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Sample records for health concepts conflicts

  1. Italian occupational health: concepts, conflicts, implications.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, M R; Goldman, R H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines Italy's worker-based model for occupational health, especially its key concepts and its relation to social conflict. It briefly reviews the history of three approaches to occupational health in Italy: university-based, industry-based, and government-based. It then analyzes the worker-based approach, which emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s as worker groups and trade unions mobilized around new concepts of occupational health. Five key concepts are discussed: the workers' homogeneous group; workers' subjectivity; the use of contract language; the development of local occupational health institutions; and the use of occupational hazard risk maps. The analysis illustrates how the social processes of mobilization and institutionalization affected the ideas and structures of Italian occupational health. Worker mobilization in Italy produced ideological changes in the nation's occupational health system, institutional changes in universities and governments, and legislative changes at national and local levels. The institutionalization of reforms, however, created new conflicts and problems and tended to restrict worker participation and promote expert intervention. The paper concludes with a brief outline of the history of occupational health approaches in the United States and then discusses the implications of the five Italian concepts for US occupational health policy. PMID:6380322

  2. [Interparental conflict and mental health in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-concept].

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Li, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    To examine the mediating effect of self-concept between interparental conflict and mental health in children and adolescents. A total of 689 students (10-18 years) were surveyed using the convenient sampling method, and their mental health, self-concept, and interparental conflict were examined by the general status questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Self-Description Questionnaire, and Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and simultaneous analysis of several groups were used to construct the mediator model and analyze the data, respectively. The Bootstrap method was used to assess the significance of the mediating effects. Interparental conflict was positively correlated with mental health of children and adolescents (P<0.05), but was negatively correlated with self-concept (P<0.01). Self-concept was negatively correlated with mental health (P<0.01). Self-concept had a partial (60%) mediating effect between interparental conflict and mental health. Academic stage, but not gender, had a regulatory role on interparental conflict, mental health, and self-concept. Self-concept plays an important role between interparental conflict and mental health. It is necessary to improve self-concept level in children and adolescents exposed to interparental conflict.

  3. Conflict within nursing work environments: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the concept of conflict in nursing work environments using the evolutionary approach to concept analysis. In nursing work environments, conflict among nurses is becoming a significant issue resulting in job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover. Although discussed frequently in the nursing literature, nursing research has focused predominantly on conflict management without first understanding the elements, causes and effects of conflict. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, Proquest, PsychINFO, Social Sciences Index and MEDLINE databases and the keywords conflict and work environment. Articles over the last 25 years from each of these databases were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across disciplines, changes in the concept over time, and emerging trends. Conflict is a multidimensional construct with both detrimental and beneficial effects. Most definitions agree that conflict is a process involving two or more people, where a person perceives the opposition of the other. Antecedents stem from individual characteristics, interpersonal factors, and organizational factors. Individual effects, interpersonal relationships, and organizational effects are the main consequences of conflict. A theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences is presented, with implications for further development. A more thorough understanding of the sources and outcomes of conflict within nursing work environments would enable the prevention of conflict. If properly understood and managed, conflict can also lead to positive outcomes for nurses and healthcare organizations.

  4. Armed conflict and child health.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  5. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  6. Forces and Particles: Concepts Again in Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, George

    1973-01-01

    Traces the historical developments in physics leading to the present conflict of fundamental beliefs about the nature of the physical world. It has been recently proposed that the concept of fundamental particles (corpuscularianism) be replaced with a full-blown field dynamical theory. (JR)

  7. Forces and Particles: Concepts Again in Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, George

    1973-01-01

    Traces the historical developments in physics leading to the present conflict of fundamental beliefs about the nature of the physical world. It has been recently proposed that the concept of fundamental particles (corpuscularianism) be replaced with a full-blown field dynamical theory. (JR)

  8. Climate change, conflict and health.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. [Conceptions and typology of conflicts between workers and managers in the context of primary healthcare in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze perceptions of conflict between workers and managers in primary healthcare units and to present a typology of conflicts on the job. This was a comprehensive interpretive case study with a critical hermeneutic approach. Data collection techniques included: focus group with managers, workplace observation, and worker interviews, conducted from April to November 2011. The results were triangulated and indicated the coexistence of distinct concepts of conflict, typified in six modalities: lack of collaboration at work; disrespect resulting from asymmetrical relations between workers; problematic employee behavior; personal problems; asymmetry with other management levels; and inadequate work infrastructure. The relevance of (non)mutual recognition, as proposed by Axel Honneth, stood out in the interpretation of the causes and practical implications of these conflicts.

  10. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of…

  11. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of…

  12. Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict.

    PubMed

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Zapf, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with contending or yielding. The positive relationship with cooperative behavior was mediated by less rumination (Study 2) and moderated by conflict intensity (Study 3). Specifically, it applied to relatively mild conflicts (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 extended these findings to the group level: Dyad members with higher self-concept clarity engaged in problem solving, whereas dyad members with lower self-concept clarity did not. We conclude that higher self-concept clarity associates with proactive problem solving in social conflict.

  13. Reexamining the Role of Cognitive Conflict in Science Concept Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence C.; Noh, Taehee

    2004-02-01

    In this study, we defined and quantified the degree of cognitive conflict induced by a discrepant event from a cognitive perspective. Based on the scheme developed, we investigated the relationship between cognitive conflict and conceptual change, and the influences of students'' cognitive characteristics on conflict in learning the concept of density. Subjects were 171 seventh-grade girls from two city middle schools in Korea. Tests regarding logical thinking ability, field dependence/independence, and meaningful learning approach were administered. A preconception test and a test of responses to a discrepant event were also administered. Computer-assisted instruction was then provided to students as a conceptual change intervention. A conception test was administered as a posttest. In analysing students'' responses to the discrepant event, seven types of responses were identified: Rejection, reinterpretation, exclusion, uncertainty, peripheral belief change, belief decrease, and belief change. These types were then ordered into four levels. The results indicated that there existed a significant correlation between cognitive conflict and conceptual change. t-test results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the degree of cognitive conflict by the levels of students'' logical thinking ability and field dependence/independence. Meaningful learning approach, however, was found to have no statistically significant effect on cognitive conflict. Educational implications are discussed.

  14. Dysfunctional health service conflict: causes and accelerants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causes and accelerants of dysfunctional health service conflict and how it emerges from the health system's core hierarchical structures, specialized roles, participant psychodynamics, culture, and values. This article sets out to answer whether health care conflict is more widespread and intense than in other settings and if it is, why? To this end, health care power, gender, and educational status gaps are examined with an eye to how they undermine open communication, teamwork, and collaborative forms of conflict and spark a range of dysfunctions, including a pervasive culture of fear; the deny-and-defend lawsuit response; widespread patterns of hierarchical, generational, and lateral bullying; overly avoidant conflict styles among non-elite groups; and a range of other behaviors that lead to numerous human resource problems, including burnout, higher staff turnover, increased errors, poor employee citizenship behavior, patient dissatisfaction, increased patient complaints, and lawsuits. Bad patient outcomes include decreased compliance and increased morbidity and mortality. Health care managers must understand the root causes of these problems to treat them at the source and implement solutions that avoid negative conflict spirals that undermine organizational morale and efficiency.

  15. Conflict management styles in the health professions.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.

  16. Conflict Probe Concepts Analysis in Support of Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Anthony W.; Schwab, Robert W.; Geels, Timothy J.; Shakarian, Arek

    1997-01-01

    This study develops an operational concept and requirements for en route Free Flight using a simulation of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center, and develops requirements for an automated conflict probe for use in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) Centers. In this paper, we present the results of simulation studies and summarize implementation concepts and infrastructure requirements to transition from the current air traffic control system to mature Free Right. The transition path to Free Flight envisioned in this paper assumes an orderly development of communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) technologies based on results from our simulation studies. The main purpose of this study is to provide an overall context and methodology for evaluating airborne and ground-based requirements for cooperative development of the future ATC system.

  17. Fast-time Simulation of an Automated Conflict Detection and Resolution Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Erzberger, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect on the National Airspace System of reducing air traffc controller workload by automating conflict detection and resolution. The Airspace Concept Evaluation System is used to perform simulations of the Cleveland Center with conventional and with automated conflict detection and resolution concepts. Results show that the automated conflict detection and resolution concept significantly decreases growth of delay as traffic demand is increased in en-route airspace.

  18. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2017-05-25

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spiritual Health: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaberi, Azita; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Ebadi, Abbas; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-10

    Spiritual health has attracted a lot of attention in health-related and nursing sciences and numerous researches. Yet, this concept has remained complex and ambiguous, and there is no consensus in this regard. This ambiguity can be challenging for holistic nursing; therefore, clarification of the concept is required for development of nursing knowledge. The present study aimed to explore the concept of spiritual health in health-related and nursing literature. Walker and Avant (Strategies for theory construction in nursing, Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, 1995) concept analysis method was used in this study. The results were categorized as antecedents, attributes, and outcomes of spiritual health. The critical attributes extracted for spiritual health included transcendence, purposefulness and meaningfulness, faithfulness, harmonious interconnectedness, integrative power, multidimensionality, and holistic being. Besides, the antecedents of spiritual health included capability and potentiality for transcendence, and spiritual awareness. Finally, well-being and moral development were the outcomes of spiritual health. Spiritual health is one of the basic aspects of health and providing a clear theoretical definition can result in a common understanding of this concept for nurses. Clarifying this concept would also be useful for provision of spiritual care interventions and development of nursing theories.

  20. Health promotion: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Maben, J; Clark, J M

    1995-12-01

    Health promotion is a concept which is frequently used, but is often ill defined. Current health care trends, and the emphasis on the nurse of the future as a promoter of health suggest that it would be useful to attempt to clarify the concept. This paper develops a conceptual analysis of health promotion using the process developed by Rodgers (1989). Attributes, antecedents, consequences and references are described following an examination of the ongoing debate in the literature surrounding the meaning of the concept. Empirical work is also reviewed which suggests that nurses' understandings of the concept are firmly embedded in the more traditional approach rather than the more modern or new paradigm approach to health promotion. A model case is described, and the analysis results in a proposed definition of health promotion which it is hoped will stimulate further discussion.

  1. The Impact of Marital Conflict and Disruption on Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Hango, Darcy W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of inconsistency between parental marital conflict and disruption on children's health. Inconsistent situations arise when minimal marital conflict precedes disruption or when marital conflict is high but there is no disruption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, two alternative…

  2. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The concept of collaborative health.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Håkan

    2010-11-01

    Based on empirical research about teamwork in human service organizations in Sweden, the concept of collaborative health (CH) encapsulates the physical, psychological and social health resources the individual uses in teamwork; resources which at the same time are influenced by the teamwork. My argument built on empirical research leading up to identifying and defining the core concept in this article, is that teamwork affects team members' health and this in turn affects the teamwork and its outcome. In this paper collaborative health is viewed from a social constructionism perspective and discussed in relation to earlier concepts developed in social psychology and working life research, including psychosocial stress and burnout. The paper also introduces the concept of functional synergy, which in this context is defined as the simultaneous presence of sharp goal-orientation and synergy in teamwork. The need for a holistic team theory is emphasized as a tool in research on teamwork. Such a theory relies on identifying sound and illuminating constituent concepts. I suggest that collaborative health could be a useful concept for better understanding the complex collaborative and co-operative teamwork of human service organizations of today.

  4. Health as an analogical concept.

    PubMed

    Mordacci, R

    1995-10-01

    This article examines the normative structure of the concept of health and tries to suggest an account of it in a phenomenological-hermeneutic framework. It is argued that the concept of health has a logical priority to illness, though the latter has an experiential priority. The fundamental feature of the concept of health as discussed in the literature is initially recognized in the notion of 'norm', in both the bio-statistical and normative-ideal sense. An analysis of this body of literature reveals some weaknesses in bio-statistical definitions of health as well as in those normative ones which endorse a value-relativity thesis. An approach based on the analogical structure of language is then advanced. In this framework, the notion of biological normativeness proposed by G. Canguilhem is connected with an analysis of the language of health through etymologies. It is argued that health can be characterized as an analogy of 'plenitude', which is the common ideal reference of the various health-concepts. The analogical structuring of language allows the recognition of different levels of meaning, and therefore of different kinds of normativeness (biological, mental, social, moral). Some hints of a theory of health deriving from this framework are then given.

  5. Moral conflict and collaborative mode as moral conflict resolution in health care.

    PubMed

    Jormsri, Pantip

    2004-09-01

    Moral conflict as a complex moral issue in health care has emerged from several causes that are related to different values, beliefs and opinions. Moral conflict can occur when duties and obligations of health care providers or general guiding ethical principles are unclear. Health care providers and institutions or agencies need to resolve or initiate appropriate methods for professional staff so they can recognize, discuss and resolve moral conflicts in the health care delivery system. Collaborative mode is a useful method for moral conflict resolution, because patient care is a complex phenomenon that results from the integrated knowledge and work of individuals with different professional training. In the process of collaborative practice, all members need to respect each other's opinions, values and responsibilities regarding patient care.

  6. Dissemination and implementation of evidence based, mental health interventions in post conflict, low resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Wietse; Jordans, Mark; Zangana, Goran Sabir; Amin, Ahmed Mohammed; Bolton, Paul; Bass, Judith; Bonilla-Escobar, Fransisco Javier; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The burden of mental health problems in (post)conflict low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is substantial. Despite growing evidence for the effectiveness of selected mental health programs in conflict-affected LMIC and growing policy support, actual uptake and implementation have been slow. A key direction for future research, and a new frontier within science and practice, is Dissemination and Implementation (DI) which directly addresses the movement of evidence-based, effective health care approaches from experimental settings into routine use. This paper outlines some key implementation challenges, and strategies to address these, while implementing evidence-based treatments in conflict-affected LMIC based on the authors’ collective experiences. Dissemination and implementation evaluation and research in conflict settings is an essential new research direction. Future DI work in LMIC should include: 1) defining concepts and developing measurement tools, 2) the measurement of DI outcomes for all programming, and 3) the systematic evaluation of specific implementation strategies. PMID:28316559

  7. [The concepts of health access].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raquel Maia; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2012-03-01

    This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences.

  8. Teaching the Concept of Limit by Using Conceptual Conflict Strategy and Desmos Graphing Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Senfeng

    2016-01-01

    Although the mathematics community has long accepted the concept of limit as the foundation of modern Calculus, the concept of limit itself has been marginalized in undergraduate Calculus education. In this paper, I analyze the strategy of conceptual conflict to teach the concept of limit with the aid of an online tool--Desmos graphing calculator.…

  9. Health Concepts, Guides for Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Concepts and supporting data pertaining to major health problems facing youth today as well as those anticipated in the next decade are enumerated in this resource. The material is designed as a reference for curriculum planners and classroom teachers in developing curriculum and teaching guides, units and instruction, and other curriculum…

  10. Health coaching: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jeanette M

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the use of health coaching documented in the literature indicate a lack of conceptual clarity. The purpose of this article was to clarify the meaning of health coaching and propose an operational definition. Seven attributes were identified and used to propose an operational definition of health coaching as a goal-oriented, client-centered partnership that is health-focused and occurs through a process of client enlightenment and empowerment. This operational definition and the proposed empirical measures of each attribute can be used to validate the presence of health coaching, develop theory-based applications, and consistently test the effectiveness of interventions using this concept. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Social representation of a psychoanalytical concept: what is the popular meaning of an "unconscious conflict"?].

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Heitmann, Sabine; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2008-05-01

    A majority of the population regards unconscious conflict as a possible cause for depression or schizophrenia. We examine to what extent people associate psychoanalytical concepts with this term. Population-based telephone survey (n = 1010), open questions about the meaning and origin of the term unconscious conflict. 5 % gave a definition with clearly psychoanalytical elements, another 13 % perceived an internal conflict. 24 % thought of a conflict between persons, 23 % had no answer. Regarding the origin of the term, 4 % associated Freud or psychoanalysis, 27 % psychology. For both questions, answers closer to Freudian ideas were more common in West compared to East Germany. A concretised understanding far from Freud's original conception of unconscious conflict dominates, which is even stronger in the former communist parts of Germany. Psychoanalytical terms do not necessarily carry a psychoanalytical significance with the public.

  12. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569

  13. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health.

    PubMed

    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J; McClintock, Martha K; Teidt, Andrew D

    2014-02-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010-11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands' and wives' marital roles as a contributor to these differences.

  14. Physicians in health care management: 10. Managing conflict through negotiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux-Charles, L

    1994-01-01

    The recent focus on collaborative relationships in health care means that people and groups must cooperate to accomplish clinical and management tasks. This increasing interdependence may also cause increased organizational conflict. The management of conflicts is critical to the effectiveness of an organization. Negotiating strategies, based on Fisher and Ury's method of "principled negotiation," include establishing superordinate goals, separating the people from the problem, focussing on interests, inventing options, using objective criteria and defining success in terms of gains. PMID:7922944

  15. Verification of Legal Knowledge-base with Conflictive Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Shingo; Tojo, Satoshi

    In this paper, we propose a verification methodology of large-scale legal knowledge. With a revision of legal code, we are forced to revise also other affected code to keep the consistency of law. Thus, our task is to revise the affected area properly and to investigate its adequacy. In this study, we extend the notion of inconsistency besides of the ordinary logical inconsistency, to include the conceptual conflicts. We obtain these conflictions from taxonomy data, and thus, we can avoid tedious manual declarations of opponent words. In the verification process, we adopt extended disjunctive logic programming (EDLP) to tolerate multiple consequences for a given set of antecedents. In addition, we employ abductive logic programming (ALP) regarding the situations to which the rules are applied as premises. Also, we restrict a legal knowledge-base to acyclic program to avoid the circulation of definitions, to justify the relevance of verdicts. Therefore, detecting cyclic parts of legal knowledge would be one of our objectives. The system is composed of two subsystems; we implement the preprocessor in Ruby to facilitate string manipulation, and the verifier in Prolog to exert the logical inference. Also, we employ XML format in the system to retain readability. In this study, we verify actual code of ordinances of Toyama prefecture, and show the experimental results.

  16. Zoonoses, One Health and complexity: wicked problems and constructive conflict

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal–spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny. An important function of One Health approaches should be to facilitate and manage those conflicts, rather than to impose solutions. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584179

  17. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  18. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  19. Blunder Lecture to Reeducate Physiology Concepts by Cognitive Conflict Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Satendra

    2014-01-01

    Our students are not a tabula rasa in classes. These varied learners imbibe new information in relevance to others and reaffirm their own concepts. Quite often, in this journey of forming new connections, inadvertently, misconceptions are retained and may be reinforced if not corrected early. Students come to learning situations with preconceived…

  20. Giant viruses: conflicts in revisiting the virus concept.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the 'phage group' (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to evolve by stealing cellular genes (the escape model). This paradigm has been challenged recently by scientists who propose that viruses pre-dated modern cells. In particular, the discovery of Mimivirus has stimulated a lot of discussions on the nature of viruses. There are two major schools of thought, those who defend the escape model, suggesting that giant viruses are giant pickpockets (chimera), and those who emphasize their uniqueness and ancient origin. Comparative genomics of Mimivirus and related viruses (nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) have produced a lot of data that have been interpreted according to the prejudices of the authors and thus failed until now to generate a consensus. I briefly review here the history of these debates and how they lead to new proposals, such as the definition of viruses as capsid-encoding organisms or else the recognition of their fundamentally cellular nature, the virocell concept. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Post-conflict health reconstruction: search for a policy.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Leonard S

    2011-10-01

    Despite increasing experience in health reconstruction in societies emerging from conflict, the policy basis for investing in the development of equitable and effective health systems in the wake of war remains unsettled. Consideration of post-conflict health reconstruction is almost entirely absent in donor policies on global health. Practically by default, health programmes are seen increasingly as an element of stabilisation and security interventions in the aftermath of armed conflict. That perspective, however, lacks an evidence base and can skew health programmes towards short-term security and stabilisation goals that have a marginal impact and violate the principles of equity, non-discrimination, and quality, which are central to sound health systems and public acceptance of them. A better approach is to ground policy in legitimacy, viewing health both as a core social institution and one that, if developed according to human rights principles, including equity, non-discrimination, participation and accountability, can advance the effectiveness and the quality of governance in the emerging state.

  3. Health: A Developing Concept in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Alslman, Eman Tariq; Ahmad, Muayyad M; Bani Hani, Manar Ali; Atiyeh, Huda Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the level of maturity of the concept of health in the nursing discipline. The four principles of Morse and colleagues were used to evaluate the level of maturity of the health concept-epistemological, logical, pragmatical, and linguistical. This evaluation suggests that the concept of health in nursing is immature, defined inconsistently, and with different instruments. Health is a central concept for nursing. Additional concept development and clarification are needed. For the concept of health to be conceptualized, it is important that nurses have consensus regarding the definition of health. The nursing discipline should define health in a manner that is consistent with its philosophical presuppositions. Further, it should be measurable, empirically based, and capture the outcomes that are sensitive to the nursing interventions. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Health economics--concepts and conceptual problems.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, S K; Bansal, R D

    1982-01-01

    Awareness of the economic manifestation of health and diseases and the limited resources allocated to health care services has brought to the focus a new discipline - health economics. Cost accounting, cost benefit, cost effectiveness methods etc. are increasingly becoming an integral part of the health management and evaluation of health programmes. Various concepts and problems relating to health economics are discussed in the present paper. More efforts should be made to conduct health economic studies in hospitals and health centres by which the process of standardisation of the concepts, would be easier. Health economics should also find its due place in the medical curriculum.

  5. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy. Methods Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers. Results While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members. Conclusions Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental-health

  6. Viewing Cognitive Conflicts as Dilemmas: Implications for Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Feixas, Guillem; Saúl, Luis Angel; Ávila-Espada, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The idea that internal conflicts play a significant role in mental health has been extensively addressed in various psychological traditions, including personal construct theory. In the context of the latter, several measures of conflict have been operationalized using the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). All of them capture the notion that change, although desirable from the viewpoint of a given set of constructs, becomes undesirable from the perspective of other constructs. The goal of this study is to explore the presence of cognitive conflicts in a clinical sample (n = 284) and compare it to a control sample (n = 322). It is also meant to clarify which among the different types of conflict studied provides a greater clinical value and to investigate its relationship to symptom severity (SCL-90-R). Of the types of cognitive conflict studied, implicative dilemmas were the only ones to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. These dilemmas were found in 34% of the nonclinical sample and in 53% of the clinical sample. Participants with implicative dilemmas showed higher symptom severity, and those from the clinical sample displayed a higher frequency of dilemmas than those from the nonclinical sample. PMID:22629109

  7. Viewing Cognitive Conflicts as Dilemmas: Implications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Feixas, Guillem; Saúl, Luis Angel; Avila-Espada, Alejandro

    2009-04-01

    The idea that internal conflicts play a significant role in mental health has been extensively addressed in various psychological traditions, including personal construct theory. In the context of the latter, several measures of conflict have been operationalized using the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). All of them capture the notion that change, although desirable from the viewpoint of a given set of constructs, becomes undesirable from the perspective of other constructs. The goal of this study is to explore the presence of cognitive conflicts in a clinical sample (n = 284) and compare it to a control sample (n = 322). It is also meant to clarify which among the different types of conflict studied provides a greater clinical value and to investigate its relationship to symptom severity (SCL-90-R). Of the types of cognitive conflict studied, implicative dilemmas were the only ones to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical samples. These dilemmas were found in 34% of the nonclinical sample and in 53% of the clinical sample. Participants with implicative dilemmas showed higher symptom severity, and those from the clinical sample displayed a higher frequency of dilemmas than those from the nonclinical sample.

  8. Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B

    2009-01-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment. PMID:19130245

  9. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  10. The life course model as a framework for post-conflict health analysis: reflections on the Gulf War critical period.

    PubMed

    Cange, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    In the Kuwait context, from January 1991 to December 1991, there were a series of chemical and psychological Gulf War-era exposures that left persistent, long-term damage. Extreme stress from a critical event speeds up the usual disease latency period, and may be part of a synergistic effect that leads to higher disease rates over a shorter period of time. I am interested in the impact of armed conflict on health outcomes over the life course in Kuwait, and particularly the pathways through which armed conflict causes changes in health on a population level. In this paper, I propose a culturally sensitive, post-conflict socio-ecological model that informs a three-pronged health study. I propose a macro-micro mix that includes an ecological study, a case-control study and a qualitative study to investigate Kuwait's post-conflict health concerns. Thus, I revise the concept of 'post-conflict health' as a trajectory that is mediated through different, complex social levels and develops over time during the latency period. The main advantage of a macro-micro mix approach for post-conflict health is that it contextualizes the Gulf War as an environmental health issue.

  11. Physicians' and consumers' conflicting attitudes toward health care advertising.

    PubMed

    Krohn, F B; Flynn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the conflicting attitudes held by physicians and health care consumers toward health care advertising in an attempt to resolve the question. The paper introduces the differing positions held by the two groups. The rationale behind physicians' attitudes is then presented that advertising can be unethical, misleading, deceptive, and lead to unnecessary price increases. They believe that word-of-mouth does and should play the major role in attracting new patients. The opposite view of consumers is then presented which contends that health care advertising leads to higher consumer awareness of services, better services, promotes competitive pricing, and lowers rather than raises health care costs. The final section of the paper compares the arguments presented and concludes that health care advertising clearly has a place in the health care industry.

  12. Abuse in health care: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Adrianus Jelmer; Wijma, Barbro; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2012-03-01

    To analyse the concept of abuse in health care. This analysis also covers how abuse in health care is different from the related concepts of medical error, patient satisfaction and personal identity threat. Abuse in health care is an emerging concept in need of a clear analysis and definition. At the same time, boundaries to the related concepts are not demarcated. Concept analysis as developed by Walker and Avant. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, and Google Scholar were used to obtain articles published between 1997 and 2009. A total of eleven articles are referred to on abuse in health care, four on medical error, six on patient satisfaction and three on personal identity threat. Abuse in health care is defined by patients' subjective experiences of encounters with the health care system, characterized by devoid of care, where patients suffer and feel they lose their value as human beings. The events are most often unintended. We also found differences with the aforementioned related concepts: medical error does not share the patients' perspective, and patient satisfaction does not offer room for patients' abusive experiences. The concept of personal identity threat shares all attributes with abuse in health care, but it lacks an antecedent that signifies the social structures underlying the phenomenon. Abuse in health care covers a phenomenon that has severe consequences but is invisible if seen from a medical error or patient satisfaction perspective. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  14. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  15. [Health Technology Dependency: A Concept Analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao-Yi; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Health technology dependence is a widely recognized concept that refers to the utilization of technology, including drugs, equipment, instruments, and related devices, to compensate for a physical disability or to prevent the progression of a disability. Although technology may significantly prolong the life of a patient, technology may also increase the psychological pressure of these patients and the burdens of their caregivers. There is a current dearth of related research and discussions related to the concept of "health technology dependency". Therefore, the present paper uses the strategies of concept analysis described by Walker & Avant (2010) to analyze this concept. The characteristic definition of health technology dependence addresses individuals who: (1) currently live with health technology, (2) may perceive physical or psychological burdens due to health technology, and (3) feel physical and psychological well-being when coping positively with their health technology dependency and, further, regard health technology as a part of their body. Further, the present paper uses case examples to help analyze the general concept. It is hoped that nurses may better understand the concept of "health technology dependency", consider the concerns of health-technology-dependent patients and their families, and develop relevant interventions to promote the well-being of these patients and their families.

  16. Public Health Crisis in War and Conflict - Health Security in Aggregate.

    PubMed

    Quinn, John; Zelený, Tomáš; Subramaniam, Rammika; Bencko, Vladimír

    2017-03-01

    Public health status of populations is multifactorial and besides other factors it is linked to war and conflict. Public health crisis can erupt when states go to war or are invaded; health security may be reduced for affected populations. This study reviews in aggregate multiple indices of human security, human development and legitimacy of the state in order to describe a predictable global health portrait. Paradigm shift of large global powers to that non-state actors and proxies impact regional influence through scaled conflict and present major global health challenges for policy makers. Small scale conflict with large scale violence threatens health security for at-risk populations. The paper concludes that health security is directly proportional to state security.

  17. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  18. [Health literacy - a concept for professional nursing?].

    PubMed

    Thilo, F; Sommerhalder, K; Hahn, S

    2012-12-01

    Research results show that health literacy is an important concept in nursing. It has a positive effect on the health of individuals as well as on the costs of the healthcare system. The results of a comprehensive literature search (1980 - March 2009) revealed that the concept of health literacy is being increasingly discussed; however, the concept is barely addressed in literature specific to nursing. The existing definitions of health literacy are formulated predominantly within the medical context. Only one study from the United States analyzed the concept within the context of nursing care. The concept of health literacy is highly relevant because its' aim is to empower the patients, along with their relatives, in dealing with health and disease. In order to thoroughly examine health literacy, it must first be reviewed conceptually within the context of the profession of nursing. This has occurred in this article. The specific terms relevant to health literacy were identified. Moreover, an operational definition for health literacy was developed for the professional nursing setting. Possibilities for nursing practice, due to the conceptualization of health literacy, are discussed.

  19. Understanding critical health literacy: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in and debates around health literacy have grown over the last two decades and key to the discussions has been the distinction made between basic functional health literacy, communicative/interactive health literacy and critical health literacy. Of these, critical health literacy is the least well developed and differing interpretations of its constituents and relevance exist. The aim of this study is to rigorously analyse the concept of critical health literacy in order to offer some clarity of definition upon which appropriate theory, well grounded practice and potential measurement tools can be based. Method The study uses a theoretical and colloquial evolutionary concept analysis method to systematically identify the features associated with this concept. A unique characteristic of this method is that it practically combines an analysis of the literature with in depth interviews undertaken with practitioners and policy makers who have an interest in the field. The study also analyses how the concept is understood across the contexts of time, place, discipline and use by health professionals, policy makers and academics. Results Findings revealed a distinct set of characteristics of advanced personal skills, health knowledge, information skills, effective interaction between service providers and users, informed decision making and empowerment including political action as key features of critical health literacy. The potential consequences of critical health literacy identified are in improving health outcomes, creating more effective use of health services and reducing inequalities in health thus demonstrating the relevance of this concept to public health and health promotion. Conclusions While critical health literacy is shown to be a unique concept, there remain significant contextual variations in understanding particularly between academics, practitioners and policy makers. Key attributes presented as part of this concept when it was

  20. Development of Concepts of Political Conflict and Power by 5th and 8th Graders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David O.

    This research investigated pre-adolescent children's concepts of political conflict and power, and the processes by which these are acquired. It focused particularly upon the acquisition of such attitudes by Black and Mexican-American children, minority groups currently involved in deep social and political conflicts. The data were obtained with a…

  1. The concept of health. Rural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Long, K A

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the client's concept of health is necessary to conduct relevant and effective health assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation. Client health concepts are affected by place of residence and further colored by specific community and individual level variations including occupation, education, subculture, age, gender, and health status. Rural nursing practice can be improved through knowledge of the health perceptions and definitions held by the rural clients to be served. Nursing, as a discipline, has traditionally emphasized the need to understand the client's perspective and to develop mutually agreed on health goals in collaboration with the client. Rural nursing practice offers unique opportunities to consider meanings of health within the environmental context. Further, it challenges nurses to work hand-in-hand with clients to develop strategies that fit the context, and thus effectively address rural health care needs.

  2. [Environmental health: concepts and activities].

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, G A

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information and a conceptual framework that will facilitate the work of persons in charge of systematizing institutions devoted to environmental health. The notion of "environment" is examined and a definition is proposed, while a look is also taken at the place held by environmental health within the context of environmental problems and their "green" and "blue" components. A number of definitions are put forth before presenting the official definition of environmental health issued by WHO in Sofia (1993). Subsequently a list is presented of the basic areas that have been assigned to the field of environmental health by different organizations or at various meetings, with PAHO, WHO, and Program 21 among them. From this a rather exhaustive list of areas and subareas is constructed, with the finding that all lists are, in reality, an asystematic grouping of three different components: determining factors (from the physical world), processes (types of interventions), and roles (series of administrative tasks) which can be conceived as a matrix and which allow for the description of individual activities by the environmental health services. Certain rules of operation are proposed which make it possible, through a form of algebra, to construct expressions for describing such activities and their aggregates with some precision. Thus, it becomes possible to employ a common symbolic language which can facilitate intercommunication, teaching, and research in the area of environmental health.

  3. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-04-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed.

  4. Reforms and Challenges of Post-conflict Kosovo Health System

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mybera; Berisha, Merita; Lenjani, Basri

    2014-01-01

    Before its collapse, Kosovo's healthcare system was an integrated part of the Former Yugoslav Republics System (known as relatively well advanced for its time). Standstill had begun in the last decade of the twentieth century as the result of political disintegration of the former state. The enthusiasm of the healthcare professionals and the people of Kosovo that at the end of the conflict healthcare services will consolidate did not prove just right. Although we can claim that reorganization of Kosovo healthcare was a serious push (especially in the first years after the conflict), the intensity of development begun to fall at the latter stages. Although the basic legislation for the operation of the Healthcare System today in Kosovo does exist, the largest cause for the reform stagnation is where the law is not implemented properly and measures are not set as to a meaningful system of accountability. Twelve years have passed by since the 1999 war-conflict and, although, Kosovo has made progress in many other spheres, it has not yet reached to consolidate a health system comparable to those of other European countries. Intending to get out of difficult situation, several healthcare strategic plans have been developed in the past decade in Kosovo, but attempts in this direction have not been particularly fruitful. This script describes the actual Healthcare complexity of a situation in Kosovo 12 years after the end of the 1999 war-conflict. Interconnection and historical background is also looked upon and is described in the flow of events. Finally, the description of transfer competencies from international administrators to the local authorities as well as the flow of strategic planning that took place since 1999 has also been analyzed. PMID:24944539

  5. Community health nursing advocacy: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an in-depth analysis of the concept of community health nursing (CHN) advocacy. Walker and Avant's (2010) 8-step concept analysis methodology was used. A broad inquiry into the literature between 1994 and 2014 resulted in the identification of the uses, defining attributes, empirical referents, antecedents, and consequences, as well as the articulation of an operational definition of CHN advocacy. Model and contrary cases were identified to demonstrate the concept's application and to clarify its meaning. This analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge of CHN advocacy and provides nurse clinicians, educators, and researchers with some conceptual clarity to help improve community health outcomes.

  6. Constructing a conflict resolution program for health care.

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Resolving conflict throughout organizations requires a programmatic infrastructure and a committed management team. Leaders must recognize the need to approach conflict by building a format for learning, creating and managing an effective conflict management program. Careful attention to the elements of design and the stages of development can make all the difference in building a sustainable and useful conflict management approach.

  7. Health Hybrid Concept Analysis in Old People

    PubMed Central

    Noghabi, Ahamadali Asadi; Alhani, Fatemeh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: It seems necessary to study the health status of this age group to promote their health and prevent disease as well as care planning. In order to achieve this goal, a clear definition of the concept of elderly health is essential. Method: Hybrid concept analysis, our research design, utilizes both theoretical analysis of literature and empirical observation to define a concept. We chose the hybrid concept analysis method because its inclusion of old people perspectives enriches the limited health research literature. The method consists of three phases theory, fieldwork, and analysis. Results: In comparison, we can conclude that health in the elderly people is something more than the absence of illness and 4 physical, mental, social and spiritual domains which are referred to in the definition of a theoretical stage are supported by the findings. The relative health was also proposed against the complete welfare and comfort for the elderly and it showed that their expectations are less than their ages. In addition, the elderly have expressed the family as a preference and the researcher believes that this theme is context based because it has emerged following the interview. Since the family has a special place according to the Iranian culture and religion and the family health is a priority in their health. In addition, the daily activities have been raised as a major theme that can be considered as the physical health but the elderly have expressed it apart from the physical health. Conclusion: Health among the old is a concept that is affected by genetic, environmental, healthcare services and lifestyle-related factors and involves proportional physical, mental, social, familial, spiritual, and economical welfare along with the ability to handle daily life activities which is measurable through medical and functional approaches. PMID:24171892

  8. Health hybrid concept analysis in old people.

    PubMed

    Asadi Noughabi, Ahmadali; Alhani, Fatemeh; Piravi, Hamid

    2013-10-31

    It seems necessary to study the health status of this age group to promote their health and prevent disease as well as care planning. In order to achieve this goal, a clear definition of the concept of elderly health is essential. Hybrid concept analysis, our research design, utilizes both theoretical analysis of literature and empirical observation to define a concept. We chose the hybrid concept analysis method because its inclusion of old people perspectives enriches the limited health research literature. The method consists of three phases: theory, fieldwork, and analysis. In comparison, we can conclude that health in the elderly people is something more than the absence of illness and 4 physical, mental, social and spiritual domains which are referred to in the definition of a theoretical stage are supported by the findings. The relative health was also proposed against the complete welfare and comfort for the elderly and it showed that their expectations are less than their ages. In addition, the elderly have expressed the family as a preference and the researcher believes that this theme is context based because it has emerged following the interview. Since the family has a special place according to the Iranian culture and religion and the family health is a priority in their health. In addition, the daily activities have been raised as a major theme that can be considered as the physical health but the elderly have expressed it apart from the physical health. Health among the old is a concept that is affected by genetic, environmental, healthcare services and lifestyle-related factors and involves proportional physical, mental, social, familial, spiritual, and economical welfare along with the ability to handle daily life activities which is measurable through medical and functional approaches.

  9. Transdisciplinarity in Health Care: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Bewer, Vanessa

    2017-05-26

    To analyze the concept of transdisciplinarity and provide an enhanced definition of transdisciplinarity in health care. The term transdisciplinarity is increasingly prevalent in health care research and has been identified as important to improving the effectiveness and efficiency in health care. However, the term continues to be misappropriated and poorly understood by researchers and clinicians alike which hinders its potential use and impact. Walker and Avant's (2005) method of concept analysis was used as a framework for the study of the concept. The databases PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, PsycInfo and ERIC were used searching the terms transdisciplinarity, transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and interdisciplinarity. Transdisciplinarity in health care involves transcending of disciplinary boundaries, a sharing of knowledge, skills and decision-making, a focus on real-world problems and the inclusion of multiple stakeholders including patients, their families and their communities. An enhanced definition of transdisciplinarity in health care emerged from this concept analysis that may provide clarity and direction for health care providers. Nurses, and other health care providers, can look to this definition to understand transdisciplinary health care teams as opposed to multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary ones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Conflict on interprofessional primary health care teams--can it be resolved?

    PubMed

    Brown, Judith; Lewis, Laura; Ellis, Kathy; Stewart, Moira; Freeman, Thomas R; Kasperski, M Janet

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, primary health care teams (PHCTs) depend on the contributions of multiple professionals. However, conflict is inevitable on teams. This article examines PHCTs members' experiences with conflict and responses to conflict. This phenomenological study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 121 participants from 16 PHCTs (10 urban and 6 rural) including a wide range of health care professionals. An iterative analysis process was used to examine the verbatim transcripts. The analysis revealed three main themes: sources of team conflict; barriers to conflict resolution; and strategies for conflict resolution. Sources of team conflict included: role boundary issues; scope of practice; and accountability. Barriers to conflict resolution were: lack of time and workload; people in less powerful positions; lack of recognition or motivation to address conflict; and avoiding confrontation for fear of causing emotional discomfort. Team strategies for conflict resolution included interventions by team leaders and the development of conflict management protocols. Individual strategies included: open and direct communication; a willingness to find solutions; showing respect; and humility. Conflict is inherent in teamwork. However, understanding the potential barriers to conflict resolution can assist PHCTs in developing strategies to resolve conflict in a timely fashion.

  11. Health concept and health promotion process among Korean migrant women.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung

    2013-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.

  12. Health as a clinic-epidemiological concept.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2015-06-01

    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse's 'theoretical' approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse's view that health is a theoretical concept, a 'species normal functional ability'. I will claim that Boorse's view is actually a view on normal physiology. My claim is that health is best described as the state of absence of chronic diseases or disabilities (clinic-epidemiologically associated with a morbimortality index higher than the risk of death, disease and disabilities for individuals of the same population group or reference class free of that chronic clinical conditions). Health, therefore, is not the mere absence of disease. Diseases that do not increase patients' morbimortality and disability indexes are not incompatible with health; after all, clinical health is compatible with appropriate health care and medical treatments.

