic's first 134 clients indicated that the clinic population was mainly female Jewish residents. Most referrals came from schools. Psychosocial issues and nutrition were the…

  18. Integrated Community Strategies for Linking Youth to Adolescent Reproductive Health Services: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Joy; House, L Duane; Swanson, Sally; Davis, Sarah E H

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the development and promotion of a full-service adolescent health center at a local health department intended to increase teen access to contraceptive and reproductive health care. This work was conducted as part of a multicomponent, community-based teen pregnancy prevention initiative in Gaston County, North Carolina. To increase access to adolescent reproductive health services, we implemented multiple integrated strategies: (1) building community support for adolescent reproductive health services; (2) providing technical assistance to the health department in opening the Teen Wellness Center (TWC), a teen-centered, full-service clinic; (3) strengthening referral partnerships between community organizations and clinical services; and (4) educating teens on how to access reproductive health services. Data were collected to examine the change in the number of adolescent reproductive health clients after the opening of the TWC. In the first year, the TWC was opened, 1,675 adolescent clients received reproductive health services, for a 12.5% increase compared with the prior year. The number of adolescent clients who received more than one type of reproductive health services (e.g., wellness visit and family planning services) increased by 133%. The number of adolescent clients who received family planning services increased by 3.8%. The project achieved an increase in adolescent reproductive health clients. Establishment of a teen-centered, full-service clinic and working with youth-serving agencies to increase knowledge of the clinic's services are promising approaches to increasing teen access to reproductive health care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of school-based health services associated with students' mental health.

    PubMed

    Denny, Simon; Howie, Hamish; Grant, Sue; Galbreath, Ross; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Clark, Terryann

    2018-01-01

    Objective School-based health services (SBHS) have been shown to improve access to mental health services but the evidence of their effectiveness on students' mental health is lacking. Our objective was to examine associations between variation in the provision of SBHS and students' mental health. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative health and well-being survey of 8500 New Zealand high school students conducted in March-November 2012. Students' mental health is related to data on school health services obtained from clinic leaders and clinicians from 90 participating high schools. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic differences in students between schools, increasing levels of services were associated with progressively lower levels of student-reported depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), emotional and behavioural difficulties (p = 0.004) and suicidality (p = 0.008). Services with greater levels of nursing hours (p = 0.02) and those that performed routine, comprehensive psychosocial assessments (p = 0.01) were both associated with lower levels of student-reported depressive symptoms. Greater levels of nursing hours and doctor hours were associated with lower self-reported suicidality among students. Conclusions Although a causal association between school-based health services and students' mental health cannot be demonstrated, these findings support the benefit of such services and the need for a cluster randomized trial.

  20. Factors Affecting Mental Health Service Utilization Among California Public College and University Students.

    PubMed

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Woodbridge, Michelle W; Mendelsohn, Joshua; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Osilla, Karen Chan; Jaycox, Lisa H; Eberhart, Nicole K; Burnam, Audrey M; Stein, Bradley D

    2016-08-01

    Unmet need for mental health treatment among college students is a significant public health issue. Despite having access to campus mental health providers and insurance to cover services, many college students do not receive necessary services. This study examined factors influencing college students' use of mental health services. Online survey data for 33,943 students and 14,018 staff and faculty at 39 college campuses in California were analyzed by using logistic regressions examining the association between students' use of mental health services and student characteristics, campus environment, and the presence of a formal network of campus mental health clinics. Nineteen percent of students reported current serious psychological distress in the past 30 days, and 11% reported significant mental health-related academic impairment in the past year. Twenty percent reported using mental health services while at their current college, 10% by using campus services and 10% off-campus services. Students on campuses with a formal network of mental health clinics were more likely than students at community colleges to receive mental health services (odds ratio [OR] range=1.68-1.69), particularly campus services (OR=3.47-5.72). Students on campuses that are supportive of mental health issues were more likely to receive mental health services (OR=1.22), particularly on campus (OR=1.65). Students with active (versus low) coping skills were consistently more likely to use mental health services. Establishing more campus mental health clinics, fostering supportive campus environments, and increasing students' coping skills may reduce unmet need for mental health services among college students.

  1. Setting up recovery clinics and promoting service user involvement.

    PubMed

    John, Thomas

    2017-06-22

    Service user involvement in mental health has gained considerable momentum. Evidence from the literature suggests that it remains largely theoretical rather than being put into practice. The current nature of acute inpatient mental health units creates various challenges for nurses to put this concept into practice. Recovery clinics were introduced to bridge this gap and to promote service user involvement practice within the current care delivery model at Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust. It has shaped new ways of working for nurses with a person-centred approach as its philosophy. Service users and nurses were involved in implementing a needs-led and bottom-up initiative using Kotter's change model. Initial results suggest that it has been successful in meeting its objectives evidenced through increased meaningful interactions and involvement in care by service users and carers. The clinics have gained wide recognition and have highlighted a need for further research into care delivery models to promote service user involvement in these units.

  2. Crossing the public-private sector divide with reproductive health in Cambodia: out-patient services in a local NGO and the national MCH clinic.

    PubMed

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Pickering, H

    2001-01-01

    Set within the context of recent literature on the private-public divide in the health sector of developing countries generally and Asia specifically, this study considers the major government and the major indigenous non-government clinics offering out-patient reproductive health services in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Reproductive health is of critical importance in Cambodia, which has one of the highest levels of unmet need for family planning in the developing world and suffers from what is arguably the most severe STD and HIV/AIDS problem in Asia. The study is unusual in that it examines and compares aspects of service delivery and pricing along with the socio-economic profile and health-seeking behaviour of clients self-selecting services in the two settings. The socio-economic status of clients was much higher than the norm in Cambodia but did not differ significantly between the two clinics. A few service indicators suggested that the quality of care was better in the NGO clinic. Underlying variables--such as the broader mandate of the public sector institution and the significant discrepancy between public and private sector salaries--offer an obvious explanation for these differences. The Ministry of Health in Cambodia has been developing policies related to the NGO sector, which has expanded rapidly in Cambodia during the 1990s, and it is struggling to increase staff remuneration within the public sector.

  3. Providing and funding breast health services in urban nurse-managed health centers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Yun; Peterman, Beth; Baisch, Mary Jo; Ji, Eun Sun; Zwiers, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Nurse-managed health centers (NMHCs) are an innovative health care delivery model that serves as an important point of health care access for populations at risk for disparities in health outcomes. This article describes the process and outcomes of clinical breast health services in two NMHCs located in a large Midwestern city. Findings indicate that client's knowledge about breast health was increased after they received breast health services from NMHC nurses. Significant positive changes in behavior related to the early detection of breast cancer were found in the study. NMHCs, identified for expansion in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, offer a unique health care services delivery model that promotes access to care and early identification of breast cancer in very low-income and uninsured women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The experiences of health services research and health services research training in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, O R

    1984-12-01

    Early in the 1970s the Korean government recognized the necessity of Health Services Research (HSR). The law of the Korea Health Development Institute was promulgated in 1975, and a contribution from the Republic was combined with an Agency for International Development loan to field test low-cost health service strategies. A program to deploy Community Health Practitioners (CHPs), similar to family nurse practitioners or Medex has been demonstrated to be effective. The CHP training program grew from 9 in 1980 to 1343 in 1984. CHP's main functions are curative, preventive, educative, and administrative. They are selected registered nurses and/or midwives, where possible from serviced communities. They are trained in 24 weeks, including 12 weeks of clinical practice, in an anticipated recruiting post. CHPs help train village health volunteers (VHVs), who are literate women chosen by their communities. They work closely with the CHPs as a liaison with the village and in information gathering. An HSR orientation workshop held in Chuncheon in 1980, discussed role, policy, status, finance components, information systems, behavioral and manpower components, staff training, protocols for project development, HSR in the future and evaluation of the conference. In 1980, a National Workshop on Biomedical Research Methodology was also held, with World Health Organization and Korean consultants. Training of junior scientists would include introduction to scientific method, statement of problems, quantitative study technics, research proposals, and interpretation of results. The Korean Institute of Public Health sponsored a 1982 experts forum on the health care system, medical facilities, organizational management, financing and medical security, and health behavioral aspects. Training of trainers and lower level field workers, orientation of program managers, researchers, and communities themselves should all be training priorities. In future, CHPs should be refresher

  5. A mobile clinic approach to the delivery of community-based mental health services in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Grelotti, David J; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Raviola, Giuseppe; Alcindor, Yoldie; Severe, Jennifer; Affricot, Emmeline; Boyd, Katherine; Legha, Rupinder; Daimyo, Shin; Engel, Stephanie; Eustache, Eddy

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of a mental health mobile clinic to overcome two major challenges to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings: the shortage of trained specialists; and the need to improve access to safe, effective, and culturally sound care in community settings. Employing task-shifting and supervision, mental healthcare was largely delivered by trained, non-specialist health workers instead of specialists. A retrospective chart review of 318 unduplicated patients assessed and treated during the mobile clinic's first two years (January 2012 to November 2013) was conducted to explore outcomes. These data were supplemented by a quality improvement questionnaire, illustrative case reports, and a qualitative interview with the mobile clinic's lead community health worker. The team evaluated an average of 42 patients per clinic session. The most common mental, neurological, or substance abuse (MNS) disorders were depression and epilepsy. Higher follow-up rates were seen among those with diagnoses of bipolar disorder and neurological conditions, while those with depression or anxiety had lower follow-up rates. Persons with mood disorders who were evaluated on at least two separate occasions using a locally developed depression screening tool experienced a significant reduction in depressive symptoms. The mental health mobile clinic successfully treated a wide range of MNS disorders in rural Haiti and provided care to individuals who previously had no consistent access to mental healthcare. Efforts to address these common barriers to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings should consider supplementing clinic-based with mobile services.

  6. Chronic oedema: a prevalent health care problem for UK health services.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Christine J; Keeley, Vaughan; Franks, Peter J; Rich, Anna; Pinnington, Lorraine L

    2017-10-01

    Chronic oedema (CO) is a major clinical problem worldwide, which has many important secondary consequences for health, activity and participation. Effective treatment planning and organisation of services is dependent on an understanding of the condition and its epidemiology. This cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the point prevalence of CO within the health services of one UK urban population and to determine the proportions that have concurrent leg ulceration. Patients with CO in all anatomic sites were ascertained by health care professionals in one acute and one community hospital, all relevant outpatient and community nursing services, general practices and all nursing/residential homes in one urban catchment area (Derby City). The presence and distribution of oedema was confirmed through a brief clinical examination. A battery of demographic and clinical details was recorded for each case. Within the study population of Derby City residents, 971 patients were identified with CO [estimated crude prevalence 3·93 per 1000, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·69-4·19]. The prevalence was the highest among those aged 85 or above (28·75 per 1000) and was higher among women (5·37 per 1000) than men (2·48 per 1000). The prevalence among hospital inpatients was 28·5%. Only five (3%) patients in the community population had oedema related to cancer or cancer treatment. Of the 304 patients identified with oedema from the Derby hospitals or community health services, 121 (40%) had a concurrent leg ulcer. Prevalence statistics and current demographic trends indicate that CO is a major and growing health care problem. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Developments in clinical neuropsychology: implications for school psychological services.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michael J; Scott, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000 Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health, a significant percentage of children and adolescents have emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to merit a mental health diagnosis. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 reemphasized the schools' importance in supporting cognitive and behavioral development in students, particularly those identified with learning problems. In this article, we examine the growing specialty of clinical neuropsychology and provide suggestions for integrating this field into school-based psychological services. This article provides a review of the neuropsychological bases for many childhood learning disorders and addresses how school psychologists can work with clinical neuropsychologists to better address the needs of exceptional children through neuropsychological testing. There is substantial neurological evidence for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as disorders of reading, language, and mathematics. Close collaborative partnerships between clinical neuropsychologists and school psychologists will help develop assessment protocols that are likely to result in more effective intervention services for students with neuropsychological conditions. Schools are being asked to support the physical, cognitive, and emotional development in students, particularly those identified with chronic physical and mental health challenges. Dissatisfaction with minimal screenings, the growing awareness of the neurology of learning disorders, and the passage of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 obliges all school-based mental health providers to consider how to fully integrate the tools of clinical neuropsychology into school-based psychological services. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  8. Onsite clinical services in the era of managed health care.

    PubMed

    Larkin, G N

    1997-01-01

    Both the employer and employee sustain an array of costs related to illness and injury. Dr. Larkin discusses evolving U.S. health care delivery models and cost designs and presents a case study demonstrating that the provision of workplace health care services can substantially reduce these costs.

  9. Improving health services to displaced persons in Aceh, Indonesia: a balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Chan, Grace J; Parco, Kristin B; Sihombing, Melva E; Tredwell, Susan P; O'Rourke, Edward J

    2010-09-01

    After the Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004, the International Organization for Migration constructed temporary health clinics to provide medical services to survivors living in temporary accommodation centres throughout Aceh, Indonesia. Limited resources, inadequate supervision, staff turnover and lack of a health information system made it challenging to provide quality primary health services. A balanced scorecard was developed and implemented in collaboration with local health clinic staff and district health officials. Performance targets were identified. Staff collected data from clinics and accommodation centres to develop 30 simple performance measures. These measures were monitored periodically and discussed at meetings with stakeholders to guide the development of health interventions. Two years after the tsunami, 34 000 displaced persons continued to receive services from temporary health clinics in two districts of Aceh province. From March to December 2007, the scorecard was implemented in seven temporary health clinics. Interventions stimulated and tracked by the scorecard showed measurable improvements in preventive medicine, child health, capacity building of clinic staff and availability of essential drugs. By enhancing communication, the scorecard also led to qualitative benefits. The balanced scorecard is a practical tool to focus attention and resources to facilitate improvement in disaster rehabilitation settings where health information infrastructure is poor. Introducing a mechanism for rapid improvement fostered communication between nongovernmental organizations, district health officials, clinic health workers and displaced persons.

  10. Clinical and psycho-social profile of child and adolescent mental health care users and services at an urban child mental health clinic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Raman, N; Janse van Rensburg, A B

    2013-09-01

    National and international child and adolescent mental healthcare policy and action advocate that the health and well being of children should be increasingly given greater attention. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic, socio economic and clinical profile of the users at the child and adolescent mental health clinic of the Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital (RMMCH). A descriptive, retrospective clinical audit from users' clinical files was performed over a one-year period from January to December 2007. Descriptive statistical analyses of demographic and socio-economic variables were made and these variables were compared with the presenting clinical problems. Odds ratios were calculated for variables that showed a statistically significant association (p-value less than 0.05). A total of 303 users attended this clinic. Statistical comparisons between demographic data and disorders revealed that being male increased the likelihood of presenting with AHDH and disruptive behaviour disorders; being female increased the likelihood of being sexually abused. Race showed a significant association with parent-child relationship difficulties. Regarding socio-economic variables, the identity of the caregiver of the child influenced the risk of disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Where the child was placed was a risk factor for disruptive behaviour disorders, sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems. Whether the mother of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to ADHD and disruptive behaviour and whether the father of a user was alive or deceased, was found to be related to sexual abuse and academic problems. The education level of the caregiver showed a significant association with sexual abuse, neglect and academic problems; the marital status of the parent (widowed mother) showed a significant association with bereavement. Household income was associated with sexual abuse, neglect and

  11. How online sexual health services could work; generating theory to support development.

    PubMed

    Baraitser, Paula; Syred, Jonathan; Spencer-Hughes, Vicki; Howroyd, Chris; Free, Caroline; Holdsworth, Gillian

    2015-12-05

    Online sexual health services are an emerging area of service delivery. Theory of change critically analyses programmes by specifying planned inputs and articulating the causal pathways that link these to anticipated outcomes. It acknowledges the changing and contested nature of these relationships. We developed two versions of a theory of change for an online sexual health service. The first articulated the theory presented in the original programme proposal and the second documented its development in the early stages of implementation through interviews with key programme stakeholders. The programme proposal described an autonomous and empowered user completing a sexual health check using a more convenient, accessible and discreet online service and a shift from clinic based to online care. The stakeholder interviews confirmed this and described new and more complex patterns of service use as the online service creates opportunities for providers to contact users outside of the traditional clinic visit and users move between online and clinic based care. They described new types of user/provider relationships which we categorised as: those influenced by an online retail culture; those influenced by health promotion outreach and surveillance and those acknowledging the need for supported access. This analysis of stakeholder views on the likely the impacts of online sexual health services suggests three areas for further thinking and research. 1. Co-development of clinic and online services to support complex patterns of service use. 2. Developing access to online services for those who could use them with support. 3. Understanding user experience of sexual health services as increasing user autonomy and choice in some situations; creating exclusion and a need for support in others and intrusiveness and a lack of control in still others. This work has influenced the evaluation of this programme which will focus on; mapping patterns of use to understand how users

  12. Effects of Social Needs Screening and In-Person Service Navigation on Child Health: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laura M; Hessler, Danielle; Long, Dayna; Laves, Ellen; Burns, Abigail R; Amaya, Anais; Sweeney, Patricia; Schudel, Christine; Adler, Nancy E

    2016-11-07

    Social determinants of health shape both children's immediate health and their lifetime risk for disease. Increasingly, pediatric health care organizations are intervening to address family social adversity. However, little evidence is available on the effectiveness of related interventions. To evaluate the effects of social needs screening and in-person resource navigation services on social needs and child health. Patients were randomized to intervention or active control conditions by the day of the week. Primary outcomes observed at 4 months after enrollment included caregivers' reports of social needs and child health status. Recruitment occurred between October 13, 2013, and August 27, 2015, in pediatric primary and urgent care clinics in 2 safety-net hospitals. Participants were English-speaking or Spanish-speaking caregivers accompanying minor children to nonacute medical visits. After standardized screening, caregivers either received written information on relevant community services (active control) or received in-person help to access services with follow-up telephone calls for further assistance if needed (navigation intervention). Change in reported social needs and in caregiver assessment of child's overall health reported 4 months later. Among 1809 patients enrolled in the study, evenly split between the 2 sites, 31.6% (n = 572) were enrolled in a primary care clinic and 68.4% (n = 1237) were enrolled in an urgent care setting. The children were primarily Hispanic white individuals (50.9% [n = 921]) and non-Hispanic black individuals (26.2% [n = 473]) and had a mean (SD) age of 5.1 (4.8) years; 50.5% (n = 913) were female. The reported number of social needs at baseline ranged from 0 to 11 of 14 total possible items, with a mean (SD) of 2.7 (2.2). At 4 months after enrollment, the number of social needs reported by the intervention arm decreased more than that reported by the control arm, with a mean (SE) change of -0.39 (0

  13. The impact on nurses and nurse managers of introducing PEPFAR clinical services in urban government clinics in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nankumbi, Joyce; Groves, Sara; Leontsini, Elli; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yuka

    2011-03-09

    Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In addition to clinical skills, nurse managers need practical managerial skills and adequate resources to ensure procurement of essential supplies, quality assurance implementation, and productive work environment. Giving nurses more autonomy in their work empowers them in the workplace and has shown to create positive influence on work attitudes and behaviors. The Infectious Disease Institute, an affiliate of Makerere University College of Health Science, in an effort to expand the needed HIV services in the Ugandan capital, established a community-university partnership with the Ministry of Health to implement an innovative model to build capacity in HIV service delivery. This paper evaluates the impact on the nurses from this innovative program to provide more health care in six nurse managed Kampala City Council (KCC) Clinics. A mixed method approach was used. The descriptive study collected key informant interviews from the six nurse managers, and administered a questionnaire to 20 staff nurses between September and December 2009. Key themes were manually identified from the interviews, and the questionnaire data were analyzed using SPSS. Introducing new HIV services into six KCC clinics was positive for the nurses. They identified the project as successful because of perceived improved environment, increase in useful in-service training, new competence to manage patients and staff, improved physical infrastructure, provision of more direct patient care, motivation to improve the clinic because the project acted on their suggestions, and involvement in role expansion. All of these helped empower the nurses, improving quality of care and increasing job satisfaction. This community-university HIV innovative model was successful from the point of view of the nurses

  14. The impact on nurses and nurse managers of introducing PEPFAR clinical services in urban government clinics in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving provider performance is central to strengthening health services in developing countries. Because of critical shortages of physicians, many clinics in sub-Saharan Africa are led by nurses. In addition to clinical skills, nurse managers need practical managerial skills and adequate resources to ensure procurement of essential supplies, quality assurance implementation, and productive work environment. Giving nurses more autonomy in their work empowers them in the workplace and has shown to create positive influence on work attitudes and behaviors. The Infectious Disease Institute, an affiliate of Makerere University College of Health Science, in an effort to expand the needed HIV services in the Ugandan capital, established a community-university partnership with the Ministry of Health to implement an innovative model to build capacity in HIV service delivery. This paper evaluates the impact on the nurses from this innovative program to provide more health care in six nurse managed Kampala City Council (KCC) Clinics. Methods A mixed method approach was used. The descriptive study collected key informant interviews from the six nurse managers, and administered a questionnaire to 20 staff nurses between September and December 2009. Key themes were manually identified from the interviews, and the questionnaire data were analyzed using SPSS. Results Introducing new HIV services into six KCC clinics was positive for the nurses. They identified the project as successful because of perceived improved environment, increase in useful in-service training, new competence to manage patients and staff, improved physical infrastructure, provision of more direct patient care, motivation to improve the clinic because the project acted on their suggestions, and involvement in role expansion. All of these helped empower the nurses, improving quality of care and increasing job satisfaction. Conclusions This community-university HIV innovative model was successful

  15. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the service. For assistant-at-surgery services, allowed amounts for the services of a nurse... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners...

  16. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the service. For assistant-at-surgery services, allowed amounts for the services of a nurse... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners...

  17. 42 CFR 414.56 - Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse specialists' services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the service. For assistant-at-surgery services, allowed amounts for the services of a nurse... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for nurse practitioners' and clinical nurse... AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.56 Payment for nurse practitioners...

  18. Lean implementation in primary care health visiting services in National Health Service UK.

    PubMed

    Grove, A L; Meredith, J O; Macintyre, M; Angelis, J; Neailey, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a 13-month lean implementation in National Health Service (NHS) primary care health visiting services from May 2008 to June 2009. Lean was chosen for this study because of its reported success in other healthcare organisations. Value-stream mapping was utilised to map out essential tasks for the participating health visiting service. Stakeholder mapping was conducted to determine the links between all relevant stakeholders. Waste processes were then identified through discussions with these stakeholders, and a redesigned future state process map was produced. Quantitative data were provided through a 10-day time-and-motion study of a selected number of staff within the service. This was analysed to provide an indication of waste activity that could be removed from the system following planned improvements. The value-stream map demonstrated that there were 67 processes in the original health visiting service studied. Analysis revealed that 65% of these processes were waste and could be removed in the redesigned process map. The baseline time-and-motion data demonstrate that clinical staff performed on average 15% waste activities, and the administrative support staff performed 46% waste activities. Opportunities for significant waste reduction have been identified during the study using the lean tools of value-stream mapping and a time-and-motion study. These opportunities include simplification of standard tasks, reduction in paperwork and standardisation of processes. Successful implementation of these improvements will free up resources within the organisation which can be redirected towards providing better direct care to patients.

  19. Human resource staffing and service functions of community health services organizations in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Hang; Duckitt, Roger; Liang, Wannian

    2008-01-01

    We report a study on the developmental status of human resource staffing and service functions of community health services (CHS) in China and offer recommendations for improving the CHS in the future. A study questionnaire was completed by 712 CHS organizations distributed in 52 cities and districts in all areas of China using a multilevel stratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected on the backgrounds, human resources, and service functions of CHS organizations. We found that 68.2% of doctors and 86.5% of nurses employed in CHS centers have low-level medical training. The doctor-nurse ratio in CHS centers is 1.2 to 1 and in CHS stations is 1.3 to 1. More than 50% of CHS organizations have developed on-the-job training programs, causing cost trends for staff training to increase. Although the delivery of basic clinical services and public health services is steadily increasing, 58.6% of stations are open less than 12 hours per day. Health records are established in a high proportion of CHS organizations. Two kinds of health education--general public health education, and personal education for specific problems--have been adopted by more than 92% of CHS centers and 90% of CHS stations. Desired functions for CHS organizations have been partially achieved. Training for doctors and nurses engaged in CHS should be promoted and improved as quickly as possible. Training in basic clinical services and management of noncommunicable chronic diseases should be strongly promoted. Changes in government policies should be pursued to promote effective support for the development of CHS.

  20. The first 30 months of the MindSpot Clinic: Evaluation of a national e-mental health service against project objectives.

    PubMed

    Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake F; Staples, Lauren G; Bennett-Levy, James; Klein, Britt; Rapee, Ronald M; Andersson, Gerhard; Purtell, Carol; Bezuidenhout, Greg; Nielssen, Olav B

    2017-12-01

    The MindSpot Clinic provides online mental health services to Australian adults with anxiety and depression. This paper describes users of MindSpot between January 2013 and June 2015. Outcomes are considered against three key objectives: improving access to mental health services, improving public awareness of how to access services and providing evidence-based treatments. Website traffic data were examined to determine patterns of use. Demographic characteristics, past service utilisation and reasons for contacting MindSpot were analysed. Outcomes for patients enrolled in a MindSpot treatment course were also analysed. Primary outcomes were scores on the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-Item, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, administered at assessment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The website was visited by almost 500,000 Australians, of which 33,990 adults started assessments, and 25,469 people completed assessment and were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 36.4 years (standard deviation = 13.3 years; range = 18-94 years), and 72% were female. The proportion living in rural or remote regions and who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander closely matched national statistics. The majority (82%) reported that they were not currently in contact with mental health services. Most patients sought an assessment, information about treatment options, or referral to another service, and only 24% of those completing an assessment commenced a MindSpot treatment course. Of these, large clinical effects ( d: 0.7-2.4; average symptom reductions: 25.5% to 61.6%) were found from assessment to follow-up on all outcome measures. Deterioration ranged from 1.0% to 4.3%. Based on the number of website visits, completed assessments and treatment outcomes, MindSpot achieved its three programme objectives. This model of service provision has considerable value as

  1. Contextual cloud-based service oriented architecture for clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Conde, Jesús; Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Núñez-Benjumea, Francisco J; Parra-Calderón, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Given that acceptance of systems within the healthcare domain multiple papers highlighted the importance of integrating tools with the clinical workflow. This paper analyse how clinical context management could be deployed in order to promote the adoption of cloud advanced services and within the clinical workflow. This deployment will be able to be integrated with the eHealth European Interoperability Framework promoted specifications. Throughout this paper, it is proposed a cloud-based service-oriented architecture. This architecture will implement a context management system aligned with the HL7 standard known as CCOW.

  2. A comparative cost analysis of an integrated military telemental health-care service.

    PubMed

    Grady, Brian J

    2002-01-01

    The National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, integrated telemental health care into its primary behavioral health-care outreach service in 1998. To date, there have been over 1,800 telemental health visits, and the service encounters approximately 100 visits per month at this time. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the costs to the beneficiary, the medical system, and the military organization as a whole via one of the four methods currently employed to access mental health care from remotely located military medical clinics. The four methods include local access via the military's civilian health maintenance organization (HMO) network, patient travel to the military treatment facility, military mental health specialists' travel to the remote clinic (circuit riding) and TeleMental Healthcare (TMH). Interactive video conferencing, phone, electronic mail, and facsimile were used to provide telemental health care from a military treatment facility to a remote military medical clinic. The costs of health-care services, equipment, patient travel, lost work time, and communications were tabulated and evaluated. While the purpose of providing telemental healthcare services was to improve access to mental health care for our beneficiaries at remote military medical clinics, it became apparent that this could be done at comparable or reduced costs.

  3. Promoting Teen Health and Reducing Risks: A Look at Adolescent Health Services in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…

  4. Integrating mental health services into a general hospital in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Rivera, D; Benítez, P; Tarrats, H; Ramos, A

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems in the general population should be carefully considered. The literature has reported a high co-morbidity of medical and mental illnesses; therefore, collaborative efforts incorporating psychological services into medical settings are imperative. In Puerto Rico, this is not a regular practice in general hospitals. Improving access to mental health services is a challenge and requires the creation of new venues within the healthcare system. This paper describes the theoretical framework, mission, and objectives of the Clinical Psychology Services Program (CPSP) implemented at Damas Hospital in Puerto Rico. From December 2002 to December 2010, a total of 13,580 visits were made to inpatients in diverse clinical units of the hospital; 61% of all inpatients evaluated met the criteria for at least one mental health disorder based on the DSM-IV-TR. The CPSP's outcomes highlight the acceptance and relevance of incorporating mental health services and clinical psychologists into general hospitals.

  5. Improving health services to displaced persons in Aceh, Indonesia: a balanced scorecard

    PubMed Central

    Parco, Kristin B; Sihombing, Melva E; Tredwell, Susan P; O'Rourke, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem After the Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004, the International Organization for Migration constructed temporary health clinics to provide medical services to survivors living in temporary accommodation centres throughout Aceh, Indonesia. Limited resources, inadequate supervision, staff turnover and lack of a health information system made it challenging to provide quality primary health services. Approach A balanced scorecard was developed and implemented in collaboration with local health clinic staff and district health officials. Performance targets were identified. Staff collected data from clinics and accommodation centres to develop 30 simple performance measures. These measures were monitored periodically and discussed at meetings with stakeholders to guide the development of health interventions. Local setting Two years after the tsunami, 34 000 displaced persons continued to receive services from temporary health clinics in two districts of Aceh province. From March to December 2007, the scorecard was implemented in seven temporary health clinics. Relevant changes Interventions stimulated and tracked by the scorecard showed measurable improvements in preventive medicine, child health, capacity building of clinic staff and availability of essential drugs. By enhancing communication, the scorecard also led to qualitative benefits. Lessons learnt The balanced scorecard is a practical tool to focus attention and resources to facilitate improvement in disaster rehabilitation settings where health information infrastructure is poor. Introducing a mechanism for rapid improvement fostered communication between nongovernmental organizations, district health officials, clinic health workers and displaced persons. PMID:20865077

  6. Care coordinators: a controlled evaluation of an inpatient mental health service innovation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Malcolm W; Wilson, Michael; Bergquist, Karla; Thorburn, John

    2012-02-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of introducing designated care coordinators into an acute mental health inpatient unit in terms of service delivery, clinical outcomes, and service user and significant other perceptions. A pre-post-controlled design was implemented with a consecutive sample of 292 service users admitted and staying more than 5 days in two wards, with care coordinators introduced in one ward. Data were obtained from clinical records, standard measures, and service user and significant other surveys. Care coordinator input was associated with significant improvements in service delivery and stronger involvement of significant others and community resources. Care-coordinated clients showed significantly better clinical outcomes, including the Health of Nations Outcome Scales behaviour subscale, less time in the intensive care subunit, less community crisis team input in the week following discharge, and lower rates of readmission in the month following discharge. Care-coordinated service users and their significant others gave higher ratings of service delivery, outcome, and satisfaction. The results indicate that designated care coordinators significantly improve care processes, outcomes, and service user experience in acute inpatient mental health settings. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. A clinical governance framework for blood services.