  13. Primary care mental health workers: role expectations, conflict and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bower, Peter; Jerrim, Sophie; Gask, Linda

    2004-07-01

    A number of professionals are involved in mental health in primary care. The NHS Plan proposed the introduction of a new professional, the primary care mental health worker (PCMHW), to improve care in this setting. The present study was conducted to examine pilot PCMHW-type roles currently in existence, to explore staff expectations concerning the new PCMHW role and to consider the issues relating to roles in primary care mental health that are raised by this new worker. The study used a case study design, and involved qualitative interviews with 46 managers and clinicians from primary care and specialist mental health services, including pilot PCMHW-type roles. The key findings were as follows: The pilot PCMHW-type roles were almost exclusively related to client work, whereas respondents had far wider role expectations of the new PCMHWs, relating to perceived gaps in current service provision. This highlights the potential for role conflict. Secondly, there was disagreement and ambiguity among some respondents as to the nature of the new PCMHW's role in client work, and its relationship with the work undertaken by other mental health professionals such as counsellors, psychologists and nurses. Given that multiple professionals are involved in mental health care in primary care, issues relating to roles are likely to be crucial in the effective implementation of the new PCMHWs.

  14. Values in Health Policy - A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shams, Lida; Akbari Sari, Ali; Yazdani, Shahram

    2016-08-17

    Despite the significant role "values" play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of "values" and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of "value in health policy-making" were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. We identified eight major attributes of "value in health policy-making": ideological origin, affect one's choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one's interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra theoretical support to decision-makers in their policy-making process, to help

  15. Associations Between Marital Conflict and Adolescent Conflict Appraisals, Stress Physiology, and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Dumitrache, Adina

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine conflict appraisals and diurnal cortisol production as mediators of the robust association between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment problems. Parents reported their marital conflict and were observed engaging in a marital conflict discussion; they also reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Adolescents (n = 105, 52% female, 10-17 years of age) appraised their parents' marital conflict and reported their internalizing and externalizing behaviors. After the laboratory visit, adolescents provided four saliva samples on each of 2 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol production. More-negative marital conflict predicted more self-blame for parental conflict, which in turn predicted less robust decreases in cortisol across the day. Further, this flattened cortisol production pattern mediated the relationship between greater self-blame for parental conflict and adolescents' elevated internalizing behaviors. Feeling responsible for parental conflict appears to be particularly damaging in terms of physiological regulation and adjustment, and may therefore be a particularly useful intervention target.

  16. Associations Between Marital Conflict and Adolescent Conflict Appraisals, Stress Physiology, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Dumitrache, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine conflict appraisals and diurnal cortisol production as mediators of the robust association between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment problems. Parents reported their marital conflict and were observed engaging in a marital conflict discussion; they also reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Adolescents (n = 105, 52% female, 10–17 years of age) appraised their parents’ marital conflict and reported their internalizing and externalizing behaviors. After the laboratory visit, adolescents provided four saliva samples on each of 2 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol production. More-negative marital conflict predicted more self-blame for parental conflict, which in turn predicted less robust decreases in cortisol across the day. Further, this flattened cortisol production pattern mediated the relationship between greater self-blame for parental conflict and adolescents’ elevated internalizing behaviors. Feeling responsible for parental conflict appears to be particularly damaging in terms of physiological regulation and adjustment, and may therefore be a particularly useful intervention target. PMID:26136117

  17. Public health, conflict and human rights: toward a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Oskar NT; Ron, James

    2007-01-01

    Although epidemiology is increasingly contributing to policy debates on issues of conflict and human rights, its potential is still underutilized. As a result, this article calls for greater collaboration between public health researchers, conflict analysts and human rights monitors, with special emphasis on retrospective, population-based surveys. The article surveys relevant recent public health research, explains why collaboration is useful, and outlines possible future research scenarios, including those pertaining to the indirect and long-term consequences of conflict; human rights and security in conflict prone areas; and the link between human rights, conflict, and International Humanitarian Law. PMID:18005430

  18. Interpersonal conflict and health perceptions in long-distance caregiving relationships.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Vreeburg, Sean K; Verdugo, Sherri; Sparks, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    With job markets expanding globally and life expectancy continually increasing, more demands are being placed on distant relatives to provide care for their aging family members, creating a health care situation known as long-distance caregiving. An online survey explored the relations between negative health perceptions by long-distance caregivers and conflict frequency and conflict strategy usage. The authors observed positive significant relations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and conflict frequency and usage of the distributive and avoidance conflict strategies. However, they observed no significant associations between distant caregiver negative health perceptions and usage of the two integrative strategies. Implications for long-distance caregiving communication are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of a Conflict-Resolution and Problem-Solving Programme to Enhance Adolescents' Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Ian; Byrne, Marie; Butler, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates effectiveness of an intervention program for students with low self-concept and social relationship difficulties. The ABLE program (Attribution, Behavior, Life Skills Education) incorporates problem-solving, conflict resolution, and a multidimensional framework to investigate adolescents' self-concept formation. Improvements were made in…

  20. The role of health professionals in preventing and mediating conflict.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1980s academics, governmental and non-governmental organisations have undertaken field projects inspired by the Peace through Health and similar concepts formulated by the World Health Organisation and the Department of Peace Studies at McMaster University, Canada. These have been criticised for lack of proper evaluation, the appropriateness of the skills of health workers involved, and the overall usefulness of the approach. This article, based on a literature review, compares existing evidence with the theoretical framework. There is still a lack of systematic evaluation, but no direct disproof of Peace through Health theory. It is concluded that the Peace through Health approach can have a positive impact on healing and reconciliation on a community scale, but there is no evidence of a peace impact on a larger scale.

  1. Health education specialization in Africa: roles in conflict.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, J D; Brieger, W R

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the professional preparation programme offered at the African Regional Health Education Centre (ARHEC), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where training is provided at the diploma and post-graduate levels. Role conflicts between the two groups of professionals involved have been noted, both during and after training. Diplomates hold expectations that they will be considered in the same light as post-graduate specialists, and are therefore disappointed sometimes when they go back to their professional settings. Master level specialists also experience frustrations in cases where diplomates hold seniority over them. The most successful diploma holders seem to be those who incorporate health education into their basic professional practice, for example nurses using patient education skills. An analysis of the activities and performance of the diploma students during their training also revealed that they tend to view health education in terms of their basic profession and developed projects that integrated both disciplines. This experience has led ARCHEC staff to advocate profession-specific training at the diploma level, so that graduates will have a better vision of their role in the broader picture of health education.

  2. Investigating the work-family conflict and health link: Repetitive thought as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Gere, Judith; Sliwinski, Martin J

    2016-10-06

    Research is needed to investigate mechanisms linking work-family conflict to poor health in working adults. We took a novel approach to build on extant studies by testing a potential mechanism in these associations - repetitive thought. Data came from a sample of 203 partnered working adults. There were significant direct effects of work-family conflict with lower life satisfaction, positive affect, and perceived health as well as greater fatigue. As for total effects, work-family conflict was significantly associated with all health outcomes - life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, perceived health, and chronic health conditions - in the expected directions through repetitive thought. This study provides support that repetitive thought is one potential mechanism of how work-family conflict can take a toll on psychological and physical health. Findings are discussed in relation to improving workplace policies to improve the health of working adults managing work-family conflict.

  3. The case for addressing explosive weapons: conflict, violence and health.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian; Moyes, Richard; Lang, Iain

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, states and non-governmental organizations have expressed concern about the humanitarian consequences of the category of technologies labelled 'explosive weapons', particularly in relation to their use in populated areas. This article seeks to outline the magnitude of these consequences as well as what can be done to reduce harms. In particular, it makes a case for how health approaches could help prevent the harms associated with this category of weapons. Attention is given to the types of evidence and argument that might be required to characterize explosive weapons. An overarching aim is to consider how alternative ways of understanding weapons and violence can create new opportunities for addressing harms from conflict.

  4. [Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories].

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V

    2015-10-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

  5. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

  6. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana C.; Arcaya, Alyssa L.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142

  7. Understanding effects of armed conflict on health outcomes: the case of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is abundance of literature on adverse effects of conflict on the health of the population. In contrast to this, sporadic data in Nepal claim improvements in most of the health indicators during the decade-long armed conflict (1996-2006). However, systematic information to support or reject this claim is scant. This study reviews Nepal's key health indicators before and after the violent conflict and explores the possible factors facilitating the progress. Methods A secondary analysis has been conducted of two demographic health surveys-Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1996 and Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2006; the latter was supplemented by a study carried out by the Nepal Health Research Council in 2006. Results The data show Nepal has made progress in 16 out of 19 health indicators which are part of the Millennium Development Goals whilst three indicators have remained static. Our analysis suggests a number of conflict and non-conflict factors which may have led to this success. Conclusion The lessons learnt from Nepal could be replicable elsewhere in conflict and post-conflict environments. A nationwide large-scale empirical study is needed to further assess the determinants of Nepal's success in the health sector at a time the country experienced a decade of armed conflict. PMID:21122098

  8. The Hospice Concept: Health Occupation 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobel, Deborah A.

    A description is provided of "The Hospice Concept," an elective course offered as part of a two-year college health occupations curriculum. The course is designed to further the students understanding of the multiple facets of death and dying and to prepare them to be hospice volunteers. Following a course description and a glossary of…

  9. The Hospice Concept: Health Occupation 305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schobel, Deborah A.

    A description is provided of "The Hospice Concept," an elective course offered as part of a two-year college health occupations curriculum. The course is designed to further the students understanding of the multiple facets of death and dying and to prepare them to be hospice volunteers. Following a course description and a glossary of…

  10. Tse'ado'ii [Health Concepts].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This children's reader in the Navajo language presents health concepts, such as the transmission of germs, through the use of illustrations and text describing the daily activities of a fly. The book is designed for children in kindergarten through third grade in a bilingual education setting. (Auth/NCR)

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Sleep, and Mental Health of Nursing Assistants Working in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Nannini, Angela

    2016-10-28

    Work-family conflict is challenging for workers and may lead to depression, anxiety, and overall poor health. Sleep plays an important role in the maintenance of mental health; however, the role of sleep in the association between work-family conflict and mental health is not well-studied. Questionnaires were collected from 650 nursing assistants in 15 nursing homes. Multivariate linear regression modeling demonstrated that increased work-family conflict was associated with lower mental health scores (β = -2.56, p < .01). More work-family conflict was correlated with more job demands, less job control, less social support, and longer work hours. Poor sleep quality, but not short sleep duration, mediated the association between work-family conflict and mental health. Workplace interventions to improve nursing assistants' mental health should increase their control over work schedules and responsibilities, provide support to meet their work and family needs, and address healthy sleep practices.

  12. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345

  13. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  14. [The concept of health and disease].

    PubMed

    Ruíz, R H

    1976-12-01

    1. The author reviews some current concepts concerning the definitions and uses of the concepts of health and illness. Starting from the definitions in Psychiatry, "normality" is considered from the statistic, the normative and the clinical standpoints, and as a part of a continuum stretching from health to illness. Several approaches are analyzed, among which Wittaker's, who sets forth the following indicators of normality: a) self-knowledge; b) self-esteem; c) self-security; d) capacity for giving and receiving affection; e) satisfaction of corporal needs; f) productivity and capacity for happiness; g) lack of tensions and of hipersensitivity. 2. The concept of illness as an operative concept is also analyzed, leading to the following statements: a) it is inexistent in non-biological sciences; b) it appears in social sciences only through extrapolation; c) in medicine it means the breacking of homeosthasis; d) in psychology and dynamic psychiatry it means the abnormal stressing of normal mechanisms, common to all persons. 3. The concept of health as equilibrium is also analyzed, with the following precisions: a) equilibrium is defined within a system as affecting the whole of it, and implying transformation and self-regulation; b) homeosthasis is a case of equilibrium for steady complex systems; c) adaptation is the maintenance of equilibrium when there are exchanges with the evironment. 4. Finally, those concepts are applied to mental illness and its limits, and the following criteria are set forth: a) amount of anguish; b) depression related to its motives, intensity, persistence and frequency; c) regression to previous development stages; d) use of defense mechanisms in an inadequate or stereotyped way.

  15. Chinese concepts of euthanasia and health care.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2006-08-01

    This article argues that taking concepts of euthanasia out of their political and economic contexts leads to violations of the premises on which the Stoic ideal of euthanasia is based: 'a quick, gentle and honourable death.' For instance, the transplantation of the narrowly defined concept of euthanasia developed under the Dutch welfare system into a developing country, such as the People's Republic of China (PRC), seems inadequate. For it cannot deal with questions of anxiety about degrading forms of dying and suffering without reference to its economic rationale, demanded by a scarcity (unequal distribution) of health care resources. The weakness of health care provisions for the terminally ill in Mainland China has become increasingly poignant since the collapse of collective health care institutions in the countryside since the reforms of the late-1980s. As in most cases where health care facilities are wanting, it is difficult to apply the criteria of gentleness and dignity at reaching death. Its solution lies not in a faster relief from suffering by euthanasia, but in extending the quality of life through distributive justice within Chinese healthcare policy-making. This paper begins with a brief description of the Dutch euthanasia law, after which it discusses Chinese conceptions of euthanasia in biomedical textbooks, the media and in surveys. It concludes by pointing out the need for a transnational framework in which both the specifics and generalities of euthanasia can be discussed.

  16. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology. PMID:18569183

  17. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  18. Health Professionals "Make Their Choice": Pharmaceutical Industry Leaders' Understandings of Conflict of Interest.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Quinn; Tierney, Lisa; Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy

    2017-09-14

    Conflicts of interest, stemming from relationships between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry, remain a highly divisive and inflammatory issue in healthcare. Given that most jurisdictions rely on industry to self-regulate with respect to its interactions with health professionals, it is surprising that little research has explored industry leaders' understandings of conflicts of interest. Drawing from in-depth interviews with ten pharmaceutical industry leaders based in Australia, we explore the normalized and structural management of conflicts of interest within pharmaceutical companies. We contrast this with participants' unanimous belief that the antidote to conflicts of interest with health professionals were "informed consumers." It is, thus, unlikely that a self-regulatory approach will be successful in ensuring ethical interactions with health professionals. However, the pharmaceutical industry's routine and accepted practices for disclosing and managing employees' conflicts of interest could, paradoxically, serve as an excellent model for healthcare.

  19. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The flight of white-collars: Civil conflict, availability of medical service providers and public health.

    PubMed

    Kıbrıs, Arzu; Metternich, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Civil conflicts devastate public health both in the short run and in the long run. Analyzing novel data sets that include yearly information on public health and the availability of health professionals across provinces in Turkey in the 1964-2010 period, we provide empirical evidence for our theoretical argument that a major mechanism through which civil conflicts exert their long term negative influences on public health is by discouraging medical personnel to practice in conflict regions. We also assess the effectiveness of certain policy measures that Turkish governments have tried out over the years to counteract this mechanism. Our results reveal that the long running civil conflict in Turkey has been driving away doctors and other highly trained medical personnel from conflict areas and that mandatory service requirements do help counteract this flight.

  1. The concept of stewardship in health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, R. B.; Ferroussier-Davis, O.

    2000-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that both the configuration and the application of state authority in the health sector should be realigned in the interest of achieving agreed policy objectives. The desired outcome is frequently characterized as a search for good governance serving the public interest. The present paper examines the proposal in The World Health Report 2000 that the concept of stewardship offers the appropriate basis for reconfiguration. We trace the development of stewardship from its initial religious formulation to more recent ecological and sociological permutations. Consideration is given to the potential of stewardship for encouraging state decision-making that is both normatively based and economically efficient. Various dilemmas that could impede or preclude such a shift in state behaviour are examined. We conclude that the concept of stewardship holds substantial promise if adequately developed and effectively implemented. PMID:10916910

  2. The concept of territory in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Juarez Pereira; Oda, Wagner Yoshizaki; Borysow, Igor da Costa; Kapp, Silke

    2016-10-10

    The term "territory" and its correlates have become commonplace in the field of Mental Health since the psychiatric reform, a potentially emancipatory milestone in non-hospital-centered ideals. However, in a previous empirical study, we found a lack of consistent concepts and practices (corresponding to the use of this term) in the territorial reinsertion of persons with mental illness. To clarify the term's various uses and its possible correlations in practice, we have conducted a systematic survey of scientific articles and official documents, comparing them to each other and with the concept of territory from Critical Geography. We conclude that in the Mental Health field in Brazil, despite numerous and repeated critical efforts, a functional notion of territory has prevailed, overlooking power relations and symbolic appropriations, increasing the tendency of subjecting the reinsertion of persons with mental illness to a given territory rather than favoring socio-spatial transformations for the coexistence of differences.

  3. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  4. [Conception of health: space-earth].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Orlov, O I; Baevskiĭ, R M; Bersen'ev, E Iu; Chernikova, A G

    2013-01-01

    In article the new approach to an estimation of a health state of cosmonauts, sportsmen, pilots, drivers, operators, persons of dangerous trades is considered. It has been created and developed in Institute of biomedical problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the direction of academician A.I. Grigoriev. Results of works of last decade, by the Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences carried out at support of "Fundamental sciences--are submited to medicine". The new system for an estimation of a functional states of an organism at stressful influences in submitted. The methodology of remote studying of influence of ecological factors on health which has begun a new scientific--practical direction--to telemedical ecology is created. In conclusion of the article it is discussed questions of the further introduction of new concept of health and technologies prenosological diagnostics in practice of public health services.

  5. Technology, conflict early warning systems, public health, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong N; Vinck, Patrick

    2012-12-15

    Public health and conflict early warning are evolving rapidly in response to technology changes for the gathering, management, analysis and communication of data. It is expected that these changes will provide an unprecedented ability to monitor, detect, and respond to crises. One of the potentially most profound and lasting expected change affects the roles of the various actors in providing and sharing information and in responding to early warning. Communities and civil society actors have the opportunity to be empowered as a source of information, analysis, and response, while the role of traditional actors shifts toward supporting those communities and building resilience. However, by creating new roles, relationships, and responsibilities, technology changes raise major concerns and ethical challenges for practitioners, pressing the need for practical guidelines and actionable recommendations in line with existing ethical principles. Copyright © 2012 Pham and Vinck. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  6. Changes in size of populations and level of conflict since World War II: implications for health and health services.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Richard M; Polonsky, Jonathan; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-10-01

    Armed conflicts include declared cross-border and internal wars and political, ethnic, and religious hostilities. The number of conflicts worldwide and their level of intensity have varied widely during the last 5 decades. Tracking conflicts throughout this period has focused predominantly on the number of individuals killed or displaced from these hostilities through count-based estimation systems, or establishing rates of excess mortality from demographic surveys. This report focuses on people living in areas with conflict by applying an estimated level of conflict intensity to data on the population of each territory with hostilities during 1946 to 2007. Data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program/Peace Research Institute Oslo (UCDP/PRIO) Armed Conflict project database on 324 conflicts of any type in countries with populations greater than 500 000 were combined with conflict-intensity estimates from the Center for Systemic Peace and population data from the US Census Bureau International Data Base. More than half a billion people lived in conflict-affected areas in 2007. An increasing proportion of those affected by conflict lived in early postconflict areas, where hostilities were judged or declared during the last 5 years. In the past 2 decades, the average intensity of conflict among those living in areas with a current conflict has gradually declined. A burgeoning population lives in areas where conflict has recently ended, yet most of the world's large-scale medical responses to emergencies focus on high-intensity conflicts. Effective emergency and reconstruction activities in the health sector will depend on reorganizing services to increasingly focus on and transition to low-level and postconflict environments.

  7. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  8. A theoretical model to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model for leaders to use to address organizational human conflict and disruptive behavior in health care organizations. Leadership is needed to improve interpersonal relationships within the workforce. A workforce with a culture of internal conflict will be unable to achieve its full potential to delivery quality patient care.

  9. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  10. The role of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The key roles of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability are to better inform and better equip actors with the knowledge and skills to address health problems. The four key contributions of research are: quantifying the health problem, examining the contextual circumstances, investigating the epidemiology of health problems and evaluation of health care and humanitarian interventions. The role of teaching can complement research by distributing its' findings in addition to teaching skill sets to apply this knowledge and conduct further research. Academic research and teaching both play imperative roles in enabling more successful approaches in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

  11. Work-school conflict and health outcomes: beneficial resources for working college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngah; Sprung, Justin M

    2013-10-01

    This study extends prior college student employment research by examining health as an outcome variable. Using 2-wave data from a sample of 216 student workers, this study examined work-school conflict as a predictor of psychological and physical health among working college students. Additionally, 3 resource-providing variables--work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment at work--were tested for buffering effects in the relation between work-school conflict and health. Results demonstrated that work-school conflict was a significant predictor of psychological health but not physical health. All 3 resource-providing variables ameliorated the negative relation between work-school conflict and psychological health, whereas only personal fulfillment weakened the positive relation between work-school conflict and physical symptoms. These findings suggest the benefits of work-school facilitation, supervisor work-school support, and personal fulfillment in minimizing the detrimental effects of work-school conflict on health outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for researchers, educational institutions, and organizations are discussed.

  12. Conflicting modes of reasoning in the Assisted Migration debate: a concept mapping analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenk, N. L.; Larson, B.

    2011-12-01

    A growing body of literature in biodiversity conservation and forestry has developed around the risks and benefits of the Assisted Migration (AM) of species, including recommendations for planning and management. However, despite years of academic debate, general consensus has yet to be reached between the proponents and the opponents of AM as a policy option. We hypothesize that the continued impasse arises out of fundamentally conflicting value judgments. Using a concept mapping technique, we analyzed reasons for and against AM, including the use of scientific evidence and the nature of the values and ethical norms that shape the modes of reasoning in the debate. Our results indicate the presence of a diversity of ethical arguments in addition to the standard precautionary argument and pragmatic reasoning. We further discovered that different kinds of scientific arguments are used by proponents versus opponents of AM: the former rely mostly on detailed biological and ecological facts about species most-at-risk under climate change, while the latter focus on broader ecological theories. Our analysis suggests little dispute over the scientific foundations of the debate. Instead, we suggest that the main barrier to consensus is the advocacy of fundamental values, which are a matter of personal choice, and thus not likely to be changed. One way out of this impasse is a pragmatic mode of reasoning, which eschews the debate on fundamental values and evaluates the means and ends of AM in a case-by-case approach.

  13. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  14. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  15. Social support, social conflict, and immigrant women's mental health in a Canadian context: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Guruge, S; Thomson, M S; George, U; Chaze, F

    2015-11-01

    Social support has positive and negative dimensions, each of which has been associated with mental health outcomes. Social networks can also serve as sources of distress and conflict. This paper reviews journal articles published during the last 24 years to provide a consolidated summary of the role of social support and social conflict on immigrant women's mental health. The review reveals that social support can help immigrant women adjust to the new country, prevent depression and psychological distress, and access care and services. When social support is lacking or social networks act as a source of conflict, it can have negative effects on immigrant women's mental health. It is crucial that interventions, programmes, and services incorporate strategies to both enhance social support as well as reduce social conflict, in order to improve mental health and well-being of immigrant women. Researchers have documented the protective role of social support and the harmful consequences of social conflict on physical and mental health. However, consolidated information about social support, social conflict, and mental health of immigrant women in Canada is not available. This scoping review examined literature from the last 24 years to understand how social support and social conflict affect the mental health of immigrant women in Canada. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Healthstar, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications focusing on mental health among immigrant women in Canada. Thirty-four articles that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed, and are summarized under the following four headings: settlement challenges and the need for social support; social support and mental health outcomes; social conflict and reciprocity; and social support, social conflict, and mental health service use. The results revealed that social support can have a positive effect on immigrant women's mental health and well-being, and facilitate social inclusion and the use of

  16. [Conflicts of interests in clinical research in primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L; Navarro-Rubio, M D; Sisó-Almirall, A

    2014-03-01

    Conflicts of interests between professionals and patients in biomedical research, is an ethical problem. None of the laws in Spain mention whether the clinical researcher has to clarify to participants the reasons why it proposes them to participate in a clinical trial. In this article, conflicts of interests in research are discussed in the context of primary healthcare. In this area conflicts of interests might alter the confidence between patients and healthcare professionals. Finally, we suggest some practical strategies that can help participants make the decision to participate in a clinical trial more willingly and freely. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Living through conflict and post-conflict: experiences of health workers in northern Uganda and lessons for people-centred health systems

    PubMed Central

    Namakula, Justine; Witter, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Providing people-centred health systems—or any systems at all—requires specific measures to protect and retain healthcare workers during and after the conflict. This is particularly important when health staff are themselves the target of violence and abduction, as is often the case. This article presents the perspective of health workers who lived through conflict in four districts of northern Uganda—Pader, Gulu, Amuru, and Kitgum. These contained more than 90% of the people displaced by the decades of conflict, which ended in 2006. The article is based on 26 in-depth interviews, using a life history approach. This participatory tool encouraged participants to record key events and decisions in their lives, and to explore areas such as their decision to become a health worker, their employment history, and their experiences of conflict and coping strategies. These were analyzed thematically to develop an understanding of how to protect and retain staff in these challenging contexts. During the conflict, many health workers lost their lives or witnessed the death of their friends and colleagues. They also experienced abduction, ambush and injury. Other challenges included disconnection from social and professional support systems, displacement, limited supplies and equipment, increased workload and long working days and lack of pay. Health workers were not passive in the face of these challenges, however. They adopted a range of safety measures, such as mingling with community members, sleeping in the bush, and frequent change of sleeping place, in addition to psychological and practical coping strategies. Understanding their motivation and their views provides an important insight how to maintain staffing and so to continue to offer essential health care during difficult times and in marginalized areas. PMID:25274642

  18. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    PubMed

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  19. An In-Law Comes To Stay: Examination of Interdisciplinary Conflict in a School-Based Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Jonathan D.

    2003-01-01

    Social workers often work in settings where other professions exert a higher level of control. The organizational literature on causes of conflict and conflict resolution is briefly reviewed. A case study of a newly opened school-based health center provides an opportunity to analyze conflicts between the school and health center personnel and…

  20. What Are the Costs of Marital Conflict and Dissolution to Children's Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2004-01-01

    Do parental marital conflict and dissolution influence the risk trajectory of children's physical health risk? This paper reviews evidence addressing this question in the context of understanding how early environmental adversities may trigger a succession of risks that lead to poor health in childhood and greater risk for chronic health problems…

  1. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  2. Political Socialization of Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: Conception and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Tal, Daniel; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Nasie, Meytal

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that…

  3. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  4. Tracing health system challenges in post-conflict Côte d'Ivoire from 1893 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Sabrina; Patel, Preeti

    2013-07-01

    While scholarship on health in conflict-affected countries is growing, there has been relatively little analysis of how armed conflict affects health systems in specific African countries, especially former French colonies. There is even less literature on the role of history in shaping health systems and how historical factors such as inequity may influence health impacts of armed conflict. Based on Côte d'Ivoire, this article argues that historical multidisciplinary analysis can provide valuable insight into the macro-level political, economic and social determinants of the health system over time. It explores how armed conflict has affected health services and exacerbates historically inherited challenges to the health system including unequal distribution of health services, bias towards curative care in urban areas, inadequate human resources and weak health governance. In the post-conflict period, this understanding may assist governments and other stakeholders to develop more appropriate health policies that address both urgent and long-term health needs.

  5. Work-family conflict: experiences and health implications among immigrant Latinos.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Márin, Antonio; Carrillo, Lourdes; Burke, Bless; Coates, Michael L; Quandt, Sara A

    2007-07-01

    Work-family conflict research has focused almost exclusively on professional, White adults. The goal of this article was to expand the understanding of culture and industry in shaping experiences and consequences of work-family conflict. Using in-depth interview data (n = 26) and structured survey data (n = 200) from immigrant Latinos employed in the poultry processing industry, the authors evaluated predictions drawn from emerging models emphasizing the influence of cultural characteristics such as collectivism and gender ideology on work-family conflict. Results indicated that immigrant Latinos in poultry processing experienced infrequent work-to-family conflict; both the level and the antecedents of work-to-family conflict differed by gender, with physical demands contributing to greater conflict for women but not men. In addition, there was little evidence that work-family conflict was associated with health in this population. These results demonstrate how traditional models of work-family conflict need to be modified to reflect the needs and circumstances of diverse workers in the new global economy.

  6. Conflicts of interest in health care: who guards the guardians?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard Allen

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are rife in all areas of human endeavor, including medicine. Dealing with them is often difficult, because various disclosure remedies are sometimes too weak, while explicit prohibitions against participation in certain forms of research could block the needed synergies between scientists who work in universities, government, and industry. The situation is made still more difficult, because any effort to control one set of conflicts will necessarily generate another in its stead, as is well captured in Juvenal's famous question, "Who will guard the guardians?" That problem is more acute today, because many of our social watchdogs are in fact complex organizations that are rife with their own internal conflicts of interest. The problem is acute for the FDA, for example, which so fears the release of harmful drugs that it often keeps beneficial ones off the market. The problem can also arise in connection with the review of medical research by major journals, which is well illustrated by the recent effort of the New England Journal of Medicine to attack a Vioxx study it published in order to protect its own reputation.

  7. Organizational influences on the work life conflict and health of shiftworkers.

    PubMed

    Pisarski, Anne; Lawrence, Sandra A; Bohle, Philip; Brook, Christine

    2008-09-01

    This study examined organizational factors affecting the impact of shiftwork on work life conflict and subjective health. A model was proposed in which support from supervisors, support from colleagues, and team identity influence time-based work life conflict through two mediating variables: team climate and control over the working environment. Reduced conflict, in turn, produces enhanced psychological well-being and diminished physical symptoms. A structural equation model based on survey data from 530 nurses supported the proposed model. It also identified unpredicted direct links between team identity and physical symptoms, and between supervisor support and both control over the work environment and psychological well-being. The results indicate that organizational interventions focused on social support, team identity, team climate, and control can diminish the negative effects of shiftwork on work life conflict and health in shiftworkers.

  8. Statistical concepts in biology and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Huma; Javaid, Aisha; Rehman, Rehana; Hussain, Zahir

    2014-01-01

    In view of its applied aspects, Statistics serves as a separate mathematical science. In that respect, biostatistics is the application of statistical concepts and methods in biology, public health and medicine. One major task of medical biostatistics is to understand why a disease occurs in certain area and why that disease does not occur in other areas. In general, the advantages for properly applying statistics for a country are to keep the detailed information of people in a country. However, there must in mind be the other face of the task remembering not to adapt these surveys and limited data with entirety for quick applications that might be less advantageous. Some of the programs are much expensive and time consuming and people may feel not comfortable conveying their personal information just for the sake of applying a so called organized procedure. In such conditions, one must consider the moral values as well. Another quite unfortunate fact is that a statistical data can be misused for personal needs of a presenter. There must be ways to eradicate such customs at the governmental level. Basic and higher courses, certificate courses, diploma programs, degree programs, and other opportunities for students can be well organized and can be utilized in various employment areas in industry, government, life sciences, computer science, medicine, public health, education, teaching, research, and survey research. Statisticians, hence, are very important people for establishing various schemes, programs, institutions and organizations in medical and biological sectors.

  9. Anxiety, Decision Conflict, and Health in Caregivers of Children with ADHD: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jih Yuan; Clark, Mary Jo; Chang, Yong Yuan; Liu, Yea Ying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model to determine the effect of caregiver anxiety and decision conflict on the health of caregivers of children with ADHD. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on data derived from caregivers (aged 24-70). Participants completed the Decision Conflict Scale, the Zung Anxiety Scale, the Duke Health Profile, and a demographic form. A path model that fit well indicated that anxiety and decision conflict had direct and indirect effects on the caregivers' health. Future study is needed to clarify factors contributing to uncertainty and to decrease emotional symptoms for caregivers, thus promoting their mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Australian Land Force for Conflict in a World Without Precedent (Future Warfare Concept Paper)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    chaos of future conflict. Discussion: In order to gain the best effect from the greater lethality of its weapon systems , and ensure its own...have and will continue to greatly enhance the lethality of weapon systems ; this will also change tactics and organizations as it has in the past... chaos of future conflict. Intended to 5 replace Industrial Age infantry brigades, the smaller ETF possesses greater combat weight. While possessing

  11. Applying marketing concepts to promote health in vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Fontana, S A

    1991-06-01

    Public health nurses must have a valid marketing orientation. Two marketing concepts, exchange relationships and channels of distribution and their application for public health nursing practice, have relevance in this context. In spite of the complexities inherent in applying them, they can be used to promote health in at-risk populations. By incorporating these concepts in planning and delivering public health nursing services, it is hoped that the health goals of a larger number of vulnerable individuals can be achieved.

  12. When Health Diplomacy Serves Foreign Policy: Use of Soft Power to Quell Conflict and Crises.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Divkolaye, Nasim Sadat; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Seighali, Fariba; Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-10-01

    Health diplomacy has increasingly become a crucial element in forging political neutrality and conflict resolution and the World Health Organization has strongly encouraged its use. Global turmoil has heightened, especially in the Middle East, and with it, political, religious, and cultural differences have become major reasons to incite crises. The authors cite the example of the human stampede and the deaths of over 2000 pilgrims during the 2015 annual Haj pilgrimage in Mecca. The resulting political conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia had the potential to escalate into a more severe political and military crisis had it not been for the ministers of health from both countries successfully exercising "soft power" options. Global health security demands critical health diplomacy skills and training for all health providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  13. Transcending intractable conflict in health care: an exploratory study of communication and conflict management among anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Jessica Katz

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the contrast between the longstanding, intractable conflict between two anesthesia providers and the cooperation of many individual nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologists working side-by-side to provide safe, effective anesthesia. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that communication among anesthesia nurses and anesthesiologists may enact or transcend the conflict. This article proposes recommendations for improving communication between anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists in particular and de-escalating intractable conflict in general. It also contributes to communication theory in intractable conflict by examining how individual, interpersonal conflict management interactions lead to either transcendence or enactment of the larger group conflict.

  14. Postdivorce living arrangements, parent conflict, and long-term physical health correlates for children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Fabricius, William V; Luecken, Linda J

    2007-06-01

    The authors tested a biopsychosocial model in which young adults' long-term relationships with fathers and ongoing distress surrounding their parents' divorces mediated the relationship between disrupted parenting (i.e., exposure to parent conflict before the divorce and up to 5 years after, and amount of time with father postdivorce) and indicators of their physical health. University students whose parents divorced before they were 16 (n = 266) participated. Findings supported the model. The more time children lived with their fathers after divorce, the better their current relationships were with their fathers, independent of parent conflict. The more parent conflict they experienced, the worse their relationships were with their fathers and the more distress they currently felt about their parents' divorce, independent of time with father. Poor father-child relationships and more distress in turn predicted poorer health status. There was no interaction between exposure to parent conflict and time with father; thus, more time with father was beneficial in both high- and low-conflict families, and more exposure to parent conflict was detrimental at both high and low levels of time with father.

  15. A diagnosis of conflict: theoretical barriers to integration in mental health services & their philosophical undercurrents.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Nathan M

    2010-02-04

    This paper examines the philosophical substructure to the theoretical conflicts that permeate contemporary mental health care in the UK. Theoretical conflicts are treated here as those that arise among practitioners holding divergent theoretical orientations towards the phenomena being treated. Such conflicts, although steeped in history, have become revitalized by recent attempts at integrating mental health services that have forced diversely trained practitioners to work collaboratively together, often under one roof. Part I of this paper examines how the history of these conflicts can be understood as a tension between, on the one hand, the medical model and its use by the dominant profession of psychiatry, and on the other, those alternative models and practitioners in some way differentiated from the medical model camp. Examples will be given from recent policy and research to highlight the prevalence of this tension in contemporary practice. Part II of this paper explores the deeper commonalities that lay beneath the theoretical conflict outlined in Part I. These commonalities will be shown to be apart of a captivating framework that has continued to grip the conflict since its inception. By exposing this underlying framework--and the motivations inherent therein--the topic of integration appears in wholly different light, allowing a renewed philosophical basis for integration to emerge.

  16. Work, work-life conflict and health in an industrial work environment.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, O; Bauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Work-life conflict has been poorly studied as a cause of ill-health in occupational medicine. To study associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions, including work-life conflict on the one hand and general, physical and mental health outcomes on the other. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies in Switzerland. Physical work factors included five demands and exposures such as heavy loads, repetitive work and poor posture. Psychosocial factors included 14 demands and limited resources such as time pressure, overtime, monotonous work, job insecurity, low job autonomy, low social support and work-life conflict. Health outcomes studied were self-rated health, sickness absence, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders, stress and burnout. There was a response rate of 49%; 2014 employees participated. All adverse working conditions were positively associated with several poor health outcomes in both men and women. After mutual adjustment for all work factors and additional covariates, only a few, mainly psychosocial work factors remained significant as risk factors for health. Work-life conflict, a largely neglected work-related psychosocial factor in occupational medicine, turned out to be the only factor that was significantly and strongly associated with all studied health outcomes and was consistently found to be the strongest or second strongest of all the studied risk factors. Even in an industrial work environment, psychosocial work factors, and particularly work-life conflict, play a key role and need to be taken into consideration in research and workplace health promotion.

  17. Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. Focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. These conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.

  18. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability on or Near the Airport Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. In this report, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS). CAAT research is conducted jointly under NASA's Airspace Systems Program, Airportal Project and the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project.

  19. Environmental Education in Sparsely Populated Areas: Conflicting Attitudes in Student's Conception of Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaib, Mohamed

    1988-01-01

    Two studies in southeastern Sweden examined rural children's conflicting attitudes toward environmental change in the local community. Following a yearlong curriculum in environmental studies, 14 fifth and sixth graders in Ramkvilla were presented with an imaginary scenario involving the construction of a new factory. Their small, somewhat idyllic…

  20. Fostering Conceptual Change by Cognitive Conflict Based Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive conflict based physics instruction over traditionally designed physics instruction on preservice primary school teachers at grade 2. The subjects were 82 (27 boys, 55 girls) second grade pre-service teachers in two classes. One of the classes (42 students) was randomly…

  1. A Strategy to Develop a Concept of Peace as Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, George B.

    A teaching strategy designed to help elementary students conceptualize about peace as a process of conflict resolution is described. The Baboon Troop and Netsilik Eskimo materials of "Man: A Course of Study" provide the course content in which the students learn that cooperation is the most important ingredient in group survival.…

  2. Fostering Conceptual Change by Cognitive Conflict Based Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive conflict based physics instruction over traditionally designed physics instruction on preservice primary school teachers at grade 2. The subjects were 82 (27 boys, 55 girls) second grade pre-service teachers in two classes. One of the classes (42 students) was randomly…

  3. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  4. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  5. Soil health: The concept, its role, and strategies for monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil health is not a new concept as evidenced by writings by both Greek and Roman philosophers who were aware of the importance of soil health to agricultural prosperity. Most recently, the concept has been recognized as a tool to help evaluate the effects of various agricultural and land management...

  6. Considerations of the Concept of Infant Health: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd; Axelsson, Asa

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a wide range of literature in order to describe factors associated with the concept of infant health. The design of the study is a literature review examining 21 research studies, written in the English language. The study explored which factors were found to exert an influence on the concept of infant health. The result showed…

  7. Considerations of the Concept of Infant Health: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almqvist-Tangen, Gerd; Axelsson, Asa

    2006-01-01

    This study examined a wide range of literature in order to describe factors associated with the concept of infant health. The design of the study is a literature review examining 21 research studies, written in the English language. The study explored which factors were found to exert an influence on the concept of infant health. The result showed…

  8. Technical assistance for health in non-conflict fragile states: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Janet

    2009-10-01

    The paper examines how best technical assistance (TA) for health might be implemented in post-conflict fragile states. It does so in the light of current development trends such as harmonization and alignment and moves towards aid instruments that favour country-led approaches. A number of key issues are addressed. The first of these considers which core principles for ethical TA might apply in post-conflict fragile states; the second reviews thematic challenges, such as the need to balance 'good enough governance' with effective attention to equity, rights and working with local health capacity. A third area for discussion is how best to plan for, and implement, long-term health TA inputs in often volatile and insecure environments, while a fourth topic is the engagement of civil society in rebuilding health systems and service delivery post-conflict. Attention to gender issues in post-conflict fragile states, including the importance of acknowledging and acting upon women's roles in peacekeeping and maintenance, the necessity to apply and sustain more gender equitable approaches to health in such contexts and how TA might facilitate such participation, represents the fifth issue for debate. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Compensation and wellness: a conflict for veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Niki; Mackenzie, Alison; Mobbs, Robyn

    2008-05-01

    In Australia greater attention is being given to health determinants, and the dominance of treatment in health policy and budgets is giving away some ground to prevention, health promotion, rehabilitation and disability management. This creates a dilemma for compensation systems: should the inclusion criteria be broadened to match the new thinking or should a narrower definition of "disease, injury or death" be retained? This issue is explored in the context of war syndromes among veterans. While veterans experience symptoms more frequently and more severely than military and community controls, their patterns of symptoms are not unique. Current compensation and benefit programs can create iatrogenic effects. It is concluded that compensation systems should be kept as safety nets while resources are provided to improve the capacity of primary health care caregivers, community organisations and veterans with war syndromes and their families to better deal with these problems. Adapting compensation systems to promote wellness through self-management health partnerships is one way of directing resources to individuals and their families. Action research at the community level with veterans, their families, their organisations, primary health care organisations, policy makers and researchers would allow this sector to work out the best way to apply existing efficacious tools to these modern health problems.

  10. An in-law comes to stay: examination of interdisciplinary conflict in a school-based health center.

    PubMed

    Fast, Jonathan D

    2003-01-01

    Social workers often work in settings, such as hospitals, schools, prisons, nursing homes, and mental health facilities, where other professions exert a higher level of control because of their number, their historical precedence, or their professional status. The interdisciplinary conflicts that arise may be difficult to resolve. The organizational literature on causes of conflict and conflict resolution is briefly reviewed. A case study of a newly opened school-based health center provides an opportunity to analyze conflicts between the school and health center personnel and demonstrates how they were finally resolved.

  11. Health fairs bring wellness concepts to life.

    PubMed

    Serina, M; Giove, S

    1991-01-01

    Incorporated into the nursing curriculum, the health fair is a stimulating, unique, nontraditional educational project that examines effective health education tools, leadership skills, and interaction with the community. Students test theories and collaborate with other school disciplines while planning, implementing, and evaluating health education and health fair promotion. Health fairs help students to identify positive lifestyles and create opportunities to test the skills needed to improve the population's wellness level.

  12. Conflict in fiduciary duty involving health care error reporting.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Della Wyatt

    2002-08-01

    Fiduciary duty is the responsibility to act in the best interest of a person or organization. Health care professionals, as well as managers in other industries, struggle continuously with the dilemma of whether or not to admit potentially harmful mistakes to unsuspecting customers and patients. Limited public disclosure of medical errors will benefit health care staff, organizational executives, and patients if specific policies are enacted to improve error prevention.

  13. Demilitarization of the Siachen conflict zone : concepts for implementation and monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanwal, Gurmeet; Hakeem, Asad; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Rajen, Gaurav

    2007-09-01

    Pakistani and Indian militaries have been occupying the Siachen Glacier and surrounding regions for decades. Although a cease-fire is in place, continued occupation carries the risk of an inadvertent conflict, which could escalate into a full-fledged nuclear-backed confrontation. Political and military analysts in Pakistan and India now question the strategic significance of the Siachen Glacier and agree that under the right circumstances, military withdrawal from the Siachen Glacier region would not adversely affect either state. The difficulty lies in conducting the withdrawal in such a way that neither side feels vulnerable, and in maintaining the demilitarization in a way that can be verified. In this paper, the authors who have both held command responsibilities in the Siachen Glacier region present a process for conducting and verifying the demilitarization of the Siachen Glacier region. The authors discuss the role of monitoring and verification tools and their relevance to this border zone of conflict.

  14. Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Fine, Janet E.; Jones, Lisa M.; Walsh, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    Two recent chapters in professional books have criticized children's advocacy centers for creating role conflict for mental health professionals because of their work with criminal justice and child protection professionals in children's advocacy centers as part of a coordinated response to child abuse. This article argues that these critiques…

  15. Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Fine, Janet E.; Jones, Lisa M.; Walsh, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    Two recent chapters in professional books have criticized children's advocacy centers for creating role conflict for mental health professionals because of their work with criminal justice and child protection professionals in children's advocacy centers as part of a coordinated response to child abuse. This article argues that these critiques…

  16. Consequences of ongoing civil conflict in Somalia: evidence for public health responses.

    PubMed

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2009-08-01

    Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake use field data to demonstrate the severe vulnerability faced by much of the Somalian population due to ongoing conflict, and call for concerted public health interventions and access to food aid especially in southern Somalia.

  17. Species concepts should not conflict with evolutionary history, but often do.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Joel D

    2008-12-01

    Many phylogenetic systematists have criticized the Biological Species Concept (BSC) because it distorts evolutionary history. While defences against this particular criticism have been attempted, I argue that these responses are unsuccessful. In addition, I argue that the source of this problem leads to previously unappreciated, and deeper, fatal objections. These objections to the BSC also straightforwardly apply to other species concepts that are not defined by genealogical history. What is missing from many previous discussions is the fact that the Tree of Life, which represents phylogenetic history, is independent of our choice of species concept. Some species concepts are consistent with species having unique positions on the Tree while others, including the BSC, are not. Since representing history is of primary importance in evolutionary biology, these problems lead to the conclusion that the BSC, along with many other species concepts, are unacceptable. If species are to be taxa used in phylogenetic inferences, we need a history-based species concept.

  18. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    PubMed

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-04-13

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  1. Anglo-American nursing theory, individualism and mental health care: a social conflict perspective.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses social conflict theory to reconsider the relationship of American nursing theory and individualised mental health care in the UK. It is argued that nursing theory has developed within a context of 'American dream' individualism, and that this ideology may be problematic for some UK mental health nurses and service users whose values and beliefs are those of different socio-political traditions. The paper explores the historical background of Anglo-American nursing theory, and then uses conflict theory to generate challenging propositions about the culture bias and political instrumentality of individualised care in mental health settings. In so doing, it critiques the 'scientific' and 'liberal' preconceptions of individualised care which have dominated mental health care policy for over a decade.

  2. Human resources for health through conflict and recovery: lessons from African countries.

    PubMed

    Pavignani, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    A protracted conflict affects human resources for health (HRH) in multiple ways. In most cases, the inflicted damage constitutes the main obstacle to health sector recovery. Interventions aimed at healing derelict human resources are however fraught with difficulties of a political, technical, financial and administrative order. The experience accumulated in past recovery processes has made some important players aware of the cost incurred by neglecting human resource development. Several transitions from conflict to peace have been documented, even if largely in unpublished reports. This paper presents condensed descriptions of some African HRH-related recovery processes, which provide useful lessons. The technical work demanded to resuscitate a derelict health workforce is fairly well understood. In most situations, the highest hurdles lie outside of the health domain, and are of a political and administrative nature. Success stories are rare. But useful lessons are taught by failure as well as by success.

  3. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    PubMed

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs.

  4. Dance in mental health nursing: a hybrid concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravelin, Teija; Kylmä, Jari; Korhonen, Teija

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to describe the defining attributes and consequences of the concept of dance and to define it in a mental health nursing context using hybrid concept analysis. Dance is a human resource learned from culture. Dance implies body movements, steps, expression, and interaction. The outcomes of dance are mostly functional, including a client's physical and emotional health, well-being, ability to cooperate with other people in activities of daily life, and meeting role expectations within family and community. Based on the findings of this concept analysis, dance can be used as a nursing intervention.

  5. Work-Family Conflict and Oral and General Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran A; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Brennan, David S

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the work environment and relationships with family roles may impact on health and be of public health significance. The aims were to investigate the cross-sectional association of work-family conflict with oral- and general health-related quality of life, and well-being. A random sample of 45-54-year olds from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by self-complete questionnaire in 2004-2005 (n = 879, response rate = 43.8%). Health-related quality of life was measured with the OHIP-14 and EQ-VAS instruments, and well-being by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. In adjusted analyses controlling for sex, income, education, tooth brushing frequency and social support, the higher Family Interferes with Work (FIW) tertile and the middle tertile of Work Interferes with Family (WIF) were associated with more oral health-related impacts as measured by OHIP-14 in relation to problems with teeth, mouth or dentures (Beta = 1.64, P < 0.05 and Beta = 2.85, P < 0.01). Both middle and higher tertiles of WIF were associated with lower general health (Beta = -4.20 and -5.71, P < 0.01) and well-being (Beta = -1.17 and -1.56, P < 0.01). Work-family conflict was associated with more oral health impacts and lower general health and well-being among employed middle-aged adults. This supports the view of work-family conflict as a psychosocial risk factor for health outcomes spanning function, health perceptions and well-being, and encompassing both oral health and general health.

  6. Precarious employment, working hours, work-life conflict and health in hotel work.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria; Bohle, Philip; Quinlan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Precarious or temporary work is associated with adverse outcomes including low control over working hours, work-life conflict and stress. The rise in precarious employment is most marked in the service sector but little research has been done on its health effects in this sector. This study compares permanent and temporary workers in the hotel industry, where working hours are highly variable. Survey data from 150 workers from eight 3-Star hotels in urban and regional areas around Sydney were analyzed. Forty-five per cent were male and 52 per cent were female. Fifty four per cent were permanent full-time and 46 per cent were temporary workers. The effects of employment status on perceived job security, control over working hours, and work-life conflict are investigated using PLS-Graph 3.0. The effects of control over working hours, on work-life conflict and subsequent health outcomes are also explored. Temporary workers perceived themselves as less in control of their working hours, than permanent workers (β = .27). However, they also reported lower levels of work intensity (β = .25) and working hours (β = .38). The effects of low hours control (β = .20), work intensity (β = .29), and excessive hours (β = .39) on work-life conflict (r² = .50), and subsequent health effects (r² = .30), are illustrated in the final structural equation model.

  7. [Stigma and Mental Health in Victims of Colombia's Internal Armed Conflict in Situation of Forced Displacement].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The prolonged sociopolitical phenomenon of Colombian violence generated a high number of victims, many of whom suffered a continual process of internal displacement and stigma-discrimination complex. To postulate possible mechanisms by which victims of Colombia's internal armed conflict in a situation of forced displacement were stigmatized and discriminated. Stigma affects mental health, not only because it represents a major stressor for discriminated individuals and groups, but also because it accounts for inequalities and inequities in health. Initially, as the victims of the internal armed conflict in situation of forced displacement were not considered as such, but as responsible for the situation. Thus, they had to cope with the social and economic inequalities, explained partially by low categorization or status that they received, possibly due to poor construction of social capital in the country. Also, victims of the internal armed conflict suffer from intersectional stigma and discrimination due to other characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnic-racial origin, or meeting criteria for a mental disorder. An active process of inclusive social development is required for the displaced victims of the armed conflict,in order to reduce multiple stigma and ensure their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Building an evidence base on mental health interventions for children affected by armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Williams, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known from research about the effectiveness of interventions to address mental health problems in children and adolescents affected by armed conflict. The focus will be on interventions delivered in conflict affected countries either during active humanitarian emergencies or during the post conflict period. The paper will discuss two main paradigms of intervention dominating the field: psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric approaches. The paper reviews some of the basic literature, theories and issues involved in assessment, programme planning, monitoring and evaluation of both approaches. In order to explore these issues in depth, the paper will draw from the author’s field experiences with research in the Russian Federation and in northern Uganda. The paper also presents a brief review of a handful of other published evaluations of mental health interventions for war affected children. We will close with a discussion of what future research is needed to build an evidence base regarding mental health interventions for children affected by armed conflict as well as the ethical and feasibility issues associated with carrying out this work. PMID:19997531

  9. Adolescent self-concept and health into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungwee

    2003-01-01

    This article examines factors associated with adolescent self-concept and the impact of adolescent self-concept on psychological and physical health and health behaviour in young adulthood. The data are from the household cross-sectional (1994/95) and longitudinal (1994/95 to 2000/01) components of Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey. Scores on self-concept indicators in 1994/95 were compared between the sexes and age groups (12 to 15 versus 16 to 19). Multivariate analyses were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between adolescent self-concept and depression, self-perceived health, physical activity and obesity, controlling for other possible confounders. Self-concept tends to be low among girls compared with boys. Cross-sectionally, adolescent self-concept was associated with household income and emotional support. For girls and for young adolescents, a weak self-concept in 1994/95 was related to the incidence of depression over the next six years; it was also predictive of physical inactivity among boys, and obesity among both sexes. A strong self-concept had a positive long-term effect on girls' self-perceived health.

  10. Essential concepts in modern health services.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A

    2008-09-01

    Health services have the functions to define community health problems, to identify unmet needs and survey the resources to meet them, to establish SMART objectives, and to project administrative actions to accomplish the purpose of proposed action programs. For maximum efficacy, health systems should rely on newer approaches of management as management-by-objectives, risk-management, and performance management with full and equal participation from professionals and consumers. The public should be well informed about their needs and what is expected from them to improve their health. Inefficient use of budget allocated to health services should be prevented by tools like performance management and clinical governance. Data processed to information and intelligence is needed to deal with changing disease patterns and to encourage policies that could manage with the complex feedback system of health. e-health solutions should be instituted to increase effectiveness and improve efficiency and informing human resources and populations. Suitable legislations should be introduced including those that ensure coordination between different sectors. Competent workforce should be given the opportunity to receive lifetime appropriate adequate training. External continuous evaluation using appropriate indicators is vital. Actions should be done both inside and outside the health sector to monitor changes and overcome constraints.

  11. Empirical application of empathy enhancing program based on movement concept for married couples in conflict

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Hye-Won; Chung, Yong-Chul; Park, Seungha

    2013-01-01

    In the field of marital therapy, it is known that couple movement program helps married couples faced with conflict situation to rebuild the relationship and to maintain a family homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the kinesthetic empathy program and to assess the effectiveness for married couples in conflict. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method has been conducted, subjecting three couples, 6 people, who are participating in expressive movement program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, through kinesthetic empathy enhancing program, one could develop self-awareness and emotional attunement. Second, the result showed the relationship between intention and empathy. It shows that “knowing spouse’s hidden intention” is significant factors to understand others. Third, kinesthetic empathy program could complement general marriage counseling program. The results of this study provide empirical evidence that movement program functions as an empathy enhancer through the process of perceiving, feeling, thinking, and interacting with others. PMID:24278896

  12. Cognitive Factors in Fibromyalgia: The Role of Self-Concept and Identity Related Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Compañ, Victoria; Feixas, Guillem; Varlotta-Domínguez, Nicolás; Torres-Viñals, Mercedes; Aguilar-Alonso, Ángel; Dada, Gloria; Ángel Saúl, Luís

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of diffuse and chronic musculoskeletal pain of unknown etiology. Clinical diagnosis and the merely palliative treatments considerably affect the patient's experience and the chronic course of the disease. Therefore, several authors have emphasized the need to explore issues related to self in these patients. The repertory grid technique (RGT), derived from personal construct theory, is a method designed to assess the patient's construction of self and others. A group of women with fibromyalgia (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30) were assessed using RGT. Women with fibromyalgia also completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and a visualanalogue scale for pain, and painful tender points were explored. Results suggest that these women had a higher present self–ideal self discrepancy and a lower perceived adequacy of others, and it was more likely to find implicative dilemmas among them compared to controls. These dilemmas are a type of cognitive conflict in which the symptom is construed as “enmeshed” with positive characteristics of the self. Finally, implications of these results for the psychological treatment of fibromyalgia are suggested to give a more central role to self-identity issues and to the related cognitive conflicts. PMID:22629110

  13. Cognitive Factors in Fibromyalgia: The Role of Self-Concept and Identity Related Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Victoria; Feixas, Guillem; Varlotta-Domínguez, Nicolás; Torres-Viñals, Mercedes; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel; Dada, Gloria; Angel Saúl, Luís

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of diffuse and chronic musculoskeletal pain of unknown etiology. Clinical diagnosis and the merely palliative treatments considerably affect the patient's experience and the chronic course of the disease. Therefore, several authors have emphasized the need to explore issues related to self in these patients. The repertory grid technique (RGT), derived from personal construct theory, is a method designed to assess the patient's construction of self and others. A group of women with fibromyalgia (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30) were assessed using RGT. Women with fibromyalgia also completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and a visualanalogue scale for pain, and painful tender points were explored. Results suggest that these women had a higher present self-ideal self discrepancy and a lower perceived adequacy of others, and it was more likely to find implicative dilemmas among them compared to controls. These dilemmas are a type of cognitive conflict in which the symptom is construed as "enmeshed" with positive characteristics of the self. Finally, implications of these results for the psychological treatment of fibromyalgia are suggested to give a more central role to self-identity issues and to the related cognitive conflicts.

  14. Trauma in conflict and postconflict settings: contributions to health systems strengthening.

    PubMed

    Lunze, F I; Offergeld, C; Eichhorn, T; Tsorieva, Z; Esenov, C; Lunze, K

    2013-06-01

    Violent trauma does not only affect conflict and post conflict regions, but increasingly industrialized nations afflicted by violence from terror attacks. We conducted a comparative health systems analysis, assuming that that health systems with various backgrounds might learn from each other's health systems challenges caused by violent trauma. During the tragedy of Beslan in the Russian North Caucasus in September of 2004, more than 1000 children with their families were taken hostage in a school. Over three days, 334 people were killed and many more injured. While immediate trauma care was offered to all victims, many suffered from more complex injuries or from blast injuries to the ear caused by indoor bomb explosions, which were left untreated due to the lack of regional capacity for the required specialized microsurgery. Most if not all victims suffered from mental trauma as a consequence of violence, which also impacted surgical care-seeking. In April of 2013, two improvised explosive devices detonated at the Boston Marathon, killed three victims and injured 264, more than 20 of them critically. As a consequence of previous terror acts with mass casualties, local hospitals were prepared with drilling and coordination among health facilities, responders and government agencies. Some injury patterns similar to those in the North Caucasus emerged in the aftermath of the event and need to be addressed by the health system. Trauma from violent conflict and terrorism creates similar challenges to health systems. Preparedness for mass casualties requires revision and coordination of available services, and may prompt the strengthening of existing health systems. Health professionals should encourage victims' representatives and citizen groups to assist with assessing the prevalence and burden of injuries, including mental trauma, and to facilitate connecting affected patients to health care. Awareness for late trauma sequelae, including mental health trauma, is

  15. Utilization of maternal health care services in post-conflict Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Tulsi Ram; Sarma, Prabhakaran Sankara; Kutty, Vellappillil Raman

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, the country made progress in reducing maternal mortality and is on its way to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five. This study aimed to assess the degree of the utilization of maternal health care services during and after the armed conflict in Nepal. Methods This study is based on Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data 2006 and 2011. The units of analysis were women who had given birth to at least one child in the past 5 years preceding the survey. First, we compared the utilization of maternal health care services of 2006 with that of 2011. Second, we merged the two data sets and applied logistic regression to distinguish whether the utilization of maternal health care services had improved after the peace process 2006 was underway. Results In 2011, 85% of the women sought antenatal care at least once. Skilled health workers for delivery care assisted 36.1% of the women, and 46% of the women attended postnatal care visit at least once. These figures were 70%, 18.7%, and 16%, respectively, in 2006. Similarly, women were more likely to utilize antenatal care at least once (odds ratio [OR] =2.18, confidence interval [CI] =1.95–2.43), skilled care at birth (OR =2.58, CI =2.36–2.81), and postnatal care at least once (OR =4.13, CI =3.75–4.50) in 2011. Conclusion The utilization of maternal health care services tended to increase continuously during both the armed conflict and the post-conflict period in Nepal. However, the increasing proportion of the utilization was higher after the Comprehensive Peace Process Agreement 2006. PMID:26346111

  16. The post-war public health effects of civil conflict.

    PubMed

    Ghobarah, Hazem Adam; Huth, Paul; Russett, Bruce

    2004-08-01

    Civilian suffering from civil war extends well beyond the period of active warfare. We examine longer-term effects in a cross-national analysis of World Health Organization data on death and disability broken down by age, gender, and type of disease or condition. We find substantial long-term effects, even after controlling for several other factors. We estimate that the additional burden of death and disability incurred in 1999 alone, from the indirect and lingering effects of civil wars in the years 1991-1997, was nearly double the number incurred directly and immediately from all wars in 1999. This impact works its way through specific diseases and conditions, and disproportionately affects women and children.

  17. Neglected diseases, civil conflicts, and the right to health.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, Chris; Villar, Juan Carlos; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Singh, Sonal; Baral, Stefan D; Mills, Edward J

    2007-08-18

    Neglected diseases remain one of the largest causes of disease and mortality. In addition to the difficulties in provision of appropriate drugs for specific diseases, many other factors contribute to the prevalence of such diseases and the difficulties in reducing their burden. We address the role that poor governance and politically motivated oppression have on the epidemiology of neglected diseases. We give case examples including filariasis in eastern Burma and vector-borne diseases (Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, and yellow fever) in Colombia, we show the links between systematic human rights violations and the effects of infectious disease on health. We also discuss the role of researchers in advocating for and researching within oppressed populations.

  18. The emerging international policy agenda for reproductive health services in conflict settings.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C A; Lush, L; Zwi, A B

    1999-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, shifts in the nature of conflict and the sheer numbers of civilians affected have given rise to increasing concern about providing appropriate health services in unstable settings. Concurrently, international health policy attention has focused on sexual and reproductive health issues and finding effective methods of addressing them. This article reviews the background to the promotion and development of reproductive health services for conflict-affected populations. It employs qualitative methods to analyse the development of policy at international level. First we examine the extent to which reproductive health is on the policy agendas of organisations active in humanitarian contexts. We then discuss why and how this has come about, and whether the issue has sufficient support to ensure effective implementation. Our findings demonstrate that reproductive health is clearly on the agenda for agencies working in these settings, as measured by a range of established criteria including the amount of new resources being attracted to this area and the number of meetings and publications devoted to this issue. There are, however, barriers to the full and effective implementation of reproductive health services. These barriers include the hesitation of some field-workers to prioritise reproductive health and the number and diversity of the organisations involved in implementation. The reasons for these barriers are discussed in order to highlight areas for action before effective reproductive health service provision to these populations can be ensured.

  19. [Causal concepts and health conduct in Indian folk medicine].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ingeborg; Andersson, Hedda Goverud

    2007-12-13

    Norway is an increasingly multicultural society, and cultural diversities are a challenge for doctor-patient-relationships. Qualitative and quantitative studies aimed at describing health behaviour and causal concepts, were undertaken in a village in India in July 2003. 13 villagers and 5 local providers of traditional health care were interviewed in a semi-structured way, and questionnaire-based interviews were conducted in 56 (out of 118) households on health behaviour. Three main causal concepts were found: balance between the qualities HEAT: and COLD: in the body, DISTHI: (evil eye; witchcraft) and evil spirits. Health behaviour is mainly influenced by the understanding of what causes disease, experience with the provider of treatment and the treatment itself. Causal concepts, or ways of understanding disease, were common to those found in similar studies. Physician awareness of these concepts will be helpful when communicating with patients from other cultural backgrounds.

  20. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  1. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  2. The impact of shiftwork on work--home conflict, job attitudes and health.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Geurts, Sabine A E; Bakker, Arnold B; Euwema, Martin

    2004-07-15

    The present study was designed to test the impact of rotation and timing of shifts on work--home conflict, job attitudes, health and absenteeism among the military police. A total of 3122 employees participated in the study. Discriminant analysis was used to examine the relationships between rotation and timing of shifts on the one hand, and the outcome measures on the other. Whether employees had fixed dayshifts, fixed non-day shifts including weekends, or rotating shifts with or without weekends, could be predicted on the basis of the experienced work--home conflict, job attitudes, health and absenteeism. Each of the two parameters of shiftwork differentially affected the experience of the outcome measures. Rotation was most clearly related to unfavourable job attitudes (namely job satisfaction, cynicism, turnover intentions and professional efficacy), whereas timing was most clearly related to increased work--home conflict. The results suggest that fixed non-day shifts including weekends (i.e., during highly valuable times) should be avoided in order to minimize the conflict between work and home and that rotation rosters should be designed with a high degree of individualization and flexibility. These seem to be the most promising ways to reduce the negative consequences of shiftwork for employees, their families and organizations.

  3. Flexible work in call centres: Working hours, work-life conflict & health.

    PubMed

    Bohle, Philip; Willaby, Harold; Quinlan, Michael; McNamara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Call-centre workers encounter major psychosocial pressures, including high work intensity and undesirable working hours. Little is known, however, about whether these pressures vary with employment status and how they affect work-life conflict and health. Questionnaire data were collected from 179 telephone operators in Sydney, Australia, of whom 124 (69.3%) were female and 54 (30.2%) were male. Ninety-three (52%) were permanent full-time workers, 37 (20.7%) were permanent part-time, and 49 (27.4%) were casual employees. Hypothesised structural relationships between employment status, working hours and work organisation, work-life conflict and health were tested using partial least squares modelling in PLS (Chin, 1998). The final model demonstrated satisfactory fit. It supported important elements of the hypothesised structure, although four of the proposed paths failed to reach significance and the fit was enhanced by adding a path. The final model indicated that casual workers reported more variable working hours which were relatively weakly associated with greater dissatisfaction with hours. The interaction of schedule control and variability of hours also predicted dissatisfaction with hours. Conversely, permanent workers reported greater work intensity, which was associated with both lower work schedule control and greater work-life conflict. Greater work-life conflict was associated with more fatigue and psychological symptoms. Labour market factors and the undesirability of longer hours in a stressful, high-intensity work environment appear to have contributed to the results.

  4. [Analysis of dental students' knowledge and concepts in oral health: evaluation by concept maps].

    PubMed

    Struchiner, M; Vieira, A R; Ricciardi, R M

    1999-11-01

    This study sought to analyze senior dental students' cognitive structure concerning the topic of "enamel", which is fundamentally important for understanding oral health, since it offers basic scientific concepts for clinical and preventive practices and is the main subject of several courses during dentistry training. The strategy used to analyze students' cognitive structures was Novak's Concept Maps, based on Ausubel's Meaningful Learning theory. Analysis of students' maps allowed for a study of students' cognitive structure and concepts concerning oral health. It also fostered a diagnosis of students' knowledge in several important aspects of scientific and professional training. The results highlighted the need for rethinking the teaching/learning process in dentistry training.

  5. Health promoting leadership - different views of the concept.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2011-01-01

    To describe and analyse different views of health promoting leadership among actors involved in workplace health promotion in eight Swedish municipalities. Twenty individuals were interviewed and their views were analysed according to the methodology of phenomenograpic research, exploring how health promoting leadership was described, what motives were expressed, and what critical conditions were perceived for developing such leadership. The informants described health promoting leadership in three ways: organising health promoting activities, having a supportive leadership style, and developing a health promoting workplace. The motives mentioned for developing health promoting leadership were instrumental motives and improved health. The critical conditions for health promoting leadership were organisational conditions, characteristics of individual managers, and support to managers. It seems that the concept of health promoting leadership was often used to link ideas about good leadership to the health of employees. Organisational goals and management trends may also have influenced the motives as well as the conditions for development of health promoting leadership.

  6. A concept analysis of optimality in perinatal health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2006-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to describe the concept of optimality and its appropriateness for perinatal health care. The concept was identified in 24 scientific disciplines. Across all disciplines, the universal definition of optimality is the robust, efficient, and cost-effective achievement of best possible outcomes within a rule-governed framework. Optimality, specifically defined for perinatal health care, is the maximal perinatal outcome with minimal intervention placed against the context of the woman's social, medical, and obstetric history.

  7. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: social resources and mental health of children in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian J; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B = -.22, p < .001) and T2 and T3 (β = -.25, p < .001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (β = -.15, p = .005) and T2 and T3 (β = -.14, p = .005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β = .16, p = .002) and T2 and T3 (β = .16, p = .002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children's mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war

  8. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Brian J.; Tol, Wietse A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Bass, Judith; de Jong, Joop T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and received social support of children in Burundi. Data were obtained from face-to-face interviews with 176 children over three measurement occasions over the span of 4-months. Cognitive social capital measured the degree to which children believed their community was trustworthy and cohesive. Mental health measures included the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) (Birleson, 1981), the Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, & Feeny, 2001), and a locally constructed scale of functional impairment. Children reported received social support by listing whether they received different types of social support from self-selected key individuals. Cross-lagged path analytic modeling evaluated relationships between cognitive social capital, symptoms and received support separately over baseline (T1), 6-week follow-up (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3). Each concept was treated and analyzed as a continuous score using manifest indicators. Significant associations between study variables were unidirectional. Cognitive social capital was associated with decreased depression between T1 and T2 (B=−0.22, p<.001) and T2 and T3 (β=−0.25, p<.001), and with functional impairment between T1 and T2 (β=−0.15, p=.005) and T2 and T3 (β=−0.14, p=.005); no association was found for PTSD symptoms at either time point. Cognitive social capital was associated with increased social support between T1 and T2 (β=0.16, p=.002) and T2 and T3 (β=0.16, p=.002). In this longitudinal study, cognitive social capital was related to a declining trajectory of children’s mental health problems and increases in social support. Interventions that improve community relations in war-affected communities

  9. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    PubMed

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  10. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  11. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  12. The mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict: an ecological model of refugee distress.

    PubMed

    Miller, K E; Rasmussen, A

    2016-04-04

    Early research on the mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict focused primarily on the direct effects of exposure to war-related violence and loss. Largely overlooked in this war exposure model were the powerful effects of ongoing stressors related to the experience of displacement itself. An ecological model of refugee distress is proposed, drawing on research demonstrating that mental health among refugees and asylum seekers stems not only from prior war exposure, but also from a host of ongoing stressors in their social ecology, or displacement-related stressors. Implications of this model for addressing the mental health and psychosocial needs of refugees and other displaced populations are considered.

  13. Coal mining, social injustice and health: a universal conflict of power and priorities.

    PubMed

    Morrice, Emily; Colagiuri, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Given the current insatiable demand for coal to build and fuel the world's burgeoning cities the debate about mining-related social, environmental and health injustices remains eminently salient. Furthermore, the core issues appear universally consistent. This paper combines the theoretical base for defining these injustices with reports in the international health literature about the impact of coal mining on local communities. It explores and analyses mechanisms of coal mining related injustice, conflicting priorities and power asymmetries between political and industry interests versus inhabitants of mining communities, and asks what would be required for considerations of health to take precedence over wealth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary public health: introducing the concept.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Nesse, Randolph M; Sear, Rebecca; Johnstone, Rufus A; Stearns, Stephen C

    2017-07-29

    The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of public health. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence. A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Public health interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary approaches offer new opportunities to address the complex challenges of global health, in which populations are differentially exposed to the metabolic consequences of poverty, high fertility, infectious diseases, and rapid changes in nutrition and lifestyle. The effect of specific interventions is predicted to depend on broader factors shaping life expectancy. Among the important tools in this approach are mathematical models, which can explore probable benefits and limitations of interventions in silico, before their implementation in human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  16. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  17. Perceived conflict in the couple and chronic illness management: Preliminary analyses from the Quebec Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Soubhi, Hassan; Fortin, Martin; Hudon, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background The quality of the relationship with the spouse/partner appears crucial among patients with multiple chronic conditions where illness management is complex and multifaceted. This study draws on data from the Quebec Health Survey (QHS) to examine, among patients with one or more chronic conditions, the relation between marital status, the perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and what the patients do to manage their illness as well as how they perceive their health. Methods Data from the QHS 1998 were used. The sample included 7547 coupled adults who had one or more chronic health problems lasting more than 6 months. Independent variables included marital status, perceived conflict with the spouse/partner, and the number of chronic conditions. Illness management was defined broadly as a measure of the patient's efforts at self-care and an illness status indicator, including visits to the generalist and the specialist, the use of telephone health line in the last 12 months, self-rated general health, mental health, and a measure of psychological distress. Linkages between the independent variables and illness management were assessed for males and females separately with logistic regressions, while accounting for the survey sampling design and household clustering. Results Female patients who did not live with their partner and had never been married were more likely to report a negative perception of their general health and a higher psychological distress than those who were married. Perceived conflict with the partner was linked to a negative perception of mental health and a higher psychological distress among both men and women. Compared to patients with only one chronic condition, males who reported more than one chronic condition were more likely to have consulted a generalist prior to the survey and used the telephone health line, whereas females were more likely to have consulted a specialist. Both males and females with more than one

  18. Circadian-Time Sickness: Time-of-Day Cue-Conflicts Directly Affect Health.

    PubMed

    van Ee, Raymond; Van de Cruys, Sander; Schlangen, Luc J M; Vlaskamp, Björn N S

    2016-11-01

    A daily rhythm that is not in synchrony with the environmental light-dark cycle (as in jetlag and shift work) is known to affect mood and health through an as yet unresolved neural mechanism. Here, we combine Bayesian probabilistic 'cue-conflict' theory with known physiology of the biological clock of the brain, entailing the insight that, for a functional pacemaker, it is sufficient to have two interacting units (reflecting environmental and internal time-of-day cues), without the need for an extra homuncular directing unit. Unnatural light-dark cycles cause a time-of-day cue-conflict that is reflected by a desynchronization between the ventral (environmental) and dorsal (internal) pacemaking signals of the pacemaker. We argue that this desynchronization, in-and-of-itself, produces health issues that we designate as 'circadian-time sickness', analogous to 'motion sickness'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics.

  20. Food and beverage industries' participation in health scientific events: considerations on conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Canella, Daniela S; Martins, Ana Paula B; Silva, Hugo F R; Passanha, Adriana; Lourenço, Bárbara H

    2015-10-01

    Several sectors of the industry (pharmaceutical, food, and other) often occupy a prominent position in scientific meetings on health. The aim of this article is to discuss the participation of food and beverage industries (Big Food and Big Soda) in events organized by scientific institutions in health and nutrition, highlighting potential conflicts of interest in such partnerships. As an example, the authors report the case of a Brazilian national event organized by a nutrition scientific association in 2011. Focused on the theme "Evidence-based Nutrition," the event's scientific program was largely influenced by corporate sponsors. For example, a symposium at this congress was organized by a beverage company known worldwide for its sugar-sweetened products and classified as the "diamond sponsor" of the event. While debating the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the current scenario of rising occurrence of obesity, the rationale for health promotion was reduced to providing information that would motivate rational individual choices, thus ignoring any political, economic, cultural, marketing, and social factors involved in the global process of nutrition transition. The authors conclude that conflicts of interest are present in the participation of food and beverage industries in health scientific events. The industries' strategy attempts to grant legitimacy to the production and marketing of their products through an association with adequate health practices. Health professionals and policy-makers should reflect on such partnerships because their main purpose is to generate profit, not the promotion of public health.

  1. Work-family conflict, health services and medication use among dual-income couples in Europe.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

    2014-03-01

    Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed.

  2. Global health in conflict. Understanding opposition to vitamin A supplementation in India.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sarah K

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts.

  3. Global Health in Conflict Understanding Opposition to Vitamin A Supplementation in India

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation is a public health intervention that clinical trials have suggested can significantly improve child survival in the developing world. Yet, prominent scientists in India have questioned its scientific validity, opposed its implementation, and accused its advocates of corruption and greed. It is ironic that these opponents were among the pioneers of populationwide vitamin A supplementation for ocular health. Historically, complex interests have shaped vitamin A supplementation resistance in India. Local social and nutritional revolutions and shifting international paradigms of global health have played a role. Other resistance movements in Indian history, such as those in response to campaigns for bacillus Calmette-Guérin and novel vaccines, have been structured around similar themes. Public health resistance is shaped by the cultural and political context in which it develops. Armed with knowledge of the history of a region and patterns of past resistance, public health practitioners can better understand how to negotiate global health conflicts. PMID:22594752

  4. Health Maintenance Organization: Concept and Functions. Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornback, May, Ed.

    The proceedings published in the document are the outcomes from a conference to consider the role of professional nursing in relation to health maintenance organizations (HMOs) as one possible way to improve health care delivery. Emphasis is placed on strategies underlying the HMO concept and reviewing and extending understanding of factors which…

  5. Psychometrics of the Laffrey Health Conception Scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yarcheski, Adela; Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Laffrey Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with early adolescents. The final sample consisted of 230 early adolescents, aged 12 to 14, who responded to instrument packets in classrooms in an urban middle school. Data obtained on the LHCS were subjected to principal components factor analysis with oblique rotation. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with early adolescents' conceptions of health. Factor I was labeled Wellness and Factor II was labeled Clinical Health. A higher order factor analysis yielded one factor with 26 items, labeled the LHCS for Early Adolescents. The 26-item LHCS had a coefficient alpha of .95. Construct validity was assessed by testing three theoretical propositions, which significantly linked health conception to social support, self-esteem, and positive health practices. The findings indicate that the LHCS is a reliable and valid measure of health conceptions in early adolescents. Results also offer flexibility to researchers interested in testing theory involving the constructs of the definition of health, wellness, and clinical health in early adolescents.

  6. Targeted doctors, missing patients: obstetric health services and sectarian conflict in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Varley, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The spectre of exclusionary medical service provision, restricted clinic access and physician targeting in sectarian-divided Iraq underscores the crucial and timely need for qualitative research into the inter-relationship between conflict, identity and health. In response, this paper provides a critical ethnography of obstetric service provision and patient access during Shia-Sunni hostilities in Gilgit Town, capital of Pakistan's Northern Areas (2005). I analyse how services were embedded in and constrained by sectarian affiliation in ways that detrimentally impacted Sunni women patients and hospital staff, resulting in profoundly diminished clinic access, reduced physician coverage and a higher observed incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The paper first situates obstetric medicine at the interstices of contested sectarian terrain and competing historical projects of sectarian identity. Gilgiti Sunnis' high clinical reliance is argued to be a response to and consequence of, inter-sectarian dissonance and the ascendance of biomedicine during three decades of regional development. In 2005, conflict-incurred service deprivations and the enactment and strategic use of sectarian identity in clinical settings were associated with differential treatment and patient-perceived adverse health outcomes, leading Sunnis to generate alternative sect-specific health services. Obstetric morbidity and mortality during sectarian conflict are analyzed as distinctive manifestations of the wide range of direct harms routinely associated with violence and political strife.

  7. Annual Research Review: Resilience and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Living in Areas of Armed Conflict--A Systematic Review of Findings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tol, Wietse A.; Song, Suzan; Jordans, Mark J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers focused on mental health of conflict-affected children are increasingly interested in the concept of resilience. Knowledge on resilience may assist in developing interventions aimed at improving positive outcomes or reducing negative outcomes, termed promotive or protective interventions. Methods: We performed a systematic…

  8. [Games as an alternative for teaching basic health concepts].

    PubMed

    Castillo Lizardo, J M; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2001-05-01

    To determine, for the teaching of basic health concepts to school-age children, the effectiveness of an educational strategy based on traditional children's games. Intervention study carried out in the city of Durango, Mexico, in June 2000 with 300 children from 9 to 11 years old. The children were randomly divided into two groups. The children in Group A used a modified version of a Mexican popular game called Serpientes y Escaleras (Snakes and Ladders) that included messages on basic health concepts; the children in Group B made up the control group and did not play the modified game. At baseline there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, grade level, or their scores on a knowledge test of basic health concepts. After the educational intervention, the health concepts test scores, out of a maximum possible of 10, were 9.3 +/- 0.8 for Group A and 7.5 +/- 1.1 for Group B (P < 0.001). Using games that include health and hygiene messages can be an alternative for teaching basic health concepts.

  9. Representing public health nursing intervention concepts with HHCC and NIC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Bakken, Suzanne; Saba, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    It is imperative that public health nurses define their services and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of interventions. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ex-tent to which two standardized nursing terminologies--Home Health Care Classification (HHCC) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)--represent public health nursing practice according to core public health function in Public Health Nursing Intervention model. First, we divided all HHCC and NIC interventions into intervention focus levels: individual/family-focused, community-focused, and system-focused. Second, we categorized HHCC and NIC interventions according to core public health functions: assessment, policy development, and assurance and the categories of interventions in the PHI Model. We identified HHCC and NIC Nursing interventions that represented public health nursing concepts across core public health functions and categories of the PHI model. Analysis of the findings demonstrated that HHCC and NIC have terms for the concepts in the PHI model. Although HHCC and NIC cover many concepts in public health nursing practice, additional research is needed to extend these terminologies and to evaluate other standardized terminologies that can reflect more comprehensively public health nursing interventions.