    PubMed

    Williamson, L M; Benjamin, R J; Devine, D V; Katz, L M; Pink, J

    2015-05-01

    The elements of clinical governance, which ensure excellence in clinical care, can be applied to blood services. In this survey, their application in a range of blood providers was gauged, with the aim of identifying best practice and producing a generalizable framework. The Medical Directors of members of the Alliance of Blood Operators surveyed how different elements of clinical governance operated within their organizations and developed recommendations applicable in the blood service environment. The recommendations that emerged highlighted the importance of an organization's culture, with the delivery of optimal clinical governance being a corporate responsibility. Senior management must agree and promote a set of values to ensure that the system operates with the patient and donor at its heart. All staff should understand how their role fits into the 'journey to the patient', and a culture of openness promoted. Thus, reporting of errors and risks should be actively sought and praised, with penalties applied for concealment. Systems should exist to collect, analyse and escalate clinical outcomes, safety data, clinical risk assessments, incident reports and complaints to inform organizational learning. Clinical governance principles from general health care can be applied within blood services to complement good manufacturing practice. This requires leadership, accountability, an open culture and a drive for continuous improvement and excellence in clinical care. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Developing a student-led health and wellbeing clinic in an underserved community: collaborative learning, health outcomes and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Stuhlmiller, Cynthia M; Tolchard, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The University of New England (UNE), Australia decided to develop innovative placement opportunities for its increasing numbers of nursing students. Extensive community and stakeholder consultation determined that a community centre in rural New South Wales was the welcomed site of the student-led clinic because it fit the goals of the project-to increase access to health care services in an underserved area while providing service learning for students. Supported by a grant from Health Workforce Australia and in partnership with several community organisations, UNE established a student-led clinic in a disadvantaged community using an engaged scholarship approach which joins academic service learning with community based action research. The clinic was managed and run by the students, who were supervised by university staff and worked in collaboration with residents and local health and community services. Local families, many of whom were Indigenous Australians, received increased access to culturally appropriate health services. In the first year, the clinic increased from a one day per week to a three day per week service and offered over 1000 occasions of care and involved 1500 additional community members in health promotion activities. This has led to improved health outcomes for the community and cost savings to the health service estimated to be $430,000. The students learned from members of the community and community members learned from the students, in a collaborative process. Community members benefited from access to drop in help that was self-determined. The model of developing student-led community health and wellbeing clinics in underserved communities not only fulfils the local, State Government, Federal Government and international health reform agenda but it also represents good value for money. It offers free health services in a disadvantaged community, thereby improving overall health and wellbeing. The student-led clinic is an invaluable

  9. Embedding health literacy into health systems: a case study of a regional health service.

    PubMed

    Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period. Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care. Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites. Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems. What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them

  10. Determinants of Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Services at a No-cost Reproductive Health Clinic Managed by Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    Osingada, Charles P; Ninsiima, Gloria; Chalo, Rose N; Muliira, Joshua K; Ngabirano, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) has been rising in sub-Saharan Africa, and health authorities in this region have responded by increasing the availability of cheap or no-cost CC screening services (CCSS), public health education, and others. However, the efforts have not yet resulted into the expected uptake of CCSS. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of uptake of CCSS at a no-cost reproductive health clinic managed by nurse-midwives. A descriptive design and a structured interview questionnaire were used to collect data from 236 women attending the reproductive health clinic. Logistic regression statistics were used to examine the determinants of uptake of CCSS. The mean age of participants was 28.7 years, and only 29% had received CC screening. The significant determinants of uptake of CCSS were concern about the gender of the healthcare professional (HCP) (odds ratio [OR], 5.03; P = .001), age older than 25 years (OR, 3.09; P = .005), contraceptive use (OR, 0.28; P = .02), encouragement by HCPs (OR, 0.16; P = .00), and perceived quality of CCSS (OR, 0.08; P = .00). Gender of the HCP and encouragement or reminders by the HCP influence uptake of CCSS. Because nurse-midwives have successfully led strategies to promote other integrated reproductive health services, they can also play a key role in enhancing uptake of CCSS in resource-poor settings. Interventions to enhance service quality and deliberate policies requiring HCP to recommend encourage and remind clients may help to enhance uptake of CCSS in resource-poor settings.

  11. Value of chiropractic services at an on-site health center.

    PubMed

    Krause, Curt A; Kaspin, Lisa; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2012-08-01

    Chiropractic care offered at an on-site health center could reduce the economic and clinical burden of musculoskeletal conditions. A retrospective claims analysis and clinical evaluation were performed to assess the influence of on-site chiropractic services on health care utilization and outcomes. Patients treated off-site were significantly more likely to have physical therapy (P < 0.0001) and outpatient visits (P < 0.0001). In addition, the average total number of health care visits, radiology procedures, and musculoskeletal medication use per patient with each event were significantly higher for the off-site group (all P < 0.0001). Last, headache, neck pain, and low back pain-functional status improved significantly (all P < 0.0001). These results suggest that chiropractic services offered at on-site health centers may promote lower utilization of certain health care services, while improving musculoskeletal function.

  12. Mayo Clinic employees responded to new requirements for cost sharing by reducing possibly unneeded health services use.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilay D; Naessens, James M; Wood, Douglas L; Stroebel, Robert J; Litchy, William; Wagie, Amy; Fan, Jiaquan; Nesse, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Some health plans have experimented with increasing consumer cost sharing, on the theory that consumers will use less unnecessary health care if they are expected to bear some of the financial responsibility for it. However, it is unclear whether the resulting decrease in use is sustained beyond one or two years. In 2004 Mayo Clinic's self-funded health plan increased cost sharing for its employees and their dependents for specialty care visits (adding a $25 copayment to the high-premium option) and other services such as imaging, testing, and outpatient procedures (adding 10 or 20 percent coinsurance, depending on the option). The plan also removed all cost sharing for visits to primary care providers and for preventive services such as colorectal screening and mammography. The result was large decreases in the use of diagnostic testing and outpatient procedures that were sustained for four years, and an immediate decrease in the use of imaging that later rebounded (possibly to levels below the expected trend). Beneficiaries decreased visits to specialists but did not make greater use of primary care services. These results suggest that implementing relatively low levels of cost sharing can lead to a long-term decrease in utilization.

  13. Health Care Services

    Science.gov Websites

    State Employees Health Care Services DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies Alaska Pioneer Homes Behavioral Health Office of Children's Services Office of the Commissioner Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care Services Juvenile Justice

  14. Dental Anxiety and the Use of Oral Health Services Among People Attending Two HIV Primary Care Clinics in Miami

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard; Cardenas, Gabriel; Xavier, Jessica; Jeanty, Yves; Pereyra, Margaret; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined factors associated with dental anxiety among a sample of HIV primary care patients and investigated the independent association of dental anxiety with oral health care. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2010 from 444 patients attending two HIV primary care clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Corah Dental Anxiety Scores and use of oral health-care services were obtained from all HIV-positive patients in the survey. Results The prevalence of moderate to severe dental anxiety in this sample was 37.8%, while 7.9% of the sample was characterized with severe dental anxiety. The adjusted odds of having severe dental anxiety were 3.962 times greater for females than for males (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.688, 9.130). After controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, education, access to dental care, and HIV primary clinic experience, participants with severe dental anxiety had 69.3% lower adjusted odds of using oral health-care services within the past 12 months (vs. longer than 12 months ago) compared with participants with less-than-severe dental anxiety (adjusted odds ratio = 0.307, 95% CI 0.127, 0.742). Conclusion A sizable number of patients living with HIV have anxiety associated with obtaining needed dental care. Routine screening for dental anxiety and counseling to reduce dental anxiety are supported by this study as a means of addressing the impact of dental anxiety on the use of oral health services among HIV-positive individuals. PMID:22547875

  15. Organizing the public health-clinical health interface: theoretical bases.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Reinharz, Daniel; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the interface between public health and clinical health within the context of the search for networking approaches geared to a more integrated delivery of health services. The articulation of an operative interface is complicated by the fact that the definition of networking modalities involves complex intra- and interdisciplinary and intra- and interorganizational systems across which a new transversal dynamics of intervention practices and exchanges between service structures must be established. A better understanding of the situation is reached by shedding light on the rationale underlying the organizational methods that form the bases of the interface between these two sectors of activity. The Quebec experience demonstrates that neither the structural-functionalist approach, which emphasizes remodelling establishment structures and functions as determinants of integration, nor the structural-constructivist approach, which prioritizes distinct fields of practice in public health and clinical health, adequately serves the purpose of networking and integration. Consequently, a theoretical reframing is imperative. In this regard, structuration theory, which fosters the simultaneous study of methods of inter-structure coordination and inter-actor cooperation, paves the way for a better understanding of the situation and, in turn, to the emergence of new integration possibilities.

  16. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers.

    PubMed

    Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon

    2014-05-22

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person

  17. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Methods Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women’s health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Results Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion

  18. Veterans' Mental Health in Higher Education Settings: Services and Clinician Education Needs.

    PubMed

    Niv, Noosha; Bennett, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Utilization of the GI Bill and attendance at higher education institutions among student veterans have significantly increased since passage of the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Campus counseling centers should be prepared to meet the mental health needs of student veterans. This study identified the mental health resources and services that colleges provide student veterans and the education needs of clinical staff on how to serve student veterans. Directors of mental health services from 80 California colleges completed a semistructured phone interview. Few schools track the number, demographic characteristics, or presenting needs of student veterans who utilize campus mental health services or offer priority access or special mental health services for veterans. Directors wanted centers to receive education for an average of 5.8 veteran-related mental health topics and preferred workshops and lectures to handouts and online training. Significant training needs exist among clinical staff of campus mental health services to meet the needs of student veterans.

  19. Interventions to increase use of services; Mental Health Awareness in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Julian; Nwefoh, Emeka; Okafor, Godwin; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu; Nwaubani, Kenneth; Henderson, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Mental health services in Nigeria consist mainly of large government psychiatric hospitals and there are very few mental health professionals to serve the large population of the country. However, more recently, community mental health services, which have been shown to improve access to care and clinical outcomes are beginning to develop in some locations. Despite efforts to promote more accessible services, low levels of knowledge about effective treatment of mental disorders means that even where these services are available, a very small proportion of people utilise these services. Therefore interventions to increase service use are an essential component of health system. This intervention was designed to increase use of a mental health services through the work of community-based Village Health Workers. Fifteen Village Health Workers in each Local Government Area (district) were selected and trained to create mental health awareness in communities. Their function also include identification and referral of persons with mental illness to trained mental health nurses in the clinics. Attendance data prior to and after intervention were collected and compared. The incident rate for initial period of intervention is five times higher than the baseline rate (95% CI; 3.42-7.56; p < 0.001) though this diminished in the long term, levelling off above initial baseline. This study demonstrated that addition of awareness raising using volunteers in communities as part of health programme implementation can increase services use by a population. Mechanisms such as informing populations of the existence of a service which they were previously lacking; explanation of causation of mental illness and achieving community leaders' support for a new service can make investment in services more efficient by increasing attendance.

  20. The state of the psychology health service provider workforce.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Daniel S; Kohout, Jessica L

    2011-12-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of the PsyD degree and the formalization of the predoctoral internship placement system (the APPIC Match) have been well noted, but efforts to gain a complete understanding of professional practice are lacking. Specifically, piecemeal research on the provider workforce has led to the study of specific subpopulations using varying approaches and definitions of those providing direct clinical service. Consequently, estimates of the supply and need for health service providers are distinctly divergent and generate protracted debate in organized psychology. The APA membership directory and the APA Doctorate Employment Surveys have traditionally been relied on for workforce analyses. Yet, these data have become characterized by limited generalizability in recent years because of declining survey response rates and the fact that APA member data may not be as representative of the entire psychology health service provider population as they were previously. The 2008 APA Survey of Psychology Health Service Providers targeted these limitations by including nonmember psychologists in the sampling frame. Results revealed emerging themes in the demographics, work settings, and delivery of health services of the psychology health service provider workforce. Future areas of research for APA and organized psychology to undertake in addressing need and demand are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Evaluation of a primary care adult mental health service: Year 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a primary care adult mental health service operating within a stepped care model of service delivery. Methods Supervised by a principal psychologist manager, psychology graduate practitioners provided one-to-one brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to service users. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was used to assess service user treatment outcomes. Satisfaction questionnaires were administered to service users and referring general practitioners (GPs). Results A total of 43 individuals attended for an initial appointment, of whom 19 (44.2%) completed brief CBT treatment. Of the 13 service users who were in the clinical range pre-treatment, 11 (84.6%) achieved clinical and reliably significant improvement. Of the six service users who were in the non-clinical range pre-treatment, three (50%) achieved reliably significant improvement. Both service users and GPs indicated high levels of satisfaction with the service, although service accessibility was highlighted as needing improvement. Conclusion The service was effective in treating mild to moderate mental health problems in primary care. Stricter adherence to a stepped care model through the provision of low-intensity, high-throughput interventions would be desirable for future service provision. PMID:24381655

  2. On residents' satisfaction with community health services after health care system reform in Shanghai, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian; Hou, Jiale; Lu, Lin; Tang, Shenglan; Ma, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Health care system reform is a major issue in many countries and therefore how to evaluate the effects of changes is incredibly important. This study measured residents' satisfaction with community health care service in Shanghai, China, and aimed to evaluate the effect of recent health care system reform. Face-to-face interviews were performed with a stratified random sample of 2212 residents of the Shanghai residents using structured questionnaires. In addition, 972 valid responses were retrieved from internet contact. Controlling for sex, age, income and education, the study used logistic regression modeling to analyze factors associated with satisfaction and to explain the factors that affect the residents' satisfaction. Comparing current attitudes with those held at the initial implementation of the reform in this investigation, four dimensions of health care were analyzed: 1) the health insurance system; 2) essential drugs; 3) basic clinical services; and 4) public health services. Satisfaction across all dimensions improved since the reform was initiated, but differences of satisfaction level were found among most dimensions and groups. Residents currently expressed greater satisfaction with clinical service (average score=3.79, with 5 being most satisfied) and the public health/preventive services (average score=3.62); but less satisfied with the provision of essential drugs (average score=3.20) and health insurance schemes (average score=3.23). The disadvantaged groups (the elderly, the retired, those with only an elementary education, those with lower incomes) had overall poorer satisfaction levels on these four aspects of health care (P<0.01). 25.39% of the respondents thought that their financial burden had increased and 38.49% thought that drugs had become more expensive. The respondents showed more satisfaction with the clinical services (average score=3.79) and public health services/interventions (average score=3.79); and less satisfaction with the

  3. Clinical Decision Making and Mental Health Service Use Among Persons With Severe Mental Illness Across Europe.

    PubMed

    Cosh, Suzanne; Zenter, Nadja; Ay, Esra-Sultan; Loos, Sabine; Slade, Mike; De Rosa, Corrado; Luciano, Mario; Berecz, Roland; Glaub, Theodora; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Krogsgaard Bording, Malene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram; Puschner, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The study explored relationships between preferences for and experiences of clinical decision making (CDM) with service use among persons with severe mental illness. Data from a prospective observational study in six European countries were examined. Associations of baseline staff-rated (N=213) and patient-rated (N=588) preferred and experienced decision making with service use were examined at baseline by using binomial regressions and at 12-month follow-up by using multilevel models. A preference by patients and staff for active patient involvement in decision making, rather than shared or passive decision making, was associated with longer hospital admissions and higher costs at baseline and with increases in admissions over 12 months (p=.043). Low patient-rated satisfaction with an experienced clinical decision was also related to increased costs over the study period (p=.005). A preference for shared decision making may reduce health care costs by reducing inpatient admissions. Patient satisfaction with decisions was a predictor of costs, and clinicians should maximize patient satisfaction with CDM.

  4. Differential impact of current diagnosis and clinical stage on attendance at a youth mental health service.

    PubMed

    Cross, Shane P M; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether clinical stage of illness and current diagnosis influence appointment behaviour in a specialized primary-level youth mental health service. Factors associated with attendance at 8697 appointments made by 828 young people (females = 497) aged 12-25 years over a 1-year period were analysed. The number of appointments made did not correlate with the rates of attendance. However, those with more severe psychiatric morbidity made significantly more appointments and missed significantly more appointments than those with less severe presentations. Impaired social functioning was the best predictor of female attendance rates, whereas age and clinical stage of illness best predicted male attendance rates. Current diagnosis rather than functional impairment appeared to influence the level of input offered by clinicians. Age, gender, severity of illness, functioning and psychological distress had differential associations with both planned treatment intensity and attendance rates. These differences are likely to have implications for service provision in this youth population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Exploring Systems That Support Good Clinical Care in Indigenous Primary Health-care Services: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Systems Assessment Tool Data from High-Improving Services.

    PubMed

    Woods, Cindy; Carlisle, Karen; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra Claire; Tsey, Komla; Matthews, Veronica; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement is a process for raising the quality of primary health care (PHC) across Indigenous PHC services. In addition to clinical auditing using plan, do, study, and act cycles, engaging staff in a process of reflecting on systems to support quality care is vital. The One21seventy Systems Assessment Tool (SAT) supports staff to assess systems performance in terms of five key components. This study examines quantitative and qualitative SAT data from five high-improving Indigenous PHC services in northern Australia to understand the systems used to support quality care. High-improving services selected for the study were determined by calculating quality of care indices for Indigenous health services participating in the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease National Research Partnership. Services that reported continuing high improvement in quality of care delivered across two or more audit tools in three or more audits were selected for the study. Precollected SAT data (from annual team SAT meetings) are presented longitudinally using radar plots for quantitative scores for each component, and content analysis is used to describe strengths and weaknesses of performance in each systems' component. High-improving services were able to demonstrate strong processes for assessing system performance and consistent improvement in systems to support quality care across components. Key strengths in the quality support systems included adequate and orientated workforce, appropriate health system supports, and engagement with other organizations and community, while the weaknesses included lack of service infrastructure, recruitment, retention, and support for staff and additional costs. Qualitative data revealed clear voices from health service staff expressing concerns with performance, and subsequent SAT data provided evidence of changes made to address concerns. Learning from the processes and strengths of high-improving services may be useful

  6. Early experiences with e-health services (1999-2002): promise, reality, and implications.

    PubMed

    Fung, Vicki; Ortiz, Eduardo; Huang, Jie; Fireman, Bruce; Miller, Robert; Selby, Joseph V; Hsu, John

    2006-05-01

    E-health services may improve the quality and efficiency of care; however, there is little quantitative data on e-health use. The objective of this study was to examine trends in e-health use and user characteristics. This was a longitudinal study of e-health use (1999-2002) within an integrated delivery system (IDS). We classified 4 e-health services into transactional (drug refills and appointment scheduling) and care-related (medical and medication advice) services. Approximately 3.3 million members of a large, prepaid IDS. Amount and frequency of e-health use over time and characteristics of users. The number of members registered for access to e-health increased from 20,617 (0.7% of all members) in Q1 1999 to 270,987 (8.6%) in Q3 2002. Between Q1 and Q3 2002, 42,845 members (1.3%) used the drug refill service and 55,901 (1.7%) used the appointment scheduling service compared with 10,756 members (0.3%) who used the medical advice service and 3069 (0.1%) who used the medication advice service. Over the same period, transactional service users averaged 3.5 uses/user versus 1.6 uses/user among care-related service users. Members most likely to use e-health services had a high level of clinical need, a regular primary care provider, were 30 to 64 years old, female, white, and lived in a nonlow socioeconomic status neighborhood. These findings were consistent across e-health service types. Although use of all e-health services grew rapidly, use of care-related services lagged significantly behind use of transactional services. Subjects with greater clinical need and better ties to the health system were more likely to use both types of e-health services.

  7. Clinical research: business opportunities for pharmacy-based investigational drug services.

    PubMed

    Marnocha, R M

    1999-02-01

    The application by an academic health center of business principles to the conduct of clinical research is described. Re-engineering of the infrastructure for clinical research at the University of Wisconsin and University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics began in 1990 with the creation of the Center for Clinical Trials (CCT) and the restructuring of the investigational drug services (IDS). Strategies to further improve the institution's clinical research activities have been continually assessed and most recently have centered on the adaptation of a business philosophy within the institution's multidisciplinary research infrastructure. Toward that end, the CCT and IDS have introduced basic business principles into operational activities. Four basic business concepts have been implemented: viewing the research protocol as a commodity, seeking payment for services rendered, tracking investments, and assessing performance. It is proposed that incorporation of these basic business concepts is not only compatible with the infrastructure for clinical research but beneficial to that infrastructure. The adaptation of a business mindset is likely to enable an academic health center to reach its clinical research goals.

  8. Developing a culturally appropriate mental health care service for Samoa.

    PubMed

    Enoka, Matamua Iokapeta Sina; Tenari, Aliilelei; Sili, Tupou; Peteru, Latama; Tago, Pisaina; Blignault, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Mental Health Care Services are part of the National Health Services for Samoa. Their function is to provide mental health care services to the population of Samoa, which numbers 180,000 people. However, like many other countries in the Pacific region, mental health is considered a low priority. The mental health budget allocation barely covers the operation of mental health care services. More broadly, there is a lack of political awareness about mental health care services and mental health rarely becomes an issue of deliberation in the political arena. This article outlines the recent development of mental health care services in Samoa, including the Mental Health Policy 2006 and Mental Health Act 2007. It tells the story of the successful integration of aiga (family) as an active partner in the provision of care, and the development of the Aiga model utilizing Samoan cultural values to promote culturally appropriate family-focused community mental health care for Samoa. Mental Health Care Services today encompass both clinical and family-focused community mental health care services. The work is largely nurse-led. Much has been achieved over the past 25 years. Increased recognition by government and increased resourcing are necessary to meet the future health care needs of the Samoan people. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.

  10. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A.; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs’ strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities. PMID:26008902

  11. Changing Patterns of Mental Health Care Use: The Role of Integrated Mental Health Services in Veteran Affairs Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lucinda B; Yoon, Jean; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Post, Edward P; Metzger, Maureen E; Wells, Kenneth B; Sugar, Catherine A; Escarce, José J

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to foster timely, high-quality mental health care for Veterans, VA's Primary Care-Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) embeds mental health specialists in primary care and promotes care management for depression. PC-MHI and patient-centered medical home providers work together to provide the bulk of mental health care for primary care patients with low-to-moderate-complexity mental health conditions. This study examines whether increasing primary care clinic engagement in PC-MHI services is associated with changes in patient health care utilization and costs. We performed a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of primary care patients with identified mental health needs in 29 Southern California VA clinics from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2013, using electronic administrative data (n = 66,638). We calculated clinic PC-MHI engagement as the proportion of patients receiving PC-MHI services among all primary care clinic patients in each year. Capitalizing on variation in PC-MHI engagement across clinics, our multivariable regression models predicted annual patient use of 1) non-primary care based mental health specialty (MHS) visits, 2) total mental health visits (ie, the sum of MHS and PC-MHI visits), and 3) health care utilization and costs. We controlled for year- and clinic-fixed effects, other clinic interventions, and patient characteristics. Median clinic PC-MHI engagement increased by 8.2 percentage points over 5 years. At any given year, patients treated at a clinic with 1 percentage-point higher PC-MHI engagement was associated with 0.5% more total mental health visits (CI, 0.18% to 0.90%; P = .003) and 1.0% fewer MHS visits (CI, -1.6% to -0.3%; P = .002); this is a substitution rate, at the mean, of 1.5 PC-MHI visits for each MHS visit. There was no PC-MHI effect on other health care utilization and costs. As intended, greater clinic engagement in PC-MHI services seems to increase realized accessibility to mental health care for primary care

  12. Trajectories of Health and Behavioral Health Services Use among Community Corrections–Involved Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mowbray, Orion; McBeath, Bowen; Bank, Lew; Newell, Summer

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to establish time-based trajectories of health and behavioral health services utilization for community corrections–involved (CCI) adults and to examine demographic and clinical correlates associated with these trajectories. To accomplish this aim, the authors applied a latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to services use data from a sample of rural CCI adults who reported their medical, mental health, and substance use treatment utilization behavior every 60 days for 1.5 years. LCGA established 1.5-year trajectories and demographic correlates of health services among rural CCI adults. For medical services, three classes emerged (stable-low users, 13%; stable-intermediate users, 40%; and stable-high users, 47%). For mental health and substance use services, three classes emerged (stable-low, 69% and 61%, respectively; low-baseline-increase, 10% and 12%, respectively; high-baseline decline, 21% and 28%, respectively). Employment, gender, medication usage, and depression severity predicted membership across all services. Results underscore the importance of social workers and other community services providers aligning health services access with the needs of the CCI population, and highlight CCI adults as being at risk of underservice in critical prevention and intervention domains. PMID:27257353

  13. Individual health services.

    PubMed

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL?What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? FOR TWO OF THE MOST COMMON IGEL, THE SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA AND THE SCREENING FOR OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER BY VAGINAL ULTRASOUND (VUS), THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE ADDRESSED: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness?Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments with up to 25% of the offers. Cancer screening

  14. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...

  15. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...

  16. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...

  17. Health providers' perspectives on delivering public health services under the contract service policy in rural China: evidence from Xinjian County.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huixuan; Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Shengfa; Wang, Fugang; Zhong, You; Gu, Linni; Qu, Zhiyong; Liang, Xiaoyun; Sa, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaohua; Tian, Donghua

    2015-02-27

    To effectively provide public health care for rural residents, the Ministry of Health formally unveiled the contract service policy in rural China in April 2013. As the counterpart to family medicine in some developed countries, the contract service established a compact between village doctors and local governments and a service agreement between doctors and their patients. This study is a rare attempt to explore the perspectives of health providers on the contract service policy, and investigate the demand side's attitude toward the public health services delivered under the contract policy. This evidence from Xinjian County, Jiangxi Province, the first and most representative pilot site of the contract service, could serve as a reference for policymakers to understand the initial effects of the policy, whereby they can regulate and amend some items before extending it to the whole country. Official documents were collected and semi-structured interviews with human resources and villagers in Xinjian County were conducted in September 2013. A purposive sampling method was used, and eight towns from the total 18 towns in Xinjian County were selected. Ultimately, eight managers (one in each township health center), 20 village doctors from eight clinics, and 11 villagers were interviewed. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data, which reflected the people's experiences brought about by the implementation of the contract service policy. While the contract service actually promoted the supply side to provide more public health services to the villagers and contracted patients felt satisfied with the doctor-patient relationship, most health providers complained about the heavy workload, insufficient remuneration, staff shortage, lack of official identity and ineffective performance appraisal, in addition to contempt from some villagers and supervisors after the implementation of the contract service. Contract service is a crucial step for the government to

  18. Mobile Health (mHealth) Services and Online Health Educators

    PubMed Central

    Anshari, Muhammad; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology enables health-care organizations to extend health-care services by providing a suitable environment to achieve mobile health (mHealth) goals, making some health-care services accessible anywhere and anytime. Introducing mHealth could change the business processes in delivering services to patients. mHealth could empower patients as it becomes necessary for them to become involved in the health-care processes related to them. This includes the ability for patients to manage their personal information and interact with health-care staff as well as among patients themselves. The study proposes a new position to supervise mHealth services: the online health educator (OHE). The OHE should be occupied by special health-care staffs who are trained in managing online services. A survey was conducted in Brunei and Indonesia to discover the roles of OHE in managing mHealth services, followed by a focus group discussion with participants who interacted with OHE in a real online health scenario. Data analysis showed that OHE could improve patients’ confidence and satisfaction in health-care services. PMID:27257387

  19. [Quality of mental health services: a self audit in the South Verona mental health service].

    PubMed

    Allevi, Liliana; Salvi, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    To start a process of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) in an Italian Community Mental Health Service by using a quality assurance questionnaire in a self audit exercise. The questionnaire was administered to 14 key workers and clinical managers with different roles and seniority. One senior manager's evaluation was used as a benchmark for all the others. Changes were introduced in the service practice according to what emerged from the evaluation. Meetings were scheduled to monitor those changes and renew the CQI process. There was a wide difference in the key workers' answers. Overall, the senior manager's evaluation was on the 60th percentile of the distribution of the other evaluations. Those areas that required prompt intervention were risk management, personnel development, and CQI. The CQI process was followed up for one year: some interventions were carried out to change the practice of the service. A self audit exercise in Community Mental Health Services was both feasible and useful. The CQI process was easier to start than to carry on over the long term.

  20. Occupational therapy influence on a carer peer support model in a clinical mental health service.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Cate; Sanders, Bronwyn; Allchin, Becca; Lentin, Primrose; Lang, Shannon

    2015-10-01

    Current policy frameworks call for the participation of consumers and carers in all levels of mental health service delivery in Australia. Such inclusion leads to better outcomes for all, however, it is recognised that carers have needs and occupations beyond their carer role. The aim of this article is to describe an innovative carer peer support program developed by a group of occupational therapists. The article describes the rationale, phases of development and the role that occupational therapists played in developing and sustaining the model. This is followed by an exploration of the occupational therapy attitudes, knowledge and skills that contributed to the conceptualisation and implementation of the model. Five occupational therapists engaged in a review process involving documentation, literature review, evaluation, reflection and discussion. Four of the occupational therapists had either coordinated or managed the service described. The fifth author facilitated the process. Review of the model indicates it equips carers to perform their caring occupation and helps carers recognise the need for occupations beyond caring, for their health and wellbeing. Employing carers as paid workers values their 'real life' experience in their caring occupation. Findings also illustrate that the attitudes, knowledge, skills and competency standards of occupational therapists are well suited in enabling this emerging area of service delivery. Although this model has been developed in a clinical mental health setting, the key principles could be applied with carers or consumers across a variety of settings in which occupational therapists are employed. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  2. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudmundsson, Kristjan G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants.

  3. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Alden, Dana L; Pham, Van; Phan, Ha

    2010-02-28

    Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP) services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF) model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs). The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS) clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1) clinic-reported client volume; 2) the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3) self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use increased by 20% from the baseline survey to the

  4. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees) that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor). The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP) services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF) model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs). Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS) clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1) clinic-reported client volume; 2) the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3) self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05). Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use increased by 20% from

  5. Identifying role of perceived quality and satisfaction on the utilization status of the community clinic services; Bangladesh context.

    PubMed

    Karim, Rizwanul M; Abdullah, Mamun S; Rahman, Anisur M; Alam, Ashraful M

    2016-06-24

    Bangladesh is one among the few countries of the world that provides free medical services at the community level through various public health facilities. It is now evident that, clients' perceived quality of services and their expectations of service standards affect health service utilization to a great extent. The aim of the study was to develop and validate the measures for perception and satisfaction of primary health care quality in Bangladesh context and to identify their aspects on the utilization status of the Community Clinic services. This mixed method cross sectional survey was conducted from January to June 2012, in the catchment area of 12 community clinics. Since most of the outcome indicators focus mainly on women and children, women having children less than 2 years of age were randomly assigned and interviewed for the study purpose. Data were collected through FGD, Key informants interview and a pretested semi- structured questionnaire. About 95 % of the respondents were Muslims and 5 % were Hindus. The average age of the respondents was 23.38 (SD 4.15) and almost all of them are home makers. The average monthly expenditure of their family was 95US $ (SD 32US$). At the beginning of the study, two psychometric research instruments; 24 items perceived quality of primary care services PQPCS scale (chronbach's α = .89) and 22 items community clinic service satisfaction CCSS scale (chronbach's α = .97), were constructed and validated. This study showed less educated, poor, landless mothers utilized the community clinic services more than their educated and wealthier counterpart. Women who lived in their own residence used the community clinic services more frequently than those who lived in a rental house. Perceptions concerning skill and competence of the health care provider and satisfaction indicating interpersonal communication and attitude of the care provider were important predictors for community clinic service utilization

  6. Perceptions of clients on awareness and the geographical location of a South African university sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rukshana; Van Der Heever, Mariana M; Damons, Anneleen

    2017-09-27

    The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University has a sub-division, a sexual health clinic, which provides sexual health services. The clients of the sexual health clinic consist of staff members and students. This article reports on the perceptions of clients that relate to awareness and the geographical location of the clinic. The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University's main campus. A descriptive qualitative approach was applied utilising in-depth interviews. A sample of n = 15 was drawn through purposive sampling and data saturation was achieved with the sample. The following themes emerged from the data: location of the clinic, awareness of sexual health services and marketing and advertising. The findings of the study revealed that accessibility of the clinic is influenced by the geographical location of the clinic and that marketing and awareness of services require attention.