  10. Work–family conflict as a mediator between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Background Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work–family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work–Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Conclusion Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions. PMID:28331330

  11. Work-family conflict as a mediator between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Norio; Danjo, Kazuma; Furukori, Hanako; Sato, Yasushi; Tomita, Tetsu; Fujii, Akira; Nakagami, Taku; Kitaoka, Kazuyo; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Occupational stress among mental health nurses may affect their psychological health, resulting in reduced performance. To provide high-quality, sustainable nursing care, it is necessary to identify and control the factors associated with psychological health among mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of work-family conflict (WFC) in the well-known relationship between occupational stress and psychological health among mental health nurses in Japan. In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered from 180 mental health nurses who had a coresident child or were married. Data from the Work-Family Conflict Scale, the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale were obtained via self-report questionnaires. The effects of occupational stress and WFC on psychological health were explored by hierarchical linear regression analysis. The relationship between emotional exhaustion and occupational factors, including quantitative workload and the variance in workload, disappeared with the addition of WFC (each work interference with family [WIF] or family interference with work [FIW]). The relationship between emotional exhaustion and mental demands disappeared only with the addition of WIF. The relationship between depressive symptoms and variance in workload disappeared with the addition of WFC (each WIF or FIW). Our findings may encourage hospital administrators to consider the risks of medical staff WFC. Furthermore, longitudinal investigations into the factors associated with WFC are required for administrative and psychological interventions.

  12. Support of public–private partnerships in health promotion and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Zaragoza, G A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Public–private partnerships (PPPs) are considered key elements in the development of effective health promotion. However, there is little research to back the enthusiasm for these partnerships. Our objective was to describe the diversity of visions on PPPs and to assess the links between the authors and corporations engaged in such ventures. Methods We reviewed the scientific literature through PubMed in order to select all articles that expressed a position or recommendation on governments and industries engaging in PPPs for health promotion. We included any opinion paper that considered agreements between governments and corporations to develop health promotion. Papers that dealt with healthcare provision or clinical preventive services and those related to tobacco industries were excluded. We classified the articles according to the authors' position regarding PPPs: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. We related the type of recommendation to authors' features such as institution and conflicts of interest. We also recorded whether the recommendations were based on previous assessments. Results Of 46 papers analysed, 21 articles (45.6%) stated that PPPs are helpful in promoting health, 1 was neutral and 24 (52.1%) were against such collaborations. 26 papers (57%) set out conditions to assure positive outcomes of the partnerships. Evidence for or against PPPs was mentioned in 11 papers that were critical or neutral (44%) but not in any of those that advocated collaboration. Where conflicts were declared (26 papers), absence of conflicts was more frequent in critics than in supporters (86% vs 17%). Conclusions Although there is a lack of evidence to support PPPs for health promotion, many authors endorse this approach. The prevalence of ideas encouraging PPPs can affect the intellectual environment and influence policy decisions. Public health researchers and professionals must make a contribution in properly framing the PPP

  13. Support of public-private partnerships in health promotion and conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Zaragoza, G A

    2016-04-18

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are considered key elements in the development of effective health promotion. However, there is little research to back the enthusiasm for these partnerships. Our objective was to describe the diversity of visions on PPPs and to assess the links between the authors and corporations engaged in such ventures. We reviewed the scientific literature through PubMed in order to select all articles that expressed a position or recommendation on governments and industries engaging in PPPs for health promotion. We included any opinion paper that considered agreements between governments and corporations to develop health promotion. Papers that dealt with healthcare provision or clinical preventive services and those related to tobacco industries were excluded. We classified the articles according to the authors' position regarding PPPs: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. We related the type of recommendation to authors' features such as institution and conflicts of interest. We also recorded whether the recommendations were based on previous assessments. Of 46 papers analysed, 21 articles (45.6%) stated that PPPs are helpful in promoting health, 1 was neutral and 24 (52.1%) were against such collaborations. 26 papers (57%) set out conditions to assure positive outcomes of the partnerships. Evidence for or against PPPs was mentioned in 11 papers that were critical or neutral (44%) but not in any of those that advocated collaboration. Where conflicts were declared (26 papers), absence of conflicts was more frequent in critics than in supporters (86% vs 17%). Although there is a lack of evidence to support PPPs for health promotion, many authors endorse this approach. The prevalence of ideas encouraging PPPs can affect the intellectual environment and influence policy decisions. Public health researchers and professionals must make a contribution in properly framing the PPP issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  14. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Lida; Akbari Sari, Ali; Yazdani, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the significant role "values" play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of "values" and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods: An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of "value in health policy-making" were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results: We identified eight major attributes of "value in health policy-making": ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion: Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra theoretical support to decision

  15. Challenges and conflicts in the delivery of mental health services to ultra-orthodox Jews.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Witztum, Eliezer

    2013-02-01

    Ultra-orthodox Jews are a religious group that lives apart, valuing its separateness and ascribing sanctity to its life style. Community members are reticent to seek help from mental health services, especially if provided by professionals from outside the community. Therapeutic interventions should be explained in terms meaningful to the patient's explanatory model. Community members may face stigmatic attitudes of service providers. Situations are presented of the challenges and conflicts that confront ultra-orthodox Jews and mental health service providers concerning seeking help, understanding idioms of distress, providing appropriate rehabilitation services and negotiating arranged matches for marriage (shidduchim). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preeti; Cummings, Rachael; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of conflict-affected countries. This study used an analytical review approach to identify evidence on the role of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with regards to health systems support to 19 conflict-affected countries. Primary and secondary published and grey literature were used, including country evaluations from the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance. The WHO heath systems building blocks framework was used for the analysis. There is a limited evidence-base on the influence of GHIs on health systems of conflict-affected countries. The findings suggest that GHIs are increasingly investing in conflict-affected countries which has helped to rapidly scale up health services, strengthen human resources, improve procurement, and develop guidelines and protocols. Negative influences include distorting priorities within the health system, inequitable financing of disease-specific services over other health services, diverting staff away from more essential health care services, inadequate attention to capacity building, burdensome reporting requirements, and limited flexibility and responsiveness to the contextual challenges of conflict-affected countries. There is some evidence of increasing engagement of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance with health systems in conflict-affected countries, but this engagement should be supported by more context-specific policies and approaches.

  17. Politics and Power in Global Health: The Constituting Role of Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Askheim, Clemet; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Gorik Ooms has drawn attention to the normative underpinnings of the politics of global health. We claim that Ooms is indirectly submitting to a liberal conception of politics by framing the politics of global health as a question of individual morality. Drawing on the theoretical works of Chantal Mouffe, we introduce a conflictual concept of the political as an alternative to Ooms’ conception. Using controversies surrounding medical treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries as a case we underline the opportunity for political changes, through political articulation of an issue, and collective mobilization based on such an articulation. PMID:26927399

  18. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  19. Current concepts on airborne particles and health

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence of associations between environmental particulate concentrations and both acute and chronic health effects has grown with numerous recent studies conducted in the US and other countries. An association between short-term changes in particulate levels and acute mortality now seems certain. The association is consistent among studies and coherent among indicators of mortality and morbidity. Effects observed at surprisingly low pollution levels have raised concern for current exposures even in modestly polluted cities. Toxicology did not predict the acute mortality effect, and causal mechanisms are difficult to rationalize. Present data suggest that the fine fraction of particulate pollution is more toxic than larger particles, but the contribution of specific particulate species is poorly understood.

  20. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  1. The Ruhrverband sewage sludge disposal concept in the conflict between European and German standards and regulations.

    PubMed

    Evers, P; Schmitt, F; Albrecht, D R; Jardin, N

    2005-01-01

    The Ruhrverband, acting as a water association responsible for integrated water resources management within the entire natural river basin of the Ruhr, operates a network of 83 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and connected sludge disposal facilities. According to German regulations, the disposal of sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry solids will be prohibited as of 1 June 2005. In Germany, the only future alternative to incineration will be the agricultural utilization of sludge. However, this way of sludge disposal is presently the subject of critical discussions in Germany because of the organic and inorganic toxic substances, which may be contained in sewage sludge, despite the fact that very stringent standards are to be met by agricultural uses. On the other hand, application of sewage sludge to agricultural land is explicitly supported by the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC. In the face of this controversial situation the Ruhrverband has initiated, in 2000, the development of a comprehensive and sustainable sludge and waste disposal concept for all wastewater facilities it operates in the entire Ruhr River Basin. The concept includes de-central sludge digestion and dewatering and subsequent transport to two central sludge incineration plants. It is expected that in future not more than 5% of all sludges produced in Ruhrverband's WWTPs will be used in agriculture. That means, the major part of 95% will have to be incinerated.

  2. First do no harm: the impact of recent armed conflict on maternal and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, Bernadette A M; Southall, David P

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the rates of under-5 mortality, malnutrition, maternal mortality and other factors which influence health in countries with and without recent conflict. To compare central government expenditure on defence, education and health in countries with and without recent conflict. To summarize the amount spent on SALW and the main legal suppliers to countries in Sub-Saharan African countries (SSA), and to summarize licensed production of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in these countries. Design We compared the under-5 mortality rate in 2004 and the adjusted maternal mortality ratio in SSA which have and have not experienced recent armed conflict (post-1990). We also compared the percentage of children who are underweight in both sets of countries, and expenditure on defence, health and education. Setting Demographic data and central government expenditure details (1994-2004) were taken from UNICEF's The State of the World's Children 2006 report. Main outcome measures Under-5 mortality, adjusted maternal mortality, and government expenditure. Results 21 countries have and 21 countries have not experienced recent conflict in this dataset of 42 countries in SSA. Median under-5 mortality in countries with recent conflict is 197/1000 live births, versus 137/1000 live births in countries without recent conflict. In countries which have experienced recent conflict, a median of 27% of under-5s were moderately underweight, versus 22% in countries without recent conflict. The median adjusted maternal mortality in countries with recent conflict was 1000/100,000 births versus 690/100,000 births in countries without recent conflict. Median reported maternal mortality ratio is also significantly higher in countries with recent conflict. Expenditure on health and education is significantly lower and expenditure on defence significantly higher if there has been recent conflict. Conclusions There appears to be an association between recent conflict and higher

  3. First do no harm: the impact of recent armed conflict on maternal and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Bernadette A M; Southall, David P

    2007-12-01

    To compare the rates of under-5 mortality, malnutrition, maternal mortality and other factors which influence health in countries with and without recent conflict. To compare central government expenditure on defence, education and health in countries with and without recent conflict. To summarize the amount spent on SALW and the main legal suppliers to countries in Sub-Saharan African countries (SSA), and to summarize licensed production of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in these countries. We compared the under-5 mortality rate in 2004 and the adjusted maternal mortality ratio in SSA which have and have not experienced recent armed conflict (post-1990). We also compared the percentage of children who are underweight in both sets of countries, and expenditure on defence, health and education. Demographic data and central government expenditure details (1994-2004) were taken from UNICEF's The State of the World's Children 2006 report. Under-5 mortality, adjusted maternal mortality, and government expenditure. 21 countries have and 21 countries have not experienced recent conflict in this dataset of 42 countries in SSA. Median under-5 mortality in countries with recent conflict is 197/1000 live births, versus 137/1000 live births in countries without recent conflict. In countries which have experienced recent conflict, a median of 27% of under-5s were moderately underweight, versus 22% in countries without recent conflict. The median adjusted maternal mortality in countries with recent conflict was 1000/100,000 births versus 690/100,000 births in countries without recent conflict. Median reported maternal mortality ratio is also significantly higher in countries with recent conflict. Expenditure on health and education is significantly lower and expenditure on defence significantly higher if there has been recent conflict. There appears to be an association between recent conflict and higher rates of under-5 mortality, malnutrition and maternal mortality

  4. Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis: enantiomorph disorder concept of bilateral symmetry, physeally-created growth conflicts and possible prevention.

    PubMed

    Burwell, R G; Freeman, B J C; Dangerfield, P H; Aujla, R K; Cole, A A; Kirby, A S; Pratt, R K; Webb, J K; Moulton, A

    2006-01-01

    The detection of anomalous extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries in the upper limbs, periapical ribs, ilia and lower limbs of subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) raises questions about skeletal bilateral symmetry of vertebrates in health and disorder, its origin and control. The vertebrate body plan externally has mirror-image bilateral symmetries that are highly conserved culminating in the adult form. The normal human body can be viewed as containing paired skeletal structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton as 1) separate left and right paired forms (eg long limb bones, ribs, ilia), and 2) united in paired forms (eg vertebrae, sternum, skull, mandible). Each of these separate and united pairs are mirror-image forms--enantiomorphs. Left-right asymmetries of growth plates (physes) may cause (1) in long bones length asymmetries, (2) within one or more vertebral physes putative growth conflict with distortion as deformity, and (3) between ribs and vertebrae putative growth conflict that triggers thoracic AIS suggesting preventive surgery on spine and ribs. There is evidence of a possible role for environmental factors in AIS development. Genes and the environment (nature/nurture) may interact pre- and/or post-natally to explain both the deformity of AIS and its association with widespread anomalous skeletal length asymmetries. If substantiated there may ultimately be a place for the prevention of AIS in some subjects.

  5. Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: broad implications for health and social well-being.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Ethnic conflict, political violence and wars that presently shape many parts of world have deep-seated structural causes. In poor and highly indebted countries, economic and environmental decline, asset depletion, and erosion of the subsistence base lead to further impoverishment and food insecurity for vast sectors of the population. Growing ethnic and religious tensions over a shrinking resource base often escort the emergence of predatory practices, rivalry, political violence, and internal wars. The nature of armed conflict has changed substantially over time and most strategic analysts agree that in the second half of the 20th century, contemporary wars are less of a problem of relations between states than a problem within states. Despite the growing number of armed conflicts and wars throughout the world, not enough attention has been paid to the local patterns of distress being experienced and the long-term health impact and psychosocial consequences of the various forms of political violence against individuals, communities, or specific ethnic groups. The short or long-term impact assessment on civilian populations of poor countries affected by war have been scarce, and studies focussing on experiences of collective suffering and trauma-related disorders among survivors are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature. The medicalization of collective suffering and trauma reflects a poor understanding of the relationships among critically important social determinants and the range of possible health outcomes of political violence.

  6. Reproductive health concerns in six conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kottegoda, Sepali; Samuel, Kumudini; Emmanuel, Sarala

    2008-05-01

    This article draws on a study conducted by the Women and Media Collective between 2004 and 2005 to highlight some of the reproductive health concerns of women from Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnic groups, living in situations of conflict in Sri Lanka. The study focussed on women from six conflict-affected areas in the north and east of the country: Jaffna (Northern Province), Mannar and Puttalam (North-Western Province), Polonnaruwa (North-Central Province), Batticaloa and Ampara (Eastern Province). Higher levels of poverty, higher rates of school drop-out, low pay and precarious access to work, mainly in the informal sector, higher rates of early marriage, pregnancy and home births, higher levels of maternal mortality and lower levels of contraceptive use were found. Economic, social and physical insecurity were key to these phenomena. Physically and psychologically, women were at high risk of sexual and physical violence, mainly from their partners/spouses but also from family members, often related to dowry. The article brings out the voices of women whose lives have been overshadowed by conflict and displacement, and the nature of structural barriers that impede their right to health care services, to make informed decisions about their lives and to live free of familial violence.

  7. Wars and Child Health: Evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian Conflict *

    PubMed Central

    Akresh, Richard; Lucchetti, Leonardo; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2012-01-01

    Conflict between and within countries can have lasting health and economic consequences, but identifying such effects can be empirically challenging. This paper uses household survey data from Eritrea to estimate the effect of exposure to the 1998–2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia war on children’s health. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the conflict’s geographic extent and timing and the exposure of different birth cohorts to the fighting. The unique survey data include details on each household’s migration history, which allows us to measure a child’s geographic location during the war and without which war exposure would be incorrectly classified. War-exposed children have lower height-for-age Z-scores, with similar effects for children born before or during the war. Both boys and girls who are born during the war experience negative impacts due to conflict. Effects are robust to including region-specific time trends, alternative conflict exposure measures, and mother fixed effects. PMID:22962514

  8. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  9. Social networks and mental health in post-conflict Mitrovica, Kosova.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Risa; Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew; Kondo, Tetsuo; Gilmour, Stuart; Arenliu, Aliriza; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-11-17

    To investigate the relation between social networks and mental health in the post-conflict municipality of Mitrovica, Kosovo. Using a three-stage stratified sampling method, 1239 respondents aged 16 years or above were recruited in the Greater Mitrovica region. Social network depth was measured by the frequency of contacts with friends, relatives and strangers. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between social network depth and mental health. The analytical sample consisted of 993 respondents. The prevalence of depression (54.3%) and anxiety (64.4%) were extremely high. In multiple regression analysis, a lower depth of social network (contact with friends) was associated with higher levels of both depression and anxiety. This study has shown that only one variety of social network--contact with friends--was important in terms of mental health outcomes in a population living in an area heavily affected by conflict. This suggests that the relation between social networks and mental health may be complex in that the effects of different forms of social network on mental health are not uniform and may depend on the way social networks are operationalised and the particular context in which the relationship is examined.

  10. Genomic conflicts and sexual antagonism in human health: insights from oxytocin and testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-01-01

    We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother–infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease

  11. Genomic conflicts and sexual antagonism in human health: insights from oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Mokkonen, Mikael; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-04-01

    We review the hypothesized and observed effects of two of the major forms of genomic conflicts, genomic imprinting and sexual antagonism, on human health. We focus on phenotypes mediated by peptide and steroid hormones (especially oxytocin and testosterone) because such hormones centrally mediate patterns of physical and behavioral resource allocation that underlie both forms of conflict. In early development, a suite of imprinted genes modulates the human oxytocinergic system as predicted from theory, with paternally inherited gene expression associated with higher oxytocin production, and increased solicitation to mothers by infants. This system is predicted to impact health through the incompatibility of paternal-gene and maternal-gene optima and increased vulnerability of imprinted gene systems to genetic and epigenetic changes. Early alterations to oxytocinergic systems have long-term negative impacts on human psychological health, especially through their effects on attachment and social behavior. In contrast to genomic imprinting, which generates maladaptation along an axis of mother-infant attachment, sexual antagonism is predicted from theory to generate maladaptation along an axis of sexual dimorphism, modulated by steroid and peptide hormones. We describe evidence of sexual antagonism from studies of humans and other animals, demonstrating that sexually antagonistic effects on sex-dimorphic phenotypes, including aspects of immunity, life history, psychology, and behavior, are commonly observed and lead to forms of maladaptation that are demonstrated, or expected, to impact human health. Recent epidemiological and psychiatric studies of schizophrenia in particular indicate that it is mediated, in part, by sexually antagonistic alleles. The primary implication of this review is that data collection focused on (i) effects of imprinted genes that modulate the oxytocin system, and (ii) effects of sexually antagonistic alleles on sex-dimorphic, disease

  12. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities.

  13. A system dynamics approach to understanding the One Health concept.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Liu, Wenbao; Anderson, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaorong; Gray, Gregory C

    2017-01-01

    There have been many terms used to describe the One Health concept, including movement, strategy, framework, agenda, approach, among others. However, the inter-relationships of the disciplines engaged in the One Health concept have not been well described. To identify and better elucidate the internal feedback mechanisms of One Health, we employed a system dynamics approach. First, a systematic literature review was conducted via searches in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest with the search terms: 'One Health' and (concept* or approach*). In addition, we used the HistCite® tool to add significant articles on One Health to the library. Then, of the 2368 articles identified, 19 were selected for evaluating the inter-relationships of disciplines engaged in One Health. Herein, we report a visually rich, theoretical model regarding interactions of various disciplines and complex problem descriptors engaged in One Health problem solving. This report provides a conceptual framework for future descriptions of the interdisciplinary engagements involved in One Health.

  14. An overview of concept mapping in Dutch mental health care.

    PubMed

    Nabitz, Udo; van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn; Kok, Ineke; van Bon-Martens, Marja; Serverens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    About 25 years ago, concept mapping was introduced in the Netherlands and applied in different fields. A collection of concept mapping projects conducted in the Netherlands was identified, in part in the archive of the Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute). Some of the 90 identified projects are internationally published. The 90 concept mapping projects reflect the changes in mental health care and can be grouped into 5-year periods and into five typologies. The studies range from conceptualizing the problems of the homeless to the specification of quality indicators for treatment programs for patients with cystic fibrosis. The number of concept mapping projects has varied over time. Growth has been considerable in the last 5 years compared to the previous 5 years. Three case studies are described in detail with 12 characteristics and graphical representations. Concept mapping aligns well with the typical Dutch approach of the "Poldermodel." A broad introduction of concept mapping in European countries in cooperation with other countries, such as the United States and Canada, would strengthen the empirical basis for applying this approach in health care policy, quality, and clinical work.

  15. Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin N; Wheeler, Lorey A; Braver, Sanford L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting.

  16. Relations of Parenting Quality, Interparental Conflict, and Overnights with Mental Health Problems of Children in Divorcing Families with High Legal Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Braver, Sanford L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors, quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study come from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When both parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high quality parenting. PMID:24098960

  17. Rebuilding health systems in post-conflict countries: estimating the costs of basic services.

    PubMed

    Newbrander, William; Yoder, Richard; Debevoise, Anne Bilby

    2007-01-01

    After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the Afghan transitional government and international donors found the health system near collapse. Afghanistan had some of the worst health indicators ever recorded. To begin activities that would quickly improve the health situation, the Ministry of Health (MOH) needed both a national package of health services and reliable data on the costs of providing those services. This study details the process of determining national health priorities, creating a basic package of services, and estimating per capita and unit costs for providing those services, with an emphasis on the costing exercise. Strategies for obtaining a rapid yet reasonably accurate estimate of health service costs nationwide are discussed. In 2002 this costing exercise indicated that the basic package of services could be provided for US dollars 4.55 per person. In 2006, the findings were validated: the four major donors who contracted with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to provide basic health services for nearly 80% of the population found per capita costs ranging from dollars 4.30 to dollars 5.12. This study is relevant for other post-conflict countries that are re-establishing health services and seeking to develop cost-effective and equitable health systems. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Towards responsible system development in health services: a discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2010-02-01

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.

  19. Implementing a Basic Package of Health Services in post-conflict Liberia: perceptions of key stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Petit, Dörte; Sondorp, Egbert; Mayhew, Susannah; Roura, Maria; Roberts, Bayard

    2013-02-01

    Recovery of the health sector in post-conflict countries is increasingly initiated through a Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) approach. The country government and partners, including international donors, typically contract international and local NGOs to deliver the BPHS. Evidence from routine data suggests that a BPHS approach results in rapid increases in service coverage, coordination, equity, and efficiency. However, studies also show progress may then slow down, the cause of which is not immediately obvious from routine data. Qualitative research can provide insight into possible barriers in the implementation process, particularly the role of health workers delivering the BPHS services. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of health service providers and policy makers on the implementation of the BPHS in post-conflict Liberia, using SRH services as a tracer and Lipsky's work on "street-level bureaucrats" as a theoretical framework. In July-October 2010, 63 interviews were conducted with midwives, officers-in-charge, and supervisors in two counties of Liberia, and with policy makers in Monrovia. The findings suggest health workers had a limited understanding of the BPHS and associated it with low salaries, difficult working conditions, and limited support from policy makers. Health workers responded by sub-optimal delivery of certain services (such as facility-based deliveries), parallel private services, and leaving their posts. These responses risk distorting and undermining the BPHS implementation. There were also clear differences in the perspectives of health workers and policy makers on the BPHS implementation. The findings suggest the need for greater dialogue between policy makers and health workers to improve understanding of the BPHS and recognition of the working conditions in order to help achieve the potential benefits of the BPHS in Liberia.

  20. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  1. Relationships among nurses' professional self-concept, health, and lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Desiree

    2011-02-01

    According to the American Nurses Association, the entire profession of nursing exists to serve and improve society's health. Thus, to become a nurse, individuals must master a body of knowledge surrounding numerous health aspects. While acquiring the unique knowledge, skills, and values of their profession, nurses form perceptions of personal adequacy in their role, known as professional or nurse self-concept. Given the centrality of health to the profession, it would seem logical that nurses would personally value health and integrate core health behaviors into their professional self-concept and everyday lives. Yet the prevailing evidence leaves in question whether nurses associate their personal health and lifestyles with their professional roles. This article explores the relationships among nurse self-concept, health status, and healthy lifestyle practices in a sample of Midwestern nurses in an attempt to better understand if nurses who integrate healthy behaviors into their everyday lives feel a stronger sense of professional adequacy relative to nurses who do not.

  2. Mental health promotion: concepts and strategies for reaching the population.

    PubMed

    Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2007-12-01

    There have been many attempts to define mental health promotion. To date, there is no consensus in the field as to what it entails. While some understand it as a holistic concept including intervening at structural, societal and political levels to positively influence mental health, others conceptualise it basically as strategies with an individual focus to improve personal competencies. Many of these differences are related to the distinct understanding of the concepts of mental well-being and positive mental health. The lack of clarity on the boundaries of mental health promotion has divided professionals and is a missed opportunity, as momentum is moving mental health promotion on to political agendas. In Europe, two important milestones for mental health, the WHO Ministerial Conference and the EC Green Paper on Mental Health, have moved mental health promotion into the political landscape, recognising positive mental health and mental well-being as fundamental to the quality of life and productivity of Europeans and a contributor to sustainable development. Although proven efficacious, ad hoc implementation of mental health promotion programs alone is not sufficient to ensure improvement of the population's mental health. Co-ordinated action that includes efficient ways to deliver such interventions in a sustainable way is essential. Two such delivery mechanisms in the search for efficiency are discussed in this paper: a) identifying co-occurrence of mental and physical health problems in order to include mental health promotion components into existing health promotion interventions; and, b) supporting the inclusion of mental health indicators into sound public policy options in order to prove that efficacious policies in labour, education, environment, etc, also bring about positive mental health outcomes. To support the current interest to bring about positive mental health it is essential that evaluation of existing initiatives is put in place, as well as

  3. [The concept of health in the General Health Law (1986)].

    PubMed

    Peral, D

    1993-01-01

    The 1986 "Le General de Sanidad" (Sanitary General Regulations) has been studied using the method of the "Topología del Discurso" in order to elucidate what are the thoughts of the lawmakers. The law protects not only the population of catastrophes as it happened with the choleric epidemic of the XIX century, but considers a new concept a sanitary wealth should be provided to the individuals. Together with this new concept there are new ones such as equality and universalization of the sanitary assistence that would be keys of the aim of the lawmakers: to coordinate all the State resources in the reform of the spanish sanity. This includes the integration of the Universities. This can help in the understanding of the dificulties in the development and aplication of the Law present reality.

  4. Concept of Educational Assistance to Health Protection of the Individual.

    PubMed

    Levanova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Kokorina, Olga Rafailovna; Nikitin, Yuriy Vladimirovich; Perepelkina, Tatiyna Vladislavovna; Segodina, Polina Anatolievna

    2015-07-13

    The article describes the theoretical and practical need for the development of the concept of assistance to health protection of the individual in order to address the problem of health protection of students and teachers in the conditions of a higher pedagogical education. The problem of studying human health, its entirety, systemacity and connection with the environment attracts particular attention in recent years. This was one of the reasons to study the problem of "healthy lifestyle" as the qualitative characteristic of a human life aimed at health, due to the fact that a healthy lifestyle is one of the determinants of health. This is made possible with the use of specific health-protecting technologies aimed at searching for ways and means of protection and conservation of health of students and teachers in the conditions of the educational process and using educational tools, which is currently included into the priorities of education.

  5. Concept of Educational Assistance to Health Protection of the Individual

    PubMed Central

    Levanova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Kokorina, Olga Rafailovna; Nikitin, Yuriy Vladimirovich; Perepelkina, Tatiyna Vladislavovna; Segodina, Polina Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the theoretical and practical need for the development of the concept of assistance to health protection of the individual in order to address the problem of health protection of students and teachers in the conditions of a higher pedagogical education. The problem of studying human health, its entirety, systemacity and connection with the environment attracts particular attention in recent years. This was one of the reasons to study the problem of “healthy lifestyle” as the qualitative characteristic of a human life aimed at health, due to the fact that a healthy lifestyle is one of the determinants of health. This is made possible with the use of specific health-protecting technologies aimed at searching for ways and means of protection and conservation of health of students and teachers in the conditions of the educational process and using educational tools, which is currently included into the priorities of education. PMID:26493439

  6. Health system functionality in a low-income country in the midst of conflict: the case of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Qirbi, Naseeb; Ismail, Sharif A

    2017-07-01

     Although the literature on effects of armed conflict on population health is extensive, detailed assessments of effects on public health 'systems' are few. This article aims to help address this deficit through the medium of a case study on Yemen, describing health system and health outcome performance prior to the internationalisation of the conflict there in March 2015, before assessing the impact of war on health system functionality since that time. Review of peer- and non-peer reviewed literature from 2005 to 2016 from academic sources, multilateral organizations, donors and governmental and non-governmental organizations, augmented by secondary data analysis. Despite significant health system weaknesses and structural vulnerabilities pre-conflict, there were important improvements in selected health outcome measures in Yemen up to early 2015 (life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality, e.g.), partly driven by a fragile health sector that was heavily reliant on out-of-pocket expenditure, and hampered by weak service penetration especially in rural areas. High intensity conflict has resulted in rising mortality and injury rates since March 2015, the first decline in life expectancy and increase in child and maternal mortality in Yemen for some years, and worsening levels of malnutrition. Service delivery has become increasingly challenging in the context of a funding crisis, destruction of health facilities, widespread shortages of essential medicines and equipment across the country, and governance fragmentation. Conflict in Yemen has resulted in humanitarian disaster on a wide scale in a short period of time, and crippled an already weak health system. Important areas of uncertainty remain, however, including the scale of health worker flight, and the extent to which alternative providers have stepped in to fill widening service gaps as the conflict has unfolded. Planning for longer-term health system reconstruction should begin as soon as possible.

  7. The human environment interface: applying ecosystem concepts to health.

    PubMed

    Preston, Nicholas D; Daszak, Peter; Colwell, Rita R

    2013-01-01

    One Health approaches have tended to focus on closer collaboration among veterinarians and medical professionals, but remain unclear about how ecological approaches could be applied or how they might benefit public health and disease control. In this chapter, we review ecological concepts, and discuss their relevance to health, with an emphasis on emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Despite the fact that most EIDs originate in wildlife, few studies account for the population, community, or ecosystem ecology of the host, reservoir, or vector. The dimensions of ecological approaches to public health that we propose in this chapter are, in essence, networks of population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem matrices incorporating concepts of complexity, resilience, and biogeochemical processes.

  8. Enablement in health care context: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Catherine; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Bravo, Gina; Poitras, Marie-Eve

    2011-02-01

    The enablement process is defined as a professional intervention aiming to recognize, support and emphasize the patient's capacity to have control over her or his health and life. The purpose of this article was to study the enablement concept through a concept analysis in the health care context to identify: (1) its attributes and (2) its antecedents and consequents. A concept analysis was performed according to the method of Rodgers. The literature was reviewed from 1980 to June 2008, using search strategies adapted to the databases Cinahl, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and Social Works Abstract, and hand searching. All articles contributing to a deeper understanding of the concept were included. The analysis was carried out according to a thematic analysis procedure, as described by Miles & Huberman. The search identified 1305 citations. After in-depth assessment of 148 potentially eligible citations, 61 articles were included in the review. Five articles were added with hand searching. Sixty-seven per cent of these articles were related to nursing. The attributes of the enablement concept included: contribution to the therapeutic relationship; consideration of the person as a whole; facilitation of learning; valorization of the person's strengths; implication and support to decision making; and broadening of the possibilities. These attributes could be used as a basis for other studies on enablement. Conceptual and empirical work is still needed to better position this concept among others such as patient-centred care, shared decision making and patient's participation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The Colombian conflict: a description of a mental health program in the Department of Tolima

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Colombia has been seriously affected by an internal armed conflict for more than 40 years affecting mainly the civilian population, who is forced to displace, suffers kidnapping, extortion, threats and assassinations. Between 2005 and 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières-France provided psychological care and treatment in the region of Tolima, a strategic place in the armed conflict. The mental health program was based on a short-term multi-faceted treatment developed according to the psychological and psychosomatic needs of the population. Here we describe the population attending during 2005-2008, in both urban and rural settings, as well as the psychological treatment provided during this period and its outcomes. We observed differences between the urban and rural settings in the traumatic events reported, the clinical expression of the disorders, the disorders diagnosed, and their severity. Although the duration of the treatment was limited due to security reasons and access difficulties, patient condition at last visit improved in most of the patients. These descriptive results suggest that further studies should be conducted to examine the role of short-term psychotherapy, adapted specifically to the context, can be a useful tool to provide psychological care to population affected by an armed conflict. PMID:20030811

  10. The Colombian conflict: a description of a mental health program in the Department of Tolima.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Casas, German; Grais, Rebecca F; Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2009-12-23

    Colombia has been seriously affected by an internal armed conflict for more than 40 years affecting mainly the civilian population, who is forced to displace, suffers kidnapping, extortion, threats and assassinations. Between 2005 and 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières-France provided psychological care and treatment in the region of Tolima, a strategic place in the armed conflict. The mental health program was based on a short-term multi-faceted treatment developed according to the psychological and psychosomatic needs of the population. Here we describe the population attending during 2005-2008, in both urban and rural settings, as well as the psychological treatment provided during this period and its outcomes.We observed differences between the urban and rural settings in the traumatic events reported, the clinical expression of the disorders, the disorders diagnosed, and their severity. Although the duration of the treatment was limited due to security reasons and access difficulties, patient condition at last visit improved in most of the patients. These descriptive results suggest that further studies should be conducted to examine the role of short-term psychotherapy, adapted specifically to the context, can be a useful tool to provide psychological care to population affected by an armed conflict.

  11. [The Bremen periodic health exam - feasibility of a new concept].

    PubMed

    Schmiemann, Guido; Biesewig-Siebenmorgen, Jürgen; Gebhardt, Klaus; Egidi, Günther

    2014-01-01

    All members of the Statutory Health Insurance are entitled to receive preventive health examinations. The current concept, however, does not take individual risk factors into account systematically. To improve this, the "Bremen Health Examination" was developed. The central component is a screening questionnaire to be completed by the patient, which is stratified by age, i.e., 35 to 69 years and ≥ 70 years. The feasibility and acceptance of this concept have been assessed. In a prospective observational study, a selected sample of general practitioners (GPs) was asked to implement the questionnaires during all preventive health examinations within a four-week period. The GPs subsequently answered content-related questions as well as Likert-scaled questions on the relevance of the issues addressed, and the feasibility of the new concept. 17 out of 20 GPs approached for the study included a total of 171 patients. On average, the patients in the two groups were 52 and 75 years of age, respectively, and answered 4.4 prompting questions positively. Age and gender had no significant effect on the frequency of "positively" answered questions. Implementing the questionnaire extended the duration of the health examination, however, GPs overall rated the time required for discussing newly assessed problems as adequate (four-level Likert scale, 1=yes; 4=no; Ø 1.59; SD 0.77). The implementation of the Bremen Health Examination appears to be feasible from the GP perspective. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Nuadu concept for personal management of lifestyle related health risks.

    PubMed

    Mattila, E; Korhonen, I; Lappalainen, R; Ahtinen, A; Hopsu, L; Leino, T

    2008-01-01

    Majority of the health risks and diseases in the modern world are related to lifestyles, e.g., overweight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, and stress. Behavioral change towards healthy lifestyles is the key to the prevention and management of these risks, but early and efficient interventions are scarcely available. We present the Nuadu Concept, an ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) assisted wellness toolbox for the management of multiple, behavior-originated health risks. The concept is based on psychological models, which provide methods and motivation for behavior change. The individual is considered as the best expert of his/her own wellness. Thus, the Nuadu Concept provides a variety of personal wellness technologies and services, among which the user may freely choose the best tools for him/herself. We believe this approach has the potential to provide efficient, acceptable, available, and affordable wellness management support for a significant number of people.

  13. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transdisciplinary research for complex One Health issues: a scoping review of key concepts.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Allen-Scott, L K; Buntain, B

    2013-11-01

    In order to address the complexity inherent in researching One Health (OH) issues, we support the concept that researchers must transcend individual disciplinary and non-disciplinary boundaries, and move into the realm of transdisciplinary (TD) research approaches. For the purposes of this paper we use the term OH and the concept that OH research is conducted to solve complex health challenges at the animal-human--human-ecosystem interface. TD goes beyond interdisciplinary research to engages disciplines and communities through a unified conceptual framework. In this scoping review we investigated key concepts, definitions and themes in OH and TD based on the peer reviewed literature. We identified nine emerging themes in TD research: (1) education, (2) conflict amongst disciplines, (3) effective communication, (4) shared conceptual framework, (5) leadership, (6) perceived power differentials, (7) community-based methodologies, (8) support for TD research and (9) time and effort. This review provides a synthesized knowledge base that describes the nature, extent of evidence and challenges of engaging in TD initiatives. This knowledge base further provides a foundation for those interested in developing improved strategies for TD collaborative and cross-sectoral research in OH.

  15. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    PubMed

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  16. The concept of exposure in environmental health for nursing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Schwartz Barcott, Donna

    2017-06-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of exposure in environmental health for nursing. The importance of the environment has long been recognized in nursing, although the nature and scope of the concept and how it influences health have varied over time. Exposure is the sufficient and necessary link between environment and health. In nursing practice, the word 'exposure' has been used frequently with no clear standard definition. Concept analysis using Kim's first-level analytics. Chronological review (1980-2015) of the nursing science literature was conducted through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and CINAHL, followed by a multi-disciplinary search through PubMed (1980-2015), texts and the Internet to compare definitions and measurements of exposure and related concepts. Explicit and implicit conceptual definitions and measurements of exposure were identified, categorized and analysed. The newly defined concept of 'exposure' is a process involves three phases: 1, contact is made between a target and one or more agents in the same environment; 2, the agent accesses the target by one or more routes of entry; and 3, the agent enters the target by crossing a barrier or boundary. Existing measurements related to each phase are identified and discussed. Definitions of 'target' and 'agent' were refined for congruency. Consistent use of terms as defined is critical to development of nursing knowledge. These concepts should be incorporated into nursing-related research to evaluate their usefulness to nursing. Alignment of this concept with relevant theories should be critically examined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Managing complex workplace stress in health care organizations: leaders' perceived legitimacy conflicts.

    PubMed

    Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa

    2009-12-01

    To conceptualize how health care leaders' strategies to increase their influence in their psychosocial work environment are experienced and handled, and may be supported. The complex nature of the psychosocial work environment with increased stress creates significant challenges for leaders in today's health care organizations. Interviews with health care leaders (n = 39) were analysed in accordance with constructivist grounded theory. Compound identities, loyalty commitments and professional interests shape conditions for leaders' influence. Strategies to achieve legitimacy were either to retain clinical skills and a strong occupational identity or to take a full leadership role. Ethical stress was experienced when organizational procedural or consequential legitimacy norms were in conflict with the leaders' own values. Leadership support through socializing processes and strategic support structures may be complementary or counteractive. Support programmes need to have a clear message related to decision-making processes and should facilitate communication between top management, human resource departments and subordinate leaders. Ethical stress from conflicting legitimacy principles may be moderated by clear policies for decision-making processes, strengthened sound networks and improved communication. Supportive programmes should include: (1) sequential and strategic systems for introducing new leaders and mentoring; (2) reflective dialogue and feedback; (3) team development; and (4) decision-making policies and processes.

  18. Human Trafficking in Areas of Conflict: Health Care Professionals' Duty to Act.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Christina; Morris, Rikki E; Chisolm-Straker, Makini

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked.