  7. Can it be done? Implementing adolescent clinical preventive services.

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, E M; Adams, S H; Lustig, J L; Millstein, S G; Camfield, K; El-Diwany, S; Volpe, S; Irwin, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of an intervention to increase the delivery of adolescent preventive services within a large managed care organization. Target health areas were tobacco, alcohol, sexual behavior, and safety (seat belt and helmet use). DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: Adolescent reports of clinician screening and counseling were obtained from adolescents who attended well visits with their primary care providers. A prepost study design was used to evaluate the preventive services intervention. The intervention had three components: (1) 89 clinicians from three outpatient pediatric clinics attended a training to increase the delivery of preventive services; (2) customized adolescent screening and provider charting forms were integrated into the clinics; and (3) the resources of a health educator were provided to the clinics. DATA COLLECTION: Following a visit, adolescents completed surveys reporting on clinician screening and counseling for each of the target risk areas. Preimplementation (three months), 104 adolescents completed surveys. Postimplementation of the training, tools, and health educator intervention, 211 adolescents completed surveys (five months). For 18 months postimplementation clinicians delivered services and 998 adolescents completed surveys. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chi-square analyses of changes in screening from preimplementation to postimplementation showed that screening increased in all areas (p < .000), with an average increase in screening rates from 47 percent to 94 percent. Postimplementation counseling in all areas also increased significantly, with an average increase in counseling rates from 39 percent to 91 percent. There were slight decreases in screening from postimplementation to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers support for the efficacy of providing training, tools, and resources as a method for increasing preventive screening and counseling of adolescents across multiple risky health behaviors during a

  8. Reaching youth through franchise clinics: assessment of Kenyan private sector involvement in youth services.

    PubMed

    Decker, Martha; Montagu, Dominic

    2007-03-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of social franchise programs, which use private providers to offer reproductive health services, to provide services to youth in western Kenya. Although franchise clinics have rarely targeted youth, they appear to offer a viable alternative for providing reproductive health services to this age group.

  9. The public's priorities in health services.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Giora; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2015-10-01

    Rationing in health services cannot be solved only by cost-effective analysis because social values play a central role in the difficult trade-off dilemma of prioritizing some service over others. To examine the relative importance ascribed by the public to selected components of health services, in the national allocation of resources as well as in their personal insurance. A telephone survey of a representative sample of the Israeli adult population (N = 1225). Two versions of the questionnaire were used. At the national level, interviewees were asked to assume they were the Minister of Health. At the personal level, interviewees were asked to choose items to be included in their personal complementary health insurance. Check-ups for early disease detection and nursing care for the frail elderly got the highest support for extra budget as well as to be included in personal insurance. Other items presented were fertility treatments, cardiac rehabilitation, mental health, dental health, programmes for preventive medicine and health promotion, subsidizing supplemental insurance for the poor, additional staff for primary clinics and building a new hospital. The lowest support was for alternative medicine and for cosmetic surgery. No subgroup in the Israeli society presented a different first priority. The Israeli public does not give high priority to 'nice to have' services but their selections are 'mature' and responsible. Rationing in health care requires listening to the public even if there are still many methodological limitations on how to reflect the public's opinion. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Primary Care–Mental Health Integration Programs in the Veterans Affairs Health System Serve a Different Patient Population Than Specialty Mental Health Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Benjamin R.; Zivin, Kara; McCarthy, John F.; Valenstein, Marcia; Pfeiffer, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether Primary Care–Mental Health Integration (PC-MHI) programs within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system provide services to patient subgroups that may be underrepresented in specialty mental health care, including older patients and women, and to explore whether PC-MHI served individuals with less severe mental health disorders compared to specialty mental health clinics. Method: Data were obtained from the VA National Patient Care Database for a random sample of VA patients, and primary care patients with an ICD-9-CM mental health diagnosis (N = 243,806) in 2009 were identified. Demographic and clinical characteristics between patients who received mental health treatment exclusively in a specialty mental health clinic (n = 128,248) or exclusively in a PC-MHI setting (n = 8,485) were then compared. Characteristics of patients who used both types of services were also explored. Results: Compared to patients treated in specialty mental health clinics, PC-MHI service users were more likely to be aged 65 years or older (26.4% vs 17.9%, P < .001) and female (8.6% vs 7.7%, P = .003). PC-MHI patients were more likely than specialty mental health clinic patients to be diagnosed with a depressive disorder other than major depression, an unspecified anxiety disorder, or an adjustment disorder (P < .001) and less likely to be diagnosed with more severe disorders, including bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic disorders, and alcohol or substance dependence (P < .001). Conclusions: Primary Care–Mental Health Integration within the VA health system reaches demographic subgroups that are traditionally less likely to use specialty mental health care. By treating patients with less severe mental health disorders, PC-MHI appears to expand upon, rather than duplicate, specialty care services. PMID:23106026

  11. Translating Life Course Theory to Clinical Practice to Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Barry S.

    2013-01-01

    Life Course Theory (LCT) is a framework that explains health and disease across populations and over time and in a powerful way, conceptualizes health and health disparities to guide improvements. It suggests a need to change priorities and paradigms in our healthcare delivery system. In “Rethinking Maternal and Child Health: The Life Course Model as an Organizing Framework,” Fine and Kotelchuck identify three areas of rethinking that have relevance to clinical care: (1) recognition of context and the “whole-person, whole-family, whole-community systems approach;” (2) longitudinal approach with “greater emphasis on early (“upstream”) determinants of health”; and (3) need for integration and “developing integrated, multi-sector service systems that become lifelong “pipelines” for healthy development”. This paper discusses promising clinical practice innovations in these three areas: addressing social influences on health in clinical practice, longitudinal and vertical integration of clinical services and horizontal integration with community services and resources. In addition, barriers and facilitators to implementation are reviewed. PMID:23677685

  12. Reproductive health services in Malawi: an evaluation of a quality improvement intervention.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Barbara J; Kim, Young-Mi; Rozario, Aleisha M; Bazant, Eva; Rashidi, Tambudzai; Bandazi, Sheila N; Kachale, Fannie; Sanghvi, Harshad; Noh, Jin Won

    2013-01-01

    this study was to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement initiative in Malawi on reproductive health service quality and related outcomes. (1) post-only quasi-experimental design comparing observed service quality at intervention and comparison health facilities, and (2) a time-series analysis of service statistics. sixteen of Malawi's 23 district hospitals, half of which had implemented the Performance and Quality Improvement (PQI) intervention for reproductive health at the time of the study. a total of 98 reproductive health-care providers (mostly nurse-midwives) and 139 patients seeking family planning (FP), antenatal care (ANC), labour and delivery (L&D), or postnatal care (PNC) services. health facility teams implemented a performance and quality improvement (PQI) intervention over a 3-year period. Following an external observational assessment of service quality at baseline, facility teams analysed performance gaps, designed and implemented interventions to address weaknesses, and conducted quarterly internal assessments to assess progress. Facilities qualified for national recognition by complying with at least 80% of reproductive health clinical standards during an external verification assessment. key measures include facility readiness to provide quality care, observed health-care provider adherence to clinical performance standards during service delivery, and trends in service utilisation. intervention facilities were more likely than comparison facilities to have the needed infrastructure, equipment, supplies, and systems in place to offer reproductive health services. Observed quality of care was significantly higher at intervention than comparison facilities for PNC and FP. Compared with other providers, those at intervention facilities scored significantly higher on client assessment and diagnosis in three service areas, on clinical management and procedures in two service areas, and on counselling in one service area. Service statistics

  13. Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Burns, Barbara J; Phillips, Susan D; Wagner, H Ryan; Barth, Richard P; Kolko, David J; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were weighted to provide population estimates. Nearly half (47.9%) of the youths aged 2 to 14 years (N = 3,803) with completed child welfare investigations had clinically significant emotional or behavioral problems. Youths with mental health need (defined by a clinical range score on the Child Behavior Checklist) were much more likely to receive mental health services than lower scoring youth; still, only one fourth of such youths received any specialty mental health care during the previous 12 months. Clinical need was related to receipt of mental health care across all age groups (odds ratio = 2.7-3.5). In addition, for young children (2-5 years), sexual abuse (versus neglect) increased access to mental health services. For latency-age youths, African-American race and living at home significantly reduced the likelihood of care. Adolescents living at home were also less likely to receive services, whereas having a parent with severe mental illness increased (odds ratio = 2.4) the likelihood of service use. Routine screening for mental health need and increasing access to mental health professionals for further evaluation and treatment should be a priority for children early in their contact with the child welfare system.

  14. Trade in health services.

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Rupa

    2002-01-01

    In light of the increasing globalization of the health sector, this article examines ways in which health services can be traded, using the mode-wise characterization of trade defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services. The trade modes include cross- border delivery of health services via physical and electronic means, and cross-border movement of consumers, professionals, and capital. An examination of the positive and negative implications of trade in health services for equity, efficiency, quality, and access to health care indicates that health services trade has brought mixed benefits and that there is a clear role for policy measures to mitigate the adverse consequences and facilitate the gains. Some policy measures and priority areas for action are outlined, including steps to address the "brain drain"; increasing investment in the health sector and prioritizing this investment better; and promoting linkages between private and public health care services to ensure equity. Data collection, measures, and studies on health services trade all need to be improved, to assess better the magnitude and potential implications of this trade. In this context, the potential costs and benefits of trade in health services are shaped by the underlying structural conditions and existing regulatory, policy, and infrastructure in the health sector. Thus, appropriate policies and safeguard measures are required to take advantage of globalization in health services. PMID:11953795

  15. The Global Health Service Partnership: An Academic-Clinical Partnership to Build Nursing and Medical Capacity in Africa.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Foradori, Laura; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Makwero, Martha; Smith, Jill; Kasozi, Jane; Johnston, Esther M; Khaki, Aliasgar; Vandervort, Elisa; Moshi, Fabiola; Kerry, Vanessa B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates a global deficit of about 12.9 million skilled health professionals (midwives, nurses, and physicians) by 2035. These shortages limit the ability of countries, particularly resource-constrained countries, to deliver basic health care, to respond to emerging and more complex needs, and to teach, graduate, and retain their future health professionals-a vicious cycle that is perpetuated and has profound implications for health security. The Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP) is a unique collaboration between the Peace Corps, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Seed and host-country institutions, which aims to strengthen the breadth and quality of medical and nursing education and care delivery in places with dire shortages of health professionals. Nurse and physician educators are seconded to host institutions to serve as visiting faculty alongside their local colleagues. They serve for 1 year with many staying longer. Educational and clinical best practices are shared, emphasis is placed on integration of theory and practice across the academic-clinical domains and the teaching and learning environment is expanded to include implementation science and dissemination of locally tailored and sustainable practice innovations. In the first 3 years (2013-2016) GHSP placed 97 nurse and physician educators in three countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda). These educators have taught 454 courses and workshops to 8,321 trainees, faculty members, and practicing health professionals across the curriculum and in myriad specialties. Mixed-methods evaluation included key stakeholder interviews with host institution faculty and students who indicate that the addition of GHSP enhanced clinical teaching (quality and breadth) resulting in improved clinical skills, confidence, and ability to connect theory to practice and critical thinking. The outputs and outcomes from four exemplars which focus on the translation of evidence

  16. The Global Health Service Partnership: An Academic–Clinical Partnership to Build Nursing and Medical Capacity in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Shor, Eileen M.; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Foradori, Laura; Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Makwero, Martha; Smith, Jill; Kasozi, Jane; Johnston, Esther M.; Khaki, Aliasgar; Vandervort, Elisa; Moshi, Fabiola; Kerry, Vanessa B.

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates a global deficit of about 12.9 million skilled health professionals (midwives, nurses, and physicians) by 2035. These shortages limit the ability of countries, particularly resource-constrained countries, to deliver basic health care, to respond to emerging and more complex needs, and to teach, graduate, and retain their future health professionals—a vicious cycle that is perpetuated and has profound implications for health security. The Global Health Service Partnership (GHSP) is a unique collaboration between the Peace Corps, President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Seed and host-country institutions, which aims to strengthen the breadth and quality of medical and nursing education and care delivery in places with dire shortages of health professionals. Nurse and physician educators are seconded to host institutions to serve as visiting faculty alongside their local colleagues. They serve for 1 year with many staying longer. Educational and clinical best practices are shared, emphasis is placed on integration of theory and practice across the academic–clinical domains and the teaching and learning environment is expanded to include implementation science and dissemination of locally tailored and sustainable practice innovations. In the first 3 years (2013–2016) GHSP placed 97 nurse and physician educators in three countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda). These educators have taught 454 courses and workshops to 8,321 trainees, faculty members, and practicing health professionals across the curriculum and in myriad specialties. Mixed-methods evaluation included key stakeholder interviews with host institution faculty and students who indicate that the addition of GHSP enhanced clinical teaching (quality and breadth) resulting in improved clinical skills, confidence, and ability to connect theory to practice and critical thinking. The outputs and outcomes from four exemplars which focus on the translation of

  17. Comparing the services and quality of private and public clinics in rural China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q; Liu, X; Shi, J

    2000-12-01

    After 15 years eradication of the private health sector in Socialist China, private practice was restored in 1980 along with the market oriented economic reform. In recent years, however, debates on its pros and cons are increasing. Arguments against private practice have led to a ban on private practice in some rural counties. The arguments against private practice state that the service quality of private clinics tends to be lower than that of public ones; private clinics are less likely to provide preventive care; and private clinics are more likely to provide over-treatment. This paper presents the major findings from a study conducted in China, aiming at comparing private and public village health clinics in terms of quality of services, willingness to provide preventive care and over-prescription of drugs. While it was found that the quality of services was poor and a large proportion of patient expenditure was due to over-treatment for all village clinics, there was no difference between public and private clinics. Both private and public clinics were willing to provide preventive services if they were subsidized for the provision. This study finds no evidence that care provided by private clinics is inferior to that of public clinics.

  18. The integration of behavioral health interventions in children's health care: services, science, and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Perrin, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Because the integration of mental or behavioral health services in pediatric primary care is a national priority, a description and evaluation of the interventions applied in the healthcare setting is warranted. This article examines several intervention research studies based on alternative models for delivering behavioral health care in conjunction with comprehensive pediatric care. This review describes the diverse methods applied to different clinical problems, such as brief mental health skills, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices, and the empirical outcomes of this research literature. Next, several key treatment considerations are discussed to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these interventions. Some practical suggestions for overcoming key service barriers are provided to enhance the capacity of the practice to deliver behavioral health care. There is moderate empirical support for the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of these interventions for treating internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Practical strategies to extend this work and address methodological limitations are provided that draw upon recent frameworks designed to simplify the treatment enterprise (e.g., common elements). Pediatric primary care has become an important venue for providing mental health services to children and adolescents due, in part, to its many desirable features (e.g., no stigma, local setting, familiar providers). Further adaptation of existing delivery models may promote the delivery of effective integrated interventions with primary care providers as partners designed to address mental health problems in pediatric healthcare.

  19. Perceptions of clients on awareness and the geographical location of a South African university sexual health clinic

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University has a sub-division, a sexual health clinic, which provides sexual health services. The clients of the sexual health clinic consist of staff members and students. Aim This article reports on the perceptions of clients that relate to awareness and the geographical location of the clinic. Setting The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University’s main campus. Method A descriptive qualitative approach was applied utilising in-depth interviews. A sample of n = 15 was drawn through purposive sampling and data saturation was achieved with the sample. Results The following themes emerged from the data: location of the clinic, awareness of sexual health services and marketing and advertising. Conclusion The findings of the study revealed that accessibility of the clinic is influenced by the geographical location of the clinic and that marketing and awareness of services require attention. PMID:29041801

  20. Investigating service features to sustain engagement in early intervention mental health services.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mackenzie; Cunningham, Charles E; Christensen, Bruce K; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Madsen, Victoria; Bieling, Peter; Chen, Yvonne; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2017-08-23

    To understand what service features would sustain patient engagement in early intervention mental health treatment. Mental health patients, family members of individuals with mental illness and mental health professionals completed a survey consisting of 18 choice tasks that involved 14 different service attributes. Preferences were ascertained using importance and utility scores. Latent class analysis revealed segments characterized by distinct preferences. Simulations were carried out to estimate utilization of hypothetical clinical services. Overall, 333 patients and family members and 183 professionals (N = 516) participated. Respondents were distributed between a Professional segment (53%) and a Patient segment (47%) that differed in a number of their preferences including for appointment times, individual vs group sessions and mode of after-hours support. Members of both segments shared preferences for many of the service attributes including having crisis support available 24 h per day, having a choice of different treatment modalities, being offered help for substance use problems and having a focus on improving symptoms rather than functioning. Simulations predicted that 60% of the Patient segment thought patients would remain engaged with a Hospital service, while 69% of the Professional segment thought patients would be most likely to remain engaged with an E-Health service. Patients, family members and professionals shared a number of preferences about what service characteristics will optimize patient engagement in early intervention services but diverged on others. Providing effective crisis support as well as a range of treatment options should be prioritized in the future design of early intervention services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Mobile clinics for women's and children's health.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; El-Gibaly, Omaima M H; El-Gazzar, Amira F E-S; Al-Attar, Ghada S T

    2016-08-11

    The accessibility of health services is an important factor that affects the health outcomes of populations. A mobile clinic provides a wide range of services but in most countries the main focus is on health services for women and children. It is anticipated that improvement of the accessibility of health services via mobile clinics will improve women's and children's health. To evaluate the impact of mobile clinic services on women's and children's health. For related systematic reviews, we searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), CRD; Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), CRD; NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), CRD (searched 20 February 2014).For primary studies, we searched ISI Web of Science, for studies that have cited the included studies in this review (searched 18 January 2016); WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 23 May 2016); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.cochranelibrary.com (including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register) (searched 7 April 2015); MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 7 April 2015); Embase, OvidSP (searched 7 April 2015); CINAHL, EbscoHost (searched 7 April 2015); Global Health, OvidSP (searched 8 April 2015); POPLINE, K4Health (searched 8 April 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (searched 8 April 2015); Global Health Library, WHO (searched 8 April 2015); PAHO, VHL (searched 8 April 2015); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 8 April 2015); LILACS, VHL (searched 9 April 2015). We included individual- and cluster-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. We included controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies provided they had at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Also, we included interrupted time series (ITS) studies if there was a clearly defined point in time when the intervention occurred and at least three data points

  2. Service quality and perceived value of technology-based service encounters: evaluation of clinical staff satisfaction in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chung-Jye; Chang, Hsin Hsin; Eng, Cheng Joo; Wong, Kit Hong

    Previous research has evaluated technology-based service encounters (TBSEs) in the delivery of health care by assessing patient satisfaction. This study examined service quality and perceived value of TBSEs used in health organisations from the perspective of clinical staff, with staff technology readiness as a moderator. A quantitative survey was conducted in Taiwan, across private and public healthcare organisations. Results showed that TBSEs had a direct effect on service quality and perceived value, which in turn had a direct effect on staff satisfaction in using TBSEs. However, service quality had no effect on perceived value when moderated by technology readiness. Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Sexual health problems of adolescents attending a sexual health service.

    PubMed

    Black, Christine; McGough, Pauline; Fargie, Fiona; Brown, Beverley Wilson

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether adolescents who present at a sexual health service aged 13 have more sexual health problems in later years than those who present aged 15. A case-note review was done in 2009 to identify sexual health problems for all 13-year-olds who registered with Sandyford sexual health service from April 2003 until December 2004 (group 1). This was compared with selected notes from adolescents who were 15 years old at the time of registration (group 2). Eighty-eight youths aged 13 and 632 aged 15 registered in the aforementioned period. Ninety records of 15-year-olds were selected for comparison. Twenty two of the 86 girls in group 1 and 31 of the 87 girls in group 2 had at least one pregnancy. Twenty-one adolescents in group 1 and 25 of those in group 2 had a sexually transmitted infection. Thirteen youths in group 1 and one in group 2 had suffered a sexual assault. Adolescents aged 13 at first registration with this service have more sexual health problems and warrant additional support throughout their teenage years. A very young age at first registration should prompt health professionals to provide additional clinical, emotional and social support.

  4. Patterns and predictors of health service utilization in adolescents with pain: comparison between a community and a clinical pain sample.

    PubMed

    Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B; Wilson, Anna C; Lewandowski, Amy; Palermo, Tonya M

    2011-07-01

    There is limited research describing the patterns of healthcare utilization in adolescents with chronic pain. This study describes healthcare utilization in a clinical chronic pain sample, and compares the patterns of service use of this group to a community sample with intermittent pain complaints. We also investigated demographic and clinical factors that predicted healthcare visits and medication use in the clinical sample. Data on 117 adolescents (aged 12-18; n = 59 clinical pain sample, n = 58 community) were collected. Caregivers and adolescents reported on sociodemographics, medical visits, current medications, pain, activity limitations, and depression. As hypothesized, the clinical pain sample had higher rates of healthcare consultation on all types of medical visits (general, specialty care, complementary medicine, mental health, OT/PT), and higher medication use compared to the community sample. Regression analyses revealed that higher annual income, greater pain frequency, and higher levels of caregiver-reported activity limitations were associated with a greater number of healthcare visits for the total sample. Within the clinical pain sample, higher pain frequency and greater activity limitations (caregiver report) predicted more specialty care visits. Additionally, higher income and greater levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher number of prescribed medications. This study contributes to the limited available data on health service and medication use in a clinical chronic pain sample versus a community sample of adolescents. We also identify clinical factors (pain frequency, parent-reported activity limitations, depressive symptoms) and demographic factors (gender, income) associated with healthcare utilization. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile clinics in Haiti, part 1: Preparing for service-learning.

    PubMed

    Cone, Pamela H; Haley, Janice M

    2016-11-01

    Mobile clinics have been used successfully to provide healthcare services to people in hard to reach areas around the world, but their use is sometimes controversial. There are advantages to using mobile clinics among rural underserved populations, and providing access to those who are vulnerable will improve health and decrease morbidity and mortality. However, some teams use inappropriate approaches to international service. For over 15 years, Azusa Pacific University School of Nursing has sponsored mobile clinics to rural northern Haiti with the aim to provide culturally sensitive healthcare in collaboration with Haitian leaders. Experience and exploring the literature have informed the APU-SoN approach on best practices for planning and preparing study abroad, service-learning trips that provide healthcare services. The authors hope that this description of the preparation and planning needed for appropriate and culturally sensitive service-learning experiences abroad will benefit others who seek to provide healthcare study abroad opportunities around the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationing of hospital services in the Australian health system.

    PubMed

    Kovac, M

    1998-09-01

    This article reports on the rationing in the Australian hospital sector and explains why it has been undertaken. It also briefly overviews the Australian health system in order to provide a necessary background for the issue of rationing itself. Rationing of hospital services has occurred because governments in Australia have limited hospital sector resources trying to ensure the containment of their health budgets. The resources available to hospitals have been insufficient to ensure that the supply of services meets the demand for such services. Therefore, in order to contain hospital budgets rationing has been required. Medicare, the universal health insurance system, assures that access to public hospital services is on the basis of clinical needs. However, due to the federal nature of government in Australia, the available services are determined by health system structural interrelationships and direct government regulation. For example, services provided in the community sector, and funded by the Commonwealth government, are prime candidates for being removed from the hospital sector by State/Territory governments. Similarly, expensive services with a wide range of usage are candidates for regulation to contain costs.

  7. Strategic planning for clinical services: St. Joseph Hospital and Health Care Center.

    PubMed

    Linggi, A; Pelham, L D

    1986-09-01

    A pharmacy department at a 340-bed community hospital based its strategic plan for developing patient-oriented services on a sound drug distribution system, a credible work-measurement program, and fiscal responsibility. In 1982 the department of pharmacy and i.v. therapy implemented a strategic plan for improving pharmaceutical services. The plan involved developing goals and objectives for the department; marketing the department's services and fiscal management to hospital administrators, medical staff, and nursing staff; building teamwork among the pharmacy staff; and improving the drug distribution system before instituting clinical services. Hiring of additional pharmacy staff was justified on the basis of work-measurement data. By adjusting staffing levels every two weeks based on work-measurement data, the department increased the efficiency of drug distribution activities; the pharmacy also implemented cost-saving programs like selection of therapeutic alternates and formulary restrictions. The savings were then reinvested in labor-intensive patient-oriented pharmaceutical services. A staff development program using staff pharmacists as preceptors expanded the breadth and depth of pharmacists' clinical skills. The planning efforts were successful because the needs of hospital administrators, the pharmacy department, and staff members were addressed.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and case management of clinical malaria in the primary health services of a rural area in south-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Font, F; Alonso González, M; Nathan, R; Kimario, J; Lwilla, F; Ascaso, C; Tanner, M; Menéndez, C; Alonso, P L

    2001-06-01

    Malaria control continues to rely on the diagnosis and prompt treatment of both suspected and confirmed cases through the health care structures. In south-eastern Tanzania malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The absence of microscopic examination in most of the health facilities implies that health workers must rely on clinical suspicion to identify the need of treatment for malaria. Of 1558 randomly selected paediatric consultations at peripheral health facilities throughout Kilombero District, 41.1% were diagnosed by the attending health worker as clinical malaria cases and 42.5% prescribed an antimalarial. According to our malaria case definition of fever or history of fever with asexual falciparum parasitaemia of any density, 25.5% of all children attending the health services had malaria. This yielded a sensitivity of 70.4% (IC95% = 65.9-74.8%) and a specificity of 68.9% (IC95% = 66.2-71.5%). Accordingly, 30.4% of confirmed cases left with no antimalarial treatment. Among malaria-diagnosed patients, 10% were underdosed and 10.5% were overdosed. In this area, as in many African rural areas, the low diagnostic accuracy may imply that the burden of malaria cases may be overestimated. Greater emphasis on the functioning and quality of basic health services in rural endemic areas is required if improved case management of malaria is to help roll back this scourge.

  9. Timing of Clinical Billing Reimbursement for a Local Health Department.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J Mac

    2016-01-01

    A major responsibility of a local health department (LHD) is to assure public health service availability throughout its jurisdiction. Many LHDs face expanded service needs and declining budgets, making billing for services an increasingly important strategy for sustaining public health service provision. Yet, little practice-based data exist to guide practitioners on what to expect financially, especially regarding timing of reimbursement receipt. This study provides results from one LHD on the lag from service delivery to reimbursement receipt. Reimbursement records for all transactions at Maricopa County Department of Public Health immunization clinics from January 2013 through June 2014 were compiled and analyzed to determine the duration between service and reimbursement. Outcomes included daily and cumulative revenues received. Time to reimbursement for Medicaid and private payers was also compared. Reimbursement for immunization services was received a median of 68 days after service. Payments were sometimes taken back by payers through credit transactions that occurred a median of 333 days from service. No differences in time to reimbursement between Medicaid and private payers were found. Billing represents an important financial opportunity for LHDs to continue to sustainably assure population health. Yet, the lag from service provision to reimbursement may complicate budgeting, especially in initial years of new billing activities. Special consideration may be necessary to establish flexibility in the budget-setting processes for services with clinical billing revenues, because funds for services delivered in one budget period may not be received in the same period. LHDs may also benefit from exploring strategies used by other delivery organizations to streamline billing processes.

  10. A national survey of clinical pharmacy services in county hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongning; Xi, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yuankai; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yuanjia; Wang, Yitao; Yao, Wenbing

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy is not only a medical science but also an elaborate public health care system firmly related to its subsystems of education, training, qualification authentication, scientific research, management, and human resources. China is a developing country with a tremendous need for improvements in the public health system, including the clinical pharmacy service system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the infrastructure and personnel qualities of clinical pharmacy services in China. Public county hospitals in China. A national survey of clinical pharmacists in county hospitals was conducted. It was sampled through a stratified sampling strategy. Responses were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The main outcome measures include the coverage of clinical pharmacy services, the overall staffing of clinical pharmacists, the software and hardware of clinical pharmacy services, the charge mode of clinical pharmacy services, and the educational background, professional training acquisition, practical experience, and entry path of clinical pharmacists. The overall coverage of clinical pharmacy services on both the department scale (median = 18.25%) and the patient scale (median = 15.38%) does not meet the 100% coverage that is required by the government. In 57.73% of the sample hospitals, the staffing does not meet the requirement, and the size of the clinical pharmacist group is smaller in larger hospitals. In addition, 23.4% of the sample hospitals do not have management rules for the clinical pharmacists, and 43.1% do not have rational drug use software, both of which are required by the government. In terms of fees, 89.9% of the sample hospitals do not charge for the services. With regard to education, 8.5% of respondents are with unqualified degree, and among respondents with qualified degree, 37.31% are unqualified in the major; 43% of respondents lack the clinical pharmacist training required by the government. Most

  11. Planning estimates for the provision of core mental health services in Queensland 2007 to 2017.

    PubMed

    Harris, Meredith G; Buckingham, William J; Pirkis, Jane; Groves, Aaron; Whiteford, Harvey

    2012-10-01

    To derive planning estimates for the provision of public mental health services in Queensland 2007-2017. We used a five-step approach that involved: (i) estimating the prevalence and severity of mental disorders in Queensland, and the number of people at each level of severity treated by health services; (ii) benchmarking the level and mix of specialised mental health services in Queensland against national data; (iii) examining 5-year trends in Queensland public sector mental health service utilisation; (iv) reviewing Australian and international planning benchmarks; and (v) setting resource targets based on the results of the preceding four steps. Best available evidence was used where possible, supplemented by value judgements as required. Recommended resource targets for inpatient service were: 20 acute beds per 100,000 population, consistent with national average service provision but 13% above Queensland provision in 2005; and 10 non-acute beds per 100,000, 65% below Queensland levels in 2005. Growth in service provision was recommended for all other components. Adult residential rehabilitation service targets were 10 clinical 24-hour staffed beds per 100,000, and 18 non-clinical beds per 100,000. Supported accommodation targets were 35 beds per 100,000 in supervised hostels and 35 places per 100,000 in supported public housing. A direct care clinical workforce of 70 FTE per 100,000 for ambulatory care services was recommended. Fifteen per cent of total mental health funding was recommended for community support services provided by non-government organisations. The recommended targets pointed to specific areas for priority in Queensland, notably the need for additional acute inpatient services for older persons and expansion of clinical ambulatory care, residential rehabilitation and supported accommodation services. The development of nationally agreed planning targets for public mental health services and the mental health community support sector were

  12. Indian Health Service: Find Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... A permanent facility which contains inpatient beds, organized staff including physician services, continuous nursing services and that ... is authorized from or where community health services staff are stationed such as Public Health Nurses (PHN), ...

  13. Youth experiences of transition from child mental health services to adult mental health services: a qualitative thematic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Broad, Kathleen L; Sandhu, Vijay K; Sunderji, Nadiya; Charach, Alice

    2017-11-28

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area. Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded. Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS. Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement

  14. Service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ramessur, Vinaysing; Hurreeram, Dinesh Kumar; Maistry, Kaylasson

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a service quality framework that enhances service delivery in clinical laboratories by gauging medical practitioner satisfaction and by providing avenues for continuous improvement. The case study method has been used for conducting the exploratory study, with focus on the Mauritian public clinical laboratory. A structured questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL service quality model was used for data collection, analysis and for the development of the service quality framework. The study confirms the pertinence of the following service quality dimensions within the context of clinical laboratories: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, turnaround time, technology, test reports, communication and laboratory staff attitude and behaviour. The service quality framework developed, termed LabSERV, is vital for clinical laboratories in the search for improving service delivery to medical practitioners. This is a pioneering work carried out in the clinical laboratory sector in Mauritius. Medical practitioner expectations and perceptions have been simultaneously considered to generate a novel service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

  15. [Health services use among elderly people living in the community].

    PubMed

    Pilger, Calíope; Menon, Mario Umberto; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the pattern of health service use of aged patients enrolled with the public health services of Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil. Home interviews were performed with 359 aged individuals, who were selected using stratified proportional sampling. The interviews were conducted in the period between January and April of 2010 at the homes of the aged participants, using sections I and III of the BOAS (Brazil Old Age Schedule). Association analysis was performed using the χ² test. The health services most used by the aged subjects over the last three months were medical appointments (49.6%) and clinical exams (38.4%). Women used health services more often (p=0.0240); 55.6% of the aged participants reported not seeking dental care. In conclusion, the aged population is a large user of health services and the city's public health network must be organized in view of an increasing demand for therapeutic diagnostic procedures.

  16. Addressing Low Literacy and Health Literacy in Clinical Oncology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Low functional literacy and low health literacy continue to be under-recognized and are associated with poorer patient health outcomes. Health literacy is a dynamic state influenced by how well a healthcare system delivers information and services that match patients’ abilities, needs and preferences. Oncology care poses considerable health literacy demands on patients who are expected to process high stakes information about complex multidisciplinary treatment over lengths of time. Much of the information provided to patients in clinical care and research is beyond their literacy levels. In this paper, we provide an overview of currently available guidelines and resources to improve how the needs of patients with diverse literacy skills are met by cancer care providers and clinics. We present recommendations for health literacy assessment in clinical practice and ways to enhance the usability of health information and services by improving written materials and verbal communication, incorporating multimedia and culturally appropriate approaches, and promoting health literacy in cancer care settings. The paper also includes a list of additional resources that can be used to develop and implement health literacy initiatives in cancer care clinics. PMID:20464884

  17. The development of clinical reasoning and interprofessional behaviors: service-learning at a student-run free clinic.

    PubMed

    Seif, Gretchen; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Kraft, Sara; Gonsalves, Wanda; Simpson, Kit; Johnson, Emily

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the benefits of a student run free clinic (SRFC) as a service learning experience for students in medicine, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and physician assistant programs. We hypothesized that students who participate in an interprofessional service learning course and volunteer at a SRFC would demonstrate significant increases in perceptions and attitudes for working in interprofessional health care teams and clinical reasoning skills compared to students who did not participate. Three assessments were administered to an experimental and control group of pre-clinical students from medical, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pharmacy and physician assistant programs before and after participation in an interprofessional service-learning course and volunteering at the SRFC. The tools were the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and the Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR). Students who completed the course had improvements in interprofessional perceptions and attitudes (p = 0.03) and perceptions of clinical reasoning skills when compared to the control group (p = 0.002). This study is novel as it examined students' perceptions of interprofessional attitudes and clinical reasoning following participation in an interprofessional service-learning course and participation in a SRFC.

  18. A service evaluation of self-referral to military mental health teams

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, I.; Jones, N.; Sharpley, J.; Greenberg, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The UK military runs a comprehensive mental health service ordinarily accessed via primary care referrals. Aims To evaluate the feasibility of self-referral to mental health services within a military environment. Methods Three pilot sites were identified; one from each service (Royal Navy, Army, Air Force). Socio-demographic information included age, rank, service and career duration. Clinical data included prior contact with general practitioner (GP), provisional diagnosis and assessment outcome. Results Of the 57 self-referrals, 69% (n = 39) had not previously accessed primary care for their current difficulties. After their mental health assessment, 47 (82%) were found to have a formal mental health problem and 41 (72%) were offered a further mental health clinician appointment. The data compared favourably with a large military mental health department that reported 87% of primary care referrals had a formal mental health condition. Conclusions The majority of self-referrals had formal mental health conditions for which they had not previously sought help from primary care; most were offered further clinical input. This supports the view that self-referral may be a useful option to encourage military personnel to seek professional care over and above the usual route of accessing care through their GP. PMID:27121634

  19. Analyzing Clinical Presentation, Service Utilization, and Clinical Outcome of Female Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…

  20. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2018-02-01

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. Using Mobile Health Clinics to Reach College Students: A National Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Reginald; Escue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background: The mobile health unit (MHU) was a grant-funded national initiative to explore the utilization of a mobile clinic to provide health promotion and clinical services for college students in the United States. Purpose: In 2010 and 2011, a 38-foot mobile clinic tested the feasibility of utilizing the clinic to deliver health promotion and…

  2. Awareness of venous thromboembolism in mental health services for older people.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, M; Wieczorek, G; Reilly, J

    2014-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important safety issue in the inpatient mental health care of older people. In a survey of specialist mental health staff, knowledge of deep vein thrombosis was good. More variable awareness of the presentation and risk factors for pulmonary embolism indicates the need for training integrated into regular physical health care updates. Currently, failure to adequately screen and prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is estimated to cause between 25,000 and 32,000 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the United Kingdom. The authors aimed to assess the awareness of VTE in clinical staff working in Mental Health Services for Older People, Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys National Health Service Foundation Trust. A questionnaire was devised to assess knowledge of VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and treatment in clinical staff working in Mental Health Service for Older Peoples' inpatient units. Forty-nine nurses, 12 consultant psychiatrists, and 11 clinical pharmacists responded. A significant proportion of staff had previous involvement in VTE treatment. Staff had significantly more limited knowledge of pulmonary embolism compared to deep vein thrombosis with areas for improvement in presentation, risk factors, and prevention. The study confirms a need for improved awareness among all clinical staff including nurses, pharmacists, and doctors, which can be met by including VTE awareness in First Response training, and encouraging use of the Department of Health VTE e-learning tool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Examining clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Knight, R. E.; Shoveller, J. A.; Carson, A. M.; Contreras-Whitney, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth’s experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians’ experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency—either implicitly (e.g. by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g. by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. PMID:24412811

  4. [Terrorism, public health and health services].

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Pérez-Berrocal Alonso, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Today the terrorism is a problem of global distribution and increasing interest for the international public health. The terrorism related violence affects the public health and the health care services in an important way and in different scopes, among them, increase mortality, morbidity and disability, generates a context of fear and anxiety that makes the psychopathological diseases very frequent, seriously alters the operation of the health care services and produces important social, political and economic damages. These effects are, in addition, especially intense when the phenomenon takes place on a chronic way in a community. The objective of this paper is to examine the relation between terrorism and public health, focusing on its effects on public health and the health care services, as well as to examine the possible frames to face the terrorism as a public health concern, with special reference to the situation in Spain. To face this problem, both the public health systems and the health care services, would have to especially adapt their approaches and operational methods in six high-priority areas related to: (1) the coordination between the different health and non health emergency response agencies; (2) the reinforcement of the epidemiological surveillance systems; (3) the improvement of the capacities of the public health laboratories and response emergency care systems to specific types of terrorism as the chemical or biological terrorism; (3) the mental health services; (4) the planning and coordination of the emergency response of the health services; (5) the relations with the population and mass media and, finally; (6) a greater transparency in the diffusion of the information and a greater degree of analysis of the carried out health actions in the scope of the emergency response.

  5. Quality of reproductive health services at commune health stations in Viet Nam: implications for national reproductive health care strategy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study conducted in 2009 of provider and patient perceptions of primary level reproductive health services provided by commune health stations (CHSs), and the implications for Viet Nam's 2011-2020 National Strategy for Reproductive Health Care. In the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue, and Vinh Long, we interviewed the heads of CHSs, held focus group discussions with midwives and women patients, and observed facilities. Half the 30 CHSs visited were in poor physical condition; the rest were newly renovated. However, the model of service delivery was largely unchanged from ten years before. Many appeared to fall short in meeting patient expectations in terms of modern medical equipment and technology, range of drug supplies, and levels of staff expertise. As a result, many women were turning to private doctors and public hospitals, at least in urban areas, or seeking medication from pharmacies. To make CHS clinics sustainable, promotion of access to reproductive health services should be undertaken concurrently with quality improvement. A responsive payment scheme must also be developed to generate revenues. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary use of more costly services from private clinics and higher level public facilities. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A service oriented approach for guidelines-based clinical decision support using BPMN.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medical practice requires that clinical guidelines need to be documented in such a way that they represent a clinical workflow in its most accessible form. In order to optimize clinical processes to improve clinical outcomes, we propose a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) based approach for implementing clinical guidelines that can be accessed from an Electronic Health Record (EHR) application with a Web Services enabled communication mechanism with the Enterprise Service Bus. We have used Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for modelling and presenting the clinical pathway in the form of a workflow. The aim of this study is to produce spontaneous alerts in the healthcare workflow in the diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The use of BPMN as a tool to automate clinical guidelines has not been previously employed for providing Clinical Decision Support (CDS).

  7. Clinical Predictive Modeling Development and Deployment through FHIR Web Services.

    PubMed

    Khalilia, Mohammed; Choi, Myung; Henderson, Amelia; Iyengar, Sneha; Braunstein, Mark; Sun, Jimeng

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictive modeling involves two challenging tasks: model development and model deployment. In this paper we demonstrate a software architecture for developing and deploying clinical predictive models using web services via the Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard. The services enable model development using electronic health records (EHRs) stored in OMOP CDM databases and model deployment for scoring individual patients through FHIR resources. The MIMIC2 ICU dataset and a synthetic outpatient dataset were transformed into OMOP CDM databases for predictive model development. The resulting predictive models are deployed as FHIR resources, which receive requests of patient information, perform prediction against the deployed predictive model and respond with prediction scores. To assess the practicality of this approach we evaluated the response and prediction time of the FHIR modeling web services. We found the system to be reasonably fast with one second total response time per patient prediction.

  8. Clinical Predictive Modeling Development and Deployment through FHIR Web Services

    PubMed Central

    Khalilia, Mohammed; Choi, Myung; Henderson, Amelia; Iyengar, Sneha; Braunstein, Mark; Sun, Jimeng

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictive modeling involves two challenging tasks: model development and model deployment. In this paper we demonstrate a software architecture for developing and deploying clinical predictive models using web services via the Health Level 7 (HL7) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) standard. The services enable model development using electronic health records (EHRs) stored in OMOP CDM databases and model deployment for scoring individual patients through FHIR resources. The MIMIC2 ICU dataset and a synthetic outpatient dataset were transformed into OMOP CDM databases for predictive model development. The resulting predictive models are deployed as FHIR resources, which receive requests of patient information, perform prediction against the deployed predictive model and respond with prediction scores. To assess the practicality of this approach we evaluated the response and prediction time of the FHIR modeling web services. We found the system to be reasonably fast with one second total response time per patient prediction. PMID:26958207

  9. Clinical leadership in health care: a position statement.

    PubMed

    Millward, Lynne J; Bryan, Karen

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to briefly review leadership within the contemporary UK National Health Services (NHS) including Department of Health and Royal College of Nursing (RCN) initiatives. It is argued that the concept of clinical leadership is a viable and important one, and is theoretically consistent with the contemporary social psychological literature on the importance of "local" leadership to effective organizational functioning. Field theory proposes that local influences (e.g. local management) on attitudes and behaviour will to a large extent mediate the impact of the organization (e.g. organisational structure and values) on (in this instance) health care delivery. The reality of clinical leadership must involve a judicious blend effective management in the conventional sense with skill in transformational change in order to make real difference to the care delivery process. For leadership initiatives to become truly culturally embedded into the "way we do things around here", they require more than just individual training and development. A view is offered for the practical interpretation of the clinical leadership concept in relationship terms. This will involve management of the relationship between health care professionals, between health care professionals and the "organizations" to which they are accountable and between health care professionals and service users.

  10. Effective interventions on service quality improvement in a physiotherapy clinic.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Farid; Tabrizi, JafarSadegh; Eteraf Oskouei, MirAli; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Service quality is considered as a main domain of quality associ-ated with non-clinical aspect of healthcare. This study aimed to survey and im-proves service quality of delivered care in the Physiotherapy Clinic affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. A quasi experimental interventional study was conducted in the Physiotherapy Clinic, 2010-2011. Data were collected using a validated and reli-able researcher made questionnaire with participation of 324 patients and their coadjutors. The study questionnaire consisted of 7 questions about demographic factors and 38 questions for eleven aspects of service quality. Data were then analyzed using paired samples t-test by SPSS16. In the pre intervention phase, six aspects of service quality including choice of provider, safety, prevention and early detection, dignity, autonomy and availability achieved non-acceptable scores. Following interventions, all aspects of the service quality improved and also total service quality score improved from 8.58 to 9.83 (P<0.001). Service quality can be improved by problem implementation of appropriate interventions. The acquired results can be used in health system fields to create respectful environments for healthcare customers.

  11. Mental Health Service Use in Schools and Non-School-Based Outpatient Settings: Comparing Predictors of Service Use

    PubMed Central

    Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Wood, Patricia A.; Garland, Ann F.; Landsverk, John; Hough, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have consistently documented a gap between the large number of US youth meeting criteria for a mental health disorder with significant associated impairment, and the comparatively few youth receiving services. School-based mental health care may address the need–services gap by offering services more equitably to youth in need, irrespective of family economic resources, availability of transportation, and other factors that can impede access to community clinics. However, diagnoses alone do not fully capture the severity of an individual's mental health status and need for services. Studying service use only in relation to diagnoses may restrict our understanding of the degree to which service use is reflective of service need, and inhibit our ability to compare school and non-school-based outpatient settings on their responsiveness to service need. The present study evaluated predictors of mental health service use in school- and community-based settings for youth who had had an active case in one of two public sectors of care, comparing empirically-derived dimensional measurements of youth mental health service need and impairment ratings against non-need variables (e.g., ethnicity, income). Three dimensions of youth mental health service need were identified. Mental health service need and non-need variables each played a significant predictive role. Parent-rated impairment was the strongest need-based predictor of service use across settings. The impact of non-need variables varied by service setting, with parental income having a particularly noticeable effect on school-based services. Across time, preceding service use and impairment each significantly predicted future service use. PMID:26442131

  12. Mental Health Service Use in Schools and Non-School-Based Outpatient Settings: Comparing Predictors of Service Use.

    PubMed

    Langer, David A; Wood, Jeffrey J; Wood, Patricia A; Garland, Ann F; Landsverk, John; Hough, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Researchers have consistently documented a gap between the large number of US youth meeting criteria for a mental health disorder with significant associated impairment, and the comparatively few youth receiving services. School-based mental health care may address the need-services gap by offering services more equitably to youth in need, irrespective of family economic resources, availability of transportation, and other factors that can impede access to community clinics. However, diagnoses alone do not fully capture the severity of an individual's mental health status and need for services. Studying service use only in relation to diagnoses may restrict our understanding of the degree to which service use is reflective of service need, and inhibit our ability to compare school and non-school-based outpatient settings on their responsiveness to service need. The present study evaluated predictors of mental health service use in school- and community-based settings for youth who had had an active case in one of two public sectors of care, comparing empirically-derived dimensional measurements of youth mental health service need and impairment ratings against non-need variables (e.g., ethnicity, income). Three dimensions of youth mental health service need were identified. Mental health service need and non-need variables each played a significant predictive role. Parent-rated impairment was the strongest need-based predictor of service use across settings. The impact of non-need variables varied by service setting, with parental income having a particularly noticeable effect on school-based services. Across time, preceding service use and impairment each significantly predicted future service use.

  13. Perceptions and utilization of primary health care services in Iraq: findings from a national household survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After many years of sanctions and conflict, Iraq is rebuilding its health system, with a strong emphasis on the traditional hospital-based services. A network exists of public sector hospitals and clinics, as well as private clinics and a few private hospitals. Little data are available about the approximately 1400 Primary Health Care clinics (PHCCs) staffed with doctors. How do Iraqis utilize primary health care services? What are their preferences and perceptions of public primary health care clinics and private primary care services in general? How does household wealth affect choice of services? Methods A 1256 household national survey was conducted in the catchment areas of randomly selected PHCCs in Iraq. A cluster of 10 households, beginning with a randomly selected start household, were interviewed in the service areas of seven public sector PHCC facilities in each of 17 of Iraq's 18 governorates. A questionnaire was developed using key informants. Teams of interviewers, including both males and females, were recruited and provided a week of training which included field practice. Teams then gathered data from households in the service areas of randomly selected clinics. Results Iraqi participants are generally satisfied with the quality of primary care services available both in the public and private sector. Private clinics are generally the most popular source of primary care, however the PHCCs are utilized more by poorer households. In spite of free services available at PHCCs many households expressed difficulty in affording health care, especially in the purchase of medications. There is no evidence of informal payments to secure health services in the public sector. Conclusions There is widespread satisfaction reported with primary health care services, and levels did not differ appreciably between public and private sectors. The public sector PHCCs are preferentially used by poorer populations where they are important providers. PHCC

  14. Retail Health Clinics: A Policy Position Paper From the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hilary; Erickson, Shari

    2015-12-01

    Retail health clinics are walk-in clinics located in retail stores or pharmacies that are typically staffed by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. When they entered the marketplace in the early 2000s, retail clinics offered a limited number of services for low-acuity conditions that were paid for out of pocket by the consumer. Over the past decade, business models for these clinics have evolved to accept public and private health insurance, and some are expanding their services to include diagnosis, treatment, and management of chronic conditions. Retail health clinics are one of several methods of health care delivery that challenge the traditional primary care delivery model. The positions and recommendations offered by the American College of Physicians in this paper are intended to establish a framework that underscores patient safety, communication, and collaboration among retail health clinics, physicians, and patients.

  15. Provider perceptions of reproductive health service quality in jordanian public community health centers.

    PubMed

    Al-Qutob, Raeda; Nasir, Laeth S

    2008-05-01

    Enhancing the quality of reproductive health care delivery in developing countries is a key prerequisite to increased utilization and sustainability of these services in the target population. Our objective was to assess the perception of quality of reproductive health (RH) care services provided by Jordanian Ministry of Health community-based centers from the perspective of service providers in these settings. A purposeful nationwide sample of 50 primary health care providers took part in five focus group discussions with the purpose of exploring their perceptions of the quality of care provided by their centers and perceived barriers to the provision of quality RH care. Health care providers felt that the quality of RH care provided by their centers was suboptimal. Focus group participants reported numerous barriers to the provision of high quality-care in the clinical setting. These included issues related to patient overload, patient and physician characteristics, as well as problems inherent to supervisory and administrative functions. Exploring and aligning goals and expectations of RH care providers and administrators may result in improvements in the quality of RH care service delivery and morale in public health settings in Jordan, which is a requirement for public sector reform.

  16. Examining clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth: considering social and structural determinants of health in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Knight, R E; Shoveller, J A; Carson, A M; Contreras-Whitney, J G

    2014-08-01

    Although barriers related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth's experiences accessing sexual health services have been examined in detail, research into the experiences and perceptions of clinicians providing these services has been conspicuously absent. The aim of this article is to explore the perceptions and experiences of clinicians providing sexual health services for LGBTQ youth. Drawing on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, this study examines 24 clinicians' experiences providing sexual health services to LGBTQ youth in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings reveal how many clinicians provide services to LGBTQ youth with a lack of cultural competency-either implicitly (e.g., by describing heteronormative practices) or explicitly (e.g., by expressing frustration that they had not been sufficiently provided with appropriate training related to LGBTQ youth sexual health). Institutional norms and values were identified as the dominant barriers in the effective provision of LGBTQ-tailored services. Many clinicians find themselves unprepared to provide culturally competent sexual health services that have both the capacity to address individual-level issues (e.g. promoting condom use) while considering (and adapting services to) the broader socio-cultural and structural conditions that can render LGBTQ youth socially vulnerable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Availability of essential health services in post-conflict Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Rockers, Peter C; Williams, Elizabeth H; Varpilah, S Tornorlah; Macauley, Rose; Saydee, Geetor; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the availability of essential health services in northern Liberia in 2008, five years after the end of the civil war. Methods We carried out a population-based household survey in rural Nimba county and a health facility survey in clinics and hospitals nearest to study villages. We evaluated access to facilities that provide index essential services: artemisinin combination therapy for malaria, integrated management of childhood illness, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counselling and testing, basic emergency obstetric care and treatment of mental illness. Findings Data were obtained from 1405 individuals (98% response rate) selected with a three-stage population-representative sampling method, and from 43 of Nimba county’s 49 health facilities selected because of proximity to the study villages. Respondents travelled an average of 136 minutes to reach a health facility. All respondents could access malaria treatment at the nearest facility and 55.9% could access HIV testing. Only 26.8%, 14.5%, and 12.1% could access emergency obstetric care, integrated management of child illness and mental health services, respectively. Conclusion Although there has been progress in providing basic services, rural Liberians still have limited access to life-saving health care. The reasons for the disparities in the services available to the population are technical and political. More frequently available services (HIV testing, malaria treatment) were less complex to implement and represented diseases favoured by bilateral and multilateral health sector donors. Systematic investments in the health system are required to ensure that health services respond to current and future health priorities. PMID:20616972

  18. Availability of essential health services in post-conflict Liberia.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rockers, Peter C; Williams, Elizabeth H; Varpilah, S Tornorlah; Macauley, Rose; Saydee, Geetor; Galea, Sandro

    2010-07-01

    To assess the availability of essential health services in northern Liberia in 2008, five years after the end of the civil war. We carried out a population-based household survey in rural Nimba county and a health facility survey in clinics and hospitals nearest to study villages. We evaluated access to facilities that provide index essential services: artemisinin combination therapy for malaria, integrated management of childhood illness, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counselling and testing, basic emergency obstetric care and treatment of mental illness. Data were obtained from 1405 individuals (98% response rate) selected with a three-stage population-representative sampling method, and from 43 of Nimba county's 49 health facilities selected because of proximity to the study villages. Respondents travelled an average of 136 minutes to reach a health facility. All respondents could access malaria treatment at the nearest facility and 55.9% could access HIV testing. Only 26.8%, 14.5%, and 12.1% could access emergency obstetric care, integrated management of child illness and mental health services, respectively. Although there has been progress in providing basic services, rural Liberians still have limited access to life-saving health care. The reasons for the disparities in the services available to the population are technical and political. More frequently available services (HIV testing, malaria treatment) were less complex to implement and represented diseases favoured by bilateral and multilateral health sector donors. Systematic investments in the health system are required to ensure that health services respond to current and future health priorities.

  19. The effect of community-based support services on clinical efficacy and health-related quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kabore, Inoussa; Bloem, Jeanette; Etheredge, Gina; Obiero, Walter; Wanless, Sebastian; Doykos, Patricia; Ntsekhe, Pearl; Mtshali, Nomantshali; Afrikaner, Eric; Sayed, Rauf; Bostwelelo, John; Hani, Andiswa; Moshabesha, Tiisetso; Kalaka, Agnes; Mameja, Jerry; Zwane, Nompumelelo; Shongwe, Nomvuyo; Mtshali, Phangisile; Mohr, Beryl; Smuts, Archie; Tiam, Appolinaire

    2010-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS in developing countries has been rapidly scaled up through directed public and private resources. Data on the efficacy of ART in developing countries are limited, as are operational research studies to determine the effect of selected nonmedical supportive care services on health outcomes in patients receiving ART. We report here on an investigation of the delivery of medical care combined with community-based supportive services for patients with HIV/AIDS in four resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa, carried out between 2005 and 2007. The clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) efficacy of ART combined with community support services was studied in a cohort of 377 HIV-infected patients followed for 18 months, in community-based clinics through patient interviews, clinical evaluations, and questionnaires. Patients exposed to community-based supportive services experienced a more rapid and greater overall increase in CD4 cell counts than unexposed patients. They also had higher levels of adherence, attributed primarily to exposure to home-based care services. In addition, patients receiving home-based care and/or food support services showed greater improvements in selected health-related QOL indicators. This report discusses the feasibility of effective ART in a large number of patients in resource-limited settings and the added value of concomitant community-based supportive care services.

  20. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations

  1. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli

    2008-05-03

    Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services

  2. Marketing retail health clinics: challenges and controversies arising from a health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cheryl-Ann N; Khanfar, Nile M; Harrington, Catherine; Loudon, David

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding in 2000, retail-based health care clinics, also called convenient care clinics, have flourished but continue to generate controversy. This article examines the literature with respect to the industry's background, establishment of industry standards, types of services offered, marketing of retail health clinics, industry growth with new target markets, and patient demographics. It also examines the growing relationship with insurers and third-party payers, quality-of-care concerns by medical associations, and legal regulations and their potential impact on industry growth nationwide.

  3. Using Decision Support to Address Racial Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Purva H.; Anderson, Tanya R.; Romansky, Jill R.; Lyons, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, racial disparities are well documented in the delivery of behavioral health services. This study examines the effects of implementing a decision support process, integrating clinical information into the administration of mental health services, on racial disparities in psychiatric hospital admissions for children in state custody.…

  4. Subclinical psychotic experiences and subsequent contact with mental health services.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Maccabe, James H; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n =1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider. Cox regression estimated the association of PEs with rate of mental health service use. After adjustments, psychotic experiences were associated with a 1.75-fold increase in the rate of subsequent mental health service use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.03-2.97) compared with those without PEs. Participants with PEs experienced longer care episodes compared with those without. Psychotic experiences in the general population are important predictors of public mental health need, aside from their relevance for psychoses. We found psychotic experiences to be associated with later mental health service use, after accounting for sociodemographic confounders and concurrent psychopathology. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  5. Selecting physician leaders for clinical service lines: critical success factors.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Andrew L; Bard, Marc A

    2008-03-01

    Clinical service lines and interdisciplinary centers have emerged as important strategic programs within academic health centers (AHCs). Effective physician leadership is significant to their success, but how these leaders are chosen has not been well studied. The authors conducted a study to identify current models for selecting the physician leaders of clinical service lines, determine critical success factors, and learn how the search process affected service line performance. In 2003 and 2004, the authors interviewed clinical and executive personnel involved in 14 programs to establish, or consider establishing, heart or cancer service lines, at 13 AHCs. The responses were coded to identify and analyze trends and themes. The key findings of the survey were (1) the goals and expectations that AHCs set for their service line leaders vary greatly, depending on both the strategic purpose of the service line in the AHC and the service line's stage of development, (2) the matrix organizational structure employed by most AHCs limits the leader's authority over necessary resources, and calls forth a variety of compensating strategies if the service line is to succeed, (3) the AHCs studied used relatively informal processes to identify, evaluate, and select service line leaders, and (4) the leader's job is vitally shaped by the AHC's strategic, structural, and political context, and selection criteria should be determined accordingly. Institutions should be explicit about the strategic purpose and stage of development of their clinical service lines and be clear about their expectations and requirements in hiring service line leaders.

  6. Building effective service linkages in primary mental health care: a narrative review part 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary care services have not generally been effective in meeting mental health care needs. There is evidence that collaboration between primary care and specialist mental health services can improve clinical and organisational outcomes. It is not clear however what factors enable or hinder effective collaboration. The objective of this study was to examine the factors that enable effective collaboration between specialist mental health services and primary mental health care. Methods A narrative and thematic review of English language papers published between 1998 and 2009. An expert reference group helped formulate strategies for policy makers. Studies of descriptive and qualitative design from Australia, New Zealand, UK, Europe, USA and Canada were included. Data were extracted on factors reported as enablers or barriers to development of service linkages. These were tabulated by theme at clinical and organisational levels and the inter-relationship between themes was explored. Results A thematic analysis of 30 papers found the most frequently cited group of factors was "partnership formation", specifically role clarity between health care workers. Other factor groups supporting clinical partnership formation were staff support, clinician attributes, clinic physical features and evaluation and feedback. At the organisational level a supportive institutional environment of leadership and change management was important. The expert reference group then proposed strategies for collaboration that would be seen as important, acceptable and feasible. Because of the variability of study types we did not exclude on quality and findings are weighted by the number of studies. Variability in local service contexts limits the generalisation of findings. Conclusion The findings provide a framework for health planners to develop effective service linkages in primary mental health care. Our expert reference group proposed five areas of strategy for policy makers

  7. Mental health economics, health service provision, and the practice of geriatric psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Han, Changsu

    2008-11-01

    Economic evaluation is becoming more and more important as a means to assist policy makers in choosing the best intervention or treatment against a pervasive scarcity of resources relative to the demands. Health service provision and the practice of geriatric psychiatry are closely associated with costs and outcomes of health economics. Recently published literature raising unanswered questions in these areas is reviewed. Some studies on the costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of certain interventions or treatments (e.g. respite care, home-visiting community service) compared with usual strategies show that these are not optimal in terms of health economics. The updated guidance by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence that cholinesterase inhibitors should be used only for moderate severity dementia on the grounds of cost-effectiveness has been heavily criticized. Mental health provision for older people varies across 'developed' and 'developing' countries. Updated findings provide better understanding of recent progress and issues on mental health economics, health service provision, and the practice of geriatric psychiatry. The application of health economics to the field of mental health should make complicated issues simple and explicit. Constructive criticisms and scientific debates will hasten the development of better tools or methodologies to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of current and new interventions or treatments.

  8. Child responsible personnel in adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child

  9. Identifying clinical and support-service resources and network practices for cancer patients and survivors in southern Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eida M.; Jiménez, Julio C.; Quinn, Gwendolyn; García, Myra; Colón, Yesenia; Ramos, Axel; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Nazario, Cruz María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to identify cancer-related health care services and to explore the presence of inter-organizational interactions among clinical and support oncology services in southern Puerto Rico. Methods From January through July of 2010, a survey was completed by 54 health care organizations offering clinical, supportive, or both services to cancer patients/survivors (CPS) in southern PR. Survey data were compiled and descriptive analyses performed using the software Statistical Package for a Social Science (SPSS), version 18.0. Results The distribution of the primary services provided by the participating organizations was the following: 26 had clinical services, 16 had support services, and 12 offered a combination of clinical and support services. Only 24% of the surveyed organizations offered their services exclusively to patients diagnosed with cancer. In terms of referral practices, 61% of the responses were for medical specialists, 43% were for mental health services, and 37% were referrals for primary care services. The most common reason for interacting (n = 27) was to provide a given patient both an referral and information. Conclusion Findings suggest gaps in both the availability of oncology services and the delivery of integrated health care. Lack of communication among clinical and support organizations (for cancer patients, specifically) could negatively impact the quality of the services that they offer. Further network analysis studies are needed to confirm these gaps. Until systemic, structural changes occur, more efforts are needed to facilitate communication and collaboration among these kinds of organization. PMID:25249352

  10. The gravitational force of mental health services: distance decay effects in a rural Swiss service area.

    PubMed

    Stulz, Niklaus; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Kawohl, Wolfram; Hepp, Urs

    2018-02-05

    Previous research suggested a distance decay effect in health services systems, with people living closer to service facilities being more likely to use them. In this ecological cross sectional study, we conducted spatial and statistical analyses in a Swiss mental health services system being legally bound to provide primary mental health care to approximately 620,000 inhabitants. We examined a cohort of all patients who were over 18 years old and who were treated in the mental health services system between January and December 2011. There were 5574 treatment cases during the 12-month period, 2161 inpatient cases and 3413 outpatient cases. Travel time by public transportation between patients' residence and the closest mental health service facility negatively predicted the utilization of outpatient services for all mental disorders, even after controlling for variability in ecological (e.g. socioeconomic) characteristics of the communities in the service provision area. For utilization of inpatient wards no geographical distance decay effect was observed, except for organic mental disorders. Based on these findings, outpatient clinics should be most effectively located decentralized and in the largest communities to meet the needs of the population as close as possible to where people live and to avoid remote areas being insufficiently supplied with mental health care. For mental hospitals and inpatient services decentralized location seems to be less important.