  19. Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Hassan, G; Ventevogel, P; Jefee-Bahloul, H; Barkil-Oteo, A; Kirmayer, L J

    2016-04-01

    This paper is based on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which aims to provide information on cultural aspects of mental health and psychosocial wellbeing relevant to care and support for Syrians affected by the crisis. This paper aims to inform mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) staff of the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing issues facing Syrians who are internally displaced and Syrian refugees. We conducted a systematic literature search designed to capture clinical, social science and general literature examining the mental health of the Syrian population. The main medical, psychological and social sciences databases (e.g. Medline, PubMed, PsycInfo) were searched (until July 2015) in Arabic, English and French language sources. This search was supplemented with web-based searches in Arabic, English and French media, and in assessment reports and evaluations, by nongovernmental organisations, intergovernmental organisations and agencies of the United Nations. This search strategy should not be taken as a comprehensive review of all issues related to MHPSS of Syrians as some unpublished reports and evaluations were not reviewed. Conflict affected Syrians may experience a wide range of mental health problems including (1) exacerbations of pre-existing mental disorders; (2) new problems caused by conflict related violence, displacement and multiple losses; as well as (3) issues related to adaptation to the post-emergency context, for example living conditions in the countries of refuge. Some populations are particularly vulnerable such as men and women survivors of sexual or gender based violence, children who have experienced violence and exploitation and Syrians who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex. Several factors influence access to MHPSS services including language barriers, stigma associated with seeking mental health care and the power dynamics of the helping relationship. Trust

  20. Health systems research in fragile and conflict-affected states: a research agenda-setting exercise.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Aniek; Sondorp, Egbert; Witter, Sophie; Martineau, Tim

    2016-07-21

    There is increasing interest amongst donors in investing in the health sectors of fragile and conflict-affected states, although there is limited research evidence and research funding to support this. Agreeing priority areas is therefore critical. This paper describes an 18-month process to develop a consultative research agenda and questions for health systems research, providing reflections on the process as well as its output. After a scoping review had been conducted, primary data was collected from August 2014 to September 2015. Data was collected using a mixture of methods, including an online survey (n = 61), two face-to-face group sessions (one with 11 participants; one with 17), email consultation (n = 18), a webinar (n = 65), and feedback via LinkedIn. Two steering committees of purposively selected experts guided the research process - a core steering committee (n = 10) and broad steering committee (n = 20). The process moved from developing broad topics and lists of research needs to grouping and honing them down into a smaller, prioritised agenda, with specific research questions associated to each topic. An initial list of 146 topics was honed down to 25 research needs through this process, grouped thematically under transition and sustainability, resilience and fragility, gender and equity, accessibility, capacity building, actors and accountability, community, healthcare delivery, health workforce, and health financing. They were not ranked, as all health system areas are interdependent. The research agenda forms a starting point for local contextualisation and is not definitive. A wide range of stakeholders participated in the different stages of this exercise, which produced a useful starting point for health systems research agenda setting in fragile and conflict-affected states. The process of engagement may have been as valuable for building a community of researchers as the product. It is now important to drive forward the

  1. The mental health of populations directly and indirectly exposed to violent conflict in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Large disasters affect people who live both near and far from the areas in which they occur. The mental health impact is expected to be similar to a ripple effect, where the risk of mental health consequences generally decreases with increasing distance from the disaster center. However, we have not been able to identify studies of the ripple effect of man-made disaster on mental health in low-income countries. Objectives The objective was to examine the hypothesis of a ripple effect on the mental health consequences in populations exposed to man-made disasters in a developing country context, through a comparison of two different populations living in different proximities from the center of disaster in Mollucas. Methods Cross-sectional longitudinal data were collected from 510 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) living in Ambon, who were directly exposed to the violence, and non-IDPs living in remote villages in Mollucas, Indonesia, who had never been directly exposed to violence in Mollucas. Data were collected during home visits and statistical comparisons were conducted by using chi square tests, t-test and logistic regression. Results There was significantly more psychological distress "caseness" in IDPs than non-IDPs. The mental health consequences of the violent conflict in Ambon supported the ripple effect hypothesis as displacement status appears to be a strong risk factor for distress, both as a main effect and interaction effect. Significantly higher percentages of IDPs experienced traumatic events than non-IDPs in all six event types reported. Conclusions This study indicates that the conflict had an impact on mental health and economic conditions far beyond the area where the actual violent events took place, in a diminishing pattern in line with the hypothesis of a ripple effect. PMID:20673322

  2. [Scale of conflict in health care decision-making: an instrument adapted and validated for the Portuguese language].

    PubMed

    Martinho, Maria Júlia Costa Marques; da Silva, Martins Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira; Angelo, Margareth

    2013-06-01

    The different options available to patients in the health environment now are implicated in increasingly difficult processes of decision-making, and may trigger conflict about them. This study had as its purpose, to develop an instrument that enabled us to know about this variable. Therefore, we decided to effect a transcultural adaptation and evaluation of psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Decisional Conflict Scale, which seeks information about decision-making and the factors that influence the choices made. The sample consisted of 521 nursing students, with a focus on decision-making regarding the flu syndrome. The results obtained on the reliability tests showed good internal consistency for all items (Cronbach a=0.94). The psychometric study allowed us to affirm that the Portuguese version of the Decisional Conflict Scale, which we call Scale of Conflicts in Decision-Making in Health (ECTDS), was a reliable and valid instrument.

  3. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M.; O’Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J. Michael; Casper, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. Methodology/approach This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). Findings We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals’ perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals’ work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees’ mental health. Originality/value of the chapter We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a “private trouble” and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work. PMID:25866431

  4. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne

    Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.

  5. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides.

  6. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Dinardo, Andrew R; Puac Polanco, Victor D; Harvey, Michael J; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-05-01

    Guatemala's 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p < 0.05). Certain associations between prior civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed.

  7. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Dinardo, Andrew R.; Puac Polanco, Victor D.; Harvey, Michael J.; Vassy, Jason L.; Bream, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p < 0.05). Certain associations between prior civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed. PMID:27818726

  8. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    PubMed

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Knowledge translation in health care: a concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    khoddam, Homeira; Mehrdad, Neda; Peyrovi, Hamid; Kitson, Alison L; Schultz, Timothy J; Athlin, Asa Muntlin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although knowledge translation is one of the most widely used concepts in health and medical literature, there is a sense of ambiguity and confusion over its definition. The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of KT. This will assist the theoretical development of it and shape its implementation into the health care system Methods: Walker and Avant’s framework was used to analyze the concept and the related literature published between 2000 and 2010 was reviewed. A total of 112 papers were analyzed. Results: Review of the literature showed that "KT is a process" and "implementing refined knowledge into a participatory context through a set of challenging activities" are the characteristics of KT. Moreover, to occur successfully, KT needs some necessary antecedents like an integrated source of knowledge, a receptive context, and preparedness. The main consequence of successful process is a change in four fields of healthcare, i.e. quality of patient care, professional practice, health system, and community. In addition, this study revealed some empirical referents which are helpful to evaluate the process. Conclusion: By aiming to portray a clear picture of KT, we highlighted its attributes, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents. Identifying the characteristics of this concept may resolve the existing ambiguities in its definition and boundaries thereby facilitate distinction from similar concepts. In addition, these findings can be used as a knowledge infrastructure for developing the KT-related models, theories, or tools. PMID:25664299

  10. Emerging medical technologies and emerging conceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Stempsey, William E

    2006-01-01

    Using ideas gleaned from the philosophy of technology of Martin Heidegger and Hans Jonas and the philosophy of health of Georges Canguilhem, I argue that one of the characteristics of emerging medical technologies is that these technologies lead to new conceptions of health. When technologies enable the body to respond to more and more challenges of disease, we thus establish new norms of health. Given the continued development of successful technologies, we come to expect more and more that our bodies should be able to respond to ever-new challenges of environment and disease by establishing ever-new norms of health. Technologies may aim at the prevention and treatment of disease, but they also bring about modifications of what we consider normal for the human being. Thus, new norms of health arise from technological innovation.

  11. Experience and expectation: conflict and change in traditional family health care among the Quichua of Saraguro.

    PubMed

    Finerman, R D

    1983-01-01

    Quichua Indian mothers have traditionally served as primary health caretakers for the families of Saraguro in highland Ecuador. A hospital has recently opened, providing biomedical health care and programs in preventive medicine for local indigenous commmunities. Opposition to the new facility has arisen, however, as families express dissatisfaction with hospital policies. Surveys and in-depth interviews, conducted with Saraguro families ad hospital staff between 1977 and 1982 have outlined problems encountered i the introduction and administration of biomedical care. The hospital is seen by some residents as a threat to Quichua women's authority as herbalists and family curers. More importantly, however, Saraguro families view the facility as a disappointment, as it provided services inconsistent with traditional health values, practices and felt needs, and it fails to fulfill residents' expectations of hospital care. Conflicts between traditional and hospital health care experiences and between expectations and reality, have bred hostility between the health facility and the community it serves. Inability to negotiate with hospital staff for greater flexibility in policies has intensified community frustration. The impact of cultural health values, expectations, and program flexibility are discussed with potential implications for planning and administration of biomedical delivery services.

  12. A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants. Methodology Both quantitative and qualitative studies that reported resilience and mental health outcomes among forcibly displaced persons (aged 18+) by way of exploring associations, links, pathways and causative mechanisms were included. Fourteen bibliographic databases and seven humanitarian study databases/websites were searched and a four stage screening process was followed. Results Twenty three studies were included in the final review. Ten qualitative studies identified highlighted family and community cohesion, family and community support, individual personal qualities, collective identity, supportive primary relationships and religion. Thirteen quantitative studies were identified, but only two attempted to link resilience with mental disorders, and three used a specific resilience measure. Over-reliance on cross-sectional designs was noted. Resilience was generally shown to be associated with better mental health in displaced populations, but the evidence on this and underlying mechanisms was limited. Discussion The review highlights the need for more epidemiological and qualitative evidence on resilience in forcibly displaced persons as a potential avenue for intervention development, particularly in resource-poor settings. PMID:25177360

  13. [Nurse's concept in the managerial conception of a basic health unit].

    PubMed

    Passos, Joanir Pereira; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko

    2006-12-01

    This study is part of a larger survey called "Use of indicators in nurses' managerial practice in Basic Health Care Units in the city of Rio de Janeiro", which was carried out in the Basic Health Care Units of the Planning Area 5.3 and whose objectives were to identify nurses' conception regarding the tools required for management in those units and to discuss the role of management in organizing health services. The study is descriptive and data were collected in interviews with seven nurse managers. The results show that health services actions are organized and directed to the purpose of the working process through the relationship established between the object, the instruments and the final product, and that for those nurses the end result to be achieved is client's satisfaction and the quality of medical and nursing care.

  14. Using a Conflict Map as an Instructional Tool To Change Student Conceptions in Simple Series Electric-Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of using a conflict map on 8th grade students' conceptual change and ideational networks about simple series electric circuits. Analyzes student interview data through a flow map method. Shows that the use of conflict maps could help students construct greater, richer, and more integrated ideational networks about electric…

  15. Using a Conflict Map as an Instructional Tool To Change Student Conceptions in Simple Series Electric-Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of using a conflict map on 8th grade students' conceptual change and ideational networks about simple series electric circuits. Analyzes student interview data through a flow map method. Shows that the use of conflict maps could help students construct greater, richer, and more integrated ideational networks about electric…

  16. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that “spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah).” Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675

  17. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies.

  18. The potential conflict between policy and ethics in caring for undocumented immigrants at academic health centers.

    PubMed

    Cacari Stone, Lisa; Steimel, Leah; Vasquez-Guzman, Estela; Kaufman, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are at the forefront of delivering care to the diverse medically underserved and uninsured populations in the United States, as well as training the majority of the health care workforce, who are professionally obligated to serve all patients regardless of race or immigration status. Despite AHCs' central leadership role in these endeavors, few consolidated efforts have emerged to resolve potential conflicts between national, state, and local policies that exclude certain classifications of immigrants from receiving federal public assistance and health professionals' social missions and ethical oath to serve humanity. For instance, whereas the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides a pathway to insurance coverage for more than 30 million Americans, undocumented immigrants and legally documented immigrants residing in the United States for less than five years are ineligible for Medicaid and excluded from purchasing any type of coverage through state exchanges. To inform this debate, the authors describe their experience at the University of New Mexico Hospital (UNMH) and discuss how the UNMH has responded to this challenge and overcome barriers. They offer three recommendations for aligning AHCs' social missions and professional ethics with organizational policies: (1) that AHCs determine eligibility for financial assistance based on residency rather than citizenship, (2) that models of medical education and health professions training provide students with service-learning opportunities and applied community experience, and (3) that frontline staff and health care professionals receive standardized training on eligibility policies to minimize discrimination towards immigrant patients.

  19. [Implications of chilean legal framework in teen pregnancy prevention: conflict and insecurity in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Luttges D, Carolina; Leyton M, Carolina; Leal F, Ingrid; Troncoso E, Paulina; Molina G, Temístocles

    2016-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a psychosocial and multifactorial problem described as a lack of exercise of rights in sexual and reproductive health. There are important aspects in the doctor-patient relationship and confidentiality that directly affect the continuity and quality of care. There are controversies in the laws relating to the provision of contraception and confidentiality, and those that protect the sexual indemnity, especially in adolescents under 14 years. To describe the implications of the legal framework for professional midwives in the care of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health. In-depth interviews were conducted to 13 female and 2 male midwives working at Primary Health Care Centers in the Metropolitan Region. The attention of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health involves medical-legal issues for health professionals. All professionals recognize that mandatory reporting sexual activity is a complex situation. All professionals notify pregnancies. In relation to the delivery of contraception, clinical care is problematic since professionals should take shelter from a legal standpoint. The medical-legal context of pregnant women under 14 years of age care generates a context of uncertainty and fear for professionals and becomes a source of conflict and insecurity in the exercise of the profession.

  20. Health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields: a conflict between the precautionary principle and environmental medicine methodology.

    PubMed

    Dämvik, Mats; Johansson, Olle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the precautionary principle is that legal requirements are to be made to safeguard against the possible health risks that have not yet been scientifically established. That a risk is not established cannot, therefore, be used as an excuse for not applying the principle. Yet, that rationale is exactly what is happening in the case of the possible health risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The scientists, representing both the World Health Organization and the European Commission, do not have at all the precautionary principle in mind when they report on health risks. Their starting point is instead to determine whether new research findings have been scientifically established and thus cannot be the basis for an amendment to the existing exposure limits. Uncertain indications of risk are ignored or played down. This approach is in conflict with European Union (EU) law, which requires that the degree of scientific uncertainty should be presented correctly. A thorough examination of the state of research shows many serious indications of possible health risks from exposure very far below existing limits for EMF. Case law, for other types of exposure, also shows that the precautionary principle can be applied on the basis of weaker evidence than that. Our investigation shows that the precautionary principle is not being used for its intended purpose in relation to exposure to EMF. The reason for this position is that decision-makers are being misled by inaccurate risk assessments.

  1. Rehabilitating public health infrastructure in the post-conflict setting: epidemic prevention and preparedness in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R J; Valderrama, C; MacKenzie, W R; Raj, K; Nandy, R

    2001-01-01

    The war in Kosovo in 1999 resulted in the displacement of up to 1.5 million persons from their homes. On the subsequent return of the refugees and internally displaced persons, one of the major challenges facing the local population and the international community, was the rehabilitation of Kosovo's public health infrastructure, which had sustained enormous damage as a result of the fighting. Of particular importance was the need to develop a system of epidemic prevention and preparedness. But no single agency had the resources or capacity to implement such a program. Therefore, a unique six-point model was developed as a collaboration between the Kosovo Institute of Public Health, the World Health Organization, and an international, non-governmental organization. Important components of the program included a major Kosovo-wide baseline health survey, the development of a province-wide public health surveillance system, rehabilitation of microbiology laboratories, and the development of a local capacity for epidemic response. While all program objectives were met, important lessons were learned concerning the planning, design, and implementation of such a project. This program represents a model that potentially could be replicated in other post-conflict or development settings.

  2. SSFF Health Management Analysis Report. Part 2: Proof of Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.; Spruill, J.; Hong, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this Proof of Concept analysis on SSFF Health Management the following area was described: the Gas Distribution Subsystem (GDS) was studied and evaluated utilizing the PDR Configuration and with respect to the design features encompassing Health Management (HM) aspects outlined in the Generic Handbook. From the results of this study, it was found that there is a definite need for coordinating measurements within and between the subsystems that will ensure that Functional Failures are properly revealed and substantiated as valid by other measurements, even those from other interfacing subsystems.

  3. [Health targets for health promotion in an area of conflict between individual freedom, state paternalism and common welfare].

    PubMed

    Michelsen, K

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, a growing number of health targets has been adopted in the last years by various actors. While health targets are a useful instrument of governance, the priority setting and a respective redistribution of resources have to be legitimised in the cause of their advantages and disadvantages for population groups. The involved sciences including ethics can support decision-making, but not fully justify decisions. Therefore, decisions on health targets must be made in a transparent and participative process. In spite of a growing number of health targets, the lack of targets in health policies is to be criticised. Within the health targets, those measures assigned to curative medicine and prevention have a greater weight than health promotion. Health promotion should follow the WHO Ottawa-Charter and be embedded in the concept of "capabilities". Under these conditions, a stronger consideration of health promotion in the health target process would be desirable. However, the present actor constellations within health target processes make such a direction improbable. The struggle around capabilities and individual freedom occurs through, in and about institutions of the civil society as well as political and legal institutions. To restrict the discussion about public health and health promotions to an juxtaposition of individual freedom and state paternalism minimises societal and social restrictions of individual freedom as well as the possibility of a safeguard and enlargement of individual freedoms through political and legal institutions.

  4. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  5. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed. PMID:24595212

  6. Goal conflict, goal facilitation, and health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care: An exploratory prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The theory of planned behaviour has well-evidenced utility in predicting health professional behaviour, but focuses on a single behaviour isolated from the numerous potentially conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours performed alongside. Goal conflict and goal facilitation may influence whether health professionals engage in guideline-recommended behaviours, and may supplement the predictive power of the theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesised that goal facilitation and goal conflict contribute to predicting primary care health professionals' provision of physical activity advice to patients with hypertension, over and above predictors of behaviour from the theory of planned behaviour. Methods Using a prospective predictive design, at baseline we invited a random sample of 606 primary care health professionals from all primary care practices in NHS Grampian and NHS Tayside (Scotland) to complete postal questionnaires. Goal facilitation and goal conflict were measured alongside theory of planned behaviour constructs at baseline. At follow-up six months later, participants self-reported the number of patients, out of those seen in the preceding two weeks, to whom they provided physical activity advice. Results Forty-four primary care physicians and nurses completed measures at both time points (7.3% response rate). Goal facilitation and goal conflict improved the prediction of behaviour, accounting for substantial additional variance (5.8% and 8.4%, respectively) in behaviour over and above intention and perceived behavioural control. Conclusions Health professionals' provision of physical activity advice in primary care can be predicted by perceptions about how their conflicting and facilitating goal-directed behaviours help and hinder giving advice, over and above theory of planned behaviour constructs. Incorporating features of multiple goal pursuit into the theory of planned behaviour may help to better understand health professional

  7. The concept of race and health status in America.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R; Warren, R C

    1994-01-01

    Race is an unscientific, societally constructed taxonomy that is based on an ideology that views some human population groups as inherently superior to others on the basis of external physical characteristics or geographic origin. The concept of race is socially meaningful but of limited biological significance. Racial or ethnic variations in health status result primarily from variations among races in exposure or vulnerability to behavioral, psychosocial, material, and environmental risk factors and resources. Additional data that capture the specific factors that contribute to group differences in disease must be collected. However, reductions in racial disparities in health will ultimately require change in the larger societal institutions and structures that determine exposure to pathogenic conditions. More attention needs to be given to the ways that racism, in its multiple forms, affects health status. Socio-economic status is a central determinant of health status, overlaps the concept of race, but is not equivalent to race. Inadequate attention has been given to the range of variation in social, cultural, and health characteristics within and between racial or ethnic minority populations. There is a growing emphasis, both within and without the Federal Government, on the collection of racial or ethnic identifiers in health data systems, but noncoverage of the Asian and Pacific Islander population, Native Americans, and subgroups of the Hispanic population is still a major problem. However, for all racial or ethnic groups, we need not only more data but better data. We must be more active in directly measuring the health-related aspects of belonging to these social categories. PMID:8303011

  8. [Conflicting values in Colombia's health system: balancing the market economy and constitutional legislation, 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Molina, Gloria; Ramírez, Andrés

    2013-04-01

    To present the conflicting moral issues that arise in clinical and administrative decision-making processes in Colombia's General Health Social Security System (SGSSS). A study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 in six Colombian cities (Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellín, and Pasto) using a theory-based qualitative methodology. A total of 179 in-depth interviews were held with physicians, nursing personnel, and administrators with broad experience in the health sector, as well as 10 focus groups representing users and leaders of community organizations involved in health. The interviews, which followed a predetermined script and used semistructured questions, gathered personal and professional information from the respondents. The health care decision-making process in Colombia is seen from two different moral perspectives: the rentier, or profit-making, motive, characterized by a neoliberal view of the market economy (the practical perspective), and the constitutional axiology of social democracy (the regulatory perspective). It was found that the utilitarian and individualistic motive predominates, in which individual and business profits are promoted over the collective interest, and this trend favors practices that undermine the rights of people and the community. Predominance of a morality that views the Colombian SGSSS in terms of the market model generates conditions that go against the principles and values that are supposed to guide the health system as guarantor of the right to health and human dignity. Health decisions should take into account not only technical and scientific criteria but also the principles and values involved, and consideration should be given to safeguarding them.

  9. The Cost of War on Public Health: An Exploratory Method for Understanding the Impact of Conflict on Public Health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The direct impact of protracted conflict on population health and development is well understood. However, the extent of a war's impact on long-term health, and the opportunity costs, are less well understood. This research sought to overcome this gap by asking whether or not health outcomes in Sri Lanka would have been better in the absence of a 26-year war than they were in the presence of war. Methods A counterfactual model of national and district-level health outcomes was created for Sri Lanka for the period 1982 to 2002. At the national level, the model examined life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR), and maternal mortality ratios (MMR). At the district level, it looked at IMR and MMR. The model compared outcomes generated by the counterfactual model to actual obtained health outcomes. It looked at the rate of change and absolute values. Results The analysis demonstrated that war altered both rate of change and absolute health outcomes for the worse. The impact was most clearly evident at the district level. IMR was poorer than predicted in 10 districts; of these 8 were outside of the conflict zone. The MMR was worse than expected in 11 districts of which 9 were not in the conflict zone. Additionally, the rate of improvement in IMR slowed as a result of war in 16 districts whereas the rate of improvement in MMR slowed in 9. Conclusion This project showed that protracted conflict degraded the trajectory of public health in Sri Lanka and hurt population health outside of the conflict zone. It further provided a novel methodology with which to better understand the indirect impact of conflict on population health by comparing what is to what could have been achieved in the absence of war. In so doing, this research responded to two public health challenges by providing a tool through which to better understand the human and opportunity costs of war and by answering a call for new methodologies. PMID:28081118

  10. The Cost of War on Public Health: An Exploratory Method for Understanding the Impact of Conflict on Public Health in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandy A

    2017-01-01

    The direct impact of protracted conflict on population health and development is well understood. However, the extent of a war's impact on long-term health, and the opportunity costs, are less well understood. This research sought to overcome this gap by asking whether or not health outcomes in Sri Lanka would have been better in the absence of a 26-year war than they were in the presence of war. A counterfactual model of national and district-level health outcomes was created for Sri Lanka for the period 1982 to 2002. At the national level, the model examined life expectancy, infant mortality rate (IMR), and maternal mortality ratios (MMR). At the district level, it looked at IMR and MMR. The model compared outcomes generated by the counterfactual model to actual obtained health outcomes. It looked at the rate of change and absolute values. The analysis demonstrated that war altered both rate of change and absolute health outcomes for the worse. The impact was most clearly evident at the district level. IMR was poorer than predicted in 10 districts; of these 8 were outside of the conflict zone. The MMR was worse than expected in 11 districts of which 9 were not in the conflict zone. Additionally, the rate of improvement in IMR slowed as a result of war in 16 districts whereas the rate of improvement in MMR slowed in 9. This project showed that protracted conflict degraded the trajectory of public health in Sri Lanka and hurt population health outside of the conflict zone. It further provided a novel methodology with which to better understand the indirect impact of conflict on population health by comparing what is to what could have been achieved in the absence of war. In so doing, this research responded to two public health challenges by providing a tool through which to better understand the human and opportunity costs of war and by answering a call for new methodologies.

  11. The securitization of health in the context of the war on terror. National security and global health: the conflict of imperatives.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ryoa

    2017-03-01

    In this article, I want to show that the securitization of health issues in the name of national interests led to the militarization of health care in the context of the war against terrorism. However, the connection between health and security also gave way to the emergence of the notion of human security, thus, converging with the human right to health approach and the cosmopolitan discourse on global health. These two perspectives on the relation between health and security lead to conflicting imperatives in the current state of counter-terrorism operations. I argue that when the securitization of health concerns in the name of national security conflicts with the provision of health care in the name of universal human rights, the higher moral end must trump the prudential one. Moreover, it is a duty to promote the human right to health when liberal democracies in foreign policies directly violate this moral ideal in the name of national security.

  12. Conflict of Interest and Funding Disclosure Policies of Environmental, Occupational, and Public Health Journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Konecny, Brandon; Kissling, Grace E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conflict of interest (COI) and funding disclosure policies of 224 journals listed in Journal Citation Reports as focusing on environmental, occupational, or public health research. A survey of journal policies and content analysis. About 96.0% of the policies required COI disclosure, 92.4% required funding disclosure, 75.9% defined COIs, 69.6% provided examples of COIs, 68.8% addressed nonfinancial COIs, 33.9% applied to editors and reviewers, 32.1% required discussion of the role of the funding source, and 1.8% included enforcement mechanisms. Policies were significantly associated with journal impact factor and publisher. Although a high percentage of journals in our sample have COI policies that provide substantial guidance to authors, there is a room for improvement. Journals that have not done so should consider developing enforcement mechanisms and applying COI policies to editors and reviewers.

  13. Ensuring accountability through health professional regulatory bodies: the case of conflict of interest.

    PubMed

    Zelisko, Debra; Baumann, Andrea; Gamble, Brenda; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    How do self-regulated health professions' regulatory bodies address financial conflict of interest (coi) and ensure accountability to the public? using document analysis, we examined how four ontario regulatory colleges (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, audiologists/speech-language pathologists) defined coi and the education, guidance and enforcement they provided for coi-related issues. These colleges are upholding the mandates to define, identify and address financial coi by providing regulations or standards and guidelines to their membership; they differed in the amount of educational materials provided to their registrants and in the possible coi scenarios they presented. Although there were few disciplinary hearings pertaining to financial coi, findings for the hearings that did occur were documented and posted on the college public registers (the listing of all registered college members along with all relevant practice information), informing the public of any limitations or restrictions placed on a member as a result of the hearing.

  14. Coping with conflict and confusing agendas in multidisciplinary community mental health teams.

    PubMed

    Lankshear, A J

    2003-08-01

    This paper arises from a study, conducted in the final year of general practitioner fundholding in Britain, which was designed to explore the factors influencing client allocation within six community mental health teams in the north of England. It describes the strategies employed to manage the problems created by the disparity between the stated and agreed purpose of the teams and the actual pattern of referrals. A number of strategies were identified in the six teams to manage this fundamental conflict--isolation, homogenization, fraternization, negotiation and manipulation. A sixth strategy was designed to ameliorate the loss of professional identity experienced by those who were operating in a 'foreign' milieu--that of demarcation.

  15. [Complexity: concept and challenges for public health interventions].

    PubMed

    Pagani, Victoria; Kivits, Joëlle; Minary, Laetitia; Cambon, Linda; Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François

    2017-03-06

    Introduction: Since 2000, the notion of “complex interventions” has been emerging in the health research field. “Complex interventions” and “complexity” are commonly used terms, but they are generally not defined. Conceptual ambiguities persist concerning the notion of complexity. The objective of this exploratory review is to characterize the notion of complexity: What is complexity? Where does this notion come from and what does it cover? What are the consequences of complexity in the health field?Methods: To clarify the concept of complexity, a narrative review was conducted in the fields of humanities and social science, managerial economics, psychology and healthcare.Results: The concept of complexity, that can be attributed to Edgar Morin, has been the subject of appropriations, adaptations, and operations in multiple areas. Complexity consists of understanding the factors influencing individual decisions. In the field of healthcare, the concept of complexity is used more pragmatically and is defined by objective characteristics of interventions (defined as complex) or their contexts for the practical purposes of evaluation.Discussion: The notions of complexity and complex interventions have implications for researchers and users of the results of research. In particular, the notion of complexity is designed to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of effectiveness of interventions, support transferability and use by actors and decision-makers.

  16. Diffusion of e-health innovations in 'post-conflict' settings: a qualitative study on the personal experiences of health workers.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Aniek; Fyfe, Molly; Handuleh, Jibril; Patel, Preeti; Godman, Brian; Leather, Andrew; Finlayson, Alexander

    2014-04-23

    Technological innovations have the potential to strengthen human resources for health and improve access and quality of care in challenging 'post-conflict' contexts. However, analyses on the adoption of technology for health (that is, 'e-health') and whether and how e-health can strengthen a health workforce in these settings have been limited so far. This study explores the personal experiences of health workers using e-health innovations in selected post-conflict situations. This study had a cross-sectional qualitative design. Telephone interviews were conducted with 12 health workers, from a variety of cadres and stages in their careers, from four post-conflict settings (Liberia, West Bank and Gaza, Sierra Leone and Somaliland) in 2012. Everett Roger's diffusion of innovation-decision model (that is, knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, contemplation) guided the thematic analysis. All health workers interviewed held positive perceptions of e-health, related to their beliefs that e-health can help them to access information and communicate with other health workers. However, understanding of the scope of e-health was generally limited, and often based on innovations that health workers have been introduced through by their international partners. Health workers reported a range of engagement with e-health innovations, mostly for communication (for example, email) and educational purposes (for example, online learning platforms). Poor, unreliable and unaffordable Internet was a commonly mentioned barrier to e-health use. Scaling-up existing e-health partnerships and innovations were suggested starting points to increase e-health innovation dissemination. Results from this study showed ICT based e-health innovations can relieve information and communication needs of health workers in post-conflict settings. However, more efforts and investments, preferably driven by healthcare workers within the post-conflict context, are needed to make e-health more

  17. Partnerships in health disparities research and the roles of pastors of black churches: potential conflict, synergy, and expectations.

    PubMed

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Goldmon, Moses; Isler, Malika Roman; Washington, Chanetta; Ammerman, Alice; Green, Melissa; Bunton, Audrina

    2010-09-01

    The black church is a promising site to engage in health disparities research; however, little is understood about the pastors' perspectives. We used role theory to explore their expectations, potential conflicts, and synergy with research. Four focus groups (n = 30) were conducted with pastors and analyzed using principles of grounded theory and content analysis. Pastors identified a variety of potential roles in research. They noted potential conflicts due to perceptions of research, the process, and pace of research. Areas of synergy included perceptions of health disparities research as consistent with the healthy mind, body, and spirit ideology, and clear benefits to congregations and communities. Pastors' research expectations included long-term commitments, honest and clear communication, investigator visibility, respect for church traditions/practices, and support in forming collaborations. Understanding pastors' roles, potential areas of synergy and conflict, and collaboration expectations offers insight in support of successful church-academic partnerships.

  18. [Health professionals and legal abortion in Brazil: challenges, conflicts, and meanings].

    PubMed

    Soares, Gilberta Santos

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the roles of social workers, psychologists, nurses, and physicians concerning abortion and their participation in assisting legal abortion in Brazil for women victims of sexual violence. The working hypothesis was that many health professionals might oppose such programs on the grounds that they involve interruption of pregnancy. This qualitative study interviewed 12 health professionals and two program managers in the State of Paraíba and the Federal District (Brasilia). The health professionals' representations of abortion ranged from a moralist and religious concept to the promotion of women's rights and autonomy. The health professionals faced obvious challenges in dealing with the abortion issue. Their experience in treating women had fostered changes in values and a reinterpretation of the meaning of their own practice.

  19. Mental Health Outcomes of Drug Conflict Among University Students at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate to what extent young adults with close ties to Mexico were at greater risk for self-reported negative mental health outcomes than comparison groups during drug-related armed conflict from 2008 through 2012, and the effect of type and number of traumatic events on mental health outcomes. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, 202 university students living in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez border region were surveyed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Students with close ties to Mexico reported symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress at significantly higher rates compared with those without connection to Mexico, but there was no significant difference in rates of depression. Although more than a third of participants reported experiencing 5 or more traumatic events connected with the drug war, being confined to home had the most significant effect. Frequency of traumatic events reported by students as well as rates of anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms were higher among students with greater connection to Mexico. Rates of clinically-significant depressive symptoms among all students were higher than expected for U.S. adults but comparable with all U.S. college students. This study presents important new data on the mental health effects of Mexico's drug war.

  20. Conflicting rationales: leader's experienced ethical challenges in community health care for older people.

    PubMed

    Slettebø, Åshild; Skaar, Ragnhild; Brodtkorb, Kari; Skisland, Anne

    2017-08-22

    Ethical challenges arise in all types of care, and leaders need to be aware of how to resolve these challenges. Healthcare systems tend to be organised around medical conditions, and the patient is often faced with a series of uncoordinated visits to multiple specialties. Ideally, care should be organised around the patient's needs. The purpose of this article was to highlight some ethical challenges perceived by leaders with responsibility for management and service distribution, finance and ensuring quality of community health services for older people. This study had a qualitative design with a qualitative content analysis of one focus group with six leaders that met four times in total. Leaders from the community healthcare sector in one Norwegian municipality were included, representing both nursing homes and home-based health care. The study followed the intentions of the Declaration of Helsinki and standard ethical principles. The Norwegian Social Science Data Services approved the study. All participants voluntarily gave written informed consent. The main theme that emerged from this study was the ethical challenge leaders felt in the form of an inherent conflict between a caring rationale versus economic or technological rationales. Four categories emerged: (i) Management: quality versus economy; (ii) Prioritisation: fair distribution of healthcare services; (iii) Responsibility: considering individuals' needs versus the needs of the whole community; and (iv) Welfare technology: possibilities and challenges. Leaders' responsibilities in community health care for older people need to strike a balance between ethical principles in the management of limited resources. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Offering mental health services in a conflict affected region of Pakistan: who comes, and why?

    PubMed

    Shah, Safieh; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Van Bellinghen, Benedicte; Severy, Nathalie; Sadiq, Sana; Afridi, Sher Ali; Akhtar, Asma; Maïkére, Jacob; Van Overloop, Catherine; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Khilji, Tahir Bashir-ud-Din; Saleem-ur-Rehman; van Griensven, Johan; Schneider, Serge; Bosman, Philippe; Guillergan, Erwin Lloyd D; Dazzi, Francesca; Zachariah, Rony

    2014-01-01

    North West Pakistan is an area ravaged by conflict and population displacement for over three decades. Recently, drone attacks and military operations have aggravated underlying mental disorders, while access to care is limited. Among patients attending a mental health clinic integrated in district hospital conducted by psychologists; we describe service utilization, patient characteristics, presenting complaints, morbidity patterns, and follow-up details. A retrospective study using routinely collected programme data was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 1545 consultations were conducted for 928 patients (86% females). There were 71(8%) children and adolescents. An increase was observed from February to July, followed by a decline. 163 new patients (18%) were on psychotropic medication at presentation. The most common morbidity in females (36%) were symptoms of adjustment disorders and acute reactions. Depression and anxiety were common in both genders while post traumatic disorder was frequent in males (21%). Out of the 928 new patients, 639(69%) had a follow up visit planned with their psychologist, but only 220(34%) new patients returned for a follow up visit. In a district hospital, mental health services managed by psychologists were well attended. There is a need to consider widening the current package of care to cater to the diversity of mental health disorders, gender difference, children and adolescents. Standardized diagnostic and monitoring tools would also need to be adapted accordingly and to assess patient progress. Innovative approaches to tackle the problem of the low return rate are needed.

  2. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict. PMID:28878705

  3. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  4. Initial Concept for Terminal Area Conflict Detection, Alerting, and Resolution Capability On or Near the Airport Surface, Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.; Jones, Denise R.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept for 2025 envisions the movement of large numbers of people and goods in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner. The NextGen will remove many of the constraints in the current air transportation system, support a wider range of operations, and deliver an overall system capacity up to 3 times that of current operating levels. In order to achieve the NextGen vision, research is necessary in the areas of surface traffic optimization, maximum runway capacity, reduced runway occupancy time, simultaneous single runway operations, and terminal area conflict prevention, among others. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) research to develop technologies, data, and guidelines to enable Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) in the Airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (ATMA) under current and emerging NextGen operating concepts. The term ATMA was created to reflect the fact that the CD&R concept area of operation is focused near the airport within the terminal maneuvering area. In the following, an initial concept for an aircraft-based method for CD&R in the ATMA is presented. This method is based upon previous NASA work in CD&R for runway incursion prevention, the Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS).

  5. Changes in catastrophic health expenditure in post-conflict Sierra Leone: an Oaxaca-blinder decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Edoka, Ijeoma; McPake, Barbara; Ensor, Tim; Amara, Rogers; Edem-Hotah, Joseph

    2017-09-04

    At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011. An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition approach is used to quantify the extent to which changes in catastrophic health expenditure are attributable to changes in the distribution of determinants (distributional effect) and to changes in the impact of these determinants on the probability of incurring catastrophic health expenditure (coefficient effect). The incidence of catastrophic health expenditure decreased significantly by 18% from approximately 50% in 2003 t0 32% in 2011. The decomposition analysis shows that this decrease represents net effects attributable to the distributional and coefficient effects of three determinants of catastrophic health expenditure - ill-health, the region in which households reside and the type of health facility used. A decrease in the incidence of ill-health and changes in the regional location of households contributed to a decrease in catastrophic health expenditure. The distributional effect of health facility types observed as an increase in the use of public health facilities, and a decrease in the use of services in facilities owned by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also contributed to a decrease in the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure. However, the coefficient effect of public health facilities and NGO-owned facilities suggests that substantial exposure to financial risk remained for households utilizing both types of health facilities in 2011. The findings support the

  6. Impact of goal priority and goal conflict on the intention-health-behavior relationship: Tests on physical activity and other health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Prestwich, Andrew; Hutter, Russell; Hallam, Jennifer; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Morris, Benjamin; Hurling, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Goal intentions are the key proximal determinant of behavior in a number of key models applied to predicting health behavior. However, relatively little previous research has examined how characteristics of goals moderate the intention-health-behavior relations. The present research examined the effects of goal priority and goal conflict as moderators of the intention-health-behavior relationship. The main outcome measures were self-reported performance of physical activity (Studies 1, 2, and 3) and other health behaviors (Study 4), and objectively measured physical activity (Study 3). Studies 1 and 4 used prospective correlational designs to predict later behavior from earlier cognitions. Studies 2 and 3 were experimental studies manipulating goal priority and goal conflict. Studies 1 and 2 used between-subjects designs while Studies 3 and 4 used within-subjects designs. Goal priority significantly moderated the intention-health-behavior relationship for physical activity (Study 1) and a range of protective and risk health behaviors (Study 4). Manipulations of goal priority significantly increased the intention-physical-activity relationship when self-reported (Study 2) and objectively measured (Study 3). In contrast, inconsistent effects were observed for goal conflict as an intention-behavior moderator. When goal priority is high, then intentions are strong predictors of health behaviors. Further studies testing manipulations of goal conflict and in particular goal priority in combination with goal intentions are required to confirm their value as a means to change health behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. [Migrant related health education: Concept and measures of the Federal Centre for Health Education, Germany].

    PubMed

    Blümel, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    The Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) regards migrants as an important target group in nationwide health education programmes because they make up a large part of the population in Germany. The elements of the health education strategy are described and illustrated by examples of sex education and family planning. This includes concept development, migrant related mass communication, addressing target groups with special needs by personal communication, and cooperation with partners from migration work.

  8. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  9. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  10. A concept analysis of social capital within a health context.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the concept of social capital within a health context using Rodgers's (2000) Evolutionary Method. Published literature. The analysis demonstrates that social capital is the intangible assets, including trust, networks, and social norms of reciprocity, possessed by a society within a specific culture. When a unit (individual or a family) increases its sense of community or quality of community participation, this could increase its social capital. The result of this analysis provides a guide for further conceptual and empirical research and clinical practice.