  11. A service evaluation of self-referral to military mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, I; Whybrow, D; Jones, N; Sharpley, J; Greenberg, N

    2016-07-01

    The UK military runs a comprehensive mental health service ordinarily accessed via primary care referrals. To evaluate the feasibility of self-referral to mental health services within a military environment. Three pilot sites were identified; one from each service (Royal Navy, Army, Air Force). Socio-demographic information included age, rank, service and career duration. Clinical data included prior contact with general practitioner (GP), provisional diagnosis and assessment outcome. Of the 57 self-referrals, 69% (n = 39) had not previously accessed primary care for their current difficulties. After their mental health assessment, 47 (82%) were found to have a formal mental health problem and 41 (72%) were offered a further mental health clinician appointment. The data compared favourably with a large military mental health department that reported 87% of primary care referrals had a formal mental health condition. The majority of self-referrals had formal mental health conditions for which they had not previously sought help from primary care; most were offered further clinical input. This supports the view that self-referral may be a useful option to encourage military personnel to seek professional care over and above the usual route of accessing care through their GP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of medication management services in six Minnesota health systems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Todd D; Pestka, Deborah; Sorge, Lindsay A; Wallace, Margaret L; Schommer, Jon

    2016-03-01

    The initiation, establishment, and sustainability of medication management programs in six Minnesota health systems are described. Six Minnesota health systems with well-established medication management programs were invited to participate in this study: Essentia Health, Fairview Health Services, HealthPartners, Hennepin County Medical Center, Mayo Clinic, and Park Nicollet Health Services. Qualitative methods were employed by conducting group interviews with key staff from each institution who were influential in the development of medication management services within their organization. Kotter's theory of eight steps for leading organizational change served as the framework for the question guide. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring and emergent themes. A total of 13 distinct themes were associated with the successful integration of medication management services across the six healthcare systems. Identified themes clustered within three stages of Kotter's model for leading organizational change: creating a climate for change, engaging and enabling the whole organization, and implementing and sustaining change. The 13 themes included (1) external influences, (2) pharmacists as an untapped resource, (3) principles and professionalism, (4) organizational culture, (5) momentum champions, (6) collaborative relationships, (7) service promotion, (8) team-based care, (9) implementation strategies, (10) overcoming challenges, (11) supportive care model process, (12) measuring and reporting results, and (13) sustainability strategies. A qualitative survey of six health systems that successfully implemented medication management services in ambulatory care clinics revealed that a supportive culture and team-based collaborative care are among the themes identified as necessary for service sustainability. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical directors' views of centralisation and commissioning of cleft services in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Searle, Aidan; Scott, Julia K; Sandy, Jonathan; Ness, Andrew; Waylen, Andrea

    2015-01-22

    To determine the views of Clinical Directors working in the United Kingdom (U.K.) Cleft Service with regard to centralisation, commissioning and impact on cleft service provision. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 Clinical Directors representing regional cleft services. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, a coding frame was developed by two researchers and transcripts were coded using a thematic, 'interpretive' approach. Clinical Directors perceived the commissioning of cleft services in the U.K. to be dependent upon historical agreements and individual negotiation despite service centralisation. Furthermore, Clinical Directors perceived unfairness in the commissioning and funding of cleft services and reported inconsistencies in funding models and service costs that have implications for delivering an equitable cleft service with an effective Multidisciplinary Team. National Health Service (NHS) commissioning bodies can learn lessons from the centralisation of cleft care. Clinical Directors' accounts of their relationships with specialist commissioning bodies and their perspectives of funding cleft services may serve to increase parity and improve the commissioning of cleft services in the U.K.

  14. Essential Concepts in Modern Health Services

    PubMed Central

    El Taguri, A

    2008-01-01

    Health services have the functions to define community health problems, to identify unmet needs and survey the resources to meet them, to establish SMART objectives, and to project administrative actions to accomplish the purpose of proposed action programs. For maximum efficacy, health systems should rely on newer approaches of management as management-by-objectives, risk-management, and performance management with full and equal participation from professionals and consumers. The public should be well informed about their needs and what is expected from them to improve their health. Inefficient use of budget allocated to health services should be prevented by tools like performance management and clinical governance. Data processed to information and intelligence is needed to deal with changing disease patterns and to encourage policies that could manage with the complex feedback system of health. e-health solutions should be instituted to increase effectiveness and improve efficiency and informing human resources and populations. Suitable legislations should be introduced including those that ensure coordination between different sectors. Competent workforce should be given the opportunity to receive lifetime appropriate adequate training. External continuous evaluation using appropriate indicators is vital. Actions should be done both inside and outside the health sector to monitor changes and overcome constraints. PMID:21499457

  15. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) score to predict clinical outcomes and health service costs in older people discharged from UK acute medical units.

    PubMed

    Edmans, Judi; Bradshaw, Lucy; Gladman, John R F; Franklin, Matthew; Berdunov, Vladislav; Elliott, Rachel; Conroy, Simon P

    2013-11-01

    tools are required to identify high-risk older people in acute emergency settings so that appropriate services can be directed towards them. to evaluate whether the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) predicts the clinical outcomes and health and social services costs of older people discharged from acute medical units. an observational cohort study using receiver-operator curve analysis to compare baseline ISAR to an adverse clinical outcome at 90 days (where an adverse outcome was any of death, institutionalisation, hospital readmission, increased dependency in activities of daily living (decrease of 2 or more points on the Barthel ADL Index), reduced mental well-being (increase of 2 or more points on the 12-point General Health Questionnaire) or reduced quality of life (reduction in the EuroQol-5D) and high health and social services costs over 90 days estimated from routine electronic service records. two acute medical units in the East Midlands, UK. a total of 667 patients aged ≥70 discharged from acute medical units. an adverse outcome at 90 days was observed in 76% of participants. The ISAR was poor at predicting adverse outcomes (AUC: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.54-0.65) and fair for health and social care costs (AUC: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.81). adverse outcomes are common in older people discharged from acute medical units in the UK; the poor predictive ability of the ISAR in older people discharged from acute medical units makes it unsuitable as a sole tool in clinical decision-making.

  16. [Marketing in health service].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The gradual emergence of marketing activities in public health demonstrates an increased interest in this discipline, despite the lack of an adequate and universally recognized theoretical model. For a correct approach to marketing techniques, it is opportune to start from the health service, meant as a service rendered. This leads to the need to analyse the salient features of the services. The former is the intangibility, or rather the ex ante difficulty of making the patient understand the true nature of the performance carried out by the health care worker. Another characteristic of all the services is the extreme importance of the regulator, which means who performs the service (in our case, the health care professional). Indeed the operator is of crucial importance in health care: being one of the key issues, he becomes a part of the service itself. Each service is different because the people who deliver it are different, furthermore there are many variables that can affect the performance. Hence it arises the difficulty in measuring the services quality as well as in establishing reference standards.

  17. 77 FR 41190 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care... Announcement Number: HHS-2012-IHS-OCPS-HIV-0001. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number: 93.933. The...

  18. Factors associated with mental health services referrals for children investigated by child welfare.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-Fai; Alegria, Margarita; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Beardslee, William

    2018-05-01

    Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services. Caseworkers referred 21.0% of children to mental health services. In multivariable analyses controlling for potential covariates, factors associated with increased odds of caseworker referral included: older child age; child sexual abuse (versus neglect); child out-of-home placement; caregiver mental health problems; prior maltreatment reports; clinically significant child behavioral problems; and child welfare agency collaborative ties with mental health providers (all p < .05). Factors associated with decreased odds of caseworker referral included child Black race (versus White race) and lack of insurance (versus Private insurance) (all p < .05). In summary, children's need for mental health services was positively associated with caseworker referral to services but certain predisposing and enabling factors and caseworker work environment characteristics also correlated with services referral. Interventions to reduce disparities in services referral by race and insurance type are critically needed. These may include child welfare agency implementation of policies for mental health screening, assessment, and services referral based on clinical need and establishment of child welfare-mental health agency collaborative ties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can clinical use of Social Media improve quality of care in mental Health? A Health Technology Assessment approach in an Italian mental health service.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Nollo, Giandomenico; Pace, Nicola; Torri, Emanuele

    2015-09-01

    Clinical use of modern Information and Communication Technologies such as Social Media (SM) can easily reach and empower groups of population at risk or affected by chronic diseases, and promote improvement of quality of care. In the paper we present an assessment of SM (i.e. e-mails, websites, on line social networks, apps) in the management of mental disorders, carried out in the Mental Health Service of Trento (Italy) according to Health Technology Assessment criteria. A systematic review of literature was performed to evaluate technical features, safety and effectiveness of SM. To understand usage rate and attitude towards new social technologies of patients and professionals, we performed a context analysis by a survey conducted over a group of 88 psychiatric patients and a group of 35 professionals. At last, we made recommendations for decision makers in order to promote SM for the management of mental disorders in a context of prioritization of investments in health care.

  20. Understanding the Attitudes of Latino Parents Towards Confidential Health Services for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Tebb, Kathleen; Hernandez, Liz Karime; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Chang, Fay; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the knowledge and attitudes that Latino parents have about confidential health services for their teens and identify factors that may influence those attitudes. Methods Latino parents of teens (12-17 years old) were randomly selected from a large health maintenance organization and a community-based hospital to participate in one-hour focus groups. We conducted eight focus groups in the parent's preferred language. Spanish and English transcripts were translated and coded with inter-coder reliability > 80%. Results There were 52 participants (30 mothers, 22 fathers). There is a wide range of parental knowledge and attitudes about confidential health services for teens. Parents felt they had the right to know about their teens’ health but were uncomfortable discussing sexual topics and thought confidential teen-clinician discussions would be helpful. Factors that influence parental acceptability of confidential health services include: parental trust in the clinician, clinician's interpersonal skills; clinical competencies, ability to partner with parents and teens and clinician-teen gender concordance. Most parents preferred teens’ access to confidential services than having their teens forego needed care. Conclusions This study identifies several underlying issues that may influence Latino youth's access to confidential health services. Implications for clinical application and future research are discussed. PMID:22626483

  1. Designing and implementing E-health Applications in the UK's National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Bower, D Jane; Barry, Nessa; Reid, Margaret; Norrie, John

    2005-12-01

    Telemedicine/e-health applications have the potential to play an important role in Britain's National Health Service (NHS), including the NHS in Scotland. The Scottish Telemedicine Action Forum (STAF) was established by the Scottish Executive Department of Health in 1999 to take a range of applications, targeted on national priorities, into routine service. In the process it has provided insights into how advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be moved from the research stage into routine service. In this article four of the projects are described and analysed focusing on the key issues that have emerged as critical for carrying projects successfully through to implementation in service as follows: 1. A multisite videoconferencing network linking 15 minor injury units to the main accident and emergency (A&E) centre. 2. A single-site neonatal intensive care "cotside" laptop system to assist communication between parents and clinical staff. 3. A single-site outpatient chronic disease management system. 4. A multisite software audit tool to support the care of cleft lip and palate patients from birth onward.

  2. Health Services in Afghanistan: USAID Continues Providing Millions of Dollars to the Ministry of Public Health Despite the Risk of Misuse of Funds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    funding to the MoPH for the delivery of health services throughout Afghanistan, ranging from immunizations and prenatal care to hospital services...for the Afghan people through a two-tiered system : • Basic Package of Health Services provides primary health care services—such as immunizations and... prenatal care —at small and rural health clinics and forms the core of health service delivery for all primary care facilities in Afghanistan

  3. The matron's role in acute National Health Service trusts.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how matrons in an acute National Health Service trust perceive and undertake their role since its reconfiguration in 2005 and to investigate their needs for continuing professional development. Matrons returned to acute National Health Service trusts in 2002 to provide a senior, authoritative nursing presence throughout clinical areas. Their function is to promote high standards of clinical care and leadership; ensure that administrative and support services are in place to deliver high standards of care; and provide a visible, accessible and authoritative presence in ward settings. Data were obtained by interview. A qualitative approach using a semi-structured interview schedule was used to obtain data from 22 matrons and the data were subjected to thematic analysis. There were differences in the way that matrons performed their role. They promoted clinical leadership effectively and maintained a high clinical profile. Attempts to promote high standards of cleanliness and infection control were less effective because of the shortcomings of the domestic service. Overall the matron role is proving effective. However, matrons' ability to promote adequate levels of environmental cleanliness and control infection is a cause for concern. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGERS: The study findings suggest that where an existing service is performing poorly, expecting another occupational group to oversee it will not contribute to improvement unless resources can be improved. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: This study has provided an in-depth evaluation of the matron role at a local level. It is to date the most comprehensive study of its kind.

  4. Architecture Design of Healthcare Software-as-a-Service Platform for Cloud-Based Clinical Decision Support Service.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sungyoung; Cha, Jieun; Ji, Myungkyu; Kang, Hyekyung; Kim, Seok; Heo, Eunyoung; Han, Jong Soo; Kang, Hyunggoo; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung

    2015-04-01

    To design a cloud computing-based Healthcare Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Platform (HSP) for delivering healthcare information services with low cost, high clinical value, and high usability. We analyzed the architecture requirements of an HSP, including the interface, business services, cloud SaaS, quality attributes, privacy and security, and multi-lingual capacity. For cloud-based SaaS services, we focused on Clinical Decision Service (CDS) content services, basic functional services, and mobile services. Microsoft's Azure cloud computing for Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) was used. The functional and software views of an HSP were designed in a layered architecture. External systems can be interfaced with the HSP using SOAP and REST/JSON. The multi-tenancy model of the HSP was designed as a shared database, with a separate schema for each tenant through a single application, although healthcare data can be physically located on a cloud or in a hospital, depending on regulations. The CDS services were categorized into rule-based services for medications, alert registration services, and knowledge services. We expect that cloud-based HSPs will allow small and mid-sized hospitals, in addition to large-sized hospitals, to adopt information infrastructures and health information technology with low system operation and maintenance costs.

  5. The delivery of clinical preventive services: acute care intervention.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D L

    1999-10-01

    . Evidence-based clinical preventive services are underutilized. We explored the major factors associated with delivery of these services in a large physician-owned community-based group practice that provided care for both fee-for-service (FFS) and health maintenance organization (HMO) patient populations. We performed a cross-sectional audit of the computerized billing data of all adult outpatients seen at least once by any primary care provider in 1995 (N = 75,621). Delivery of preventive services was stratified by age, sex, visit frequency, insurance status (FFS or HMO), and visit type (acute care only or scheduled preventive visit). Insurance status and visit type were the strongest predictors of clinical preventive service delivery. Patients with FFS coverage received 6% to 13% (absolute difference) fewer of these services than HMO patients. Acute-care-only patients received 9% to 45% fewer services than patients who scheduled preventive visits. The combination of these factors was associated with profound differences. Having insurance to pay for preventive services is an important factor in the delivery of such care. Encouraging all patients to schedule preventive visits has been suggested as a strategy for increasing delivery, but that is not practical in this setting. Assessing the need for preventive services and offering them during acute care visits has equal potential for increasing delivery.

  6. Strategic outsourcing of clinical services: a model for volume-stressed academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Billi, John E; Pai, Chih-Wen; Spahlinger, David A

    2004-01-01

    Many academic medical centers have significant capacity constraints and limited ability to expand services to meet demand. Health care management should employ strategic thinking to deal with service demands. This article uses three organizational models to develop a theoretical framework to guide the selection of clinical services for outsourcing.

  7. Integrating home-based medication therapy management (MTM) services in a health system.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Shannon; Holtan, Haley; Stender, Jennifer; Salvatore, Toni; Thompson, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    To describe the integration of home-based Medication Therapy Management (MTM) into the ambulatory care infrastructure of a large urban health system and to discuss the outcomes of this service. Minnesota from September 2012 to December 2013. The health system has more than 50 primary care and specialty clinics. Eighteen credentialed MTM pharmacists are located in 16 different primary care and specialty settings, with the greatest number of pharmacists providing services in the internal medicine clinic. Home-based MTM was promoted throughout the clinics within the health system. Physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and pharmacists could refer patients to receive MTM in their homes. A home visit had the components of a clinic-based visit and was documented in the electronic health record (EHR); however, providing the service in the home allowed for a more direct assessment of environmental factors affecting medication use. Number of home MTM referrals, reason for referral and type of referring provider, number and type of medication-related problems (MRPs). In the first 15 months, 74 home visits were provided to 53 patients. Sixty-six percent of the patients were referred from the Internal Medicine Clinic. Referrals were also received from the senior care, coordinated care, and psychiatry clinics. Approximately 50% of referrals were made by physicians. More referrals (23%) were made by pharmacists compared with advanced practice providers, who made 21% of referrals. The top 3 reasons for referral were: nonadherence, transportation barriers, and the need for medication reconciliation with a home care nurse. Patients had a median of 3 MRPs with the most common (40%) MRP related to compliance. Home-based MTM is feasibly delivered within the ambulatory care infrastructure of a health system with sufficient provider engagement as demonstrated by referrals to the service. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Clinical supervision for allied health staff: necessary but not sufficient.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Sandra G; Phillips, Bev; Pearce, Philippa; Dawson, Margaret; Schulz, Debbie; Smith, Jenni

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore the perspectives of allied health professionals on appropriate content for effective clinical supervision of staff. Methods A set of statements regarding clinical supervision was identified from the literature and confirmed through a Q-sort process. The final set was administered as an online survey to 437 allied health professionals working in two Australian health services. Results Of the 120 respondents, 82 had experienced six or more clinical supervision sessions and were included in the analysis. Respondents suggested that clinical supervision was beneficial to both staff and patients, and was distinct from line management performance monitoring and development. Curiously, some of the respondents did not agree that observation of the supervisee's clinical practice was an aspect of clinical supervision. Conclusions Although clinical supervision is included as a pillar of clinical governance, current practice may not be effective in addressing clinical risk. Australian health services need clear organisational policies that outline the relationship between supervisor and supervisee, the role and responsibilities of managers, the involvement of patients and the types of situations to be communicated to the line managers. What is known about the topic? Clinical supervision for allied health professionals is an essential component of clinical governance and is aimed at ensuring safe and high-quality care. However, there is varied understanding of the relationship between clinical supervision and performance management. What does this paper add? This paper provides the perspectives of allied health professionals who are experienced as supervisors or who have experienced supervision. The findings suggest a clear role for clinical supervision that needs to be better recognised within organisational policy and procedure. What are the implications for practitioners? Supervisors and supervisees must remember their

  9. Health system preparedness for integration of mental health services in rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Gwaikolo, Wilfred S; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cooper, Janice L

    2017-07-27

    There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history. Both events have immediate and lasting mental health effects. A mixed-methods approach was employed, consisting of qualitative interviews with 22 key informants and six focus group discussions. Additional qualitative data as well as quantitative data were collected through semi-structured assessments of 19 rural primary care health facilities. Data were collected from March 2013 to March 2014. Potential barriers to development and uptake of mental health services included lack of mental health knowledge among primary health care staff; high workload for primary health care workers precluding addition of mental health responsibilities; lack of mental health drugs; poor physical infrastructure of health facilities including lack of space for confidential consultation; poor communication support including lack of electricity and mobile phone networks that prevent referrals and phone consultation with supervisors; absence of transportation for patients to facilitate referrals; negative attitudes and stigma towards people with severe mental disorders and their family members; and stigma against mental health workers. To develop and facilitate effective primary care mental health services in a post-conflict, low resource setting will require (1) addressing the knowledge and clinical skills gap in the primary care workforce; (2) improving physical

  10. Factors influencing organizational adoption and implementation of clinical genetic services.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison B; Oishi, Sabine; Yano, Elizabeth M; Gammage, Cynthia E; Marshall, Nell J; Scheuner, Maren T

    2014-03-01

    We sought to identify characteristics of genetic services that facilitate or hinder adoption. We conducted semi-structured key informant interviews in five clinical specialties (primary care, medical oncology, neurology, cardiology, pathology/laboratory medicine) within 13 Veterans Administration facilities. Genetic services (defined as genetic testing and consultation) were not typically characterized by informants (n = 64) as advantageous for their facilities or their patients; compatible with organizational norms of low cost and high clinical impact; or applicable to patient populations or norms of clinical care. Furthermore, genetic services had not been systematically adopted in most facilities because of their complexity: knowledge of and expertise on genetic testing was limited, and organizational barriers to utilization of genetic services were formidable. The few facilities that had some success with implementation of genetic services had knowledgeable clinicians interested in developing services and organizational-level facilitators such as accessible genetic test-ordering processes. Adoption and implementation of genetic services will require a multilevel effort that includes education of providers and administrators, opportunities for observing the benefits of genetic medicine, strategies for reducing the complexity of genomic medicine, expanded strategies for accessing genetics expertise and streamlining utilization, and resources dedicated to assessing the value of genetic information for the outcomes that matter to health-care organizations.

  11. Rethinking the Role of the Public Health Clinic: Comparison of Outpatient Utilization in the Public Health Clinics and Private Clinics in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Agnus M; Cho, Seongcheol; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Min-Woo; Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong

    2018-06-22

    Korea has experienced an overall expansion of access to care in the past few decades, which necessitated the reconsideration of the role of the public health clinics (PHC) as a primary care provider. The recent controversy about the outpatient copayment waiver for the elderly in the PHC is in the same vein. This study compared the outpatient utilization of the PHC and private clinics, and investigated its factors. Data were acquired from the National Patient Sample in 2013. Compared with private clinics, the patients in the PHC were more elderly and had less severe conditions. Being elderly, the status of National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries, less comorbidities, and low total claim costs were found to be factors for choosing the PHC over private clinics. These results suggest that the elderly, who are the main beneficiaries of copayment waivers in the PHC, are the most likely to use the outpatient service by the PHC. The functions of the PHC need to be rearranged according to the recent advancements in the health care system in Korea. Diverting the resources and efforts from outpatient care to functions that best serve the health of the population should be considered.

  12. Utilizing public health clinics for service-learning rotations in dental hygiene: a four-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Aston-Brown, Roberta E; Branson, Bonnie; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2009-03-01

    National reports outlining disparities in oral health care in the United States have focused attention on ways to encourage health care providers to become more involved in the public health arena. Utilization of service-learning in professional health education programs is one method being explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective review of a service-learning rotation within a dental hygiene public health course. The study utilized data sources generated by students as part of a course evaluation. These sources included student journals (qualitative/quantitative) and Likert-scaled (quantitative) and open-ended (qualitative) student satisfaction survey items. Mixed methodology data analysis techniques were used to analyze and triangulate data in order to form conclusions related to the effectiveness of service-learning as a teaching strategy in dental hygiene. This investigation suggests that service-learning is an effective learning strategy for increasing student awareness of underserved populations, cultural diversity, and ethical patient care. The study also suggests that service-learning helped students to determine their level of interest in public health as a career choice by giving them a real-world experience in public health patient care.

  13. Understanding the attitudes of Latino parents toward confidential health services for teens.

    PubMed

    Tebb, Kathleen; Hernandez, Liz Karime; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Chang, Fay; Eyre, Stephen L; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2012-06-01

    To explore the knowledge and attitudes that Latino parents have about confidential health services for their teens and to identify factors that may influence those attitudes. Latino parents of teens (12-17 years) were randomly selected from a large health maintenance organization and a community-based hospital to participate in 1-hour focus groups. We conducted eight focus groups in the parent's preferred language. Spanish and English transcripts were translated and coded with intercoder reliability >80%. There were 52 participants (30 mothers, 22 fathers). There is a wide range of parental knowledge and attitudes about confidential health services for teens. Parents believed they had the right to know about their teens' health but were uncomfortable discussing sexual topics and thought confidential teen-clinician discussions would be helpful. Factors that influence parental acceptability of confidential health services include parental trust in the clinician; the clinician's interpersonal skills, clinical competencies, and ability to partner with parents and teens; and clinician-teen gender concordance. Most parents preferred teens' access to confidential services than having their teens forego needed care. This study identifies several underlying issues that may influence Latino youths' access to confidential health services. Implications for clinical application and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strengths of the Northwell Health Laboratory Service Line

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Erika; Stallone, Robert; Castagnaro, Joseph; Poczter, Hannah; Schron, Deborah; Martone, James; Breining, Dwayne; Simpkins, Henry; Neglia, Tom; Kalish, Paul

    2016-01-01

    From 2009 to 2015, the laboratories of the 19-hospital North Shore-LIJ Health System experienced 5 threatened interruptions in service and supported 2 regional health-care providers with threatened interruptions in their laboratory service. We report our strategies to maintain laboratory performance during these events, drawing upon the strengths of our integrated laboratory service line. Established in 2009, the laboratory service line has unified medical and administrative leadership and system-wide divisional structure, quality management, and standardization of operations and procedures. Among many benefits, this governance structure enabled the laboratories to respond to a series of unexpected events. Specifically, at our various service sites, the laboratories dealt with pandemic (2009), 2 floods (2010, 2012), 2 fires (2010, 2015), and laboratory floor subsidence (2013). We were also asked to provide support for a regional physician network facing abrupt loss of testing services from closure of another regional clinical laboratory (2010) and to intervene for a non-health system hospital threatened with closure owing to noncompliance of laboratory operations (2012). In all but a single instance, patient care was served without interruption in service. In the last instance, fire interrupted laboratory services for 30 minutes. We conclude that in a large integrated health system, threats to continuous laboratory operations are not infrequent when measured on an annual basis. While most threats are from external physical circumstances, some emanate from unexpected administrative events. A strong laboratory governance mechanism that includes unified medical and administrative leadership across the entirety of the laboratory service line enables successful responses to these threats. PMID:28725768

  15. Subclinical psychotic experiences and subsequent contact with mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Maccabe, James H.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Background Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. Aims To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. Method We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n=1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider. Cox regression estimated the association of PEs with rate of mental health service use. Results After adjustments, psychotic experiences were associated with a 1.75-fold increase in the rate of subsequent mental health service use (hazard ratio (HR) 1.75, 95% CI 1.03–2.97) compared with those without PEs. Participants with PEs experienced longer care episodes compared with those without. Conclusions Psychotic experiences in the general population are important predictors of public mental health need, aside from their relevance for psychoses. We found psychotic experiences to be associated with later mental health service use, after accounting for sociodemographic confounders and concurrent psychopathology. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. PMID:28357132

  16. Consensus guidelines: improving the delivery of clinical preventive services.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Cynthia G; Griffith, Hurdis M

    2008-01-01

    Medical directors from the largest competing health plans in the state came together in a noncompetitive way to collaborate on improving the delivery of clinical preventive service (CPS) among their provider base. They identified one consistent set of CPS guidelines based on U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, the health plan consensus guidelines (HPCG), that they could endorse as priority for guideline implementation. The purposes of this study were to assess clinicians' knowledge and use of CPS recommendations as a guide to delivering preventive care services to their patients and, most importantly, to test the effectiveness of providing the HPCG to clinicians in an effort to increase knowledge and use of CPS guidelines. Within-subjects repeated-measures design was used. We hypothesized an increase in clinician's knowledge and use of CPS after the provision of the HPCG. Survey methodology, including two surveys that assessed clinicians' knowledge and use of CPS in practice, was used. Health plan clinician databases were obtained from the health plans that participated in the development of the HPCG. Health plan clinicians directly involved in delivering preventive services were invited to participate in the study. Final sample included 163 clinicians. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were determined to examine the relationships between clinician's knowledge and clinician's use of CPS guidelines. Differences between knowledge and use of CPS before and after HPCG were examined by t tests. No difference was found in the familiarity with U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines before and after receipt of HPCG. However, clinician's use increased significantly. A consistent set of CPS guidelines provided by competing health plans can improve the delivery of CPS among contracted health plan clinicians. This approach provides a template for competing health plans nationwide to come to consensus on guidelines that support clinicians in the

  17. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  18. Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Health Service Use in Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kadan-Lottick, Nina S.; Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Block, Susan D.; Zhang, Baohui; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Psychological morbidity has been proposed as a source of distress in cancer patients. This study aimed to: 1) determine the prevalence of diagnosable psychiatric illnesses, and 2) describe the mental health services received and predictors of service utilization in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study of 251 eligible patients with advanced cancer. Eligibility included: distant metastases, primary therapy failure, nonpaid caregiver, age ≥20 years, stamina for the interview, English or Spanish-speaking, and adequate cognitive ability. Trained interviewers administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) modules for Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and a detailed questionnaire regarding mental health service utilization. RESULTS. Overall, 12% met criteria for a major psychiatric condition and 28% had accessed a mental health intervention for a psychiatric illness since the cancer diagnosis. Seventeen percent had discussions with a mental health professional; 90% were willing to receive treatment for emotional problems. Mental health services were not accessed by 55% of patients with major psychiatric disorders. Cancer patients who had discussed psychological concerns with mental health staff (odds ratio [OR] = 19.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 8.90-41.50) and non-Hispanic white patients (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.01-7.43) were more likely to receive mental health services in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS. Advanced cancer patients experience major psychiatric disorders at a prevalence similar to the general population, but affected individuals have a low rate of utilizing mental health services. Oncology providers can enhance utilization of mental health services, and potentially improve clinical outcomes, by discussing mental health concerns with their patients. PMID:16284994

  19. Health service utilization before and after evidence-based treatment for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Peter W; Wangelin, Bethany; Rauch, Sheila A M; Dismuke, Clara E; Yoder, Matthew; Myrick, Hugh; Eftekhari, Afsoon; Acierno, Ron

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with functional impairment, co-occurring diagnoses, and increased health care utilization. Associated high demand for health care services is an important contributor to the large public-health cost of PTSD. Treatments incorporating exposure therapy are efficacious in ameliorating or eliminating PTSD symptoms. Accordingly, the Veterans Health Administration has made significant investments toward nationwide dissemination of a manualized exposure therapy protocol, prolonged exposure (PE). PE is effective with veterans; however, the relationship between PE and mental health service utilization is unknown. The current study investigates PE as it relates to actual tracked mental health service utilization in an urban VA medical center. A sample of 60 veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD was used to examine mental health service utilization in the 12-months prior to and 12-months after being offered PE. Hierarchical Linear Models and traditional repeated-measures ANOVA were used to estimate R²- and d-type effect sizes for service utilization. Associated estimated cost saving are reported. PE was associated with large reductions in symptoms and diagnosis remission. Treatment was also associated with statistically significant, large reductions in mental health service utilization for veterans who completed treatment. Findings suggest that expanding access to PE can increase access to mental health services in general by decreasing ongoing demand for specialty care clinical services.