  11. Comment on Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh (2012): Do Mental Health Professionals Who Serve on/with Child Advocacy Centers Experience Role Conflict?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh's (2012) article "Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?" challenges two recent publications' criticisms that child advocacy centers create role conflict for mental health professionals and explains how child advocacy centers actually work, describing the different roles…

  12. On the frontline of eastern Burma's chronic conflict--listening to the voices of local health workers.

    PubMed

    Footer, Katherine H A; Meyer, Sarah; Sherman, Susan G; Rubenstein, Leonard

    2014-11-01

    Globally, attacks on and interferences with health workers and healthcare delivery, including targeted violence towards providers, attacks on hospitals and delays and denial of health care, represent a serious humanitarian and human rights issue. However, gaps in research about these events persist, limiting the evidence base from which to understand and address the problem. This paper focuses on experiences of local health workers in eastern Burma's chronic conflict, including their strategies for addressing security and ensuring access to vulnerable ethnic communities in the region. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in June and August 2012 with 27 health workers from three health organizations that operate throughout eastern Burma, with their operational head quarters located in Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Qualitative analysis found that health workers in this setting experience violent and non-violent interferences with their work, and that the Burmese government's military activities in the region have severely impacted access to care, which remains restricted. Data show that innovative security strategies have emerged, including the important role of the community in ensuring securer access to health care. This study underscores health workers' concern for improved data collection to support the rights of health workers to provide health care, and the rights of community members to receive health care in conflict-affected settings. Findings will inform the development of an incident reporting form to improve systematic data collection and documentation of attacks on health in this setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Armed conflicts, health and health services in Africa. An epidemiological framework of reference.

    PubMed

    Loretti, A

    1997-01-01

    Because of war, between the 1980s and early '90s Africa suffered about 5 million excess deaths and economic losses estimated at US $13 billion per year. In 1995, war was directly or indirectly affecting 550 million people in 35 countries. Besides violent deaths, injuries and disabilities, displacements of population increase the risk for acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeas, epidemics and parasitic disease. The risk for malnutrition and deficiencies is made worse by the loss of means of production, of food stocks, of commerce and by banditism. Military operations target water plants and health facilities as means of deliberately hurting civilians. Economic crisis curtails the budgets of the social sectors and, together with social distress, undermines national capacities. The delivery of health care is hampered right when hazards and vulnerabilities increase, with general greater risk of illness and death. With the cessation of hostilities, the need for curative and preventative health activities increases and is a matter of emergency, as equitable access to services is important for peace. Repatriation of refugees, demobilization of soldiers and demining require special health activities. War leaves behind new hazards and vulnerabilities such as landmines, wide availability of weapons, artificial concentrations of population, loss of national capacities and psychological disorders. All this interacts tragically with Africa's wider epidemiological realities of poverty, food insecurity, proneness to natural disasters and endemic diseases.

  14. Conflict of roles: a conflict of ideas? The unsettled relations between care team staff and independent mental health advocates.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Mick; Ridley, Julie; Newbigging, Karen; Machin, Karen; Poursanidou, Konstantina; Cruse, Kaaren

    2014-10-01

    Drawing on a national study of independent mental health advocacy, we explored the social relations of independent advocacy. The study was commissioned by the Department of Health (England), and involved a case study design covering eight different geographies and service configurations, and interviews or focus groups with a total of 289 stakeholders across two phases of inquiry. This paper focused on the analysis of qualitative data relevant to the relationship between mental health-care services and independent advocacy services, drawn from interviews with 214 participants in phase two of the study. Discussion of these particular findings affords insights into the working relations of independent advocacy within mental health services beset by reorganizational change and funding cuts, and increasing levels of legally-sanctioned compulsion and coercion. We offer a matrix, which accounts for the different types of working relationships that can arise, and how these are associated with various levels of understanding of independent advocacy and appreciation for the value of advocacy. The discussion is framed by the wider literature on advocacy and the claims by practitioners, such as nurses, for an advocacy role as part of their professional repertoire.

  15. Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland, Japan, and the UK.

    PubMed

    Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Bartley, Mel; Lahelma, Eero; Marmot, Michael; Michikazu, Sekine; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2004-08-01

    Although there have been a number of studies on the effects of multiple roles on health and how a combination of work and family roles may be either advantageous (role enhancement) or disadvantageous (role strain) for health, there has been relatively little investigation on the psychosocial content of such roles. Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict could arise from inability to combine multiple roles and result in stress and ill health. The question of whether both types of conflict mediate between the association of multiple roles with health has not been analysed before. This paper sets out to investigate whether: (1) work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict contributes towards explaining the association of multiple roles with mental health; (2) the effect of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict on mental health varies by gender; (3) the effect of work-to-family and family-to-work conflict on mental health vary between countries with different welfare state arrangements and social norms. Cross-sectional data of economically active male and female public sector employees aged 35-60 in London (UK), Helsinki (Finland), and the West Coast of Japan. Linear regression models (separate for each gender and cohort) of SF-36 mental component scores were analysed with role combinations, family-to-work and work-to-family conflict as explanatory variables. Single fathers in all three cohorts and of single mothers in the Helsinki cohort had poor mental health, and this was partly explained by their higher levels family-to-work conflict. Both types of conflict affect the mental health of men and women independently of each other. Japanese women had the greatest conflict and poorest mental health while Helsinki women had the lowest conflict and best mental health. Both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict affect the mental health of men and women in three different countries. Work and family roles and the balance between the two

  16. Mental Health of Transgender Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Jan A; Keo-Meier, Colt; Hudson, Sonora; Walder, Annette; Martin, Lindsey A; Kauth, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about military sexual trauma (MST) in transgender veterans. To address this gap, we examined archival data regarding transgender veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. There were 332 transgender veterans treated at the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2013 (78 men, 254 women; mean age 33.86 years), with most being non-Hispanic White. Transgender status and mental health conditions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9; World Health Organization, 1980) codes and chart review. Men and women were analyzed separately, using contingency tables and χ(2) testing for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Likelihood of having a mental health condition and MST were examined using logistic regression. Among the 15% of participants who experienced MST, MST was associated with the likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder, adjusted OR = 6.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.22, 30.44] and personality disorder, OR = 3.86, 95% CI [1.05, 14.22] for men and with depressive, OR = 3.33, 95% CI [1.12, 9.93], bipolar, OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.12, 7.44], posttraumatic stress, OR = 2.42, [1.11, 5.24], and personality disorder, OR = 4.61, 95% CI [2.02, 10.52] for women. Implications include that medical forms should include gender identity and biological gender and that MST treatment should be culturally competent. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  18. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site.

  19. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    A sound basis to guide the community in the conception and implementation of ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) capability in operational systems was provided. The concept of "ISHM Model of a System" and a related architecture defined as a unique Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIaK) architecture were described. The ISHM architecture is independent of the typical system architecture, which is based on grouping physical elements that are assembled to make up a subsystem, and subsystems combine to form systems, etc. It was emphasized that ISHM capability needs to be implemented first at a low functional capability level (FCL), or limited ability to detect anomalies, diagnose, determine consequences, etc. As algorithms and tools to augment or improve the FCL are identified, they should be incorporated into the system. This means that the architecture, DIaK management, and software, must be modular and standards-based, in order to enable systematic augmentation of FCL (no ad-hoc modifications). A set of technologies (and tools) needed to implement ISHM were described. One essential tool is a software environment to create the ISHM Model. The software environment encapsulates DIaK, and an infrastructure to focus DIaK on determining health (detect anomalies, determine causes, determine effects, and provide integrated awareness of the system to the operator). The environment includes gateways to communicate in accordance to standards, specially the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators.

  20. The concept of culture: a core issue in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Page, J Bryan

    2005-06-01

    Contemporary discourse contains numerous examples of use of the concept of culture by social and behavioral scientists. Simple reification, where the speaker makes culture into a thing capable of action exemplifies one usage in public discourse. Some quantitative social scientists attempt to characterize people's cultural identities by means of a single categorical variable, which often "lumps" people into categories such as "Hispanic" or "Black" that in fact have numerous culturally bounded subcategories. Approaches that emphasize cultural process are preferable to those who attempt to categorize; more complex measures of acculturation help investigators to make convincing analyses of circumstances in which health disparities occur. Examples in which investigators make appropriate use of cultural characterizations demonstrate their utility in investigating health disparities in Haitian American women, injecting and noninjecting drug users, Hispanic youth, and adult Hispanics at risk of HIV infection. Focus on culture in the study of health disparities can identify entanglements between structural factors such as poverty and lack of education and cultural factors such as beliefs about health. Qualitative methods coupled with quantitative methods have great potential to improve investigators' grasp of cultural nuance while capturing the distribution of qualitatively derived behaviors.

  1. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    PubMed

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  2. Peace impact on health: population access to iodized salt in south Sudan in post-conflict period.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2011-04-15

    To determine the population access to salt/iodized salt during and after the armed conflict in south Sudan and to illustrate geographical variations in population consumption of iodized salt in south Sudan after the armed conflict. The sources of data for the conflict period were the 2004 Toward a Baseline: Best Estimates of Social Indicators for Southern Sudan study report and the 2000 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey, and for the post-conflict period the 2005 Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) data set. After peace agreement, population access to salt increased by 6.8% (Z=5.488, P<0.001) and the consumption of iodized salt increased by 32.9% (Z=24.668, P<0.001). More than 73% of families were using iodized salt but geographical differences existed between states. Peace had positive impact on population access to iodized salt in south Sudan. Public health authorities in south Sudan need to establish quality monitoring and surveillance systems to track progress toward Universal Salt Iodization goal defined by the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

  3. Big pharma and health care: unsolvable conflict of interests between private enterprise and public health.

    PubMed

    Brezis, Mayer

    2008-01-01

    A landmark paper on Game Theory showed that individual maximization of profit necessarily endangers the public good, and since the problem has no technical solution, "it requires a fundamental extension in morality" (1). We propose here that public health, as a public good, now emerges as a grave example of this problem. Recent events and reports increasingly suggest misalignment between the interests of the pharmaceutical industry and those of public health. Johnson & Johnson illegally and effectively promoted Propulsid off-label for children despite internal company documents raising safety concerns. Death in drug trial has been described as a "trade secret." On Vioxx, Topol wrote: "Sadly, it is clear that Merck's commercial interest exceeded its concern about the drug's toxicity" (2). More and more concerns are raised by scholars and major journal editors about the type and the quality of published evidence, often biased towards efficacy of new products. The industry, funding over 80% of trials, sets up a research agenda guided more by marketing than by clinical considerations. Smart statistical and epidemiological tactics help obtain the desired results. Budget for marketing is by far greater than for research. Massive advertising to physicians and to the public gets increasingly sophisticated: ghost writing, professional guidelines, targeting of consumer groups and manipulating media for disease mongering. Pervasive lobbying and political ties limit the independence of regulatory bodies. Obligation to shareholders overriding public health considerations is not unique to the pharmaceutical industry. The chemical, tobacco and food industries share similar tactics: proclaiming doubts about safety issues, buying researchers, infiltrating universities, boards, media and legislative agencies. By contrast, powerful and cheap health promoting activities, poorly supported by industry because they are too cheap and not patented, are markedly underutilized: technologies

  4. Motivational Interference in School-Leisure Conflict and Learning Outcomes: The Differential Effects of Two Value Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Marta, Elena; Fries, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N = 433; M = 14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict…

  5. Motivational Interference in School-Leisure Conflict and Learning Outcomes: The Differential Effects of Two Value Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Marta, Elena; Fries, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N = 433; M = 14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict…

  6. Offering Mental Health Services in a Conflict Affected Region of Pakistan: Who Comes, and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Safieh; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Van Bellinghen, Benedicte; Severy, Nathalie; Sadiq, Sana; Afridi, Sher Ali; Akhtar, Asma; Maïkére, Jacob; Van Overloop, Catherine; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Khilji, Tahir Bashir-ud-Din; Saleem-ur-Rehman; van Griensven, Johan; Schneider, Serge; Bosman, Philippe; Guillergan, Erwin Lloyd D.; Dazzi, Francesca; Zachariah, Rony

    2014-01-01

    Background North West Pakistan is an area ravaged by conflict and population displacement for over three decades. Recently, drone attacks and military operations have aggravated underlying mental disorders, while access to care is limited. Among patients attending a mental health clinic integrated in district hospital conducted by psychologists; we describe service utilization, patient characteristics, presenting complaints, morbidity patterns, and follow-up details. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study using routinely collected programme data was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 1545 consultations were conducted for 928 patients (86% females). There were 71(8%) children and adolescents. An increase was observed from February to July, followed by a decline. 163 new patients (18%) were on psychotropic medication at presentation. The most common morbidity in females (36%) were symptoms of adjustment disorders and acute reactions. Depression and anxiety were common in both genders while post traumatic disorder was frequent in males (21%). Out of the 928 new patients, 639(69%) had a follow up visit planned with their psychologist, but only 220(34%) new patients returned for a follow up visit. Conclusion In a district hospital, mental health services managed by psychologists were well attended. There is a need to consider widening the current package of care to cater to the diversity of mental health disorders, gender difference, children and adolescents. Standardized diagnostic and monitoring tools would also need to be adapted accordingly and to assess patient progress. Innovative approaches to tackle the problem of the low return rate are needed. PMID:24963793

  7. The Gutenberg health study: associations between occupational and private stress factors and work-privacy conflict.

    PubMed

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Hegewald, Janice; Seidler, Andreas; Nübling, Matthias; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Liebers, Falk; Wild, Philipp S; Latza, Ute; Letzel, Stephan

    2016-02-29

    Work-privacy conflict (WPC) is no longer a rarity but constitutes a societal problem. The objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate the distribution and prevalence of WPC among the employed participants in the Gutenberg Health Study at baseline and (2) to study the dependence of WPC on a broad range of private life and occupational characteristics as well as on psychosocial working conditions. This analysis is based on a representative, population-based sample of 3,709 employees participating in the Gutenberg Health Study. Descriptive and bivariable analyses were carried out separately for women and men. Distribution and prevalence of WPC were examined according to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics as well as psychosocial working conditions. Further, stepwise selection of Poisson log-linear regression models were performed to determine which socio-demographic and occupational characteristics were most associated with the outcome variable WPC and to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios from the final model. The multivariable analyses were conducted both separately for women and men and with all subjects together in one analysis. There was a high prevalence of WPC in the present study (27.4 % of the men and 23.0 % of the women reported a high or very high WPC). A variety of factors was associated with WPC, e.g. full-time employment, depression and many of the psychosocial risk factors at work. Also, the multivariable results showed that women were of higher risk for a WPC. By affecting the individual work life, home life, and the general well-being and health, WPC may lead to detrimental effects in employees, their families, employers, and society as a whole. Therefore, the high prevalence of WPC in our sample should be of concern. Among women, the risk for suffering from WPC was even higher, most likely due to multiple burdens.

  8. Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: A review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Angelo; Wilson Sayres, Melissa; Aktipis, Athena

    2015-01-01

    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production). In this review, we use an evolutionary framework to make testable predictions about the role of fetal microchimerism in lactation, thyroid function, autoimmune disease, cancer and maternal emotional, and psychological health. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:26316378

  9. Education and Work-Family Conflict: Explanations, Contingencies and Mental Health Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Glavin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample of American workers, we examine the association between education and work-to-family conflict--a form of inter-role conflict in which role pressures from each domain are incompatible in some way. The well-educated tend to occupy professional jobs with more income and pressures, and experience more…

  10. An analysis of Liberia's 2007 national health policy: lessons for health systems strengthening and chronic disease care in poor, post-conflict countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Globally, chronic diseases are responsible for an enormous burden of deaths, disability, and economic loss, yet little is known about the optimal health sector response to chronic diseases in poor, post-conflict countries. Liberia's experience in strengthening health systems and health financing overall, and addressing HIV/AIDS and mental health in particular, provides a relevant case study for international stakeholders and policymakers in other poor, post-conflict countries seeking to understand and prioritize the global response to chronic diseases. Methods We conducted a historical review of Liberia's post-conflict policies and their impact on general economic and health indicators, as well as on health systems strengthening and chronic disease care and treatment. Key sources included primary documents from Liberia's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, published and gray literature, and personal communications from key stakeholders engaged in Liberia's Health Sector Reform. In this case study, we examine the early reconstruction of Liberia's health care system from the end of conflict in 2003 to the present time, highlight challenges and lessons learned from this initial experience, and describe future directions for health systems strengthening and chronic disease care and treatment in Liberia. Results Six key lessons emerge from this analysis: (i) the 2007 National Health Policy's 'one size fits all' approach met aggregate planning targets but resulted in significant gaps and inefficiencies throughout the system; (ii) the innovative Health Sector Pool Fund proved to be an effective financing mechanism to recruit and align health actors with the 2007 National Health Policy; (iii) a substantial rural health delivery gap remains, but it could be bridged with a robust cadre of community health workers integrated into the primary health care system; (iv) effective strategies for HIV/AIDS care in other settings should be validated in Liberia and

  11. Friere's dialogic concept enables family health program teams to incorporate health promotion.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Ivonete T S B; Almeida, Maria C P

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The study analyzes the possibility of incorporating health promotion measures into the work processes of Family Health Program teams at a primary health care clinic in Brazil. We used the participatory research concept developed in 1968 by Freire. The study sample comprised the end-users of the health care system, together with 3 multidisciplinary teams. A total of 77 health care users and 55 health professionals participated in the study. Culture circles composed of health care professionals, and users from different areas investigated generative topics, encoded/decoded topics, and engaged in critical probing for clarification. Topics affecting quality of life and health were heuristically evaluated. Although most topics were related to changing the focus of health care facilities, some were related to subsidizing community-based interventions, improving environmental strategies, individual skills, and public policies. Incorporating the novel health promotion measures and creating an expanded full-treatment clinic are important steps toward that goal. Topics that can stimulate dialogue among the members of the culture circles include creating an environment of closer cultural contact, with repercussions for work processes, family health models, and general health models, as well as the inclusion of social aspects in the decision-making processes related to health issues that affect the living conditions of the population. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  13. [Biological monitoring: concepts and applications in public health].

    PubMed

    Pivetta, F; Machado, J M; Araújo, U C; Moreira, M F; Apostoli, P

    2001-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the theoretical discussion on potential uses for biological monitoring of exposure to chemical substances as related to human health, considering different concepts: definitions, uses, and limitations of internal dose and biological effect indicators and their availability for the substances to be quantified; knowledge of reference values, action levels, and limits based on health and negotiated patterns in biological monitoring interpretation and perspectives; and ethical and social problems in practice and within different preventive practices and their use in public health. Biological monitoring is the result of an exposure situation with conclusions based on scientific and consensus values, rules, and legislation. Biological monitoring as a continuous process and related to actually observed cases has helped establish technological exposure reference values and consensus levels as indicators for improving the environment and the workplace. As a step in the decision-making process in risk analysis, biological monitoring needs to be critically assessed as to its ethical aspects in light of the end use of results and values, which are references for application of this methodology.

  14. Work-family conflict and health in Swedish working women and men: a 2-year prospective analysis (the SLOSH study).

    PubMed

    Leineweber, Constanze; Baltzer, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-08-01

    Research has suggested that gender is related to perceptions of work-family conflict (WFC) and an underlying assumption is that interference of paid work with family life will burden women more than men. There is, however, mixed evidence as to whether men and women report different levels of WFC. Even less studies investigate gender differences in health outcomes of WFC. Also the number of longitudinal studies in this field is low. Based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, we prospectively examined the effects of WFC on three different health measures representing a wide spectrum off ill health (i.e. self-rated health, emotional exhaustion and problem drinking). Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse multivariate associations between WFC in 2008 and health 2 years later. The results show that WFC was associated with an increased risk of emotional exhaustion among both men and women. Gender differences are suggested as WFC was related to an increased risk for poor self-rated health among women and problem drinking among men. Interaction analyses revealed that the risk of poor self-rated health was substantially more influenced by WFC among women than among men. We conclude that, despite the fact that women experience conflict between work and family life slightly more often than men, both men's and women's health is negatively affected by this phenomenon.

  15. A case of administrative conflict: observations on the dynamic framework.

    PubMed

    Thienhaus, O J

    1989-01-01

    A situation is described of suddenly erupting conflict in an interdisciplinary meeting of psychiatric hospital staff. The conflict is related to the systemic impact of recent changes in psychiatric hospital practice. The observed affect and interpersonal dynamics are reviewed in the context of different conceptual frameworks. These include Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, the group focal conflict paradigm and the concept of scapegoating. The use and integration of these three approaches toward understanding affectively laden administrative conflict are discussed. Specific reference is made to the utilization of such understanding in developing leadership skills in a multi-disciplinary mental health setting.

  16. HEALTH GeoJunction: place-time-concept browsing of health publications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The volume of health science publications is escalating rapidly. Thus, keeping up with developments is becoming harder as is the task of finding important cross-domain connections. When geographic location is a relevant component of research reported in publications, these tasks are more difficult because standard search and indexing facilities have limited or no ability to identify geographic foci in documents. This paper introduces HEALTH GeoJunction, a web application that supports researchers in the task of quickly finding scientific publications that are relevant geographically and temporally as well as thematically. Results HEALTH GeoJunction is a geovisual analytics-enabled web application providing: (a) web services using computational reasoning methods to extract place-time-concept information from bibliographic data for documents and (b) visually-enabled place-time-concept query, filtering, and contextualizing tools that apply to both the documents and their extracted content. This paper focuses specifically on strategies for visually-enabled, iterative, facet-like, place-time-concept filtering that allows analysts to quickly drill down to scientific findings of interest in PubMed abstracts and to explore relations among abstracts and extracted concepts in place and time. The approach enables analysts to: find publications without knowing all relevant query parameters, recognize unanticipated geographic relations within and among documents in multiple health domains, identify the thematic emphasis of research targeting particular places, notice changes in concepts over time, and notice changes in places where concepts are emphasized. Conclusions PubMed is a database of over 19 million biomedical abstracts and citations maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information; achieving quick filtering is an important contribution due to the database size. Including geography in filters is important due to rapidly escalating attention to

  17. Policies on Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Guideline Development: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morciano, Cristina; Basevi, Vittorio; Faralli, Carla; Hilton Boon, Michele; Tonon, Sabina; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether organisations that develop health care guidelines have conflict of interest (COI) policies and to review the content of the available COI policies. Methods Survey and content analysis of COI policies available in English, French, Spanish, and Italian conducted between September 2014 and June 2015. A 24-item data abstraction instrument was created on the basis of guideline development standards. Results The survey identified 29 organisations from 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. From these organisations, 19 policies were eligible for inclusion in the content analysis. Over one-third of the policies (7/19, 37%) did not report or did not clearly report whether disclosure was a prerequisite for membership of the guideline panel. Strategies for the prevention of COI such as divestment were mentioned by only two organisations. Only 21% of policies (4/19) used criteria to determine whether an interest constitutes a COI and to assess the severity of the risk imposed. Conclusions The finding that some organisations, in contradiction of widely available standards, still do not have COI policies publicly available is concerning. Also troubling were the findings that some policies did not clearly report critical steps in obtaining, managing and communicating disclosure of relationships of interest. This in addition to the variability encountered in content and accessibility of COI policies may cause confusion and distrust among guideline users. It is in the interest of guideline users and developers to design an agreed-upon, comprehensive, clear, and accessible COI policy. PMID:27846255

  18. The impact of the Gulf armed conflict on the health and behaviour of Kuwaiti children.

    PubMed

    al-Eissa, Y A

    1995-10-01

    This study deals with the psychological reactions of Kuwaiti children to war-related stresses in the early period of the Gulf crisis following the summer 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. A sample of 106 children was drawn from Kuwaiti displaced families and a comparable control sample was obtained from Saudi families in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An interview checklist of symptoms of physical and psychological distress was administered to the index child and a female key informant in each household of cases and controls. Most Kuwaiti children were exposed to unpleasant war experiences. It was found that Kuwaiti children exhibited a substantially greater degree of dysfunctional social and emotional behaviour. The types of adverse behaviours were a function of the child's age, sex and experience of aggression. The findings support the notion that a negative relationship exists between armed conflict and the health and behaviour of the children. The complex needs of children exposed to violence require professionals to seek ways of combining psychodynamic interventions and relief programmes.

  19. Group mental health interventions in civilian populations in war-conflict areas: a Lebanese pilot study.

    PubMed

    Farhood, Laila F; Richa, Hala; Massalkhi, Hanadi

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral (CB) group therapy is an effective therapeutic intervention to treat war-related trauma. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the effects of conducting CB group therapy in a civilian population exposed to war in southern Lebanon. Participants presenting with psychiatric symptoms attended an 8-week CB group therapy intervention adapted to the Lebanese culture. Observations from therapists' field notes were reviewed and grouped into commonalities. A majority of the total participants (N = 10) reported satisfaction with the CB therapy and a decrease in symptoms. Field notes revealed positive group interactions (i.e., sharing information, cohesiveness), therapeutic benefits (i.e., symptom identification, destigmatizing mental illness, learning coping strategies), and barriers to attendance (i.e., stigma, personal constraints). CB group therapy is a promising intervention for civilian survivors of war trauma. Challenges to conducting such interventions in a war-conflict area are discussed. Future research and intervention planning should address challenges faced during this study to better meet mental health needs.

  20. Benchmarks for ethically credible partnerships between industry and academic health centers: beyond disclosure of financial conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Eric M; Rager, Joshua B; Schwartz, Peter H; Quaid, Kimberly A; Gaffney, Margaret M; Duke, Jon; Tierney, William H

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between industry and university-based researchers have been commonplace for decades and have received notable attention concerning the conflicts of interest these relationships may harbor. While new efforts are being made to update conflict of interest policies and make industry relationships with academia more transparent, the development of broader institutional partnerships between industry and academic health centers challenges the efficacy of current policy to effectively manage these innovative partnerships. In this paper, we argue that existing strategies to reduce conflicts of interest are not sufficient to address the emerging models of industry-academic partnerships because they focus too narrowly on financial matters and are not comprehensive enough to mitigate all ethical risk. Moreover, conflict-of-interest strategies are not designed to promote best practices nor the scientific and social benefits of academic-industry collaboration. We propose a framework of principles and benchmarks for "ethically credible partnerships" between industry and academic health centers and describe how this framework may provide a practical and comprehensive approach for designing and evaluating such partnerships.

  1. [Concept and history of public health in Mexico (XVIII to XX century)].

    PubMed

    Fierros Hernández, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a brief history of public health. I review the concept of public health and its origins in the West, and also analyze the input of politics in the Mexican health system through the government of Porfirio Diaz.

  2. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  3. Predicting positive mental health in internally displaced persons in Indonesia: the roles of economic improvement and exposure to violent conflict.

    PubMed

    Saragih Turnip, Sherly; Sörbom, Dag; Hauff, Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Positive mental health, rather than just the absence of mental illness, is rarely investigated among the internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by violent conflict in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate a model that could explain the interrelationship between factors contributing to positive mental health in displaced populations. In a longitudinal study we examine poverty, exposure to traumatic events and the change of material well-being after one year. We collected data in two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) from a community-based sample of IDPs in Ambon, Indonesia, through face-to-face structured interviews with consenting adults. Participants of this study were IDPs lived in Ambon during the violent conflict period. We interviewed 471 IDPs in the first year and reinterviewed 399 (85%) of the same subjects in the second year. The IDPs possessed good sense of coherence and subjective well-being. Our final model, which was generated by the use of structural equation modeling, fits the data well (χ(2) = 52.51, df = 45, p = .21, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .019). Exposure to violent conflict had a negative impact on IDPs' mental health initially and better economic conditions improved it (r = -.30 and .29 respectively). Mental health status one year previously was a strong predictor of future mental health, followed by individual economic growth in the past year (r = .43 and .29 respectively). On a group level the IDPs were resilient and adaptive to survive in adverse living conditions after devastating violent conflict, and the economic improvement contributed to it.

  4. Developing a model of source-specific interpersonal conflict in health care.

    PubMed

    Guidroz, Ashley M; Wang, Mo; Perez, Lisa M

    2012-02-01

    Nurses work in complex social environments, and conflict may arise with fellow coworkers, their supervisor, physicians or the patients and family they care for. Although much research has documented the negative effects of conflict on nurses, no research to date has examined the comparative effect that conflict from all four sources can have on nurses. The purpose of this study is to test a model of workplace conflict where the negative effect of conflict on nurses will be experienced via emotional exhaustion. We test the mediator model by analysing the cross-sectional data collected within one hospital (N1=182) and cross-validating those results in a second hospital (N2=161). The pattern of results was largely consistent across the two samples indicating support for a mediated model of workplace conflict for physician, supervisor and patient. Conflict with other nurses, however, did not have a relationship with either emotional exhaustion or other personal and organizational outcomes. The theoretical and practical implications of the current findings, as well as the limitations and future research directions, are discussed.

  5. [A new concept of organization and scope of neurosurgical care in the US army during armed conflicts in the early 2000s].

    PubMed

    Khrapov, Yu V; Alekseev, D E; Svistov, D V

    Military operations in various parts of the world in the early 2000s are becoming more regionalized; new warfare tactics emerge, which makes it necessary to review and modify the neurosurgical care system. The article reviews the results of original studies on this issue and summarizes the experience of the US Army medical service in Afghanistan and Iraq. The article discusses the structure of sanitary losses, organization and scope of medical and evacuation neurosurgical measures, types and techniques of surgical interventions, and the rate of complications. We describe five levels of neurosurgical care echelons and an implemented "injury control - neurosurgery" concept; particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of research and specialist training. We demonstrate that implementation of the new concept for organization and scope of neurosurgical care has improved treatment outcomes and reduced the mortality rate in the mentioned military conflicts of recent years compared to those in the Vietnam War. We may conclude that the described experience of the US Army can be used to improve the efficacy of neurosurgical care to the wounded and victims of armed conflicts.

  6. Evolutionary concept analysis of health seeking behavior in nursing: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poortaghi, Sarieh; Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Bozorgzad, Parisa; Golzari, Samad E J; Parvizy, Soroor; Rafii, Forough

    2015-11-27

    Although the research in health seeking behavior has been evolving, its concept remains ambiguous. Concept clarification, as a central basis of developing knowledge, plays an undeniable role in the formation of nursing sciences. As the initial step toward the development of theories and theoretical models, concept analysis is broadly used through which the goals can be used and tested. The aim of this study was to report an analysis of the concept of "health seeking behavior". Employing a rigorous evolutionary concept analysis approach, the concept of health seeking behavior was examined for its implications, use, and significance in the discipline of nursing between 2000 and 2012. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 40 articles and 3 books were selected for the final analysis. The definition of attributes, antecedents, and consequences of health seeking behavior was performed through concept analysis. Core attributes (interactional, processing, intellectual, active, decision making based and measurable) were studied. The antecedents of concept were categorized as social, cultural, economic, disease pattern and issues related to health services. Health-seeking behavior resulted in health promotion and disease risk reduction. In addition, it led to predicting the future probable burden of the diseases, facilitation of the health status, early diagnosis, complete and effective treatment, and complication control. Health-seeking behavior, as a multi-dimensional concept, relies on time and context. An awareness of health-seeking behavior attributes antecedents and consequences results in promoting the status, importance and application of this concept in the nursing profession.

  7. Transforming Ottawa Charter health promotion concepts into Swedish public health policy.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Bosse

    2007-01-01

    Swedish public health policy clearly illustrates how the concept of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion can be utilized at a national level. The impact has been more implicit than explicit. Public health has a long history in Sweden and much of the present and future is, and will be, linked to traditional values and structures. International input, however, has been essential to prompt new approaches and change. Health inequalities remain the major shortcoming. The Swedish system offers universal access to healthcare in a decentralized system. Still, primary healthcare, and the health services as a whole have not yet sufficiently embraced the idea of health promotion. Political attention to modern public health at the Prime Minister level was established in late 1980s. Since, continuous initiatives in terms of organization, infrastructure and funding have taken place. With regard to funding, a vast majority of the resources allocated to health promotion will be found outside the health sector. An interesting observation is that the Swedish public health policy with its 11 objective domains remains the same, also after a change of government. Future challenges include maintaining and developing an intersectoral mechanism for implementation, allocating more resources for intervention research to strengthen knowledge-based health promotion, and developing tools for coping better with the challenges of globalisation identified in the Bangkok Charter.

  8. Types of Conflict Management Strategies Used in Three Kinds of Organizations: 50 Cases from Schools, Community Health Centres, and Schools of Nursing. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fris, Joe; And Others

    Findings of a study that examined the ways in which school principals, directors of nursing education programs, and supervisors of community health centers manage conflict are presented in this paper. The study attempted to determine the applicability of research on conflict management in noneducational settings to school organizations. Interviews…

  9. Consumer Health Concepts That Do Not Map to the UMLS: Where Do They Fit?

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott; Divita, Guy; Kim, Hyeoneui; Browne, Allen C.; Leroy, Gondy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study has two objectives: first, to identify and characterize consumer health terms not found in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus (2007 AB); second, to describe the procedure for creating new concepts in the process of building a consumer health vocabulary. How do the unmapped consumer health concepts relate to the existing UMLS concepts? What is the place of these new concepts in professional medical discourse? Design The consumer health terms were extracted from two large corpora derived in the process of Open Access Collaboratory Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV) building. Terms that could not be mapped to existing UMLS concepts via machine and manual methods prompted creation of new concepts, which were then ascribed semantic types, related to existing UMLS concepts, and coded according to specified criteria. Results This approach identified 64 unmapped concepts, 17 of which were labeled as uniquely “lay” and not feasible for inclusion in professional health terminologies. The remaining terms constituted potential candidates for inclusion in professional vocabularies, or could be constructed by post-coordinating existing UMLS terms. The relationship between new and existing concepts differed depending on the corpora from which they were extracted. Conclusion Non-mapping concepts constitute a small proportion of consumer health terms, but a proportion that is likely to affect the process of consumer health vocabulary building. We have identified a novel approach for identifying such concepts. PMID:18436906

  10. Mental health impact of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts: a review of US research, service provision, and programmatic responses.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy S; Miller, Shannon C; Adler, Amy B; Engel, Charles C; Smith, Tyler C; Fairbank, John A

    2011-04-01

    Although documentation that war inflicts psychological casualties dates back to the American Civil War and earlier, most research began after the Vietnam conflict, when studies focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been significant research to illuminate the epidemiology of war-related psychological casualties. Significant findings include an appreciation for the role combat plays in the development of mental disorders, including PTSD and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent research has endeavoured to understand and improve psychological resilience to temper potentially adverse mental health effects of military service in the theatre of combat operations. Over 2 million US service members have now deployed and returned over 3 million times to the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Mental health providers in the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs healthcare systems have consequently observed steep increases in mental health service use among these personnel. The Departments have responded aggressively to bolster staffing levels, increase capacity, improve available services, and anticipate future needs. Scientists and clinicians continue efforts to understand the determinants, prevention, recognition, and treatment of combat-related mental disorders.

  11. Mental health in a conflict area: Migration, economic stress and religiosity in the three southernmost provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kathleen; Jampaklay, Aree; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2017-03-01

    Three southern provinces of Thailand, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, have been involved in a long period of unrest due to differences between the population in the provinces and the Thai government with regard to language, culture and governance. The objectives of this article are to examine the effects of everyday stressors due to the conflict, including economic stress and migration, as well as the effect of religiosity on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults in the three provinces. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 2014. The survey included a probability sample of 2,053 Muslim adults aged 18-59 years.Mental health was assessed using World Health Organization's (WHO) Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) of 20 questions. Multilevel models were estimated to examine the influence of economic stress due to the conflict, as well as community and individual aspects of migration and religion on mental health. The data showed that migration from the household and the community and the economic effects of the unrest were associated with reporting of more psychiatric symptoms among adults in the southern provinces. Religion was related to reporting of fewer psychiatric symptoms at the individual and the community levels. The study documented increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among persons reporting perceived household economic stress due to the conflict and the migration of family members.

  12. Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as applied to the health system.

    PubMed

    Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B

    2017-03-01

    ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health.

  13. Mexico’s northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, Leo; Martinez, Gustavo; Gaines, Tommi; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; McCauley, Heather L.; Sorensen, Andrea; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. Methods Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009). Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. Results Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months), with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P < 0.001). Reports of recent solicitation of sexual favors (28.5% in Tijuana, 36.5% in Ciudad Juarez, P = 0.04) and sexual abuse (15.7% in Tijuana, 18.3% in Ciudad Juarez) by police were commonplace. Prevalence of STIs was significantly lower in Tijuana than in Ciudad Juarez (64.2% and 83.4%, P < 0.001), paralleling the lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors there. Ciudad Juarez respondents reported significantly higher median number of monthly clients (6.8 versus 1.5, P < 0.001) and lower median pay per sex act (US$ 10 versus US$ 20, P < 0.001) (in the past month). Relative to Tijuana, security deployment, especially the army’s presence, was perceived to have increased more in Ciudad Juarez in the past year (72.1% versus 59.2%, P = 0.001). Conclusions Collateral damage from police practices in the context of Mexico’s drug conflict may affect public health in the Northern Border Region. Itinerant officers may facilitate disease spread beyond the region. The urgency for mounting structural interventions is discussed. PMID:22767041

  14. Out of the Shadows: The Health and Well-Being of Private Contractors Working in Conflict Environments.

    PubMed

    Dunigan, Molly; Farmer, Carrie M; Burns, Rachel M; Hawks, Alison; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, private contractors have been deployed extensively around the globe. In addition to supporting U.S. and allied forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, contractors have assisted foreign governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private businesses by providing a wide range of services, including base support and maintenance, logistical support, transportation, intelligence, communications, construction, and security. At the height of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, contractors outnumbered U.S. troops deployed to both theaters. Although these contractors are not supposed to engage in offensive combat, they may nonetheless be exposed to many of the stressors that are known to have physical and mental health implications for military personnel. RAND conducted an online survey of a sample of contractors who had deployed on contract to a theater of conflict at least once between early 2011 and early 2013. The survey collected demographic and employment information, along with details about respondents' deployment experience (including level of preparation for deployment, combat exposure, and living conditions), mental health (including probable posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol misuse), physical health, and access to and use of health care. The goal was to describe the contractors' health and well-being and to explore differences across the sample by such factors as country of citizenship, job specialty, and length and frequency of contract deployment. The findings provide a foundation for future studies of contractor populations and serve to inform policy decisions affecting contractors, including efforts to reduce barriers to mental health treatment for this population.

  15. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    PubMed

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  16. Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following

  17. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Unless the concept is clearly understood, “universal coverage” (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization’s World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level. PMID:23940408

  18. [The notion of conflict of interest in the field of health and environment: philosophical and legal approaches].

    PubMed

    Hermitte, M-A; Le Coz, P

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the conflict of interest in philosophical and legal perspective. The philosophical approach comes from two perspectives: political philosophy focuses on the role of the link of interest in the city considered in the light of a broader reflection on the conditions of living together. Antiquity philosophers have enhanced the interest link as privileged vector of humanization and socialization of individuals. In the eighteenth century, Adam Smith considers the pursuit of individual interests a stronger social base that love of neighbor advocated by Christians. Moral philosophy focuses specifically on the passage of interest linked to the conflict of interest. It wondered if we should be impartial in all circumstances or whether it's right to give priority to our friends and loved ones. Thus, it poses the question of whether introspection is sufficient to detect conflicts of interest or if the look of an external third party is still required. The legal process differs from the philosophical approach at two levels; on the one hand, its scope is more limited: the law doesn't envisage the benefits of links of interest on social life even though it may protect some of them (in the context of the family, for example) and is intended to prevent bias that may taint the decision public. On the other hand, the lawyer doesn't enter the interiority of individuals but stands by what appears on the outside: it tracks the suspicion of bias can have serious impacts, such as health and the environment. Somehow, it is more radical. It's noteworthy that despite its many developments, the law can't to stop conflicts of interest in research. Several reasons account for this impasse: scientists receive mission to partner with industry to develop products but they must remain independent in order to assess the risks; there is a tendency to always choose the same experts; there are conflicts of interest intellectuals which are not easy to detect.

  19. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mental Health Disorders Among Women Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Nissou Ines; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Hatem, Marie; Fraser, William Donald

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of sexual violence (SV) in armed conflicts on women's mental health, on its own and in conjunction with reproductive health issues such as fistula or chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A cross-sectional population-based study of 320 women living in Goma, the Democratic Republic of Congo, aged 15 to 45 years, was conducted. Women who experienced conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) were compared with those who experienced non-conflict-related sexual violence (NCRSV) and those who never experienced such acts. Data were gathered through individual interviews by local staff using standardized questionnaires. The outcomes investigated were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms severity and psychological distress symptoms (PDS) severity. Experience of SV in either context was associated with more severe PDS (p < .0001). Only CRSV was associated with more severe PTSD symptoms (p < .0001). Women who suffered from fistula or CPP also had a higher PDS score mean (p < .0001 and p = .007) and a higher PTSD symptoms score mean (p < .0001, for both reproductive health issues). Multivariate analyses showed that compared with women who never experienced SV and never suffered from fistula or CPP, those who experienced CRSV and suffered from fistula or CPP had the most severe PDS and PTSD symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders. The differences in PDS and PTSD symptoms severity were all significant (p < .0001). Psychological and physical health care are urgently needed for women who experienced CRSV, particularly those with additional issues of fistula or CPP. Current interventions should simultaneously seek to improve both reproductive and mental health.