  20. Comparing Trauma Exposure, Mental Health Needs, and Service Utilization Across Clinical Samples of Refugee, Immigrant, and U.S.-Origin Children.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Birman, Dina; Lee, Robert; Ellis, B Heidi; Layne, Christopher M

    2017-06-01

    Most mental health services for trauma-exposed children and adolescents were not originally developed for refugees. Information is needed to help clinicians design services to address the consequences of trauma in refugee populations. We compared trauma exposure, psychological distress, and mental health service utilization among children and adolescents of refugee-origin, immigrant-origin, and U.S.-origin referred for assessment and treatment by U.S. providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). We used propensity score matching to compare trauma profiles, mental health needs, and service use across three groups. Our sample comprised refugee-origin youth (n = 60, 48.3% female, mean age = 13.07 years) and propensity-matched samples of immigrant-origin youth (n = 143, 60.8% female, mean age = 13.26 years), and U.S.-origin youth (n = 140, 56.1% female, mean age = 12.11 years). On average, there were significantly more types of trauma exposure among refugee youth than either U.S.-origin youth (p < .001) or immigrant youth (p ≤ .001). Compared with U.S.-origin youth, refugee youth had higher rates of community violence exposure, dissociative symptoms, traumatic grief, somatization, and phobic disorder.  In contrast, the refugee group had comparably lower rates of substance abuse and oppositional defiant disorder (ps ranging from .030 to < .001).This clinic-referred sample of refugee-origin youth presented with distinct patterns of trauma exposure, distress symptoms, and service needs that merit consideration in services planning. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Developing and Establishing School-Based Sexual Health Services: Issues for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Mark; Owen, Jenny; Cooke, Jo

    2012-01-01

    School-based sexual health clinics are emerging as one of the key ways to promote sexual health among young people, and school nurses play an important role in developing and delivering these services. This study used a qualitative design to explore the experiences of health professionals and policy makers involved in setting up such services in…

  2. Experiences of health care providers with integrated HIV and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mutemwa, Richard; Mayhew, Susannah; Colombini, Manuela; Busza, Joanna; Kivunaga, Jackline; Ndwiga, Charity

    2013-01-11

    There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost-effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 frontline clinical officers, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses in Kitui district (Eastern province) and Thika and Nyeri districts (Central province) in Kenya. The study was conducted in health facilities providing integrated HIV and reproductive health services (post-natal care and family planning). All interviews were conducted in English, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Providers reported delivering services in provider-level and unit-level integration, as well as a combination of both. Provider experiences of actual integration were mixed. At personal level, providers valued skills enhancement, more variety and challenge in their work, better job satisfaction through increased client-satisfaction. However, they also felt that their salaries were poor, they faced increased occupational stress from: increased workload, treating very sick/poor clients, and less quality time with clients. At operational level, providers reported increased service uptake, increased willingness among clients to take an HIV test, and reduced loss of clients. But the majority also reported infrastructural and logistic deficiencies (insufficient physical room space, equipment

  3. Prevention and dental health services.

    PubMed

    Widström, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy.

  4. Providing primary health care through integrated microfinance and health services in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Kimberley H; Leatherman, Sheila

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous burdens of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality in middle-income countries. The poor are at particular risk, with lower access to health care and higher rates of avoidable mortality. Integrating health-related services with microfinance has been shown to improve health knowledge, behaviors, and access to appropriate health care. However, limited evidence is available on effects of fully integrating clinical health service delivery alongside microfinance services through large scale and sustained long-term programs. Using a conceptual model of health services access, we examine supply- and demand-side factors in a microfinance client population receiving integrated services. We conduct a case study using data from 2010 to 2012 of the design of a universal screening program and primary care services provided in conjunction with microfinance loans by Pro Mujer, a women's development organization in Latin America. The program operates in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. We analyze descriptive reports and administrative data for measures related to improving access to primary health services and management of chronic diseases. We find provision of preventive care is substantial, with an average of 13% of Pro Mujer clients being screened for cervical cancer each year, 21% receiving breast exams, 16% having a blood glucose measurement, 39% receiving a blood pressure measurement, and 46% having their body mass index calculated. This population, with more than half of those screened being overweight or obese and 9% of those screened having elevated glucose measures, has major risk factors for diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease without intervention. The components of the Pro Mujer health program address four dimensions of healthcare access: geographic accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability. Significant progress has been made to meet basic

  5. Responding to traveling patients' seasonal demand for health care services.

    PubMed

    Al-Haque, Shahed; Ceyhan, Mehmet Erkan; Chan, Stephanie H; Nightingale, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides care to over 8 million Veterans and operates over 1,700 sites of care across 21 regional networks in the United States. Health care providers within VHA report large seasonal variation in the demand for services, especially in the southern United States because of arrival of "snowbirds" during the winter. Because resource allocation activities are primarily carried out through an annual budgeting process, the seasonal load imposed by "traveling Veterans"-Veterans that seek care at VHA sites outside of their home network-make providing high-quality services more challenging. This work constitutes the first major effort within VHA to understand the impact of traveling Veterans. We discovered strong seasonal fluctuations in demand at a clinic located in the southeastern United States and developed a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model to help the clinic forecast demand for its services with significantly less error than historical averaging. Monte Carlo simulation of the clinic revealed that physicians are overutilized, suggesting the need to re-evaluate how the clinic is currently staffed. More broadly, this study demonstrates how operations management methods can assist operational decision making at other clinics and medical centers both within and outside VHA. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10-20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally.

  7. [Development of child mental health services in Lithuania: achievements and obstacles].

    PubMed

    Pūras, Dainius

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, political, economic and social changes in Lithuania introduced the possibility to develop for the first time in nations's history an effective and modern system of child mental health services. During the period between 1990 and 1995 a new model of services was developed in the Department of Social pediatrics and child psychiatry of Vilnius University. The model included development of child and adolescent psychiatric services, as well as early intervention services for infants and preschool children with developmental disabilities. The emphasis, following recommendations of WHO and existing international standards, was made on deinstitutionalization and development of family-oriented and community-based services, which have been ignored by previous system. In the first half of 90's of 20th century, new training programs for professionals were introduced, more than 50 methods of assessment, treatment and rehabilitation, new for Lithuanian clinical practice, were implemented, and a new model of services, including primary, secondary and tertiary level of prevention, was introduced in demonstration sites. However, during next phase of development, in 1997-2001, serious obstacles for replicating new approaches across the country, have been identified, which threatened successful implementation of the new model of services into everyday clinical practice. Analysis of obstacles, which are blocking development of new approaches in the field of child mental health, is presented in the article. The main obstacles, identified during analysis of socioeconomic context, planning and utilization of resources, running of the system of services and evaluation of outcomes, are as follows: lack of intersectorial cooperation between health, education and social welfare systems; strong tradition of discrimination of psychosocial interventions in funding schemes of health services; societal attitudes, which tend to discriminate and stigmatize marginal groups, including

  8. Implementation of occupational health service improvements through application of total quality management processes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-06-01

    The occupational health services department for a manufacturing division of a high-technology firm was redesigned from an outsourced model, in which most services were provided by an outside clinic vendor, to an in-house service model, in which services were provided by an on-site nurse practitioner. The redesign and implementation, accomplished by a cross-functional team using Total Quality Management processes, resulted in a comprehensive occupational health services department that realized significant cost reduction, increased compliance with regulatory and company requirements, and improved employee satisfaction. Implications of this project for occupational health nurses are discussed.

  9. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  10. Health and functional status and utilization of health care services among holocaust survivors and their counterparts in Israel.

    PubMed

    Iecovich, Esther; Carmel, Sara

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in health and functional status and in utilization of health services between holocaust survivors and their counterparts; and (b) to investigate if holocaust survivor status is a significant predictor of health status, functional status, and utilization of health services. The study included 1255 respondents of whom 272 were holocaust survivors. Interviews were conducted face-to-face at the respondents' homes. Participants were asked about their health (self-rated health and comorbidity) and functional (ADL and IADL) status, utilization of inpatient and outpatient health care services, age, gender, education, marital status, length of residence in Israel, and if they were holocaust survivors. Holocaust survivors, who were frailer and more chronically ill compared to their counterparts, visited their family physician and the nurse at the health care clinic more often than their counterparts did, and received more homecare services. Yet, there were no differences between them in the utilization of other health care services such as visits to specialists, emergency department, and hospitalizations. Holocaust survivors are more homebound due to more morbidity and functional limitations and therefore receive more health home care services that offset the utilization of other health services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

  12. Architecture Design of Healthcare Software-as-a-Service Platform for Cloud-Based Clinical Decision Support Service

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sungyoung; Cha, Jieun; Ji, Myungkyu; Kang, Hyekyung; Kim, Seok; Heo, Eunyoung; Han, Jong Soo; Kang, Hyunggoo; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To design a cloud computing-based Healthcare Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Platform (HSP) for delivering healthcare information services with low cost, high clinical value, and high usability. Methods We analyzed the architecture requirements of an HSP, including the interface, business services, cloud SaaS, quality attributes, privacy and security, and multi-lingual capacity. For cloud-based SaaS services, we focused on Clinical Decision Service (CDS) content services, basic functional services, and mobile services. Microsoft's Azure cloud computing for Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) was used. Results The functional and software views of an HSP were designed in a layered architecture. External systems can be interfaced with the HSP using SOAP and REST/JSON. The multi-tenancy model of the HSP was designed as a shared database, with a separate schema for each tenant through a single application, although healthcare data can be physically located on a cloud or in a hospital, depending on regulations. The CDS services were categorized into rule-based services for medications, alert registration services, and knowledge services. Conclusions We expect that cloud-based HSPs will allow small and mid-sized hospitals, in addition to large-sized hospitals, to adopt information infrastructures and health information technology with low system operation and maintenance costs. PMID:25995962

  13. Teaching Trainees to Deliver Adolescent Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Brandi; Chan, Serena H.; Perriera, Lisa; Gold, Melanie A.; Akers, Aletha Y.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Delivery of reproductive services to adolescents varies by specialty and has been linked to differences in clinical training. Few studies have explored how different specialties’ graduate medical education (GME) programs prepare providers to deliver adolescent reproductive services. We explored the perceptions of resident physicians regarding their training in delivering adolescent reproductive health services. DESIGN Between November 2008 and February 2009, nine focus groups were conducted with graduate medical trainees in three specialties that routinely care for adolescents. The semi-structured discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive approach to content analysis. SETTING Large, urban academic medical center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania PARTICIPANTS 54 resident trainees in pediatrics, family medicine and obstetrics/gynecology INTERVENTIONS None MAIN OUTCOMES Trainees’ perspectives regarding the didactic teaching and clinical training in providing adolescent reproductive services RESULTS Five themes emerged reflecting trainees’ beliefs regarding the best practices GME programs can engage in to ensure that trainees graduate feeling competent and comfortable delivering adolescent reproductive services. Trainees believed programs need to: 1) Provide both didactic lectures as well as diverse inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences; 2) Have faculty preceptors skilled in providing and supervising adolescent reproductive services; 3) Teach skills for engaging adolescents in clinical assessments and decision-making; 4) Train providers to navigate confidentiality issues with adolescents and caregivers; and 5) Provide infrastructure and resources for delivering adolescent reproductive services. CONCLUSIONS The three specialties differed in how well each of the five best practices were reportedly addressed during GME training. Policy recommendations are provided. PMID:26542014

  14. Expanding mental health services through novel models of intervention delivery.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, Alan E

    2018-06-13

    Currently, in the United States and worldwide, the vast majority of children and adolescents in need of mental health services receive no treatment. Although there are many barriers, a key barrier is the dominant model of delivering psychosocial interventions. That model includes one-to-one, in-person treatment, with a trained mental health professional, provided in clinical setting (e.g., clinic, private practice office, health-care facility). That model greatly limits the scale and reach of psychosocial interventions. The article discusses many novel models of delivering interventions that permit scaling treatment to encompass children and adolescents who are not likely to receive services. Special attention is accorded the use of social media, socially assistive robots, and social networks that not only convey the ability to scale interventions but also encompass interventions that depart from the usual forms of intervention that currently dominate psychosocial treatment research. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Using research evidence in mental health: user-rating and focus group study of clinicians' preferences for a new clinical question-answering service.

    PubMed

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Murray, Joanna; Churchill, Rachel

    2009-12-01

    Clinicians report difficulties using research in their practices. The aim of the study was to describe needs and preferences for a mental health clinical question-answering service designed to assist this process. Multi-disciplinary clinicians participated in a focus group; users of the service supplied feedback. Fifty-four clinicians received answers to 84 questions about mental health treatments. User ratings showed that the answers had multiple uses: informing health care (43), education (22), staff development (28) and research (12), and were considered useful, clear, relevant and helpful. Focus group participants appreciated critically appraised summaries of evidence and stressed the time-saving benefit of the service. Clinicians without a medical training were least confident in applying evidence. Attitudes to research were positive, but concern was expressed about its potential misuse for political purposes. This appeared to arise from an ambiguity around the term 'insufficient evidence', which participants felt is widely misinterpreted as 'evidence of no effect'. A highly valued, responsive service has been developed. A range of clinicians find critically appraised summaries of research useful. Education about the use of research may help clinicians to be more evidence based.

  16. Franchising reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  17. Social Support and Health Service Use in Depressed Adults: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Andrea, Sarah B; Siegel, Sarah A R; Teo, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between social support and health service use among men and women with depression. Participants were 1379 adults with symptoms of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 5) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using the framework of the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, multivariable regression models used social support, stratified by depression severity, to estimate association with utilization of mental health and nonmental health services. Partial F-tests examined a priori interactions between social support and gender. Among those with adequate social support, odds of seeing a nonmental health provider were much higher when depression was moderate [Odds Ratio (OR): 2.6 (1.3-5.3)] or severe [OR: 3.2 (1.2-8.7)], compared to those lacking social support. Conversely, odds of mental health service use were 60% lower among those with moderate depression [OR: 0.4 (0.2-1.0)] when social support was adequate as opposed to inadequate. Social support was unrelated to service use when depression was mild. Gender moderated the relationship between social support and health service use among individuals with severe depression. Social support has opposite associations with mental and nonmental health service use among adults with clinically significant depression. This association is largely attributable to the effect of male gender on the relationship between social support and health service use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Complete denture services: clinical technique, lab costs, manpower, and reimbursement. One-year review.

    PubMed

    Ewoldsen, Nels

    2011-01-01

    Complete denture services at comprehensive care public health clinics are not common in part because of clinician concerns regarding outcomes. Educational debt forgiveness has attracted recent dental graduates to public health dentistry; however, not all recent graduates receive denture education experiences necessary to attain proficiency. While fundamental patient assessment and denture construction are taught, psychological assessment and communication with denture patients requires experience. A thorough understanding of occlusion, phonetics, esthetics and laboratory steps is also necessary. Expecting recent dental graduates to become proficient providing complete dentures at minimal reimbursement levels, with no mentorship or on-site laboratory support, is unrealistic. Public health dental clinics operate at full capacity performing emergency, preventive and restorative procedures. Complete dentures come with a laboratory fee approximately one-half the total reimbursement, meaning a remake drops clinic revenue to zero while doubling expenses. It is understandable that full schedules, marginal reimbursement, unpredictability and the risk of an occasional failure block clinician interest in providing denture services. This one-year report of services describes a three-appointment complete denture technique offering improved patient and laboratory communication, reduced chair time and controlled cost, resulting in high-quality complete dentures.

  19. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada) with the author as principal investigator. Description Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested. PMID:16773157

  20. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a

  1. Impact of deploying multiple point-of-care tests with a 'sample first' approach on a sexual health clinical care pathway. A service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harding-Esch, Emma M; Nori, Achyuta V; Hegazi, Aseel; Pond, Marcus J; Okolo, Olanike; Nardone, Anthony; Lowndes, Catherine M; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, S Tariq

    2017-09-01

    To assess clinical service value of STI point-of-care test (POCT) use in a 'sample first' clinical pathway (patients providing samples on arrival at clinic, before clinician consultation). Specific outcomes were: patient acceptability; whether a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) could be used as a POCT in practice; feasibility of non-NAAT POCT implementation for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV); impact on patient diagnosis and treatment. Service evaluation in a south London sexual health clinic. Symptomatic female and male patients and sexual contacts of CT/NG-positive individuals provided samples for diagnostic testing on clinic arrival, prior to clinical consultation. Tests included routine culture and microscopy; CT/NG (GeneXpert) NAAT; non-NAAT POCTs for TV and BV. All 70 (35 males, 35 females) patients approached participated. The 'sample first' pathway was acceptable, with >90% reporting they were happy to give samples on arrival and receive results in the same visit. Non-NAAT POCT results were available for all patients prior to leaving clinic; rapid CT/NG results were available for only 21.4% (15/70; 5 males, 10 females) of patients prior to leaving clinic. Known negative CT/NG results led to two females avoiding presumptive treatment, and one male receiving treatment directed at possible Mycoplasma genitalium infection causing non-gonococcal urethritis. Non-NAAT POCTs detected more positives than routine microscopy (TV 3 vs 2; BV 24 vs 7), resulting in more patients receiving treatment. A 'sample first' clinical pathway to enable multiple POCT use was acceptable to patients and feasible in a busy sexual health clinic, but rapid CT/NG processing time was too long to enable POCT use. There is need for further development to improve test processing times to enable POC use of rapid NAATs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  2. Perspectives on family planning services among adolescents at a Boston community health center.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine M; Dodge, Laura E; Hacker, Michele R; Ricciotti, Hope A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate adolescent perspectives on family planning services at a community-health center, with the intent to inform health center programs aimed at stemming the adolescent pregnancy rate. This project was cross-sectional and employed mixed methods, including surveys and interviews, for the purposes of quality improvement. The project was conducted in the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at an urban community health center in Boston. Twenty adolescent females (age 16-20) who used services at the health center. Participants were individually interviewed to assess perspectives on family planning services and to identify major influences on methods of pregnancy prevention. Major themes were categorized into contraceptive usage, reproductive health knowledge, adult influence and communication, barriers to contraceptive care and expectations of a family planning clinic. All participants were sexually active and 80% had experienced pregnancy. Reproductive health knowledge was variable and in many cases limited. Concern about disapproval was a prominent barrier to going to a clinician for contraception or advice and parents were not often involved in the initial contraception discussion. Other barriers to use of contraception included forgetting to use the methods and fear of side effects. We identified several potentially modifiable factors, including lack of knowledge, concern for provider disapproval and fear of side effects that may limit effective use of family planning services by adolescents. Further attention should be paid to these factors in designing and improving youth-friendly services in ob-gyn clinics. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted doctors, missing patients: obstetric health services and sectarian conflict in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The spectre of exclusionary medical service provision, restricted clinic access and physician targeting in sectarian-divided Iraq underscores the crucial and timely need for qualitative research into the inter-relationship between conflict, identity and health. In response, this paper provides a critical ethnography of obstetric service provision and patient access during Shia-Sunni hostilities in Gilgit Town, capital of Pakistan's Northern Areas (2005). I analyse how services were embedded in and constrained by sectarian affiliation in ways that detrimentally impacted Sunni women patients and hospital staff, resulting in profoundly diminished clinic access, reduced physician coverage and a higher observed incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The paper first situates obstetric medicine at the interstices of contested sectarian terrain and competing historical projects of sectarian identity. Gilgiti Sunnis' high clinical reliance is argued to be a response to and consequence of, inter-sectarian dissonance and the ascendance of biomedicine during three decades of regional development. In 2005, conflict-incurred service deprivations and the enactment and strategic use of sectarian identity in clinical settings were associated with differential treatment and patient-perceived adverse health outcomes, leading Sunnis to generate alternative sect-specific health services. Obstetric morbidity and mortality during sectarian conflict are analyzed as distinctive manifestations of the wide range of direct harms routinely associated with violence and political strife.

  4. Assessing the performance of mental health service facilities for meeting patient priorities and health service responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Bramesfeld, A; Stegbauer, C

    2016-10-01

    The World Health Organisation has defined health service responsiveness as one of the key-objectives of health systems. Health service responsiveness relates to the ability to respond to service users' legitimate expectations on non-medical issues when coming into contact with the services of a healthcare system. It is defined by the areas showing respect for persons and patient orientation. Health service responsiveness is particularly relevant to mental health services, due to the specific vulnerability of mental health patients but also because it matches what mental health patients consider as good quality of care as well as their priorities when seeking healthcare. As (mental) health service responsiveness applies equally to all concerned services it would be suitable as a universal indicator for the quality of services' performance. However, performance monitoring programs in mental healthcare rarely assess health service performance with respect to meeting patient priorities. This is in part due of patient priorities as an outcome being underrepresented in studies that evaluate service provision. The lack of studies using patient priorities as outcomes transmits into evidence based guidelines and subsequently, into underrepresentation of patient priorities in performance monitoring. Possible ways out of this situation include more intervention studies using patient priorities as outcome, considering evidence from qualitative studies in guideline development and developing performance monitoring programs along the patient pathway and on key-points of relevance for service quality from a patient perspective.

  5. A collaborative approach to improve the assessment of physical health in adult consumers with schizophrenia in Queensland mental health services.

    PubMed

    Plever, Sally; McCarthy, Irene; Anzolin, Melissa; Emmerson, Brett; Khatun, Mohsina

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to apply a quality improvement collaborative to increase the number of physical health assessments conducted with consumers diagnosed with schizophrenia in adult community mental health services across Queensland. Sixteen adult mental health service organisations voluntarily took part in the statewide collaborative initiative to increase the number of physical health assessments completed on persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders managed through the community mental health service. Improvement in the physical health assessment clinical indicator was demonstrated across the state over a 3-year period with an increase in the number of physical health assessments recorded from 12% to 58%. Significant improvements were made over a 3-year period by all mental health services involved in the collaborative, supporting the application of a quality improvement methodology to drive change across mental health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Use of discrete event simulation to improve a mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo; Elstein, Yisraela; Shiner, Brian; Konrad, Renata; Pomerantz, Andrew S; Watts, Bradley V

    2013-01-01

    To improve clinic design, trial-and-error is commonly used to discover strategies that lead to improvement. Our goal was to predict the effects of various changes before undertaking them. Systems engineers collaborated with staff at an integrated primary care-mental health care clinic to create a computer simulation that mirrored how the clinic currently operates. We then simulated hypothetical changes to the staffing to understand their effects on percentage of patients seen outside scheduled clinic hours and service completion time. We found that, out of the change options being considered by the clinic, extending daily clinic hours by two and including an additional psychiatrist are likely to result in the greatest incremental decreases in patients seen outside clinic hours and in service time. Simulation in partnership with engineers can be an attractive tool for improving mental health clinics, particularly when changes are costly and thus trial-and-error is not desirable. © 2013.

  7. European initiative for the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: development of Clinical Assessment Schedules for specified rehabilitation services.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, Birgit; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; Escorpizo, Reuben; Stucki, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    Clinical assessment schedule (CLAS) is a core part of the ICF-based implementation of functioning reporting across health conditions and along the continuum of care. The Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Section and Board of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS PRM) workshop held in January 2016 aimed to develop and specify a CLAS within the context of rehabilitation services. UEMS PRM Workshop in Nottwil, Switzerland, January 2016. PRM physicians representatives from 12 European countries, as well as Israel and Japan, mostly delegates of UEMS PRM Section and Board, and experts with other rehabilitation professional backgrounds. Participants were divided into 6 working groups and asked to specify what functioning aspects would be essential to document using the available ICF sets for the identified rehabilitation services contained in the newly developed service classification (ICSO-R): acute, post-acute and long-term rehabilitation services. The 7 ICF Generic and 23 Rehabilitation Set categories were confirmed as well as specific health condition categories for acute rehabilitation services (mobile team), for postacute rehabilitation services (general outpatient rehabilitation, musculoskeletal and neurological rehabilitation, as well as specialized SCI rehabilitation), and for long-term rehabilitation services (day clinic and rehabilitation provided in the community). While general principles of the CLAS were defined, the need to align the CLAS for a specific service, as well as across services along the continuum of care was highlighted. All groups deliberated on this topic; however, no conclusive statement was presented yet. The groups recognized a need for a systematic effort to identify data collection tools currently used. CLASs will serve in the future to ensure that functioning information is systematically and consistently collected across services, and thus respond also to various global reports and initiatives which stress the need for

  8. Pursuing cost-effectiveness in mental health service delivery for youth with complex needs.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Katherine E; Schulz, Margaret F; Cohen, Steven A; Mullin, Brian O; Lehar, Sophie E; Tien, Shelly

    2011-06-01

    Mental health advocates seek to expand children's services, noting widespread failure to meet the needs of public sector youth suffering from serious emotional disturbance (SED). However, state and national budgets face deepening cuts, with rising health care costs taking the blame. As the gap between needs and finances widens, identification of cost-effective treatments that will benefit children with SED and their families is of increasing importance. Community-based interventions for this population, such as the wraparound approach and systems-of-care, are being disseminated but literature is scant regarding effects on expense. The Mental Health Services Program for Youth (MHSPY) model is aligned philosophically with wraparound and systems-of-care but unique in blending public agency dollars to deliver integrated medical, mental health and social services. MHSPY's linked clinical and expense data is useful to study community-based treatment cost-effectiveness. To examine the cost-effectiveness of an intensively integrated, family and community-based clinical intervention for youth with mental health needs in comparison to "usual care.'' Study and reference populations were matched on age, gender, community, psychiatric diagnosis, morbidity and insurance type. Claims analyses included patterns of service utilization and medical expense for both groups. Using propensity score matching, results for study youth are compared with results for the population receiving "usual care.'' Clinical functioning was measured for the intervention group at baseline and 12 months. The intervention group used lower intensity services and had substantially lower claims expense (e.g. 32% lower for emergency room, 74% lower for inpatient psychiatry) than their matched counterparts in the "usual care'' group. Intervention youth were consistently maintained in least restrictive settings, with over 88% of days spent at home and showed improved clinical functioning on standard measures

  9. The role of a community coalition in the development of health services for the poor and uninsured.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, D L; Howell, K A; Rife, J C; Taylor, M L

    1996-01-01

    Access to primary health care for indigent citizens presents a dilemma for many communities in the United States. In response, communities have developed a variety of strategies to effectively deal with the problem. This article describes the evolution of a small free clinic into a comprehensive primary care clinic developed through the actions of a community-based coalition. The clinic originated within an umbrella organization for indigent residents as free medical service provided at a night shelter by a local physician once a week. Through a coalition of business, religious, medical, hospital, foundation, lay volunteer, county health department, and chamber of commerce representatives, the service was enlarged into a formal clinic operation with a small staff and volunteers providing services for about 3,500 patient visits each year. As the demand for services increased beyond resources, an expanded coalition created HealthServe Medical Center, a comprehensive primary care clinic operating 40 hours per week. The HealthServe Board is currently active in supporting service delivery at the clinic, with plans to serve 24,000 medical and dental visits annually by mid-1995. The evolution process was based upon the characteristics of effective community coalitions and the commitment of individuals from diverse community sectors.

  10. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and (2...

  11. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and (2...

  12. 34 CFR 303.16 - Health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health services. 303.16 Section 303.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.16 Health services. (a) Health services mean services..., the changing of dressings or colostomy collection bags, and other health services; and (2...

  13. Child Community Mental Health Services in Asia Pacific and Singapore’s REACH Model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Choon Guan; Loh, Hannah; Renjan, Vidhya; Tan, Jason; Fung, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health services to improve accessibility to services and provide patient-centred care. In this article, we discuss the child and adolescent community mental health efforts within the Asia-Pacific region. We also discuss Singapore’s community and school-based mental health service, known as the Response, Early Intervention and Assessment in Community Mental Health (REACH). This article discusses how REACH has evolved over the years in response to the changing needs of youths in Singapore. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions for youth mental health care. PMID:28984830

  14. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health services...

  15. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health services...

  16. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health services...

  17. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health services...

  18. 45 CFR 96.45 - Preventive health and health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preventive health and health services. 96.45 Section 96.45 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.45 Preventive health and health services...

  19. Constraints in animal health service delivery and sustainable improvement alternatives in North Gondar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Hassen; Melaku, Achenef; Kebede, Elias

    2014-11-12

    Poor livestock health services remain one of the main constraints to livestock production in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. A study was carried out in 11 districts of North Gondar, from December 2011 to September 2012, with the objective of identifying the existing status and constraints of animal health service delivery, and thus recommending possible alternatives for its sustainable improvement. Data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires and focus group discussion. Findings revealed that 46.34% of the responding farmers had taken their animals to government veterinary clinics after initially trying treatments with local medication. More than 90.00% of the clinical cases were diagnosed solely on clinical signs or even history alone. The antibacterial drugs found in veterinary clinics were procaine penicillin (with or without streptomycin), oxytetracycline and sulphonamides, whilst albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin were the only anthelmintics. A thermometer was the only clinical aid available in all clinics, whilst only nine (45.00%) clinics had a refrigerator. In the private sector, almost 95.00% were retail veterinary pharmacies and only 41.20% fulfilled the requirement criteria set. Professionals working in the government indicated the following problems: lack of incentives (70.00%), poor management and lack of awareness (60.00%) and inadequate budget (40.00%). For farmers, the most frequent problems were failure of private practitioners to adhere to ethical procedures (74.00%) and lack of knowledge of animal diseases and physical distance from the service centre (50.00%). Of all responding farmers, 58.54% preferred the government service, 21.14% liked both services equally and 20.33% preferred the private service. Farmers' indiscriminate use of drugs from the black market (23.00%) was also mentioned as a problem by private practitioners. Sustainable improvement of animal health service delivery needs increased awareness for all

  20. Changes in information behavior in clinical teams after introduction of a clinical librarian service

    PubMed Central

    Urquhart, Christine; Turner, Janet; Durbin, Jane; Ryan, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The eighteen-month evaluation of a clinical librarian project (October 2003–March 2005) conducted in North Wales, United Kingdom (UK) assessed the benefits of clinical librarian support to clinical teams, the impact of mediated searching services, and the effectiveness of information skills training, including journal club support. Methods: The evaluation assessed changes in teams' information-seeking behavior and their willingness to delegate searching to a clinical librarian. Baseline (n = 69 responses, 73% response rate) and final questionnaire (n = 57, 77% response rate) surveys were complemented by telephone and face-to-face interviews (n = 33) among 3 sites served. Those attending information skills training sessions (n = 130) completed evaluations at the session and were surveyed 1 month after training (n = 24 questionnaire responses, n = 12 interviews). Results: Health professionals in clinical teams reported that they were more willing to undertake their own searching, but also more willing to delegate some literature searching, than at the start of the project. The extent of change depended on the team and the type of information required. Information skills training was particularly effective when organized around journal clubs. Conclusions: Collaboration with a clinical librarian increased clinician willingness to seek information. Clinical librarian services should leverage structured training opportunities such as journal clubs. PMID:17252062

  1. The clinical nurse specialist's role in school health.

    PubMed

    Ross, S K

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the role of the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in school health. School nurse roles and responsibilities are expanding from their original emphasis on providing direct care and education to children and their parents to community-oriented care. CNS roles and practice areas have expanded to fill needs in a variety of settings, with a variety of clients. The identified CNS roles of clinician, educator, consultant, researcher, and leader/manager provide a comprehensive approach to providing school health services directly to individuals and indirectly through community-oriented care. A CNS's expertise is essential to assist with providing comprehensive care to students, their families, and the community through comprehensive school health services.

  2. Drug reimbursement recommendations by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: have they impacted the National Health Service budget?

    PubMed

    Mauskopf, Josephine; Chirila, Costel; Birt, Julie; Boye, Kristina S; Bowman, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Determine whether reimbursement restrictions recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have impacted the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) budget. Data were abstracted from NICE guidance documents and costing statements through March 2011. Estimated maximum and adjusted potential budget impact (PBI) on the NHS was derived using estimates of the UK marketing-approved population and the annual cost for the new drug. Descriptive and logistic analyses were used to estimate the correlation between the degree of restrictions on reimbursement recommended by NICE for each new drug indication and the PBI controlling for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. PBI was significantly correlated with the degree of reimbursement restrictions. In descriptive analysis, the adjusted PBI for drugs that were recommended without restrictions was £20.3 million (SD = 22.2) compared with £49.8 million (SD = 90.8) for those recommended with restrictions and £71.1 million (SE = 99.9) for those not recommended. In logistic analysis, the odds ratio for less restrictive reimbursement was 0.848 (95% CI, 0.762-0.945) for each £20 million increase in the adjusted PBI. Results were similar using the maximum PBI. After controlling for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the degree of reimbursement restriction recommended by NICE remains significantly correlated with the PBI, despite that fact that the NICE decision process does not consider budget impact. This correlation might be due to NICE consideration of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness for subgroups of the approved population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Achieving blood pressure control among renal transplant recipients by integrating electronic health technology and clinical pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Migliozzi, Daniel R; Zullo, Andrew R; Collins, Christine; Elsaid, Khaled A

    2015-11-15

    The implementation and outcomes of a program combining electronic home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in a renal transplantation clinic are described. Patients enrolled in the program were provided with a computer-enabled blood pressure monitor. A dedicated renal transplantation pharmacist was integrated into the renal transplantation team under a collaborative care practice agreement. The collaborative care agreement allowed the pharmacist to authorize medication additions, deletions, and dosage changes. Comprehensive disease and blood pressure education was provided by a clinical pharmacist. In the pretransplantation setting, the pharmacist interviewed the renal transplant candidate and documents allergies, verified the patient's medication profile, and identified and assessed barriers to medication adherence. A total of 50 renal transplant recipients with at least one recorded home blood pressure reading and at least one year of follow-up were included in our analysis. A significant reduction in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were observed at 30, 90, 180, and 360 days after enrollment in the program (p < 0.05). Pharmacist interventions were documented for 37 patients. Medication-related problems accounted for 46% of these interventions and included dosage modifications, regimen changes, and mitigation of barriers to medication access and adherence. Implementation of electronic HBPM and pharmacist-provided MTM services implemented in a renal transplant clinic was associated with sustained improvements in blood pressure control. Incorporation of a pharmacist in the renal transplant clinic resulted in the detection and resolution of medication-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health service costs and clinical gains of psychotherapy for personality disorders: a randomized controlled trial of day-hospital-based step-down treatment versus outpatient treatment at a specialist practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Day-hospital-based treatment programmes have been recommended for poorly functioning patients with personality disorders (PD). However, more research is needed to confirm the cost-effectiveness of such extensive programmes over other, presumably simpler, treatment formats. Methods This study compared health service costs and psychosocial functioning for PD patients randomly allocated to either a day-hospital-based treatment programme combining individual and group psychotherapy in a step-down format, or outpatient individual psychotherapy at a specialist practice. It included 107 PD patients, 46% of whom had borderline PD, and 40% of whom had avoidant PD. Costs included the two treatment conditions and additional primary and secondary in- and outpatient services. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using measures of global (observer-rated GAF) and occupational (self-report) functioning. Repeated assessments over three years were analysed using mixed models. Results The costs of step-down treatment were higher than those of outpatient treatment, but these high costs were compensated by considerably lower costs of other health services. However, costs and clinical gains depended on the type of PD. For borderline PD patients, cost-effectiveness did not differ by treatment condition. Health service costs declined during the trial, and functioning improved to mild impairment levels (GAF > 60). For avoidant PD patients, considerable adjuvant health services expanded the outpatient format. Clinical improvements were nevertheless superior to the step-down condition. Conclusion Our results indicate that decisions on treatment format should differentiate between PD types. For borderline PD patients, the costs and gains of step-down and outpatient treatment conditions did not differ. For avoidant PD patients, the outpatient format was a better alternative, leaning, however, on costly additional health services in the early phase of treatment. Trial

  5. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  6. Improving access to eye health services in rural Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara M; Blignault, Ilse; du Toit, Renee; Ramke, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Delivering eye health services to people in rural areas, especially in fragile, post-conflict countries, is a major challenge. This article reports on the implementation and evaluation of an innovative district-based outreach service. The main project partners were the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and an international non-government organization, with assistance from a local non-government organization. An eye care nurse in Covalima District, a remote location 178 km from Timor-Leste's capital, Dili, was provided with a motor-bike for transport and regular support for outreach eye services to sub-district facilities. Data collected over the first year of operation were examined and included: services provided, spectacles dispensed, health promotion activities conducted and the cost of providing these. The project was also evaluated for its relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. In the first 12 months, 55 outreach visits were conducted across the district's seven sub-districts during which 1405 people received vision screening, and 777 spectacles were dispensed. In addition to meeting the five evaluation criteria, compared with the hospital-based eye clinic the outreach service resulted in significantly greater gender equity among eye health service beneficiaries. This pilot project demonstrates what can be achieved when a Ministry of Health (central and district level) and non-government organizations (international and local) work in partnership to support a dedicated health care provider.

  7. Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, M S; Neokleous, K; Aristodemou, A; Constantinou, I; Antoniou, Z; Schiza, E C; Pattichis, C S; Schizas, C N

    2015-08-01

    There is a huge need for open source software solutions in the healthcare domain, given the flexibility, interoperability and resource savings characteristics they offer. In this context, this paper presents the development of three open source libraries - Specific Enablers (SEs) for eHealth applications that were developed under the European project titled "Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research" (FI-STAR) funded under the "Future Internet Public Private Partnership" (FI-PPP) program. The three SEs developed under the Electronic Health Record Application Support Service Enablers (EHR-EN) correspond to: a) an Electronic Health Record enabler (EHR SE), b) a patient summary enabler based on the EU project "European patient Summary Open Source services" (epSOS SE) supporting patient mobility and the offering of interoperable services, and c) a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) enabler (PACS SE) based on the dcm4che open source system for the support of medical imaging functionality. The EHR SE follows the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) V2.0 and supports the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles (recently awarded in Connectathon 2015). These three FI-STAR platform enablers are designed to facilitate the deployment of innovative applications and value added services in the health care sector. They can be downloaded from the FI-STAR cataloque website. Work in progress focuses in the validation and evaluation scenarios for the proving and demonstration of the usability, applicability and adaptability of the proposed enablers.

  8. Continuous Quality Improvement and Comprehensive Primary Health Care: A Systems Framework to Improve Service Quality and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla

    2018-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10–20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally. PMID:29623271

  9. New York City's Child Health Clinics: Providing Quality Primary Care to Children in Low-Income and Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.

    A study was conducted to determine whether the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) is fulfilling dual public health and primary care missions of its Child Health Clinics, which provide services to 78,000 New York City children every year. Among the services provided by Child Health Clinics are health examinations for school and…

  10. The organization and delivery of family planning services in community health centers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Wood, Susan F; Johnson, Kay; Mead, Katherine Holly; Beeson, Tishra; Lewis, Julie; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Family planning and related reproductive health services are essential primary care services for women. Access is limited for women with low incomes and those living in medically underserved areas. Little information is available on how federally funded health centers organize and provide family planning services. This was a mixed methods study of the organization and delivery of family planning services in federally funded health centers across the United States. A national survey was developed and administered (n = 423) and in-depth case studies were conducted of nine health centers to obtain detailed information on their approach to family planning. Study findings indicate that health centers utilize a variety of organizational models and staffing arrangements to deliver family planning services. Health centers' family planning offerings are organized in one of two ways, either a separate service with specific providers and clinic times or fully integrated with primary care. Health centers experience difficulties in providing a full range of family planning services. Major challenges include funding limitations; hiring obstetricians/gynecologists, counselors, and advanced practice clinicians; and connecting patients to specialized services not offered by the health center. Health centers play an integral role in delivering primary care and family planning services to women in medically underserved communities. Improving the accessibility and comprehensiveness of family planning services will require a combination of additional direct funding, technical assistance, and policies that emphasize how health centers can incorporate quality family planning as a fundamental element of primary care. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Integration of outpatient infectious diseases clinic pharmacy services and specialty pharmacy services for patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Elise M; Gerzenshtein, Lana

    2016-06-01

    The integration of specialty pharmacy services and existing outpatient clinical pharmacy services within an infectious diseases (ID) clinic to optimize the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is described. The management of HIV-infected patients is a highly specialized area of practice, often requiring use of complex medication regimens for reduction of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections, and prevention of HIV transmission. To maximize the effectiveness and safety of treatment with antiretroviral agents and associated pharmacotherapies, an interdisciplinary team is often involved in patient care. At Chicago-based Northwestern Medicine (NM), the outpatient ID clinic has long worked with an interdisciplinary care team including physicians, clinical pharmacists, nurses, and social workers to care for patients with HIV infection. In April 2014, specialty pharmacy services for patients with HIV infection were added to the NM ID clinic's care model to help maintain continuity of care and enhance patient follow-up. The care model includes well-defined roles for clinical pharmacists, pharmacy residents and students on rotation, and licensed pharmacy technicians. Specialty pharmacy services, including medication education, prescription fulfillment, assistance with medication access (e.g., navigation of financial assistance programs, completion of prior-authorization requests), and treatment monitoring, allow for closed-loop medication management of the HIV-infected patient population. Integration of specialty pharmacy services with the interdisciplinary care provided in the outpatient NM ID clinic has enhanced continuity of care for patients with HIV infection in terms of prescription filling, medication counseling, and adherence monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of chiropractic services at an on-site health center.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Sylvia L; Hou, Qingjiang; Miller, Ross M

    2014-09-01

    To compare the influence of employer-sponsored, on-site chiropractic care against community-obtained care on health care utilization. This was a retrospective claims analysis of members of a single employee health plan receiving chiropractic care on-site or off-site from 2010 to 2012. Utilization differences were evaluated by having 1 health care event or more, including radiology or clinical visits. There were 876 on-site and 759 off-site participants. The off-site group received more radiology services overall (55.5% vs 38.2%; P < 0.001) including magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and radiograph (all P < 0.0001); had higher outpatient (P < 0.0001) and emergency department (P = 0.022) utilization; and demonstrated greater use of chiropractic care and physical therapy (both P < 0.0001). Compared with off-site care, on-site chiropractic services are associated with lower health care utilization. These results support the value of chiropractic services offered at on-site health centers.

  13. Outsourcing in the Italian National Health Service: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Macinati, Manuela S

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, outsourcing has become one of the major issues in health care. Two major concerns are related to public health care outsourcing practice. The first one involves the suitability of the outsourcing strategy in the public sector, principally with reference to the outsourcing of essential clinical services. The second one relates to the actual benefits of the outsourcing practice in health care, in terms of cost reduction and increasing efficiency. This paper aims to contribute to the debate and literature on outsourcing through a national survey carried out in the Italian National Health Service. In order to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire was developed and, after a pilot test, it was mailed to all Italian public providers. The total response rate was around 42%. Results showed that outsourcing is a widespread phenomenon within health care, especially in the ancillary services area. Moreover, results showed many criticalities of the outsourcing practice in the Italian health-care sector. On the one hand, criticalities concerned the reasons for outsourcing, the characteristics of the outsourced services and the management of the relationship with the vendor. With reference to essential clinical service, outsourcing, as currently managed by health-care providers, may potentially weaken their ability to reach its own objectives. On the other hand, criticalities related to respondent-perceived benefits. Despite the overall positive outsourcing experience expressed in the survey, the results on perceived benefits showed that the effects of outsourcing did not always align to managers' expectations, especially in the cost containment and efficiency area.

  14. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sandra; Williams, Holly; Onyango, Monica A; Sami, Samira; Doedens, Wilma; Giga, Noreen; Stone, Erin; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for reproductive health, a standard of care in humanitarian emergencies, is a coordinated set of priority activities developed to prevent excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among women and girls, which should be implemented at the onset of an emergency. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the status of MISP implementation for Syrian refugees in Jordan as part of a global evaluation of reproductive health in crises. In March 2013, applying a formative evaluation approach 11 key informant interviews, 13 health facility assessments, and focus group discussions (14 groups; 159 participants) were conducted in two Syrian refugee sites in Jordan, Zaatri Camp, and Irbid City, respectively. Information was coded, themes were identified, and relationships between data explored. Lead health agencies addressed the MISP by securing funding and supplies and establishing reproductive health focal points, services and coordination mechanisms. However, Irbid City was less likely to be included in coordination activities and health facilities reported challenges in human resource capacity. Access to clinical management of rape survivors was limited, and both women and service provider's knowledge about availability of these services was low. Activities to reduce the transmission of HIV and to prevent excess maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality were available, although some interventions needed strengthening. Some planning for comprehensive reproductive health services, including health indicator collection, was delayed. Contraceptives were available to meet demand. Syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections and antiretrovirals for continuing users were not available. In general refugee women and adolescent girls perceived clinical services negatively and complained about the lack of basic necessities. MISP services and key elements to support implementation were largely in place. Pre

  15. Reproductive health services for Syrian refugees in Zaatri Camp and Irbid City, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: an evaluation of the Minimum Initial Services Package

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Minimum Initial Services Package (MISP) for reproductive health, a standard of care in humanitarian emergencies, is a coordinated set of priority activities developed to prevent excess morbidity and mortality, particularly among women and girls, which should be implemented at the onset of an emergency. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the status of MISP implementation for Syrian refugees in Jordan as part of a global evaluation of reproductive health in crises. Methods In March 2013, applying a formative evaluation approach 11 key informant interviews, 13 health facility assessments, and focus group discussions (14 groups; 159 participants) were conducted in two Syrian refugee sites in Jordan, Zaatri Camp, and Irbid City, respectively. Information was coded, themes were identified, and relationships between data explored. Results Lead health agencies addressed the MISP by securing funding and supplies and establishing reproductive health focal points, services and coordination mechanisms. However, Irbid City was less likely to be included in coordination activities and health facilities reported challenges in human resource capacity. Access to clinical management of rape survivors was limited, and both women and service provider’s knowledge about availability of these services was low. Activities to reduce the transmission of HIV and to prevent excess maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality were available, although some interventions needed strengthening. Some planning for comprehensive reproductive health services, including health indicator collection, was delayed. Contraceptives were available to meet demand. Syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections and antiretrovirals for continuing users were not available. In general refugee women and adolescent girls perceived clinical services negatively and complained about the lack of basic necessities. Conclusions MISP services and key elements to support implementation

  16. Lessons learned from implementing service-oriented clinical decision support at four sites: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Hickman, Trang T; Paterno, Marilyn; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Tsurikova, Ruslana; Dixon, Brian E; Fraser, Greg; Simonaitis, Linas; Sonnenberg, Frank A; Middleton, Blackford

    2015-11-01

    To identify challenges, lessons learned and best practices for service-oriented clinical decision support, based on the results of the Clinical Decision Support Consortium, a multi-site study which developed, implemented and evaluated clinical decision support services in a diverse range of electronic health records. Ethnographic investigation using the rapid assessment process, a procedure for agile qualitative data collection and analysis, including clinical observation, system demonstrations and analysis and 91 interviews. We identified challenges and lessons learned in eight dimensions: (1) hardware and software computing infrastructure, (2) clinical content, (3) human-computer interface, (4) people, (5) workflow and communication, (6) internal organizational policies, procedures, environment and culture, (7) external rules, regulations, and pressures and (8) system measurement and monitoring. Key challenges included performance issues (particularly related to data retrieval), differences in terminologies used across sites, workflow variability and the need for a legal framework. Based on the challenges and lessons learned, we identified eight best practices for developers and implementers of service-oriented clinical decision support: (1) optimize performance, or make asynchronous calls, (2) be liberal in what you accept (particularly for terminology), (3) foster clinical transparency, (4) develop a legal framework, (5) support a flexible front-end, (6) dedicate human resources, (7) support peer-to-peer communication, (8) improve standards. The Clinical Decision Support Consortium successfully developed a clinical decision support service and implemented it in four different electronic health records and four diverse clinical sites; however, the process was arduous. The lessons identified by the Consortium may be useful for other developers and implementers of clinical decision support services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moving towards Universal Health Coverage through the Development of Integrated Service Delivery Packages for Primary Health Care in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Stephen; Postma, Sjoerd; Jamshaid de Lorenzo, Ayesha; Aumua, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The Solomon Islands Government is pursuing integrated care with the goal of improving the quality of health service delivery to rural populations. Under the auspices of Universal Health Coverage, integrated service delivery packages were developed which defined the clinical and public health services that should be provided at different levels of the health system. The process of developing integrated service delivery packages helped to identify key policy decisions the government needed to make in order to improve service quality and efficiency. The integrated service delivery packages have instigated the revision of job descriptions and are feeding into the development of a human resource plan for health. They are also being used to guide infrastructure development and health system planning and should lead to better management of resources. The integrated service delivery packages have become a key tool to operationalise the government’s policy to move towards a more efficient, equitable, quality and sustainable health system. PMID:28321177

  18. Prison Health Care Governance: Guaranteeing Clinical Independence

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Jörg; Enggist, Stefan; Stöver, Heino; Williams, Brie; Greifinger, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical independence is an essential component of good health care and health care professionalism, particularly in correctional settings (jails, prisons, and other places of detention), where the relationship between patients and caregivers is not based on free choice and where the punitive correctional setting can challenge optimal medical care. Independence for the delivery of health care services is defined by international standards as a critical element for quality health care in correctional settings, yet many correctional facilities do not meet these standards because of a lack of awareness, persisting legal regulations, contradictory terms of employment for health professionals, or current health care governance structures. We present recommendations for the implementation of independent health care in correctional settings. PMID:29470125

  19. Equity and health services.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2009-07-01

    The Commission on Social Determinants of Health recognized the important role of health services as a determinant of health. While asserting that health was not a tradable commodity but rather a right, the Commission missed an opportunity to address how such a concept might remove a health care system from market forces. Examples include ensuring universal access to health care, not just universal insurance, severely limiting or eliminating profit-making in the delivery of health care services, and aggressive price regulations for the public good. While the Commission was appropriately sceptical of privileging efficiency as a principle for prioritization, it missed an opportunity to address how equity concerns can be incorporated into resources allocation decision making. A social justice orientation to the delivery of health care could serve as an important catalyst for equity-oriented health service change but the process is more complicated and political than that outlined in the Commission's report.

  20. Implementation research on community health workers' provision of maternal and child health services in rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Luckow, Peter W; Kenny, Avi; White, Emily; Ballard, Madeleine; Dorr, Lorenzo; Erlandson, Kirby; Grant, Benjamin; Johnson, Alice; Lorenzen, Breanna; Mukherjee, Subarna; Ly, E John; McDaniel, Abigail; Nowine, Netus; Sathananthan, Vidiya; Sechler, Gerald A; Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J; Panjabi, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    To assess changes in the use of essential maternal and child health services in Konobo, Liberia, after implementation of an enhanced community health worker (CHW) programme. The Liberian Ministry of Health partnered with Last Mile Health, a nongovernmental organization, to implement a pilot CHW programme with enhanced recruitment, training, supervision and compensation. To assess changes in maternal and child health-care use, we conducted repeated cross-sectional cluster surveys before (2012) and after (2015) programme implementation. Between 2012 and 2015, 54 CHWs, seven peer supervisors and three clinical supervisors were trained to serve a population of 12 127 people in 44 communities. The regression-adjusted percentage of children receiving care from formal care providers increased by 60.1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 51.6 to 68.7) percentage points for diarrhoea, by 30.6 (95% CI: 20.5 to 40.7) for fever and by 51.2 (95% CI: 37.9 to 64.5) for acute respiratory infection. Facility-based delivery increased by 28.2 points (95% CI: 20.3 to 36.1). Facility-based delivery and formal sector care for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea increased more in agricultural than gold-mining communities. Receipt of one-or-more antenatal care sessions at a health facility and postnatal care within 24 hours of delivery did not change significantly. We identified significant increases in uptake of child and maternal health-care services from formal providers during the pilot CHW programme in remote rural Liberia. Clinic-based services, such as postnatal care, and services in specific settings, such as mining areas, require additional interventions to achieve optimal outcomes.

  1. Implementation research on community health workers’ provision of maternal and child health services in rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Luckow, Peter W; Kenny, Avi; White, Emily; Ballard, Madeleine; Dorr, Lorenzo; Erlandson, Kirby; Grant, Benjamin; Johnson, Alice; Lorenzen, Breanna; Mukherjee, Subarna; Ly, E John; McDaniel, Abigail; Nowine, Netus; Sathananthan, Vidiya; Sechler, Gerald A; Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess changes in the use of essential maternal and child health services in Konobo, Liberia, after implementation of an enhanced community health worker (CHW) programme. Methods The Liberian Ministry of Health partnered with Last Mile Health, a nongovernmental organization, to implement a pilot CHW programme with enhanced recruitment, training, supervision and compensation. To assess changes in maternal and child health-care use, we conducted repeated cross-sectional cluster surveys before (2012) and after (2015) programme implementation. Findings Between 2012 and 2015, 54 CHWs, seven peer supervisors and three clinical supervisors were trained to serve a population of 12 127 people in 44 communities. The regression-adjusted percentage of children receiving care from formal care providers increased by 60.1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 51.6 to 68.7) percentage points for diarrhoea, by 30.6 (95% CI: 20.5 to 40.7) for fever and by 51.2 (95% CI: 37.9 to 64.5) for acute respiratory infection. Facility-based delivery increased by 28.2 points (95% CI: 20.3 to 36.1). Facility-based delivery and formal sector care for acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea increased more in agricultural than gold-mining communities. Receipt of one-or-more antenatal care sessions at a health facility and postnatal care within 24 hours of delivery did not change significantly. Conclusion We identified significant increases in uptake of child and maternal health-care services from formal providers during the pilot CHW programme in remote rural Liberia. Clinic-based services, such as postnatal care, and services in specific settings, such as mining areas, require additional interventions to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:28250511

  2. Public Expenditures for Mental Health Services in Canadian Provinces: Dépenses publiques pour les services de santé mentale dans les provinces canadiennes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Jacobs, Philip; Ohinmaa, Arto; Dezetter, Anne; Lesage, Alain

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure provincial spending for mental health services in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and to compare these cost estimates to those of FY 2003. This study estimated the costs of publicly funded provincial mental health services in FY 2013 and compared them to the estimates for FY 2003 from a previously published report. Our data were obtained from publicly accessible databases. The cross-year cost comparisons for provincial mental health services were restricted to general and psychiatric hospital inpatients, clinical payments to physicians and psychologists, and prescribed psychotropic medications. Total public expenditures were inflation adjusted and expressed per capita and as a percentage of the total provincial health spending. Total public spending for mental health and addiction programs/services was estimated to be $6.75 billion for FY 2013. The largest component of the expenditures was hospital inpatient services ($4.02 billion, 59.6%), followed by clinical payments to physicians or psychologists ($1.69 billion, 25%), and then publicly funded prescribed psychotherapeutic medications ($1.04 billion, 15.4%). Nationally, the portion of total public spending on health that was spent on mental health decreased from FY 2003 to FY 2013 from 5.4% to 4.9%. Our results reveal that mental health spending, as a proportion of public health care expenditures, decreased in the decade from FY 2003 to FY 2013. Due to large differences in how the provinces report community mental health services, we still lack a comprehensive picture of the mental health system.

  3. Four aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services in US publicly funded health centers: Results from a survey of health center administrators.

    PubMed

    Carter, Marion W; Gavin, Loretta; Zapata, Lauren B; Bornstein, Marta; Mautone-Smith, Nancy; Moskosky, Susan B

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe aspects of the scope and quality of family planning services provided by US publicly funded health centers before the release of relevant federal recommendations. Using nationally representative survey data (N=1615), we describe four aspects of service delivery: family planning services provided, contraceptive methods provided onsite, written contraceptive counseling protocols and youth-friendly services. We created a count index for each issue and used multivariable ordered logistic regression to identify health center characteristics associated with scoring higher on each. Half of the sample received Title X funding and about a third each were a community health center or health department clinic. The vast majority reported frequently providing contraceptive services (89%) and STD services (87%) for women in the past 3 months. Service provision to males was substantially lower except for STD screening. A total of 63% and 48% of health centers provided hormonal IUDs and implants onsite in the past 3 months, respectively. Forty percent of health centers included all five recommended contraceptive counseling practices in written protocols. Of youth-friendly services, active promotion of confidential services was among the most commonly reported (83%); offering weekend/evening hours was among the least (42%). In multivariable analyses, receiving Title X funding, having larger volumes of family planning clients and being a Planned Parenthood clinic were associated with higher scores on most indices. Many services were consistent with the recommendations for providing quality family planning services, but there was room for improvement across domains and health centers types. As assessed in this paper, the scope and quality of these family planning services was relatively high, particularly among Planned Parenthood clinics and Title X-funded centers. However, results point to important areas for improvement. Future studies should assess

  4. Terminology Services: Standard Terminologies to Control Health Vocabulary.

    PubMed

    González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán; Otero, Carlos; Luna, Daniel

    2018-04-22

    Healthcare Information Systems should capture clinical data in a structured and preferably coded format. This is crucial for data exchange between health information systems, epidemiological analysis, quality and research, clinical decision support systems, administrative functions, among others. Structured data entry is an obstacle for the usability of electronic health record (EHR) applications and their acceptance by physicians who prefer to document patient EHRs using "free text". Natural language allows for rich expressiveness but at the same time is ambiguous; it has great dependence on context and uses jargon and acronyms. Although much progress has been made in knowledge and natural language processing techniques, the result is not yet satisfactory enough for the use of free text in all dimensions of clinical documentation. In order to address the trade-off between capturing data with free text and at the same time coding data for computer processing, numerous terminological systems for the systematic recording of clinical data have been developed. The purpose of terminology services consists of representing facts that happen in the real world through database management in order to allow for semantic interoperability and computerized applications. These systems interrelate concepts of a particular domain and provide references to related terms with standards codes. In this way, standard terminologies allow the creation of a controlled medical vocabulary, making terminology services a fundamental component for health data management in the healthcare environment. The Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires has been working in the development of its own terminology server. This work describes its experience in the field. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  5. [Management committees in health services: an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the article, based on field data collected from a continuing education program for primary health clinic administrators, was to analyze the functioning of a health service management strategy called "management committees". Different meanings and operational modalities emerged in the committees. Various antimonies appeared in the way the committees operate (autonomy versus heteronomy, reproduction of "instituted" versus "instituting" processes, and communicative versus instrumental reasoning), thus reflecting the level of complexity in this management mechanism. Healthcare provision per se by the clinics only appeared occasionally on the committees' agenda, which mainly focused on administrative issues. The article suggests that further research is needed on the coordinator's involvement in the field of forces constituting the management committee, besides developing pedagogical strategies to support the clinic coordinators and health teams in building the committees. The primary data were submitted to an epistemological discussion anchored in the idea of double hermeneutics, multiple validation of research results, and the relationship between theory and practice.

  6. Measuring effective coverage of curative child health services in rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Koulidiati, Jean-Louis; Nesbitt, Robin C; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Hien, Hervé; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Compaoré, Philippe; Souares, Aurélia; Brenner, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Objective To estimate both crude and effective curative health services coverage provided by rural health facilities to under 5-year-old (U5YO) children in Burkina Faso. Methods We surveyed 1298 child health providers and 1681 clinical cases across 494 primary-level health facilities, as well as 12 497 U5YO children across 7347households in the facilities’ catchment areas. Facilities were scored based on a set of indicators along three quality-of-care dimensions: management of common childhood diseases, management of severe childhood diseases and general service readiness. Linking service quality to service utilisation, we estimated both crude and effective coverage of U5YO children by these selected curative services. Results Measured performance quality among facilities was generally low with only 12.7% of facilities surveyed reaching our definition of high and 57.1% our definition of intermediate quality of care. The crude coverage was 69.5% while the effective coverages indicated that 5.3% and 44.6% of children reporting an illness episode received services of only high or high and intermediate quality, respectively. Conclusion Our study showed that the quality of U5YO child health services provided by primary-level health facilities in Burkina Faso was low, resulting in relatively ineffective population coverage. Poor adherence to clinical treatment guidelines combined with the lack of equipment and qualified clinical staff that performed U5YO consultations seemed to be contributors to the gap between crude and effective coverage. PMID:29858415

  7. Clinical outcomes and costs for people with complex psychosis; a naturalistic prospective cohort study of mental health rehabilitation service users in England.

    PubMed

    Killaspy, Helen; Marston, Louise; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Lean, Melanie; Holloway, Frank; Craig, Tom; Leavey, Gerard; Arbuthnott, Maurice; Koeser, Leonardo; McCrone, Paul; Omar, Rumana Z; King, Michael

    2016-04-07

    Mental health rehabilitation services in England focus on people with complex psychosis. This group tend to have lengthy hospital admissions due to the severity of their problems and, despite representing only 10-20 % of all those with psychosis, they absorb 25-50 % of the total mental health budget. Few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these services and there is little evidence available to guide clinicians working in this area. As part of a programme of research into inpatient mental health rehabilitation services, we carried out a prospective study to investigate longitudinal outcomes and costs for patients of these services and the predictors of better outcome. Inpatient mental health rehabilitation services across England that scored above average (median) on a standardised quality assessment tool used in a previous national survey were eligible for the study. Unit quality was reassessed and costs of care and patient characteristics rated using standardised tools at recruitment. Multivariable regression modelling was used to investigate the relationship between service quality, patient characteristics and the following clinical outcomes at 12 month follow-up: social function; length of admission in the rehabiliation unit; successful community discharge (without readmission or community placement breakdown) and costs of care. Across England, 50 units participated and 329 patients were followed over 12 months (94 % of those recruited). Service quality was not associated with patients' social function or length of admission (median 16 months) at 12 months but most patients were successfully discharged (56 %) or ready for discharge (14 %), with associated reductions in the costs of care. Factors associated with successful discharge were the recovery orientation of the service (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08), and patients' activity (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05) and social skills (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.04-1.24) at recruitment. Inpatient mental health

  8. [Services portfolio of a department of endocrinology and clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Vicente Delgado, Almudena; Gómez Enterría, Pilar; Tinahones Madueño, Francisco

    2011-03-01

    Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition are branches of Medicine that deal with the study of physiology of body glands and hormones and their disorders, intermediate metabolism of nutrients, enteral and parenteral nutrition, promotion of health by prevention of diet-related diseases, and appropriate use of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive tools related to these disciplines. Development of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition support services requires accurate definition and management of a number of complex resources, both human and material, as well as adequate planning of the care provided. It is therefore essential to know the services portfolio of an ideal Department of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition because this is a useful, valid and necessary tool to optimize the available resources, to increase efficiency, and to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Mental Health Services in Poverty Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Jaffee, Kim; Snowden, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service access and use at different poverty levels. Methods. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns of Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians living in low-poverty and high-poverty areas. Logistic regression models were used to assess service use patterns of minority racial/ethnic groups compared with Whites in different poverty areas. Results. Residence in a poverty neighborhood moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental health service access and use. Disparities in using emergency and inpatient services and having coercive referrals were more evident in low-poverty than in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Neighborhood poverty is a key to understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services. PMID:12721146

  10. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services in poverty areas.

    PubMed

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Jaffee, Kim; Snowden, Lonnie

    2003-05-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service access and use at different poverty levels. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns of Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians living in low-poverty and high-poverty areas. Logistic regression models were used to assess service use patterns of minority racial/ethnic groups compared with Whites in different poverty areas. Residence in a poverty neighborhood moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental health service access and use. Disparities in using emergency and inpatient services and having coercive referrals were more evident in low-poverty than in high-poverty areas. Neighborhood poverty is a key to understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services.

  11. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  12. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  13. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  14. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  15. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  16. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  17. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  18. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  19. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  20. Advances in mobile mental health: opportunities and implications for the spectrum of e-mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven; Hwang, Tiffany; Wong, Alice; Bauer, Amy M.