  1. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    PubMed

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0-18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  2. Post-disaster recovery: a case study of human resource deployment in the health sector in post-conflict Kosovo.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Katherine P; Budosan, Boris

    2011-02-01

    A professional understanding of disasters, paired with the need for health service development, can provide opportunities for the recovery and improvement of the health sector. Investment in training capacity ranks among the top priorities of a recovering health sector. The recovery and development of primary healthcare delivery systems has been implemented by various international and local health players in the aftermath of conflicts around the world. However, human resource development in the post-conflict environment has not been evaluated and/or published appropriately in the medical literature. In this retrospective, descriptive study, the authors describe the strategy and evaluate the effectiveness of a field-based training program for primary healthcare doctors implemented by the US-based international non-governmental organization, the International Medical Corps, after the conflict in Kosovo in 1999. A six-month, comprehensive education and training program on primary healthcare issues was delivered to 134 Kosovar primary healthcare physicians in 10 Kosovo municipalities in 1999 and 2000. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The qualitative methods included open-ended, semi-structured, key informant interviews, structured focus groups, and unstructured participant observations. The quantitative method was multiple-choice knowledge tests. The education and training program proved to be culturally appropriate and well-accepted by local communities. The program met its overall objective to refresh the knowledge of primary care doctors on various primary healthcare issues and set the stage for further strengthening and development of primary health services and their required human resources in Kosovo. The comprehensive education and training of primary healthcare doctors in Kosovo was a feasible, much appreciated, and effective intervention implemented in a difficult post-conflict environment. This training was one of the early steps in the

  3. Unravelling the concept of integrated public health policy: Concept mapping with Dutch experts from science, policy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Tubbing, Luuk; Harting, Janneke; Stronks, Karien

    2015-06-01

    While expectations of integrated public health policy (IPHP) promoting public health are high, assessment is hampered by the concept's ambiguity. This paper aims to contribute to conceptual clarification of IPHP as first step in further measurement development. In an online concept mapping procedure, we invited 237 Dutch experts, 62 of whom generated statements on characteristics of IPHP. Next, 100 experts were invited, 24 of whom sorted the statements into piles according to their perceived similarity and rated the statements on relevance and measurability. Data was analyzed using concept mapping software. The concept map consisted of 97 statements, grouped into 11 clusters and five themes. Core themes were 'integration', concerning 'policy coherence' and 'organizing connections', and 'health', concerning 'positioning health' and 'addressing determinants'. Peripheral themes were 'generic aspects', 'capacities', and 'goals and setting', which respectively addressed general notions of integrated policy making, conditions for IPHP, and the variety in manifestations of IPHP. Measurability ratings were low compared to relevance. The concept map gives an overview of interrelated themes, distinguishes core from peripheral dimensions, and provides pointers for theories of the policy process. While low measurability ratings indicate measurement difficulties, the core themes provide pointers for systematic insight into IPHP through measurement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  5. The Role of Games and Simulations to Teach Abstract Concepts of Anarchy, Cooperation, and Conflict in World Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Games and simulations are increasingly used in courses on international politics. This study explores the hypothesis that games are better than simulations (as well as only reading and lectures) in introducing students to abstract concepts integral to an understanding of world politics. The study compares a two-level Prisoner's Dilemma game…

  6. Understanding of Proportion as Embodied in the Concept of Fullness. An Investigation into Bruner's "Modes-of-Representation-Conflict Hypothesis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Elizabeth P.

    1978-01-01

    This replication study negates Bruner's finding that older subjects (age 15 and adult) understand the mathematical concept of ratio as exemplified by comparing judgments of fullness in pairs of glasses differing in height, diameter, and water volume. Weaknesses in Bruner's design and procedure that explain the discrepancy between the two studies…

  7. Changing concepts of health and health services: new opportunities for nutrition promotion.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A

    1983-01-01

    Life expectancy slowly and steadily increased during the course of the 20th century resulting in a change in the concept of health for both individuals and society. This has been primarily the consequence of the reduction of infant and early childhood mortality and the control of major infectious diseases. Fear of dying has been replaced by the dedication to survival, health, and production, and science and technology have contributed much to creating this pattern of thinking. Lawrence Henderson recognized adaptability as a basic biological phenomenon. The relation between nutritional requirements and homeostatic mechanisms is significant. Beyond a certain threshold, the latter cannot prevent impairments resulting from undernutrition, but the establishment of this threshold involves a complex process. In addition to being an end for each person, health is also regarded as a means for society. These ideas seem embodied in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) definition of health: "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity." The main and perennial problem is how to translate the ideal into practical reality. Recognition of health as a right has strengthened the acceptance of its role as a determinant of development. An important cluster of determinants of health and disease stems from the health services, and these have changed in both concept and in practice, particularly following World War 2. Health care, being a basic need, was conceived as a service to be provided, even imposed by the central authorities, to those entrenched in their traditions. Currently, there is movement from paternalism to community participation. It has become essential to catalyze the community for it is a vast potential source of cooperation in carrying out activities for disease prevention and cure throughout the world. A series of circumstances have supported the renaissance of the primary health care movement in the

  8. Measuring Intrafamily Conflict and Violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    1979-01-01

    The introduction to this paper seeks to clarify and distinguish the concepts of "conflict,""conflict of interest,""hostility," and "violence." The main part of the paper describes the Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales, which are designed to measure the use of reasoning, verbal agression, and violence within the…

  9. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud—now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)—was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of ‘globalisation and non-communicable diseases’. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest. PMID:21088061

  10. Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud, tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health.

    PubMed

    Burch, Tiffany; Wander, Nathaniel; Collin, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    In May 2007, the Instituto Carso de la Salud-now Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud (ICSS)-was endowed with US$500 million to focus on priority health issues in Latin America, notably issues of 'globalisation and non-communicable diseases'. ICSS was soon criticised, however, on the grounds that its funding was derived from tobacco industry profits and that its founder Carlos Slim Hélu remained an active industry principal. Collaboration with ICSS was said to run counter to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Institute's then Executive President Julio Frenk disputed these charges. This research employs an archive of tobacco industry documents triangulated with materials from commercial, media, regulatory and NGO sources to examine the financial relations between Slim and the tobacco industry. The paper analyses Slim's continuing service to the industry and role in ICSS. It demonstrates a prima facie conflict of interest between ICSS's health mission and its founder's involvement in cigarette manufacturing and marketing, reflected on ICSS's website as a resounding silence on issues of tobacco and health. It is concluded that the reliance of international health agencies upon the commercial sector requires more robust institutional policies to effectively regulate conflicts of interest.

  11. Using Pop Culture to Teach Youths Conflict Resolution, Healthful Lifestyles, Disaster Preparedness, and More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne; Black, Lynette Ranney

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents learn sustainable production techniques, civic engagement, leadership, public speaking, food safety practices, conflict resolution, disaster preparedness, and other life skills through Extension programming. Educators can increase participant interest in such programming by applying a creative pop culture twist, such as a zombie…

  12. Identifying and Addressing Students' Alternative Conceptions of the Causes of Global Warming: The Need for Cognitive Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, George; Wiesenmayer, Randall L.

    1999-09-01

    School-age children are frequently exposed to issues related to global warming/global climatic change. Yet, their conceptions regarding the scope and nature of this phenomenon are often incomplete or even inconstant with predominant scientific understandings. The complex conceptual knowledge required to understand issues related to global warming create learning situations that harbor the development of incomplete or inaccurate ideas related to global warming. This study presents some of those misconceptions and discusses strategies for mitigation.

  13. Swedish Nursing Students' Perceptions of the Concept of Health: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Health is a central and important concept in nursing and nursing education, and has been theorised about in both positive and negative terms. The purpose of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of the concept of health. Design: A phenomenographic research approach was used to understand how nursing students…

  14. Swedish Nursing Students' Perceptions of the Concept of Health: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Health is a central and important concept in nursing and nursing education, and has been theorised about in both positive and negative terms. The purpose of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of the concept of health. Design: A phenomenographic research approach was used to understand how nursing students…

  15. Predicting the Impact of the 2011 Conflict in Libya on Population Mental Health: PTSD and Depression Prevalence and Mental Health Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Fiona J.; Steel, Zachary; Degenhardt, Louisa; Chey, Tien; Silove, Derrick; Marnane, Claire; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are likely to be elevated in the Libyan population during the post-conflict period. We estimated cases of severe PTSD and depression and related health service requirements using modelling from existing epidemiological data and current recommended mental health service targets in low and middle income countries (LMIC’s). Methods Post-conflict prevalence estimates were derived from models based on a previously conducted systematic review and meta-regression analysis of mental health among populations living in conflict. Political terror ratings and intensity of exposure to traumatic events were used in predictive models. Prevalence of severe cases was applied to chosen populations along with uncertainty ranges. Six populations deemed to be affected by the conflict were chosen for modelling: Misrata (population of 444,812), Benghazi (pop. 674,094), Zintan (pop. 40,000), displaced people within Tripoli/Zlitan (pop. 49,000), displaced people within Misrata (pop. 25,000) and Ras Jdir camps (pop. 3,700). Proposed targets for service coverage, resource utilisation and full-time equivalent staffing for management of severe cases of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on a published model for LMIC’s. Findings Severe PTSD prevalence in populations exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events was estimated at 12.4% (95%CI 8.5–16.7) and was 19.8% (95%CI 14.0–26.3) for severe depression. Across all six populations (total population 1,236,600), the conflict could be associated with 123,200 (71,600–182,400) cases of severe PTSD and 228,100 (134,000–344,200) cases of severe depression; 50% of PTSD cases were estimated to co-occur with severe depression. Based upon service coverage targets, approximately 154 full-time equivalent staff would be required to respond to these cases sufficiently which is substantially below the current level of resource estimates for these regions. Discussion

  16. The influence of maternal health education on the place of delivery in conflict settings of Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Adam, Izzeldin F

    2015-01-01

    Armed conflict and socio-demographic characteristics of internally displaced persons (IDPs) are very important factors that influence the provision of reproductive health (RH) in humanitarian settings. Maternal health education plays a crucial role to overcome the barriers of RH care, reduce home births conducted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and improve increasing births in a health facility. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the association between the place of delivery and home visits for maternal health education and (2) describe the socio-demographic characteristics of women who gave birth during the last two years. A cross-sectional study among married women aged (15-49 years old) in IDP camps. All women were subjected to intensive maternal health education at their homes for 3 years prior to the survey. A sample of 640 women who gave birth during the last two years was randomly selected. Among all women investigated, 36.9 % (95 % CI: 33.1, 40.8) reported a home-based delivery, while 63.1 % (95 % CI: 59.2, 66.9) reported a facility-based delivery. Receiving visits for maternal health education at home was associated with an estimated 43.0 % reduction in odds of giving birth at home, compared to not receiving home visits (adjusted odds ratio [ aOR] 0.57; 95 % CI: 0.35, 0.93). The level of women's education and camp of residence were important predictors for home birth. Maternal health education at home was associated with a reduction in home-based delivery performed by TBAs in the conflict-affected setting of Darfur. Our study proposes that when facility-based delivery is made available in camp's clinics, and the targeted women educated at home to refrain from home-based delivery, they will choose to undergo facility-based delivery.

  17. PATCH: Its Origin, Basic Concepts, and Links to Contemporary Public Health Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.

    1992-01-01

    PATCH (Planned Approach to Community Health), a cooperative program of technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control, strengthens state and local health departments' capacities to plan, implement, and evaluate community-based health promotion activities for priority health problems. The article describes its origin, concepts, and…

  18. The ISTSS/Rand guidelines on mental health training of primary healthcare providers for trauma-exposed populations in conflict-affected countries.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David; Weine, Stevan; Green, Bonnie; de Jong, Joop; Rayburn, Nadine; Ventevogel, Peter; Keller, Allen; Agani, Ferid

    2006-02-01

    Mental health care for trauma-exposed populations in conflict-affected developing countries often is provided by primary healthcare providers (PHPs), including doctors, nurses, and lay health workers. The Task Force on International Trauma Training, through an initiative sponsored by the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and the RAND Corporation, has developed evidence- and consensus-based guidelines for the mental health training of PHPs in conflict-affected developing countries. This article presents the Guidelines, which provide a conceptual framework and specific principles for improving the quality of mental health training for PHPs working with trauma-exposed populations.

  19. Direction of shift rotation among three-shift workers in relation to psychological health and work-family conflict.

    PubMed

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Jansen, Nicole W H; Swaen, Gerard M H; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kant, Ijmert

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the direction of shift rotation was related to the need for recovery, fatigue, sleep quality, work-family conflict, and leisure time among three-shift workers. Data of 95 workers in forward-rotating three-shift work and 681 workers in backward-rotating three-shift work, with 32 months of follow-up, in the Maastricht cohort study (N=12,095) were used. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out. A backward rotation schedule was prospectively related to an increased need for recovery [relative risk (RR) 2.88, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-7.81] and poor general health (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.32-7.83), as compared with a forward rotation schedule. Adjustment for demographic and health variables and the characteristics of the work environment did not alter these relations considerably. Furthermore, a forward rotation schedule was prospectively related to less work-family conflict and better sleep quality over the 32 months of follow-up. Finally, high levels of fatigue, need for recovery, poor sleep quality, poor general health, insufficient leisure time, and work-family conflict at first measurement were associated with an increased risk of leaving shiftwork during the follow-up. Optimization of shiftwork schedules, in terms of shift rotation, seems a promising method for decreasing the negative impact accompanying shiftwork. Future studies should investigate whether these findings for three-shift workers are applicable to other shiftwork schedules as well. Furthermore, this study clearly illustrates the existence of secondary selection processes among shiftworkers and thereby emphasizes the complexity of valid shiftwork research.

  20. The Role of Conflict Identification and Management in Sustaining Community Collaboration: Report on a Four-Year Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Andrea K; Boustead, Robyn; Boothroyd, Roger A; Evans, Mary E; Chen, Huey-Jen

    2015-07-01

    Community collaboration has become increasingly common in behavioral health services. Conflict is likely to occur in any community coalition bringing together organizations with differing mandates, missions, and histories. However, research on how coalitions identify and handle conflict, and on the impact of conflict on sustainability is scarce. An exploratory study examined conflict in two federally funded children's "systems of care" using site visits and concept mapping to describe differences in how sites conceptualize and respond to conflict. Results suggest that unacknowledged and unaddressed conflict can negatively affect the development and sustainability of sites, and that focusing on cooperation may, paradoxically, make it more difficult to acknowledge conflict and to implement conflict transformation processes. Implications for behavioral health administrators are discussed, including potential interventions that could address these issues.

  1. Work-Family Conflict and Employee Sleep: Evidence from IT Workers in the Work, Family and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Orfeu M.; Lee, Soomi; Beverly, Chloe; Berkman, Lisa F.; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Work-family conflict is a threat to healthy sleep behaviors among employees. This study aimed to examine how Work-to-Family Conflict (demands from work that interfere with one's family/personal life; WTFC) and Family-to-Work Conflict (demands from family/personal life that interfere with work; FTWC) are associated with several dimensions of sleep among information technology workers. Methods: Employees at a U.S. IT firm (n = 799) provided self-reports of sleep sufficiency (feeling rested upon waking), sleep quality, and sleep maintenance insomnia symptoms (waking up in the middle of the night or early morning) in the last month. They also provided a week of actigraphy for nighttime sleep duration, napping, sleep timing, and a novel sleep inconsistency measure. Analyses adjusted for work conditions (job demands, decision authority, schedule control, and family-supportive supervisor behavior), and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Employees who experienced higher WTFC reported less sleep sufficiency, poorer sleep quality, and more insomnia symptoms. Higher WTFC also predicted shorter nighttime sleep duration, greater likelihood of napping, and longer nap duration. Furthermore, higher WTFC was linked to greater inconsistency of nighttime sleep duration and sleep clock times, whereas higher FTWC was associated with more rigidity of sleep timing mostly driven by wake time. Conclusions: Results highlight the unique associations of WTFC/FTWC with employee sleep independent of other work conditions and household and sociodemographic characteristics. Our novel methodological approach demonstrates differential associations of WTFC and FTWC with inconsistency of sleep timing. Given the strong associations between WTFC and poor sleep, future research should focus on reducing WTFC. Citation: Buxton OM, Lee S, Beverly C, Berkman LF, Moen P, Kelly EL, Hammer LB, Almeida DM. Work-family conflict and employee sleep: evidence from IT workers

  2. Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: a review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Amy M; Fortunato, Angelo; Wilson Sayres, Melissa; Aktipis, Athena

    2015-10-01

    The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production). In this review, we use an evolutionary framework to make testable predictions about the role of fetal microchimerism in lactation, thyroid function, autoimmune disease, cancer and maternal emotional, and psychological health. Also watch the Video Abstract. © 2015 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The concept of health in One Health and some practical implications for research and education: what is One Health?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Henrik; Berg, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    From a strict biological point of view, humans are just one species among other species, albeit one with very special capacities, characteristics, and skills. Among scientists, it is generally acknowledged that we share many features with other animal species, which are certainly relevant when the concepts of health and disease are discussed. The term ‘One Health’ is used in many different contexts and by people with varying backgrounds. However, there appears to be some confusion as to what the term really means, and it is used in a wide range of contexts, often including or bordering concepts such as infection biology, contagious diseases, zoonotic infections, evolutionary medicine, comparative medicine, and translational medicine. Without claiming to present the one and only true interpretation, we will argue for a wide approach using the ‘umbrella’ depiction developed by One Health Sweden. We argue that this one should, compared to other demarcations, be more useful to science. We will also analyze the concept of health on different levels: individual, population, and ecosystem health, and describe how these levels inherently influence each other for both humans and animals. Both these choices are normative and have practical consequences for research and education, a way of reasoning which we develop further in this paper. Finally, we conclude that the choice of term for the approach might be normative in deciding which disciplines or parts of disciplines that may be included. PMID:25660757

  4. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research.This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented.This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being.The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria.This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context.The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in organization

  5. Concepts of health and well-being in managers: An organizational study

    PubMed Central

    Boness, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Global changes and new managerial challenges require new concepts of health and well-being in organizational contexts. In the South African context, health and well-being of managers have gained relevance in organizations and in management sciences. International organizations, in particular, attempt to address the increasing demand for health care and the delivery of health services to their managers. Careful and appropriate health management requires research to evaluate context-specific health concepts and strategies. The purpose and aim of this article is to assess managerial concepts on health and well-being that could be used by the organization to contribute to managerial well-being by implementing health promotion according to managerial needs. At the same time, this article contributes to salutogenetic health research that is very rare with regard to the South African organizational management research. This study is a multi-method research study conducted in a selected international organization in South Africa. However, in this article, selected qualitative findings will only be presented. This organizational study presents selected research findings on health concepts and strategies employed by managers. Findings demonstrate that the managerial concepts of health and strategies mainly refer to not only physical but also to mental and spiritual aspects, with a priority on physical health and well-being. The findings presented are based on qualitative research methods and their research criteria. This assessment serves as a foundation for new approaches to health management within the international work context in South Africa. It also contributes to a paradigm shift from pathogenetic to salutogenetic concepts of health and well-being within the South African organizational work context. The article produces new insights into the qualitative health concepts of South African managers and expatriates and contributes to promoting salutogenesis in

  6. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors.

  7. Assessing the responsiveness of chronic disease care - is the World Health Organization's concept of health system responsiveness applicable?

    PubMed

    Röttger, Julia; Blümel, Miriam; Fuchs, Sabine; Busse, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    The concept of health system responsiveness is an important dimension of health system performance assessment. Further efforts have been made in recent years to improve the analysis of responsiveness measurements, yet few studies have applied the responsiveness concept to the evaluation of specific health care delivery structures. The objective of this study was to test the World Health Organization's (WHO's) responsiveness concept for an application in the evaluation of chronic disease care. In September and October 2012 we conducted four focus groups of chronically ill people (n = 38) in Germany, in which participants discussed their experiences and expectations regarding health care. The data was analyzed deductively (on the basis of the WHO responsiveness concept) and inductively using directed content analysis. Ten themes related to health system responsiveness and one theme (finances) not directly related to health system responsiveness, but of high importance to the focus group participants, could be identified. Eight of the ten responsiveness themes are consistent with the WHO concept. Additionally, two new themes were identified: trust (consultation and treatment are not led by any motive other than the patients' wellbeing) and coordination (treatment involving different providers is coordinated and different actors communicate with each other). These findings indicate the suitability of the WHO responsiveness concept for the evaluation of chronic disease care. However, some amendments, in particular an extension of the concept to include the two domains trust and coordination, are necessary for a thorough assessment of the responsiveness of chronic disease care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concepts and solutions for future-proof health information systems and health networks.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    Based on shared care information systems' requirements for high level interoperability, a generic component architecture has been derived. For implementing, running and maintaining acceptable and useable health information systems components, all views of the ISO Reference Model--Open Distributed Processing have to be considered. Following the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) paradigm, a reference model as well as concept-representing domain models both independent of platforms must be specified, which are combined and harmonised as well as automatically transferred into the platform-specific models using appropriate tools.

  9. Ethical conflicts in public health research and practice: antimicrobial resistance and the ethics of drug development.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Allison E; King, Nicholas B; Foxman, B

    2006-11-01

    Since the 1960s, scientists and pharmaceutical representatives have called for the advancement and development of new antimicrobial drugs to combat infectious diseases. In January 2005, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-TN), MD, introduced a biopreparedness bill that included provisions for patent extensions and tax incentives to stimulate industry research on new antimicrobials. Although government stimulus for private development of new antimicrobials is important, it does not resolve long-standing conflicts of interest between private entities and society. Rising rates of antimicrobial resistance have only exacerbated these conflicts. We used methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a case study for reviewing these problems, and we have suggested alternative approaches that may halt the vicious cycle of resistance and obsolescence generated by the current model of antimicrobial production.

  10. Impact of service provision platforms on maternal and newborn health in conflict areas and their acceptability in Pakistan: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Aftab, Wafa; Ariff, Shabina; Kumar, Rohail; Hussain, Imtiaz; Musavi, Nabiha B; Memon, Zahid; Soofi, Sajid B; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    Various models and strategies have been implemented over the years in different parts of the world to improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) in conflict affected areas. These strategies are based on specific needs and acceptability of local communities. This paper has undertaken a systematic review of global and local (Pakistan) information from conflict areas on platforms of health service provision in the last 10 years and information on acceptability from local stakeholders on effective models of service delivery; and drafted key recommendations for improving coverage of health services in conflict affected areas. The literature search revealed ten studies that described MNH service delivery platforms. The results from the systematic review showed that with utilisation of community outreach services, the greatest impacts were observed in skilled birth attendance and antenatal consultation rates. Facility level services, on the other hand, showed that labour room services for an internally displaced population (IDP) improved antenatal care coverage, contraceptive prevalence rate and maternal mortality. Consultative meetings and discussions conducted in Quetta and Peshawar (capitals of conflict affected provinces) with relevant stakeholders revealed that no systematic models of MNH service delivery, especially tailored for conflict areas, are available. During conflict, even previously available services and infrastructure suffered due to various barriers specific to times of conflict and unrest. A number of barriers that hinder MNH services were discussed. Suggestions for improving MNH services in conflict areas were also laid down by participants. The review identified some important steps that can be undertaken to mitigate the effects of conflict on MNH services, which include: improve provision and access to infrastructure and equipment; development and training of healthcare providers; and advocacy at different levels for free access to healthcare

  11. Applying the concept of culture to reduce health disparities through health behavior research.

    PubMed

    Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2012-11-01

    Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Alternative mechanisms for conflict resolution in the context of health rights: The Peruvian experience from the center for reconciliation and arbitration of the national health authority].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Salas, Darwin; Ortiz-Pérez, Claudia; Lobatón-Flores, Juan; Huamaní-Ñahuinlla, Percy; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In Peru the right to health protection is constitutionally recognized. The right to access health services is legally mandated, as well as access to health information and the protection of rights such as informed consent. However, with the implementation of actions related to these rights and protections, there may be disagreements which need to be resolved. In this context, alternative mechanisms for conflict resolution (AMCR), such as mediation, reconciliation and arbitration, are valid and accessible strategies within the Peruvian Health System. Currently, the Center for Reconciliation and Arbitration (CECONAR) of the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) has the responsibility to lead the implementation of AMCR at the national level. In this article we provide a general overview of CECONAR, starting with its historical and legal foundations, and continuing to its present activities and finally we discuss and outline some future prospects.

  13. [Evaluation in the health sector: concepts and methods].

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, A P; Champagne, F; Denis, J L; Avargues, M C

    2000-12-01

    The practice of evaluation has existed in one form or another for as long as one can remember and is central to all processes of learning. Today, evaluation is a popular concept grouping together multiple and diverse realities. This article aims to propose a conceptual framework for evaluation that is broad and universal enough to allow all those concerned with evaluation of health services (regardless of their disciplines and interests) to better understand each other, to perform better evaluations, and to use them in a more pertinent manner. We will begin by defining evaluation as the process which consists of making a judgement on the value of an intervention by implementing a system which can provide scientifically valid and socially legitimate information on regarding this particular intervention (or any of its components) to the different stakeholders concerned, such that they can form an opinion from their perspective on the intervention and reach a judgement which can translate into action. We define "intervention" as any organized system of action (a structure, actors and their practices, processes of action, one or many finalities and an environment) aiming to, in a given environment, during a given time period, modify the foreseeable course of a phenomenon to correct a problematic situation. An intervention can be a technique, a medication, a treatment, an organisation, a program, a policy or even a complex system like the health care system. Various interventions, regardless of their nature, can be the object of two types of evaluation. Normative evaluation is based on appreciation of each component of the intervention according to criteria and standards. This type of evaluation is defined as an activity which consists of making a judgement regarding an intervention by comparing the resources utilized and their organisation (structure); services and goods produced (process) and results obtained to criteria and standards (in other words, summaries of

  14. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators.

  15. Egyptian contribution to the concept of mental health.

    PubMed

    Okasha, A

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described.

  16. Spirituality in nursing and health-related literature: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah; Jezewski, Mary Ann

    2007-12-01

    Spirituality has become an increasingly popular concept among the nursing and health-related literature. The purpose for conducting this concept analysis, guided by Walker and Avant's methodology, was to (a) examine how spirituality has been used within the current body of nursing and health-related literature, (b) clarify the meaning of spirituality by discovering what this concept's current critical attributes/characteristics are, and (c) propose a definition of spirituality based on the concept analysis findings. A total of 90 references were reviewed, including 73 nursing and health-related references. Concept analysis findings revealed that spirituality was defined within four main themes in the nursing and health-related literature: (a) spirituality as religious systems of beliefs and values (spirituality = religion); (b) spirituality as life meaning, purpose, and connection with others; (c) spirituality as nonreligious systems of beliefs and values; and (d) spirituality as metaphysical or transcendental phenomena.

  17. Service user involvement in mental health care: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Millar, Samantha L; Chambers, Mary; Giles, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The concept of service user involvement is an evolving concept in the mental health-care literature. This study sought to explore and analyse the concept of service user involvement as used in within the field of mental health care. An evolutionary concept analysis was conducted using a literature-based sample extracted from an electronic database search. One hundred and thirty-four papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed to discover key attributes, antecedents and consequences of service user involvement and to produce a definition of the concept. Five key attributes of service user involvement within the context of mental health care were identified: a person-centred approach, informed decision making, advocacy, obtaining service user views and feedback and working in partnership. Clarity of the attributes and definition of the concept of service user involvement aims to promote understanding of the concept among key stakeholders including mental health professionals, service users and community and voluntary organizations. The findings of the research have utility in the areas of theory and policy development, research on service user involvement in mental health care and service user involvement in mental health practice. Directions for further research regarding the concept are identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Health Conception and Health-Promoting Lifestyle among Older Adults: The Validation of a Structural Equation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkan, Kevin

    Using data from the Older Adult Project within the Health Promotion Research Program at Northern Illinois University, this study examined four dimensions of health conception and their relationship to six dimensions of health-promoting lifestyle in a population of older adults (n=364). A battery of instruments was administred to all subjects to…

  19. Integrating Healthy Communities concepts into health professions training.

    PubMed Central

    Kinder, G; Cashman, S B; Seifer, S D; Inouye, A; Hagopian, A

    2000-01-01

    To meet the demands of the evolving health care system, health professionals need skills that will allow them to anticipate and respond to the broader social determinants of health. To ensure that these skills are learned during their professional education and training, health professions institutions must look beyond the medical model of caring for communities. Models in Seattle and Roanoke demonstrate the curricular changes necessary to ensure that students in the health professions are adequately prepared to contribute to building Healthy Communities in the 21st century. In addition to these models, a number of resources are available to help promote the needed institutional changes. PMID:10968767

  20. International cooperation and health. Part I: issues and concepts

    PubMed Central

    McKee, M.; Gilmore, A.; Schwalbe, N.

    2005-01-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference. PMID:16020637

  1. International cooperation and health. Part I: Issues and concepts.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Gilmore, Anna B; Schwalbe, Nina

    2005-08-01

    The world is increasingly shaped by powerful global forces, many of which have consequences for human health and the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health are increasingly determined at a supranational level. As a result, local or national level efforts to influence health determinants can have only a limited impact and it is all too easy for the individual public health practitioner to feel powerless. Yet while public health practitioners, on their own, may indeed be comparatively powerless, together they can achieve a great deal. Part I of this glossary explores a range of issues that arise as they seek to make a difference.

  2. Risk and Resilience: The Moderating Role of Social Coping for Maternal Mental Health in a Setting of Political Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Violence can threaten individual well-being and tear at the social fabric of communities. At the same time, suffering can mobilize social coping and mutual support. Thus, the backdrop of political violence increases risk factors and stimulates resilience. The current study examined the moderating role of social coping as reflective of risk and resiliency in Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted conflict. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether social coping protects from or exacerbates the negative impact of sectarian crime and nonsectarian crime on maternal mental health (N=631). Nonsectarian crime predicted greater psychological distress for mothers in Belfast. Mixed support was found for the buffering and depletion moderation hypotheses; social coping functioned differently for nonsectarian crime and sectarian crime. Greater social coping buffered mothers’ psychological distress from the negative effects of nonsectarian crime, but exacerbated maternal mental health problems when facing sectarian crime. Results suggest that social coping is a complex phenomenon, particularly in settings of protracted political violence. Implications for interventions aimed at alleviating psychological distress by enhancing mothers’ social coping in contexts of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22506629

  3. [Socioeconomic impact of armed conflict on the health of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo].

    PubMed

    Omba Kalonda, J C

    2011-04-01

    Since 1996, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been the theatre of armed conflict. More than 5.4 millions have died and 500,000 to 1,000,000 women have been raped. As a result of permanent insecurity including frequent massacres, burning of villages and plundering of personal property and crops, millions of Congolese people especially in eastern regions have been displaced with around 1.3 million in internal refugee camps. Rural populations have abandoned farming that was the main source of employment, food, and income. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic impact of this armed conflict particularly on the health of women and children. Consequences include i) decreased food production, ii) worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, iii) reduced household income, and iv) inadequate health care leading to epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, measles, and meningitis. Food insecurity and poverty affect around 70% of the population. Chronic malnutrition and growth retardation affect 38% of children. The mortality rate for children under 5 has reached 205 per 1000 live births. Other than achieving lasting peace that is a prerequisite for development in the DRC, the main priority must be to provide victims with multiform assistance aimed at restarting the economy and ensuring food self-sufficiency, thereby reducing both malnutrition and child mortality. Better access to healthcare and to psychosocial, medical, and legal services is also needed for rape victims.

  4. Health in the service of state-building in fragile and conflict affected contexts: an additional challenge in the medical-humanitarian environment.

    PubMed

    Philips, Mit; Derderian, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Global health policy and development aid trends also affect humanitarian health work. Reconstruction, rehabilitation and development initiatives start increasingly earlier after crisis, unleashing tensions between development and humanitarian paradigms. Recently, development aid shows specific interest in contexts affected by conflict and fragility, with increasing expectations for health interventions to demonstrate transformative potential, including towards more resilient health systems as a contribution to state-building agendas. Current drives towards state-building opportunities in health interventions is mainly based on political aspirations, with little conclusive evidence on linking state-building efforts to conflict prevention, neither on transformative effects of health systems support. Moreover, negative consequences are possible in such volatile environments. We explore how to anticipate, discuss and monitor potential negative effects of current state-building approaches on health interventions, including on humanitarian aid. Overriding health systems approaches might increase tension in fragile and conflict affected contexts, because at odds with goals typically associated with immediate emergency response to populations' needs. Especially in protracted crisis, quality and timeliness of humanitarian response can be compromised, with strain on impartiality, targeting the most vulnerable, prioritising direct health benefits and most effective strategies. State-building focus could shift health aid priorities away from sick people and disease. Precedence of state institutions support over immediate, effective health service delivery can reduce population level results. As consequence people might question health workers' intention to privilege health above political, ethnic or other alliances, altering health and humanitarian workers' perception. Particularly in conflict, neither health system nor state are impartial bystanders. In spite of scarce

  5. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD  = 0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID

  6. Epistemological beliefs and therapeutic health concepts of physiotherapy students and professionals.

    PubMed

    Bientzle, Martina; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Health knowledge develops fast and includes a lot of ambiguous or tentative information. In their daily routine, both health care students and professionals continuously have to make judgments about the viability of health knowledge. People's epistemological beliefs (EBs) and their therapeutic health concepts are factors that influence how they deal with health knowledge. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these factors at different stages of people's career. The present study examines the EBs and therapeutic health concepts of physiotherapy students in their vocational training and the EBs and therapeutic health concepts of professionals. In a cross-sectional study physiotherapy students and professional physiotherapists filled in a questionnaire that measured their personal EBs about physiotherapy and medicine, as well as their biomedical and biopsychosocial therapeutic health concepts. We compared the participants' EBs regarding both knowledge domains, and their therapeutic health concepts using paired samples t-tests. We also examined the differences between first-year students, advanced students, and professionals regarding their EBs and their therapeutic health concepts using ANOVAs. Eighty-three students and 84 professionals participated in this study, 114/167 (68%) participants were female. EBs as well as therapeutic health concepts differed depending upon the participants' training status. Professionals had more sophisticated EBs than students regarding both knowledge in physiotherapy (F(2, 164) = 6.74, P = 0.002, η(2)(p) = 0.08) and knowledge in medicine (F(2, 164) = 5.93, P = 0.003, η(2)(p) = 0.07). In addition, high values in a biopsychosocial therapeutic health concept already occurred in an early phase of training (F(2, 164) = 5.39, P = 0.005, η(2)(p) = 0.06), whereas increased values in a biomedical concept did not occur until people's professional life (F(2, 164) = 10.99, P < 0.001,

  7. Impact of Mahatma Gandhi's concepts on mental health: Reflections

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Abhinav; Singh, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Mahatma Gandhi can be looked upon as one of the greatest visionaries born. His life tells us about the varied emotions he went through as a boy and young adult during difficult times, and the experiments he did to cope up with these problems. It was his perseverance and dedication to an unrelenting pursuit of his goal that finally led to his transformation. His concepts like nonviolence, satyagraha, brahmcharya and the concepts related to ‘Truth’ and ‘God’ can give psychological strength and mental resilience to any individual trying to cope up with the demands of life. PMID:23858259

  8. Impact of Mahatma Gandhi's concepts on mental health: Reflections.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Abhinav; Singh, V K

    2013-01-01

    Mahatma Gandhi can be looked upon as one of the greatest visionaries born. His life tells us about the varied emotions he went through as a boy and young adult during difficult times, and the experiments he did to cope up with these problems. It was his perseverance and dedication to an unrelenting pursuit of his goal that finally led to his transformation. His concepts like nonviolence, satyagraha, brahmcharya and the concepts related to 'Truth' and 'God' can give psychological strength and mental resilience to any individual trying to cope up with the demands of life.

  9. Annual Research Review: Resilience and mental health in children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict--a systematic review of findings in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Tol, Wietse A; Song, Suzan; Jordans, Mark J D

    2013-04-01

    Researchers focused on mental health of conflict-affected children are increasingly interested in the concept of resilience. Knowledge on resilience may assist in developing interventions aimed at improving positive outcomes or reducing negative outcomes, termed promotive or protective interventions. We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies focused on resilience and mental health in children and adolescents affected by armed conflict in low- and middle-income countries. Altogether 53 studies were identified: 15 qualitative and mixed methods studies and 38 quantitative, mostly cross-sectional studies focused on school-aged children and adolescents. Qualitative studies identified variation across socio-cultural settings of relevant resilience outcomes, and report contextually unique processes contributing to such outcomes. Quantitative studies focused on promotive and protective factors at different socio-ecological levels (individual, family-, peer-, school-, and community-levels). Generally, promotive and protective factors showed gender-, symptom-, and phase of conflict-specific effects on mental health outcomes. Although limited by its predominantly cross-sectional nature and focus on protective outcomes, this body of knowledge supports a perspective of resilience as a complex dynamic process driven by time- and context-dependent variables, rather than the balance between risk- and protective factors with known impacts on mental health. Given the complexity of findings in this population, we conclude that resilience-focused interventions will need to be highly tailored to specific contexts, rather than the application of a universal model that may be expected to have similar effects on mental health across contexts. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Conflict Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  11. Intergenerational concepts of adolescent sexuality: implications for community-based reproductive health care with Haitian immigrants.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T; Sinnett, K

    1999-04-01

    Intergenerational conflict occurs when immigrant parents hold different values from those of their more rapidly acculturating offspring. These conflicts frequently involve disparate views related to sex roles and reproduction. A community-based study of 19 immigrant Haitian parent-adolescent pairs in South Florida compared their attitudes and values about sexuality and reproduction. Data were obtained through focused, open-ended interviews. Content analysis procedures at the level of words and phrases facilitated the categorization of responses. Data revealed considerable differences between parents and adolescents about the sources and types of information learned about reproduction and contraception, when such information is learned, and expectations regarding premarital sexual intercourse. Both parents and adolescents lacked accurate biomedical information about contraception, placed responsibility for contraceptive use primarily on the female partner, considered reproduction a natural rather than a medical event, and believed parents have the major responsibility for educating children about reproduction and contraception. Implications for culturally-appropriate health care center on increasing the role of the public health nurse in health education, minimizing intergenerational and intercultural conflict, and engaging the Haitian immigrant community in the promotion of reproductive health.

  12. International cooperation and health policy implementation in a post-conflict situation: the case of East Timor.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo; Almeida, Celia

    2015-01-01

    This study centers on relationships among national and international actors in preparation of the first health policy document for East Timor, under the United Nations transitional administration, between 1999 and 2002. International cooperation support for the health system rehabilitation process during the post-conflict period is analyzed as part of reconstruction of the State in parallel with construction of the country's political and institutional framework. Knowledge, ideas, "ways of doing," and induced and accepted practices permeate an interplay of power relationships that condition both national political alliance-building and the architecture of international aid, pointing to input to a discussion of how these mechanisms interact at different conjunctures and times in different negotiating frameworks.

  13. Behavioral consequences of conflict-oriented health news coverage: the 2009 mammography guideline controversy and online information seeking.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Brian E; Friedenberg, Laura M; Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S

    2012-01-01

    Building on channel complementarity theory and media-system dependency theory, this study explores the impact of conflict-oriented news coverage of health issues on information seeking online. Using Google search data as a measure of behavior, we demonstrate that controversial news coverage of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's November 2009 recommendations for changes in breast cancer screening guidelines strongly predicted the volume of same-day online searches for information about mammograms. We also found that this relationship did not exist 1 year prior to the coverage, during which mammography news coverage did not focus on the guideline controversy, suggesting that the controversy frame may have driven search behavior. We discuss the implications of these results for health communication scholars and practitioners.

  14. Health care mergers and acquisitions: implications of robbers cave realistic conflict theory and prisoner's dilemma game theory.