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth), telemedicine and other technology-based services facilitate mental health service delivery and may be considered part of an e-mental health (eMH) spectrum of care. Web- and Internet-based resources provide a great opportunity for the public, patients, healthcare providers and others to improve wellness, practice prevention and reduce suffering from illnesses. Mobile apps offer portability for access anytime/anywhere, are inexpensive versus traditional desktop computers, and have additional features (e.g., context-aware interventions and sensors with real-time feedback. This paper discusses mobile mental health (mMH) options, as part of a broader framework of eMH options. The evidence-based literature shows that many people have an openness to technology as a way to help themselves, change behaviors and engage additional clinical services. Studies show that traditional video-based synchronous telepsychiatry (TP) is as good as in-person service, but mHealth outcomes have been rarely, directly compared to in-person and other eMH care options. Similarly, technology options added to in-person care or combined with others have not been evaluated nor linked with specific goals and desired outcomes. Skills and competencies for clinicians are needed for mHealth, social media and other new technologies in the eMH spectrum, in addition to research by randomized trials and study of health service delivery models with an emphasis on effectiveness. PMID:28894744

  1. English Proficiency, Threshold Language Policy and Mental Health Service Utilization among Asian-American Children.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Yumiko; Liu, Cindy H

    2015-10-01

    This paper explores the role of English proficiency, ethnicity, and California's threshold language policy in the rates of discontinuing mental health services among Asian-American children. We used data from the 2001-2006 Client and Services Information (CSI) System, which contains county-level information about service users in public mental health systems. Our data included 59,218 service users under the age of 18. We used logistic regression to determine the likelihood of discontinuing services, while controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. English-speaking Asians were 11% more likely than English-speaking Whites to discontinue mental health services. Non-English-speaking Asians were 50% significantly more likely to stay in services. The results also revealed some inter-ethnic variations in the discontinuation patterns; however, the patterns of mental health service utilization appear to be driven by the availability of mental health services in Asian-ethnic languages in county of residence. Further research is needed to understand the intake and referral processes that Asian children go through within the mental health service system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Projection of future pharmacy service fees using the dispensing claims in hospital and clinic outpatient pharmacies: national health insurance database between 2006 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dongmun; Song, Inmyung; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young

    2018-05-03

    Predicting pharmacy service fees is crucial to sustain the health insurance budget and maintain pharmacy management. However, there is no evidence on how to predict pharmacy service fees at the population level. This study compares the status of pharmacy services and constructs regression model to project annual pharmacy service fees in Korea. We conducted a time-series analysis by using sample data from the national health insurance database from 2006 and 2012. To reflect the latest trend, we categorized pharmacies into general hospital, special hospital, and clinic outpatient pharmacies based on the major source of service fees, using a 1% sample of the 2012 data. We estimated the daily number of prescriptions, pharmacy service fees, and drugs costs according to these three types of pharmacy services. To forecast pharmacy service fees, a regression model was constructed to estimate annual fees in the following year (2013). The dependent variable was pharmacy service fees and the independent variables were the number of prescriptions and service fees per pharmacy, ratio of patients (≥ 65 years), conversion factor, change of policy, and types of pharmacy services. Among the 21,283 pharmacies identified, 5.0% (1064), 4.6% (974), and 77.5% (16,340) were general hospital, special hospital, and clinic outpatient pharmacies, respectively, in 2012. General hospital pharmacies showed a higher daily number of prescriptions (111.9), higher pharmacy service fees ($25,546,342), and higher annual drugs costs ($215,728,000) per pharmacy than any other pharmacy (p <  0.05). The regression model to project found the ratio of patients aged 65 years and older and the conversion factor to be associated with an increase in pharmacy service fees. It also estimated the future rate of increase in pharmacy service fees to be between 3.1% and 7.8%. General hospital outpatient pharmacies spent more on annual pharmacy service fees than any other type of pharmacy. The forecast of

  3. A framework for improving access and customer service times in health care: application and analysis at the UCLA Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Duda, Catherine; Rajaram, Kumar; Barz, Christiane; Rosenthal, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing emphasis on health care efficiency and costs and on improving quality in health care settings such as hospitals or clinics. However, there has not been sufficient work on methods of improving access and customer service times in health care settings. The study develops a framework for improving access and customer service time for health care settings. In the framework, the operational concept of the bottleneck is synthesized with queuing theory to improve access and reduce customer service times without reduction in clinical quality. The framework is applied at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center to determine the drivers for access and customer service times and then provides guidelines on how to improve these drivers. Validation using simulation techniques shows significant potential for reducing customer service times and increasing access at this institution. Finally, the study provides several practice implications that could be used to improve access and customer service times without reduction in clinical quality across a range of health care settings from large hospitals to small community clinics.

  4. Co-morbid drug and alcohol and mental health issues in a rural New South Wales Area Health Service.

    PubMed

    Hoolahan, Bryan; Kelly, Brian; Stain, Helen J; Killen, Didi

    2006-08-01

    In 2003 the New South Wales (NSW) Centre for Rural and Remote Mental Health (CRRMH) conducted an analysis of co-morbid drug and alcohol (D&A) and mental health issues for service providers and consumers in a rural NSW Area Health Service. This paper will discuss concerns raised by rural service providers and consumers regarding the care of people with co-morbid D&A and mental health disorders. Current literature on co-morbidity was reviewed, and local area clinical data were examined to estimate the prevalence of D&A disorders within the mental health service. Focus groups were held with service providers and consumer support groups regarding strengths and gaps in service provision. A rural Area Health Service in NSW. Rural health and welfare service providers, consumers with co-morbid D&A and mental health disorders. Data for the rural area showed that 43% of inpatient and 20% of ambulatory mental health admissions had problem drinking or drug-taking. Information gathered from the focus groups indicated a reasonable level of awareness of co-morbidity, and change underway to better meet client needs; however, the results indicated a lack of formalised care coordination, unclear treatment pathways, and a lack of specialist care and resources. Significant gaps in the provision of appropriate care for people with co-morbid D&A and mental health disorders were identified. Allocation of service responsibly for these clients was unclear. It is recommended that D&A, mental health and primary care services collaborate to address the needs of clients so that a coordinated and systematic approach to co-morbid care can be provided.

  5. Clinical handover practices in maternity services in Ireland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Gerard; Munroe, Deirdre; Riordan, Fiona; Croke, Eilish; Conroy, Celine; McNamara, Martin; Shannon, Michael

    2016-08-01

    the objective was to examine and describe clinical handover practices in Irish maternity services. the study design incorporated interviews and focus group discussions with a purposive sample of healthcare practitioners working in Irish maternity services. five maternity hospitals and fourteen co-located maternity units. midwives, obstetricians and other healthcare professionals, specifically physiotherapists and radiologists, midwifery students and health care assistants working in maternity services. the study participants provided nuanced and differentiated accounts of clinical handover practices, which indicated a general absence of formal policy and training on clinical handover and the practice of midwifery and medical teams holding separate clinical handovers based on their separate, respective needs for transferring information and clinical responsibility. Participants spoke of barriers to effective clinical handover, including unsuitable environments, lack of dedicated time and fatigue during duty shift clinical handover, lack of supportive information technology (IT) infrastructure, and resistance of some staff to the adoption of new technologies to support clinical handover. whether internal and external to clinical handover events, the barriers to effective clinical handover represent threats to patient safety and quality of care, since effective clinical handover is essential to the provision of safe quality care. clear and effective communication between collaborating professionals within maternity teams is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS...

  7. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS...

  8. Preventive health services implemented by family physicians in Portugal—a cross-sectional study based on two clinical scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carlos; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Santos, Cristina; Sá, Luísa; Santos, Paulo; Couto, Maria; Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether Portuguese family physicians perform preventive health services in accordance with scientific evidence, based on the recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary healthcare, Portuguese National Health Service. Participants 255 Portuguese family physicians selected by a stratified cluster sampling design were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone survey. Outcomes Prevalence of compliance with USPSTF recommendations for screening, given a male and female clinical scenario and a set of proposed medical interventions, including frequency of the intervention and performance in their own daily practice. Results A response rate of 95.7% was obtained (n=244). 98–100% of family physicians answered according to the USPSTF recommendations in most interventions. In the male scenario, the lowest concordance was observed in the evaluation of prostate-specific antigen with 37% of family physicians answering according to the USPSTF recommendations. In the female scenario, the lowest concordance was for cholesterol testing with 2% of family physicians complying. Family physicians younger than 50 years had significantly better compliance scores than older ones (mean 77% vs 72%; p<0.001). Conclusions We found a high degree of agreement with USPSTF recommendations among Portuguese family physicians. However, we also found results suggesting excessive use of some medical interventions, raising concerns related to possible harm associated with overdiagnosis and overtreatment. PMID:24861550

  9. Indigenous health: effective and sustainable health services through continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Ross S; Si, Damin; O'Donoghue, Lyn; Dowden, Michelle

    2007-05-21

    The Australian government's Healthy for Life program is supporting capacity development in Indigenous primary care using continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques. An important influence on the Healthy for Life program has been the ABCD research project. The key features contributing to the success of the project are described. The ABCD research project: uses a CQI approach, with an ongoing cycle of gathering data on how well organisational systems are functioning, and developing and then implementing improvements; is guided by widely accepted principles of community-based research, which emphasise participation; and adheres to the principles and values of Indigenous health research and service delivery. The potential for improving health outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities using a CQI approach should be strengthened by clear clinical and managerial leadership, supporting service organisations at the community level, and applying participatory-action principles.

  10. Improved health care delivery in an inner-city well-baby clinic run by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Rossdale, Michael; Clark, Carol; James, John

    1986-01-01

    The delivery of health care has been improved in an inner-city well-baby clinic by staffing the clinic with members of a primary health care team and by offering a therapeutic service together with a preventive service. Over a three-year period attendance at the clinic has doubled and the uptake of immunization has increased. Of children registered with the practice supplying the health care team, 95% are up to date with diphtheria, tetanus and polio immunizations and 93% have been immunized against measles. It is suggested that general practitioners should have greater involvement in the running of well-baby clinics. PMID:3656268

  11. Service quality in health care setting.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Wan Edura Wan; Jusoff, Hj Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the concept of service quality in a health care setting. This paper probes the definition of service quality from technical and functional aspects for a better understanding on how consumers evaluate the quality of health care. It adopts the conceptual model of service quality frequently used by the most researchers in the health care sector. The paper also discusses several service quality dimensions and service quality problems in order to provide a more holistic conception of hospital service quality. The paper finds that service quality in health care is very complex as compared to other services because this sector highly involves risk. The paper adds a new perspective towards understanding how the concept of service quality is adopted in a health care setting.

  12. [Analysis of good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units of the Andalusian Health Service (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Gómez Martínez, M Eugenia; Pastor Moreno, Guadalupe; Pérez Corral, Olivia; Iriarte de Los Santos, M Teresa; Mena Jiménez, Ángel Luis; Escudero Espinosa, M Cecilia; García Romera, Inmaculada; Blanco García, Martín Germán; Martín Barato, Amelia

    To discover good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units (CMUs) of the Andalusian Health Service (AHS) (Spain) and to explore the reasons perceived by CMU and AHS professionals that may influence the presence and distribution of those good practices among the CMU. Study with mixed methodology carried out in Andalusia (Spain) in two phases (2013-2015). Firstly, an online survey was delivered to the Directors of the CMUs which had set up an inhabitant participation commission. In a second phase, a qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Andalusian Health Service with previous experience in inhabitant participation. A descriptive analysis of the quantitative information and a semantic content analysis of the qualitative information were carried out. 530 CMUs took part in the survey. The inhabitant participation practices more often implemented in the CMUs are those related to the informing and consultation levels. Twelve professionals were interviewed in the second phase. Other practices with higher inhabitant involvement and delegation are secondary. The barriers which were identified by professionals are related to the beliefs and attitudes of the inhabitants, the professionals, the health system and the environment. The main practices for inhabitant participation in the CMUs are related to the most basic levels of participation. The method and dynamics which facilitate inhabitant empowerment within the health system are not clearly recognised. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility of real-time capture of routine clinical data in the electronic health record: a hospital-based, observational service-evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, R Andrew; Weerackody, Roshan; Barnes, Michael R; Lee, Aaron M; Janjuha, Surjeet; Gutteridge, Charles; Robson, John; Timmis, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The electronic health record (EHR) is underused in the hospital setting. The aim of this service evaluation study was to respond to National Health Service (NHS) Digital’s ambition for a paperless NHS by capturing routinely collected cardiac outpatient data in the EHR to populate summary patient reports and provide a resource for audit and research. Design A PowerForm template was developed within the Cerner EHR, for real-time entry of routine clinical data by clinicians attending a cardiac outpatient clinic. Data captured within the PowerForm automatically populated a SmartTemplate to generate a view-only report that was immediately available for the patient and for electronic transmission to the referring general practitioner (GP). Results During the first 8 months, the PowerForm template was used in 61% (360/594) of consecutive outpatient referrals increasing from 42% to 77% during the course of the study. Structured patient reports were available for immediate sharing with the referring GP using Cerner Health Information Exchange technology while electronic transmission was successfully developed in a substudy of 64 cases, with direct delivery by the NHS Data Transfer Service in 29 cases and NHS mail in the remainder. In feedback, the report’s immediate availability was considered very or extremely important by >80% of the patients and GPs who were surveyed. Both groups reported preference of the patient report to the conventional typed letter. Deidentified template data for all 360 patients were successfully captured within the Trust system, confirming availability of these routinely collected outpatient data for audit and research. Conclusion Electronic template development tailored to the requirements of a specialist outpatient clinic facilitates capture of routinely collected data within the Cerner EHR. These data can be made available for audit and research. They can also be used to enhance communication by populating structured reports

  14. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  15. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-11-16

    To investigate older people's acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people's intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens' needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide.

  16. SEQUenCE: a service user-centred quality of care instrument for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Hester, Lorraine; O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Schnittger, Rebecca; Skelly, Niamh; O'Donnell, Muireann; Butterly, Lisa; Browne, Robert; Frorath, Charlotte; Morgan, Craig; McLoughlin, Declan M; Fearon, Paul

    2015-08-01

    To develop a quality of care instrument that is grounded in the service user perspective and validate it in a mental health service. The instrument (SEQUenCE (SErvice user QUality of CarE)) was developed through analysis of focus group data and clinical practice guidelines, and refined through field-testing and psychometric analyses. All participants were attending an independent mental health service in Ireland. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) or a psychotic disorder. Twenty-nine service users participated in six focus group interviews. Seventy-one service users participated in field-testing: 10 judged the face validity of an initial 61-item instrument; 28 completed a revised 52-item instrument from which 12 items were removed following test-retest and convergent validity analyses; 33 completed the resulting 40-item instrument. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency and convergent validity of the instrument. The final instrument showed acceptable test-retest reliability at 5-7 days (r = 0.65; P < 0.001), good convergent validity with the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87). SEQUenCE is a valid, reliable scale that is grounded in the service user perspective and suitable for routine use. It may serve as a useful tool in individual care planning, service evaluation and research. The instrument was developed and validated with service users with a diagnosis of either BPAD or a psychotic disorder; it does not yet have established external validity for other diagnostic groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  17. Trans-National Scale-Up of Services in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Ilan; Sohal, Raman; Ginther, John; Hayden, Leigh; MacDonald, John A.; Mossman, Kathryn; Parikh, Himanshu; McGahan, Anita; Mitchell, Will; Bhattacharyya, Onil

    2014-01-01

    Background Scaling up innovative healthcare programs offers a means to improve access, quality, and health equity across multiple health areas. Despite large numbers of promising projects, little is known about successful efforts to scale up. This study examines trans-national scale, whereby a program operates in two or more countries. Trans-national scale is a distinct measure that reflects opportunities to replicate healthcare programs in multiple countries, thereby providing services to broader populations. Methods Based on the Center for Health Market Innovations (CHMI) database of nearly 1200 health programs, the study contrasts 116 programs that have achieved trans-national scale with 1,068 single-country programs. Data was collected on the programs' health focus, service activity, legal status, and funding sources, as well as the programs' locations (rural v. urban emphasis), and founding year; differences are reported with statistical significance. Findings This analysis examines 116 programs that have achieved trans-national scale (TNS) across multiple disease areas and activity types. Compared to 1,068 single-country programs, we find that trans-nationally scaled programs are more donor-reliant; more likely to focus on targeted health needs such as HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, or family planning rather than provide more comprehensive general care; and more likely to engage in activities that support healthcare services rather than provide direct clinical care. Conclusion This work, based on a large data set of health programs, reports on trans-national scale with comparison to single-country programs. The work is a step towards understanding when programs are able to replicate their services as they attempt to expand health services for the poor across countries and health areas. A subset of these programs should be the subject of case studies to understand factors that affect the scaling process, particularly seeking to identify mechanisms that lead to

  18. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations.

  19. Estimated demand for women's health services by 2020.

    PubMed

    Dall, Timothy M; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Storm, Michael V; Elwell, Erika C; Rayburn, William F

    2013-07-01

    To estimate the demand for women's health care by 2020 using today's national utilization standards. This descriptive study incorporated the most current national data resources to design a simulation model to create a health and economic profile for a representative sample of women from each state. Demand was determined utilizing equations about projected use of obstetrics-gynecology (ob-gyn) services. Applying patient profile and health care demand equations, we estimated the demand for providers in 2010 in each state for comparison with supply based on the 2010 American Medical Association Masterfile. U.S. Census Bureau population projections were used to project women's health care demands in 2020. The national demand for women's health care is forecast to grow by 6% by 2020. Most (81%) ob-gyn related services will be for women of reproductive age (18-44 years old). Growth in demand is forecast to be highest in states with the greatest population growth (Texas, Florida), where supply is currently less than adequate (western United States), and among Hispanic women. This increase in demand by 2020 will translate into a need for physicians or nonphysician clinicians, which is clinically equivalent to 2,090 full-time ob-gyns. Using today's national norms of ob-gyn related services, a modest growth in women's health care demands is estimated by 2020 that will require a larger provider workforce.

  20. From admission to discharge in mental health services: a qualitative analysis of service user involvement.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Rowley, Emma; Chopra, Arun; Gregoriou, Kyriakos; Waring, Justin

    2016-04-01

    User involvement and recovery are now widely used terms within the mental health policy, research and practice discourse. However, there is a question mark about the impact these ideas have in everyday practice. Of interest is the degree of involvement in key transitions of care. In particular, admission to and discharge from acute inpatient mental health wards. To explore the nature of service user involvement in the admission and discharge process into and out of acute inpatient mental health care. A qualitative study using focus groups. One acute, inpatient mental health ward was the focus of the study. Seven uniprofessional focus group interviews were conducted with ward staff, community staff and service users (total number of participants = 52). Conventional, thematic qualitative techniques were used to analyse the data. The data analysed and presented in this article relate to the loss of the service user voice at the key transition points into and out of acute inpatient care. Due to the lack of resources (inpatient beds and community care follow-up), the role service users could play was diminished. In their narratives, clinical staff associated the person with the process and used language which dehumanized the individual. Service users experience numerous care transitions into and out of hospital. As there is the potential for these encounters to have a lasting negative effect, the importance of ensuring service users have a voice in what is happening to them is crucial. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical Quality Performance in U.S. Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu; Lebrun, Lydie A; Zhu, Jinsheng; Hayashi, Arthur S; Sharma, Ravi; Daly, Charles A; Sripipatana, Alek; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe current clinical quality among the nation's community health centers and to examine health center characteristics associated with performance excellence. Data Sources National data from the 2009 Uniform Data System. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Health centers reviewed patient records and reported aggregate data to the Uniform Data System. Study Design Six measures were examined: first-trimester prenatal care, childhood immunization completion, Pap tests, low birth weight, controlled hypertension, and controlled diabetes. The top 25 percent performing centers were compared with lower performing (bottom 75 percent) centers on these measures. Logistic regressions were utilized to assess the impact of patient, provider, and institutional characteristics on health center performance. Principal Findings Clinical care and outcomes among health centers were generally comparable to national averages. For instance, 67 percent of pregnant patients received timely prenatal care (national = 68 percent), 69 percent of children achieved immunization completion (national = 67 percent), and 63 percent of hypertensive patients had blood pressure under control (national = 48 percent). Depending on the measure, centers with more uninsured patients were less likely to do well, while centers with more physicians and enabling service providers were more likely to do well. Conclusions Health centers provide quality care at rates comparable to national averages. Performance may be improved by increasing insurance coverage among patients and increasing the ratios of physicians and enabling service providers to patients. PMID:22594465

  2. Mapping mental health service access: achieving equity through quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Green, Stuart A; Poots, Alan J; Marcano-Belisario, Jose; Samarasundera, Edgar; Green, John; Honeybourne, Emmi; Barnes, Ruth

    2013-06-01

    Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPTs) services deliver evidence-based care to people with depression and anxiety. A quality improvement (QI) initiative was undertaken by an IAPT service to improve referrals providing an opportunity to evaluate equitable access. QI methodologies were used by the clinical team to improve referrals to the service. The collection of geo-coded data allowed referrals to be mapped to small geographical areas according to deprivation. A total of 6078 patients were referred to the IAPT service during the period of analysis and mapped to 120 unique lower super output areas (LSOAs). The average weekly referral rate rose from 17 during the baseline phase to 43 during the QI implementation phase. Spatial analysis demonstrated all 15 of the high deprivation/low referral LSOAs were converted to high deprivation/high or medium referral LSOAs following the QI initiative. This work highlights the importance of QI in developing clinical services aligned to the needs of the population through the analysis of routine data matched to health needs. Mapping can be utilized to communicate complex information to inform the planning and organization of clinical service delivery and evaluate the progress and sustainability of QI initiatives.

  3. Mental Health Service Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Duong, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Empirical efforts to measure use of mental health services among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults have been notably lacking. Thus this study assessed associations between sexual orientation and mental health service use among older adults and determined the mediating role of nonspecific psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health. Data from the 2011 New York City Community Health Survey were analyzed. The analytic sample comprised 5,138 adults ages 50 and over. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between sexual orientation (LGB versus heterosexual) and past-year mental health service use (counseling or medication), adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping were conducted. Among LGB older adults, 23.9% reported receiving counseling, and 23.4% reported taking psychiatric medication in the past year. LGB respondents were significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have received counseling (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-3.13) and psychiatric medication (AOR=1.97, CI=1.36-2.86). Psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health did not mediate the association between sexual orientation and mental health service use. LGB older adults were more likely than heterosexuals to utilize mental health services, and this association was not explained by indicators of general medical, mental, or behavioral health.

  4. Health services utilization of women following a traumatic birth.

    PubMed

    Turkstra, E; Creedy, D K; Fenwick, J; Buist, A; Scuffham, P A; Gamble, J

    2015-12-01

    This cohort study compared 262 women with high childbirth distress to 138 non-distressed women. At 12 months, high distress women had lower health-related quality of life compared to non-distressed women (EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale 0.90 vs. 0.93, p = 0.008), more visits to general practitioners (3.5 vs. 2.6, p = 0.002) and utilized more additional services (e.g. maternal health clinics), with no differences for infants. Childbirth distress has lasting adverse health effects for mothers and increases health-care utilization.

  5. 42 CFR 440.70 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...

  6. 42 CFR 440.70 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...

  7. 42 CFR 440.70 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...

  8. 42 CFR 440.70 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...

  9. 42 CFR 440.70 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Home health services. 440.70 Section 440.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.70 Home health services. (a...

  10. First impressions: towards becoming a health-literate health service.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anne

    2014-05-01

    A 'health-literate organisation' recognises that miscommunication is very common and can negatively affect consumer care and outcomes, and makes it easier for people to navigate, understand, and use health information and services. This paper reports on the First Impressions Activities conducted by consumers to assess aspects of the literacy environment of a rural health service. The First Impressions Activities consists of three tools to assist health services to begin to consider some of the characteristics of their organisation that help and hinder a consumer's ability to physically navigate their way to and about the health service. The results show that navigation to and within the rural health service was made more complex due to lack of information, difficulty finding information, inconsistent terminology used in signage, missing signage, signage obscured by foliage, and incorrect signage.

  11. Running a postmortem service--a business case and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marta C; Whitby, Elspeth; Fink, Michelle A; Collett, Jacquelene M; Offiah, Amaka C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the postmortem examination is to offer answers to explain the cause and manner of death. In the case of perinatal, infant and paediatric postmortem examinations, the goal is to identify unsuspected associated features, to describe pathogenic mechanisms and new conditions, and to evaluate the clinical management and diagnosis. Additionally, the postmortem examination is useful to counsel families regarding the probability of recurrence in future pregnancies and to inform family planning. Worldwide the rate of paediatric autopsy examinations has significantly declined during the last few decades. Religious objections to postmortem dissection and organ retention scandals in the United Kingdom provided some of the impetus for a search for non-invasive alternatives to the traditional autopsy; however, until recently, imaging studies remained an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, the traditional autopsy. In 2012, Sheffield Children's Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust set up the service provision of minimally invasive fetal, perinatal and neonatal autopsy, while a postmortem imaging service has been running in Melbourne, Australia, since 2008. Here we summarise the essentials of a business case and practical British and Australian experiences in terms of the pathological and radiologic aspects of setting up a minimally invasive clinical service in the United Kingdom and of developing a clinical postmortem imaging service as a complementary tool to the traditional autopsy in Australia.

  12. Community participation in health service reform: the development of an innovative remote Aboriginal primary health-care service.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; Humphreys, John; Wakerman, John; Carroll, Vicki; Carter, Maureen; O'Brien, Tim; Erlank, Carol; Mansour, Rafik; Smith, Bec

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the reorientation of a remote primary health-care service, in the Kimberley region of Australia, its impact on access to services and the factors instrumental in bringing about change. A unique community-initiated health service partnership was developed between a community-controlled Aboriginal health organisation, a government hospital and a population health unit, in order to overcome the challenges of delivering primary health care to a dispersed, highly disadvantaged Aboriginal population in a very remote area. The shared goals and clear delineation of responsibilities achieved through the partnership reoriented an essentially acute hospital-based service to a prevention-focussed comprehensive primary health-care service, with a focus on systematic screening for chronic disease, interdisciplinary follow up, health promotion, community advocacy and primary prevention. This formal partnership enabled the primary health-care service to meet the major challenges of providing a sustainable, prevention-focussed service in a very remote and socially disadvantaged area.

  13. Health-seeking behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS and their satisfaction with health services provided at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, Abdul-Qadir; Nisar, Nighat

    2017-02-21

    Appropriate health-seeking behaviour is important as it allows prompt treatment for a condition and this can reduce complications and improve quality of life. This study aimed to assess the health-seeking behaviour and satisfaction with health care services of people living with HIV/AIDS attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Civil Hospital in Karachi. A total of 182 patients were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Mean age of the participants was 32.31 (SD 7.91) years, 76.9% were male, 81.3% had no education and 75.8% were employed. Only 23.6% showed positive health-seeking behaviour and 57.7% were satisfied with the health care services. In logistic regression analysis, the cost of treatment per visit < US$ 5 and duration of HIV infection < 2 years were significantly associated with health-seeking behaviour. Efforts are needed to improve the health-seeking behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS at the clinic and the health services offered.

  14. School mental health resources and adolescent mental health service use.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E Jane; Gruber, Michael J; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-05-01

    Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This article examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources and policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Nearly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students to mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and may influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health Occupations Education. Health Services Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    Twenty-four units on health service careers are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are organized into four sections as follow: Section A--Orientation (health careers, career success, Health Occupations Students of America); Section B--Health and First Aid (personal health, community health, and first aid); Section C--Body Structure and…

  16. Selected Health Service Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Arthur D.

    Prepared by an occupational analyst of the Utah Department of Employment Security, this manual provides job guides for 39 health service occupations concerned mainly with doctors, nurses, and related hospital-medical-health consultants and services. Classified according to "The Dictionary of Occupational Titles," each occupational…

  17. University of Global Health Equity's Contribution to the Reduction of Education and Health Services Rationing.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes

    2017-05-29

    The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field. To contribute to overcoming these barriers and increasing access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable, Partners In Health (PIH), a US non-governmental organization specializing in equitable health service delivery, has created the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) in a remote rural district of Rwanda. The act of building this university in such a rural setting signals a commitment to create opportunities where there have traditionally been few. Furthermore, through its state-of-the-art educational approach in a rural setting and its focus on cultural competency, UGHE is contributing to progress in the quest for equitable access to quality health services. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Student travel health and the role of universities and health clinics in New Zealand to prevent imported infections: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Neave, Penny E; Nair, Balakrishnan; Heywood, Anita E

    2017-05-01

    Tertiary students are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during overseas travel as they visit low-income countries, have low perceptions of risk and are unlikely to access travel health advice. Some will visit friends and relatives abroad, a group identified as disproportionately affected by imported infections. There is no national student travel health policy in NZ. This study aimed to explore travel health training of university-based health providers; academics' practices and perceptions of travel health; reasons for travel and countries visited by NZ university students, their travel health uptake and factors affecting decision making about this. A cross-sectional study consisting of surveys sent in 2014 to university clinics, senior academics and students. Surveys were completed by 251 respondents. Three of nine clinicians had only undertaken a short course in travel health. Competing resources and time constraints in health clinics were amongst the barriers to providing optimal services. Of the senior academics, only 14% were able to confirm their university collaborated with health clinics. Sixty seven percent of students were unaware that clinics provided travel health services and 19% had or intended to seek professional travel health advice. A national policy is warranted involving all stakeholders, utilizing innovative technologies to increase uptake of student travel health services. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  20. Screening for Complicated Grief in a Military Mental Health Clinic.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Eileen M; Holloway, Kathryn J; Miletich, Derek M; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer A; Lanouette, Nicole M

    2017-09-01

    Bereavement is one of the most common and stressful life experiences one can endure. Typical grief reactions follow a course of recovery in which individuals come to terms with the loss and resume functioning within weeks to months. However, for some, grief remains indefinitely distressing. Complicated Grief (CG) refers to significant chronic impairment that stems from bereavement. Military service members experience myriad factors that likely increase their risk for developing CG. Such factors include unique bonds between service members, exposure to constant and extreme levels of stress, multiple losses, separation from family and loved ones, witnessing/learning about sudden violent and traumatic deaths, and handling human remains. The aim of this project was to explore the practicality and efficiency of screening for CG within a busy military mental health clinic, and also explore relationships between contextual variables related to a death that might be associated with screening positive for CG. As part of a clinical needs assessment, patients from a single mental health clinic at Naval Medical Center San Diego completed a brief grief survey that asked if they experienced a death of a person close to them, collected metrics related to losses they have experienced and included validated screeners for CG (The Brief Grief Questionnaire [BGQ] and the Inventory for Complicated Grief [ICG]). No data concerning gender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, diagnosis, or purpose of visit (i.e., initial or follow-up visit) were collected. Institutional review board approval was obtained. In our sample of service members presenting to an adult outpatient military mental health clinic, 43.5% reported having experienced a loss that still impacts them. Of that group, 61.7% screened positive on the BGQ, 59.2% screened positive on the ICG using a cutoff of 25, and 46.1% screened positive on the ICG using the cutoff of 30. These findings suggest that military service

  1. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lee; Hutchinson, Delyse; Rapee, Ron; Burns, Lucy; Stephens, Christine; Haber, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care) and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes) were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%). Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%). Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8%) and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development. PMID:23227054

  2. 42 CFR 441.15 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Home health services. 441.15 Section 441.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Provisions § 441.15 Home health services. With respect to the services defined in § 440.70 of this subchapter...

  3. 42 CFR 441.15 - Home health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01