    PubMed

    Creasy, Todd; Kinard, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Many health care mergers and acquisitions have proven highly successful because of the geographic proximity of the institutions, coalignment strategies, complementary services, and improved financial performance. Other health care mergers and acquisitions, however, have been dismal failures. This article seeks to explain a primary cause of less successful mergers or acquisitions through the prism of a multiscale, iterative prisoner's dilemma that occurs between department managers. Aspects of "Coping Theory," "Resource (Conservation) Theory," and "Social Comparison Theory" are used to analyze the experience of employees charged with making mergers or acquisitions successful. Lastly, this article suggests possible culture clash remedies drawn from the realistic conflict experiment conducted by Muzafer Sherif near Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma.

  15. The population health record: concepts, definition, design, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniel J; Parrish, R Gibson

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the American Medical Informatics Association proposed a US information strategy that included a population health record (PopHR). Despite subsequent progress on the conceptualization, development, and implementation of electronic health records and personal health records, minimal progress has occurred on the PopHR. Adapting International Organization for Standarization electronic health records standards, we define the PopHR as a repository of statistics, measures, and indicators regarding the state of and influences on the health of a defined population, in computer processable form, stored and transmitted securely, and accessible by multiple authorized users. The PopHR is based upon an explicit population health framework and a standardized logical information model. PopHR purpose and uses, content and content sources, functionalities, business objectives, information architecture, and system architecture are described. Barriers to implementation and enabling factors and a three-stage implementation strategy are delineated.

  16. The population health record: concepts, definition, design, and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R Gibson

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the American Medical Informatics Association proposed a US information strategy that included a population health record (PopHR). Despite subsequent progress on the conceptualization, development, and implementation of electronic health records and personal health records, minimal progress has occurred on the PopHR. Adapting International Organization for Standarization electronic health records standards, we define the PopHR as a repository of statistics, measures, and indicators regarding the state of and influences on the health of a defined population, in computer processable form, stored and transmitted securely, and accessible by multiple authorized users. The PopHR is based upon an explicit population health framework and a standardized logical information model. PopHR purpose and uses, content and content sources, functionalities, business objectives, information architecture, and system architecture are described. Barriers to implementation and enabling factors and a three-stage implementation strategy are delineated. PMID:20595299

  17. Children's Perceptions of Health and Illness: Images and Lay Concepts in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piko, Bettina F.; Bak, Judit

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research into children's concepts of illness, many basic questions still remain. This study aims to describe 8- to 11-year olds' lay beliefs of health, illness, health promotion and disease prevention. Children responded to open-ended questions about health and illness by drawing and writing their responses. Two primary…

  18. Changing Concepts of Health and Illness among Children of Primary School Age in Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyango-Ouma, W.; Aagaard-Hansen, J.; Jensen, B. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines changes in children's concepts of health and illness following an action-oriented health education intervention in Bondo district of Western Kenya. The study is a feasibility study exploring a specific educational approach, and it combines elements of health education research and anthropological research. Forty primary…

  19. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  20. Children's Perceptions of Health and Illness: Images and Lay Concepts in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piko, Bettina F.; Bak, Judit

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research into children's concepts of illness, many basic questions still remain. This study aims to describe 8- to 11-year olds' lay beliefs of health, illness, health promotion and disease prevention. Children responded to open-ended questions about health and illness by drawing and writing their responses. Two primary…

  1. In search of a health education model: teachers' conceptions in four Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Caussidier, Claude; El Hage, Fadi; Munoz, François; Remki, Latifa; Larribi, Rym; Khzami, Salah-Eddine; Berger, Dominique; de Carvalho, Graça S; Favre, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    School programs are defined to promote the health of the pupils and to develop their competencies so that they can adopt behaviors favorable to their health. With the European project FP6 Biohead-Citizen (2004-2007), we analyzed the conceptions of teachers as regards health education, in France, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia, in reference to the biomedical model and the social health model. These four countries were selected because their school curricula represented different models of health education. Lebanon and Tunisia addressed health education with the biomedical model. In Morocco, the curriculum was also primarily based on the biomedical model and enclosed a few instructions issued from the social health model. In France, the health education curriculum declared an approach based on the health promotion model. Our study was based on multivariate statistical analyses of questionnaires filled out by 2537 in-service and pre-service teachers. Our analysis showed that the conceptions of the teachers concerning health education were not structured and related to a specific model. We also found that the dominating factors of influence on the choices expressed with regards to health education were, among different sociocultural variables, the religion, the home country, and, to a lesser extent, the level of training. Thus, the conceptions of the teachers were not integrated into comprehensive approaches but related to individual characteristics. Consequently health education implementation would require thorough training for pre-service and in-service teachers and should also explicitly take into account their conceptions and values.

  2. Examining the Concept of Choice in Sexual Health Interventions for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…

  3. Changing Concepts of Health and Illness among Children of Primary School Age in Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyango-Ouma, W.; Aagaard-Hansen, J.; Jensen, B. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines changes in children's concepts of health and illness following an action-oriented health education intervention in Bondo district of Western Kenya. The study is a feasibility study exploring a specific educational approach, and it combines elements of health education research and anthropological research. Forty primary…

  4. Is Acculturation in Hispanic Health Research a Flawed Concept? JSRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Carlos; Comer, Brendon

    Some health researchers have used the concept of acculturation to explain health behaviors or illnesses prevalent among Hispanic people. This paper reviews studies in health, educational, and social science research among Hispanics and argues that acculturation studies are seriously limited by several basic conceptual and methodological problems.…

  5. The Health Centre Concept in Primary Health Care. Public Health in Europe 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Robert

    This report discusses world-wide efforts to provide health services in centers that are outside institutions and provide ambulatory care in the patient's home. Emergency services, although a form of primary care, are dealt with only to the extent that they are part of an organization designed to provide general primary care, but not where they are…

  6. An agenda for future debate on concepts of health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khushf, George

    2007-03-01

    The traditional contrast between naturalist and normativist disease concepts fails to capture the most salient features of the health concepts debate. By using health concepts as a window on background notions of medical science and ethics, I show how Christopher Boorse (an influential naturalist) and Lennart Nordenfelt (an influential normativist) actually share deep assumptions about the character of medicine. Their disease concepts attempt, in different ways, to shore up the same medical model. For both, health concepts function like demarcation criteria in the philosophy of science: they mark off the jurisdiction of medical science, and protect it from an inappropriate intrusion of socioeconomic factors, which threaten the integrity of modern medicine. These views are challenged by new developments in healthcare such as managed care and total quality review. To frame the health concepts debate in a way that better captures the issues integral to these new developments, I advance a new way of reading the distinction between weak and strong normativists. Strong normativists are skeptical of the demarcation project, think facts and values cannot be disentangled, and hold that socioeconomic conditions unavoidably influence how pathology is understood. The new health concepts debate should be framed as one between weak and strong normativists, and it concerns how we should respond to the current developments in health care.

  7. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J. Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D.; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees’ personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees’ work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design. PMID:25349460

  8. Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Oakes, J Michael; Fan, Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Davis, Kelly D; Hammer, Leslie; Kossek, Ellen; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Hanson, Ginger; Mierzwa, Frank; Casper, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design.

  9. Career and Vocational Education. Concepts of Health Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Curtis G.; Fiedler, Beatrice

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist students in developing the ability to understand the many aspects of personal/social/mental health. It emphasizes student performance objectives in physical well-being, disease, reproduction, heredity, mental health and aging. It is also designed to assist the local teacher with organization and…

  10. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, N S

    1986-01-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators. PMID:3708191

  11. Health concepts, issues, and experience in the Abakaliki area, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuma, C

    1994-01-01

    Environmental health problems are increasingly receiving global attention. The health of entire nations may not only be affected by adverse environmental conditions, but by nutritional deficiencies that lead to morbidity and mortality. The type and extent of adverse health effects in a population depend on the potential for exposure to some environmental factors and pathogens as well as other environmental variables like industrialization, sanitation conditions, and urbanization. National and international comparisons between health status indicators can reveal the extent of any differences that exist, including dynamic changes in prevailing environmental conditions which may be helpful in characterizing the role of specific risk factors. Improvements in collection of environmental data related to health can help to identify, control, and eliminate many of the factors that are associated with environmental risk in the Abakaliki area of eastern Nigeria. PMID:9644193

  12. Long-term mental health outcome in post-conflict settings: Similarities and differences between Kosovo and Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Ariel; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Nkubamugisha, Paul Mahoro; Gex-Fabry, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Few studies investigated the long-term mental health outcome in culturally different post-conflict settings. This study considers two surveys conducted in Kosovo 8 years after the Balkans war and in Rwanda 14 years after the genocide. All participants (n = 864 in Kosovo; n = 962 in Rwanda) were interviewed using the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Proportions of participants who met diagnostic criteria for either PTSD or MDE were 33.0% in Kosovo and 31.0% in Rwanda, with co-occurrence of both disorders in 17.8% of the Rwandan sample and 9.5% of the Kosovan sample. Among patients with PTSD, patterns of symptoms significantly differed in the two settings, with avoidance and inability to recall less frequent and sense of a foreshortened future and increased startle response more common in Rwanda. Significant differences were also observed in patients with MDE, with loss of energy and difficulties concentrating less frequent and suicidal ideation more common in Rwanda. Comorbid PTSD and MDE were associated with decreased SF-36 subjective mental and physical health scores in both settings, but significantly larger effects in Kosovo than in Rwanda. Culturally different civilian populations exposed to mass trauma may differ with respect to their long-term mental health outcome, including comorbidity, symptom profile and health perception. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Rural health care in Vietnam and China: conflict between market reforms and social need.

    PubMed

    Huong, Dang Boi; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Bales, Sarah; Jiaying, Chen; Lucas, Henry; Segall, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    China and Vietnam have adopted market reforms in the health sector in the context of market economic reforms. Vietnam has developed a large private health sector, while in China commercialization has occurred mainly in the formal public sector, where user fees are now the main source of facility finance. As a result, the integrity of China's planned health service has been disrupted, especially in poor rural areas. In Vietnam the government has been an important financer of public health facilities and the pre-reform health service is largely intact, although user fees finance an increasing share of facility expenditure. Over-servicing of patients to generate revenue occurs in both countries, but more seriously in China. In both countries government health expenditure has declined as a share of total health expenditure and total government expenditure, while out-of-pocket health spending has become the main form of health finance. This has particularly affected the rural poor, deterring them from accessing health care. Assistance for the poor to meet public-sector user fees is more beneficial and widespread in Vietnam than China. China is now criticizing the degree of commercialization of its health system and considers its health reforms "basically unsuccessful." Market reforms that stimulate growth in the economy are not appropriate to reform of social sectors such as health.

  14. Toward Proof of Concept of a One Health Approach to Disease Prediction and Control

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Richard; Kachani, Malika; Kunkel, Rebekah; Thomas, Jason; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Wallace, Robert; Blackmore, Carina; Wong, David; Karesh, William; Natterson, Barbara; Dugas, Raymond; Rubin, Carol

    2013-01-01

    A One Health approach considers the role of changing environments with regard to infectious and chronic disease risks affecting humans and nonhuman animals. Recent disease emergence events have lent support to a One Health approach. In 2010, the Stone Mountain Working Group on One Health Proof of Concept assembled and evaluated the evidence regarding proof of concept of the One Health approach to disease prediction and control. Aspects examined included the feasibility of integrating human, animal, and environmental health and whether such integration could improve disease prediction and control efforts. They found evidence to support each of these concepts but also identified the need for greater incorporation of environmental and ecosystem factors into disease assessments and interventions. The findings of the Working Group argue for larger controlled studies to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the One Health approach. PMID:24295136

  15. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  16. Sexual Conflict in Hermaphrodites

    PubMed Central

    Schärer, Lukas; Janicke, Tim; Ramm, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Hermaphrodites combine the male and female sex functions into a single individual, either sequentially or simultaneously. This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms. Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique (or especially important) aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. These include conflicts over the timing of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites, and in simultaneous hermaphrodites, over both sex roles and the postmating manipulation of the sperm recipient by the sperm donor. Extending and applying sexual conflict thinking to hermaphrodites can identify general evolutionary principles and help explain some of the unique reproductive diversity found among animals exhibiting this widespread but to date understudied sexual system. PMID:25237131

  17. Managing Ethical Challenges to Mental Health Research in Post‐Conflict Settings

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the need to strengthen mental health systems following emergencies, including natural and manmade disasters. Mental health services need to be informed by culturally attuned evidence that is developed through research. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish rigorous ethical research practice to underpin the evidence‐base for mental health services delivered during and following emergencies. PMID:25580875

  18. Using GoNoodle to Introduce Health Concepts in the K-5 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces readers to the GoNoodle platform for incorporating physical activity throughout the school day, and describes how one of the features, Ultimate Champ Training, can be used to teach health concepts in the elementary school classroom.

  19. Using GoNoodle to Introduce Health Concepts in the K-5 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces readers to the GoNoodle platform for incorporating physical activity throughout the school day, and describes how one of the features, Ultimate Champ Training, can be used to teach health concepts in the elementary school classroom.

  20. Context sensitive health informatics: concepts, methods and tools.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos; Jaspers, Monique; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts.

  1. The numeracy demands of health education information: an examination of numerical concepts in written diabetes materials.

    PubMed

    Joram, Elana; Roberts-Dobie, Susan; Mattison, Sue J; Devlin, Michele; Herbrandson, Kristy; Hansen, Kim; Eslinger, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of numerical concepts that appear in written health educational materials is an important aspect of health literacy. Health materials that include many advanced numerical concepts may place high demands on readers, especially those with low health literacy levels. The purpose of this study was to examine and document the types of numerical concepts that appear in passages selected from written diabetes educational materials that varied in their type of content. Readability of the passages was also analyzed. One hundred and fifty passages of 100 words each were selected from 50 diabetes-related educational documents, produced by major health organizations. Passages were coded for type of numerical concept, SMOG Reading Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, and features that elaborated the numerical concepts, such as pictures or explanations. Findings indicate that passages containing general information about diabetes and its prevention contained significantly more advanced numerical concepts, the highest reading grade level, the lowest reading ease scores, and the lowest frequency of elaborative features, relative to many other types of content. Recommendations are made for enhancing the presentation of numerical concepts in written diabetes educational materials.

  2. The benefits of incorporating the One Health concept into the organisation of Veterinary Services.

    PubMed

    Videla, O E; Urzua, J O

    2014-08-01

    This article analyses the potential benefits of disseminating and implementing the One Health concept at the country level. It explores the need to improve administrative structures, organise inter-agency relationships, build the capacity of the veterinary profession and mainstream the issues of environment and climate change. It also stresses the importance of demographic analysis in disease control and prevention. This article contributes to the discussion by Veterinary Services on how to mainstream the One Health concept.

  3. [Concept of personal data relating to health in the law of personal data protection].

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Jesús Rubí

    2006-01-01

    The Law on the Protection of Data states that health data are sensible data and therefore subject to a strengthened system of guarantees. In order to apply this, the information must make reference to physical persons and must be susceptible of being included within the concept of health data. The resolutions of the Spanish Agency for Data Protection and the rulings of the Courts provide very valuable elements to clarify both concepts.

  4. Chronobiology--A New Concept in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eburne, Norman

    1972-01-01

    Autorhytmometry (self-measurement of biorhythms) could serve as a data base in preventive and curative measures in medicine. This article proposes self-measurement programs in public schools as a part of health education. (JA)

  5. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness.

    PubMed

    Boruchovitch, E; Mednick, B R

    1997-10-01

    In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES), gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  6. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain) at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. Methods We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Results Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P < 0.001) and the fact of borrowing money (coef = 6.11, 95% CI = 2.91-9.30, P < 0.001) because of an injured person in the household. Families that were affiliated with the Kosovo Liberation Army, or had participated in a protest before or during the war, were likely to be targeted by Serbian paramilitary and law enforcement agencies. Conclusions Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of

  7. Survivors of the war in the Northern Kosovo: violence exposure, risk factors and public health effects of an ethnic conflict.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Salihu, Mimoza; Rushiti, Feride; Bala, Labinot; Modvig, Jens

    2010-05-28

    The aim of this population-based study was to assess the long-lasting effects of ethnic conflict on health and well-being (with a focus on injury and persistent pain) at family and community level. We have also investigated possible risk factors for victimisation during the conflict and factors contributing to healing. We conducted a district-level cross-sectional cluster survey of 1,115 households with a population of 6,845. Interviews were carried out in Mitrovicë district in Northern Kosovo from September to October 2008, using standardised questionnaire to collect lifetime violence exposure, lifestyle factors and health information on individual and household. Ethnic Albanians made up 95% of the sample population. Crude mortality and under-five mortality rate was not high in 2008. Over 90% of families had been exposed to at least two categories of violence and human rights violations, and 493 individuals from 341 families reported torture experiences. During the two weeks before the survey, 20% of individuals had suffered physical or mental pain. There were differences in pain complaints according to gender and age, and whether people had been injured within 12 months, had lifetime exposure to violence-related injury, or had been tortured. Patterns of social and political participation in a family could affect the proportion of family members complaining of pain. The proportion of family members with pain complaints was related to a decline in the household income (coef = 9.31, 95% CI = 6.16-12.46, P < 0.001) and the fact of borrowing money (coef = 6.11, 95% CI = 2.91-9.30, P < 0.001) because of an injured person in the household. Families that were affiliated with the Kosovo Liberation Army, or had participated in a protest before or during the war, were likely to be targeted by Serbian paramilitary and law enforcement agencies. Mitrovicë district is currently characterised by a low level of violence, but the effects of ethnic conflict on health and well

  8. Americans' conflicting views about the public health system, and how to shore up support.

    PubMed

    Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John M; SteelFisher, Gillian K; Connolly, John M

    2010-11-01

    This analysis of national opinion polls shows that a majority of Americans support increased spending on public health in general and that they see public health interventions as saving money in the long term. At the same time, many do not favor increased federal spending in a number of areas that public health officials deem important. In addition, polls show striking partisan differences, with Republicans much less supportive than Democrats of additional spending on public health. This split may have political implications for the public health component of the new health reform law if there is a change in party control of one or more houses of Congress after the November 2010 elections. As a result, in order to sustain public support for increased spending, it will be critically important to give examples of cost savings from public health programs and to highlight how they have reduced mortality from major chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS.

  9. Lost in translation: a genealogy of the "social capital" concept in public health.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Haines, V; Hawe, P; Shiell, A

    2006-08-01

    To examine the genealogy of the social capital concept in public health, with attention to the epistemological concerns and academic practices that shaped the way in which this concept was translated into public health. A citation-network path analysis of the public health literature on social capital was used to generate a genealogy of the social capital concept in public health. The analysis identifies the intellectual sources, influential texts, and developments in the conceptualisation of social capital in public health. The population of 227 texts (articles, books, reports) was selected in two phases. Phase 1 texts were articles in the PubMed database with "social capital" in their title published before 2003 (n = 65). Phase 2 texts are those texts cited more than once by phase 1 articles (n = 165). The analysis shows how the scholarship of Robert Putnam has been absorbed into public health research, how three seminal texts appearing in 1996 and 1997 helped shape the communitarian form that the social capital concept has assumed in public health, and how both were influenced by the epistemological context of social epidemiology at the time. Originally viewed in public health research as an ecological level, psychosocial mechanism that might mediate the income inequality-health pathway, the dominance of the communitarian approach to social capital has given disproportionate attention to normative and associational properties of places. Network approaches to social capital were lost in this translation. Recovering them is key to a full translation and conceptualisation of social capital in public health.

  10. The Health Utilities Index (HUI): concepts, measurement properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Horsman, John; Furlong, William; Feeny, David; Torrance, George

    2003-10-16

    This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2) and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3) instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  11. Prioritizing Healthcare Delivery in a Conflict Zone Comment on "TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo".

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin; Richardson, Eugene T

    2013-09-01

    Nowhere are the barriers to a functional health infrastructure more clearly on display than in the Goma region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Kaboru et al. report poorly integrated services for HIV and TB in this war-torn region. Priorities in conflict zones include provision of security, shelter, food, clean water and prevention of sexual violence. In Goma, immediate health priorities include emergency treatment of cholera, malaria, respiratory illnesses, provision of maternal care, millions of measles vaccinations, and management of an ongoing rabies epidemic. It is a daunting task to determine an essential package of medical services in a setting where there are so many competing priorities, where opportunity costs are limited and epidemiologic information is scarce. Non-governmental agencies sometimes add to the challenge via an insidious reduction of state sovereignty and the creation of new levels of income inequality. Kaboru et al. have successfully highlighted many of the complexities of rebuilding and prioritizing healthcare in a conflict zone.

  12. Conceptions of mental health among Ugandan youth orphaned by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Harms, Sheila; Kizza, Ruth; Sebunnya, Joshua; Jack, Susan

    2009-03-01

    The AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected developing or low-income sub-Saharan African countries. Within the context of the epidemic, children and youth are at risk of losing their parents at an early age. The experience of orphanhood due to AIDS has the potential to negatively impact on a child's mental health. A qualitative study was conducted to comprehensively describe the experience of orphanhood and its impact on mental health from the culturally specific perspective of Ugandan youths. We conducted interviews with a purposeful sample of 13 youths (ages 12 to 18) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS illness and who were also affiliated with a non-governmental organisation providing support to orphans. The orphaned youths experienced significant ongoing emotional difficulties following the death of their parent(s). The youths in this study were unfamiliar with the term 'mental health,' however they easily identified factors associated with good or poor mental health. In general, good mental health was associated with social conduct that is culturally appropriate. Poor mental health was perceived as a form of madness or insanity and it was associated with a loss of basic life necessities, such as access to food, education or shelter. The youths also identified factors that promote more successful orphans. The findings of this study suggest that Western terminologies and symptom constellations in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV may not be applicable in an African cultural context. There are several clinical implications, including the development of a mental health intervention paradigm that emphasises resilience.

  13. Health journalism in the service of power: 'moral complacency' and the Hebrew media in the Gaza-Israel conflict.

    PubMed

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna

    2014-05-01

    The power of health news as a vehicle in the production of meaning in the service of power is the core of this article. Tracking the media coverage of a medical service, it shows how a routine practice can be invoked at a time of armed conflict so as to enhance a benevolent state image. The case at hand is the medical treatment of Gaza children in Israeli hospitals. A series of Internet searches revealed a group of publications on the subject in the Hebrew media, during and shortly after Israel's assault on Gaza in the winter of 2008-2009. In the press articles the treatments were invariably constituted as the epitome of Israel's compassion towards the enemy's children. This image relied, however, on a simultaneous silencing of other aspects of these treatments, which would have challenged this image. The monolithic depictions give rise to the notion of reversed moral panic or 'moral complacency', wherein the media amplifies a little-known social phenomenon into an epitome of societal values and charges it with significance on a national scale. The article ends with considering some features that possibly render health news an especially convenient domain for state-supportive media presentations. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  15. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project.

  16. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  17. Climbing a ladder: a step-by-step approach to understanding the concept of agroecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, I; Albizu, I; Amezaga, I; Onaindia, M; Buchner, V; Garbisu, C

    2004-01-01

    Population and individual health is linked to agroecosystem health. To comprehend the concept of agroecosystem health, one should climb a ladder consisting of several successive steps, each rung presenting a certain degree of instability (conceptual difficulty and uncertainty) in an advisable but not inevitable order. Here we suggest a ladder consisting of the following concepts: ecosystem, agroecosystem, biodiversity, sustainability, ecosystem health, and agroecosystem health. Although these concepts are to a certain extent well understood and grasped by scientists, politicians, natural resource managers, and environmentalists, some steps are still highly debatable, unclear, and present a considerable degree of reluctance to be defined and understood. Consequently, much empirical and theoretical effort must be made to construct solid conceptual ladders made up of such steps. In this enterprise, a traditional reductionistic approach confining interpretations to narrow scientific disciplines is unadvisable. Holistic, transdisciplinary approaches are required to reach the desired goal.

  18. Locating ethnicity and health: exploring concepts and contexts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waqar I U; Bradby, Hannah

    2007-09-01

    With the rapid development of ethnicity and health as a field of sociological research, this paper seeks to re-evaluate the development of ideas around ethnicity, 'race' and culture and consider how they have been applied to the question of health. Ethnicity as a social characteristic is contingent on the situation in which it is manifest. The process of marking 'other' ethnic groups includes stereotyping and racialisation, a process through which 'racial' or ethnic differences predominate to the exclusion of a consideration of social, economic and power relations. In the British context, the history of empire and medicine's justification of racist treatment of enslaved and colonised people, is relevant to understanding how ethnic and cultural differences have come to be essentialised and pathologised. Immigration to Britain only became a mass phenomenon after World War II, with settlement patterns following employment opportunities and kinship alliances. The state has a longstanding history of 'managing' diversity, sometimes essentialising differences between groups, at other times tackling disadvantage and discrimination experiences through policy action. Sociologists of health were slow to study ethnicity, with initial research coming from tropical disease specialists. The tendency of medicine to pathologise minority cultures is explored through case studies of the approach to rickets and the assessment of health risks associated with consanguineous marriage. Anti-racist approaches have encouraged the consideration of discrimination against and socioeconomic position of minorities. The field has developed with work on nomenclature and the operationalisation of ethnic identity, necessary to study health inequalities between ethnic groups and paying due heed to the contribution of socioeconomic position and racism to group experiences. Research into chronic conditions with complex analysis of a number of distinct contributory variables has been published of late

  19. Evidence-based public health: an evolving concept.

    PubMed

    Kohatsu, Neal D; Robinson, Jennifer G; Torner, James C

    2004-12-01

    Evidence-based public health (EBPH) has been proposed as a practice model that builds upon the success of evidence-based medicine (EBM). EBM has been described as a more scientific and systematic approach to the practice of medicine. It has enhanced medical training and practice in many settings. Both EBM and EBPH systematically use data, information, and scientific principles to enhance clinical care and population health, respectively. In this paper, we review the evolution of EBPH, propose a new definition for EBPH, and discuss developments that may support its further advancement.

  20. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Conflict and professionalism: perceptions among nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zakari, N M; Al Khamis, N I; Hamadi, H Y

    2010-09-01

    To examine the relationship between nurses' perceptions of conflict and professionalism. In Saudi Arabia, health-care sectors are constantly undergoing major changes because of social, consumer-related, governmental, technological and economic pressures. These changes will influence the nature of health-care organizations, such as hospitals' work environment. The ability of nurses to practise in a professional manner may be influenced by their work environment and conflict level. A cross-sectional design was conducted in this study. A simple random selection of three health-care sectors in Saudi Arabia was performed and 346 nurse managers, as well as bedside nurses participated to provide information about conflict levels and professionalism. The Perceived Conflict Scale was used to assess the level of conflict, and the Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale was used to assess the professionalism perception among nurses. The intragroup/other department type of conflict had a statistically significant correlation with the perception of professionalism. In addition, the findings point to a low perception among the participating nurses regarding their professionalism. A number of factors might explain the low level of perception of professionalism. These relate to the workplace itself, as well as to the personal background of the nurses, which includes the personal interest in the nursing profession, as well as the family's, society's and the consumers' views of the profession. Given the findings of this study, nurse managers are encouraged to create a work environment that supports professionalism and minimizes conflict.

  2. Perspectives on the strategic uses of concept mapping to address public health challenges.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Slonim, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We examine the adaptation of approaches used to plan and implement the steps of concept mapping to meet specialized needs and requirements in several public health projects. Seven published concept mapping projects are detailed to document how each of the phases were modified to meet the specific aims of each project. Concept mapping was found to be a useful tool to complement public health roles such as assessment, program development, and priority setting. The phases of concept mapping allow for a blending of diverse perspectives, which is critical to public health efforts. The adaptability of concept mapping permits the use of multiple modalities such as the addition of face-to-face brainstorming; use of qualitative methods, including structured interviews; and review and use of published literature and guidelines. Another positive aspect of concept mapping for public health practice is its ability to identify program elements, provide a visual map of generated ideas and their relationships to one another, and assist in identifying priorities. Our reflections on the adaptability should help inform another generation in designing concept mapping projects and related products that may benefit from unique adaptations and the rapidly expanding social media technology and platforms.

  3. Conflicts of interest matter and awareness is needed.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Paolo; Saracci, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    A conflict of interest arises by having two conflicting goals in one's research. The primary goal of research relevant to public health is to produce impartial evidence on health hazards for humans. Several entities - including industry - may have public health as a goal among others, but this is not their primary goal. Primary goals are in those cases profit or career, that conflict with the goal of health. It is a role of the State to foster research whose primary goal is impartial evidence on factors affecting population health. Disclosure of conflicts of interest is not enough: the view that disclosure solves all problems amounts to say that a declaration of having produced unbiased evidence is a self-fulfilling guarantee that the evidence will not be affected by conflicts of interest. This concept is seriously misleading. A conflict of interest arises from the circumstances in which research occurs and does not exist only in the opinion of some people or groups (or the authors of a paper).

  4. A Lifetime of Trauma: Mental Health Challenges for Higher Education in a Conflict Environment in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babury, Mohammed Osman; Hayward, Fred Manwarren

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 years of war in Afghanistan have resulted in immense policy challenges to address the resulting mental health issues. The purpose of this policy analysis is to examine the potential role of higher education in addressing the pressing mental health problems in Afghanistan's public universities and higher education institutions as a…

  5. Integrating staff well-being into the Primary Health Care system: a case study in post-conflict Kosovo.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Albertien; van Pietersom, Tineke; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Rushiti, Feride; Ymerhalili, Genc; Agani, Ferid

    2015-01-01

    Staff well-being including stress awareness and stress management skills is usually not a priority in (mental) health policies. In Kosovo, the level of stress amongst primary health care (PHC) professionals is high because health professionals are part of the population seriously affected by conflict. The need to support staff and look after their well-being was recognised by the Director of the Centre for Development of Family Medicine, Head of Primary Care. In response, the Antares Foundation and the Kosovo Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (KRCT), in close cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, implemented an integrated psycho-social capacity building programme for PHC professionals. This case-study describes how staff well-being was integrated into the PHC system in Kosovo. This was accomplished through raising awareness on staff well-being and stress management as well as strengthening knowledge of and skills in stress management. Eighteen national PHC staff were trained and more than a thousand family doctors and nurses attended stress management workshops. A steering committee consisting of key stakeholders was responsible for overseeing the execution of the programme. This steering committee successfully advocated for integration of staff well-being and stress management in the revised mental health strategy 2014-2020. The curriculum developed for the training was integrated in the professional staff development programme for family doctors and nurses. The effectiveness of the programme was assessed through an evaluation (including a survey among PHC professionals trained under the programme). Evaluation findings showed that offering structured support, entailing the opportunity to discuss work related problems and providing tools to deal with stress related to work or personal life, helps staff to continue their professional tasks under challenging conditions. Evaluation findings suggest that results can be sustained

  6. Rest: A Health-Related Phenomenon and Concept in Caring Science.

    PubMed

    Asp, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Rest is a health-related phenomenon. Researchers have explored the phenomenon of rest, but further concept development is recommended. The aim of my study was to develop and describe a concept of rest, from interviews with a total of 63 participants about their lived experiences of rest. I performed the developing process in two stages: first with descriptive phenomenology and second with a hermeneutic approach. The concept of rest is comprised of the essences of both rest and "non-rest," and there is a current movement between these two conditions in peoples' lives. The essence of rest is being in harmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essence of non-rest is being in disharmony in motivation, feeling, and action. The essences reveal some meaning constituents. Health care professionals and researchers can use the concept as a frame of reference in health care praxis and in applied research.

  7. [The concept of endocrine disruption and human health].

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Zalko, Daniel; Savouret, Jean-François; Menuet, Arnaud; Jégou, Bernard

    2007-02-01

    In Europe, endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been defined as substances foreign to the body that have deleterious effects on the individuals or their descendants, due to changes in endocrine function. In the United States, EDs have been described as exogenous agents that interfere with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding, action or elimination of the natural ligands responsible for maintaining homeostasis and regulating body development. These two definitions are complementary, but both indicate that the effects induced by EDs probably involve mechanisms relating in some way to hormonal homeostasis and action. EDs are generally described as substances with anti-oestrogenic, oestrogenic, anti-androgenic or androgenic effects. More recently, other targets have been evidenced such as the thyroid and immune system. Many different EDs are present in the various compartments of the environment (air, water and land) and in foods (of plant and animal origin). They may originate from food packaging, combustion products, plant health treatments, detergents and the chemical industry in general. In addition to the potential effects of these compounds on adults, the sensitivity of embryos and fetuses to many of the xenobiotic compounds likely to cross the placenta has raised considerable concern and led to major research efforts. With the exception of the clearly established links between diethylstilbestrol, reproductive health abnormalities and cancers, very little is known for certain about the effects of EDs on human health. Given the lack of available data, current concerns about the possible involvement of EDs in the increase in the incidence of breast cancer, and possibly of endometriosis and early puberty in girls, remain hypothetical. Conversely, the deterioration in male reproductive health is at the heart of preoccupations and progress in analyses of the relationship between EDs and human health. This literature review aims to describe the current

  8. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health.

  9. A systematic review of factors influencing the psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bayard; Browne, John

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of poor mental health have been recorded amongst populations affected by armed conflict. The aim of this study was to systematically review existing evidence on the factors influencing general psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries. Quantitative studies that described statistically significant associations with general psychological health of adult conflict-affected persons in low- and middle-income countries were included. Bibliographic databases and humanitarian agency websites were searched, and a screening, selection and review process was applied. The findings are described using commonly recurring categories of demographic characteristics, socio-economic factors and exposure to traumatic events. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Factors with an association with worse general psychological health were demographic factors of gender (women), older age and not being married; socio-economic factors, such as low education level, low income and assets, not working, residential status, living conditions and insecurity; and a number of violent and traumatic events including forced displacement - particularly internal displacement. The evidence base was weak and methodological limitations were noted. Further research is required to better understand the factors influencing general psychological health amongst conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries.

  10. "Workhood"-a useful concept for the analysis of health workers' resources? an evaluation from Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background International debates on improving health system performance and quality of care are strongly coined by systems thinking. There is a surprising lack of attention to the human (worker) elements. Although the central role of health workers within the health system has increasingly been acknowledged, there are hardly studies that analyze performance and quality of care from an individual perspective. Drawing on livelihood studies in health and sociological theory of capitals, this study develops and evaluates the new concept of workhood. As an analytical device the concept aims at understanding health workers' capacities to access resources (human, financial, physical, social, cultural and symbolic capital) and transfer them to the community from an individual perspective. Methods Case studies were conducted in four Reproductive-and-Child-Health (RCH) clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania, using different qualitative methods such as participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews to explore the relevance of the different types of workhood resources for effective health service delivery. Health workers' ability to access these resources were investigated and factors facilitating or constraining access identified. Results The study showed that lack of physical, human, cultural and financial capital constrained health workers' capacity to act. In particular, weak health infrastructure and health system failures led to the lack of sufficient drug and supply stocks and chronic staff shortages at the health facilities. However, health workers' capacity to mobilize social, cultural and symbolic capital played a significant role in their ability to overcome work related problems. Professional and non-professional social relationships were activated in order to access drug stocks and other supplies, transport and knowledge. Conclusions By evaluating the workhood concept this study highlights the importance of understanding

  11. "Workhood"-a useful concept for the analysis of health workers' resources? An evaluation from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gross, Karin; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Obrist, Brigit

    2012-03-08

    International debates on improving health system performance and quality of care are strongly coined by systems thinking. There is a surprising lack of attention to the human (worker) elements. Although the central role of health workers within the health system has increasingly been acknowledged, there are hardly studies that analyze performance and quality of care from an individual perspective. Drawing on livelihood studies in health and sociological theory of capitals, this study develops and evaluates the new concept of workhood. As an analytical device the concept aims at understanding health workers' capacities to access resources (human, financial, physical, social, cultural and symbolic capital) and transfer them to the community from an individual perspective. Case studies were conducted in four Reproductive-and-Child-Health (RCH) clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania, using different qualitative methods such as participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews to explore the relevance of the different types of workhood resources for effective health service delivery. Health workers' ability to access these resources were investigated and factors facilitating or constraining access identified. The study showed that lack of physical, human, cultural and financial capital constrained health workers' capacity to act. In particular, weak health infrastructure and health system failures led to the lack of sufficient drug and supply stocks and chronic staff shortages at the health facilities. However, health workers' capacity to mobilize social, cultural and symbolic capital played a significant role in their ability to overcome work related problems. Professional and non-professional social relationships were activated in order to access drug stocks and other supplies, transport and knowledge. By evaluating the workhood concept this study highlights the importance of understanding health worker performance by looking at

  12. What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families.

  13. Peace-building and reconciliation dividends of integrated health services delivery in post-conflict Burundi: qualitative assessments of providers and community members.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Cathryn; Edward, Anbrasi

    2015-01-01

    While demonstrating causality remains challenging, several 'health-peace' mechanisms have been proposed to describe how health systems contribute to peace-building and stability in post-conflict settings. A qualitative study was undertaken in southern Burundi to identify drivers of social tension and reconciliation in the catchment area of Village Health Works, a health services organisation. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in early 2014 with a total of one hundred and twenty community members and staff representing a range of conflict and recovery experience. Themes emerging from these interviews indicated mechanisms at the individual, household, community, and regional levels through which health provision mitigates tensions and promotes social cohesion. This peace dividend was amplified by the clinic's integrated model, which facilitates further community interaction through economic, agricultural and education programmes. Land pressure and the marginalisation of repatriated refugees were cited as drivers of local tension.

  14. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  15. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... for the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) for public review and comment. The NAHLN is a nationally coordinated network and partnership of Federal, State, and university- associated...

  16. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  17. Media Health Literacy (MHL): Development and Measurement of the Concept among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health…

  18. Concept Paper on Health and Safety Issues in Day Care. Final Manuscript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzo, Peggy; Aronson, Susan S.

    This report discusses the existence and prevention of major health and safety risks for children in day care and makes recommendations for the Federal Interagency Day Care requirements (FIDCR) concerning health and safety. Section I describes varying concepts of risk related to probability and to possibility of adverse events, and discusses…

  19. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karney, Bryan W.; Filion, Yves R.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow…

  20. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  1. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karney, Bryan W.; Filion, Yves R.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow…

  2. Media Health Literacy (MHL): Development and Measurement of the Concept among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health…

  3. Managing Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Francine; And Others

    This package of materials is designed to provide schools with information, suggestions, and activities that can increase awareness of the nature of conflicts, conflict-resolution strategies, and the management of conflict and crisis situations. It focuses on developing a positive school climate that enhances intergroup relationships, encourages…

  4. Mental Health Outcomes of Drug Conflict Among University Students at the U.S.–Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Benavides, Nora A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate to what extent young adults with close ties to Mexico were at greater risk for self-reported negative mental health outcomes than comparison groups during drug-related armed conflict from 2008 through 2012, and the effect of type and number of traumatic events on mental health outcomes. Using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, 202 university students living in the El Paso–Ciudad Juárez border region were surveyed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Students with close ties to Mexico reported symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress at significantly higher rates compared with those without connection to Mexico, but there was no significant difference in rates of depression. Although more than a third of participants reported experiencing 5 or more traumatic events connected with the drug war, being confined to home had the most significant effect. Frequency of traumatic events reported by students as well as rates of anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms were higher among students with greater connection to Mexico. Rates of clinically-significant depressive symptoms among all students were higher than expected for U.S. adults but comparable with all U.S. college students. This study presents important new data on the mental health effects of Mexico’s drug war. PMID:26633944

  5. [Job demands and work-family conflict in a health care staff. The role of work shifts].

    PubMed

    Zito, Margherita; Colombo, Lara; Mura, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Work-family conflict (wfc), that originates from an incompatibility between the job and the family demands, is a very relevant topic in health care context, as suggested by NEXT study. Work overload and schedule organization are dimensions that can affect wfc, and particularly, studies indicate work shifts as one of its main determinants, as they limit the work-family balance and represent one of the prime risk factors for workers' health. The aim of this study was to detect the role of some job demands (both general and specific) and of schedule organization in determining the wfc experience, with particular attention to work shifts. Respondents to our questionnaire are 207 nurses of a north Italian public health organization. They are mostly women (92.8%) and their average age is 42. Data analysis shows that wfc is mostly influenced by work shifts, but also by work overload, cognitive load and by on-call availability. Staff working on shifts and on-call availability perceive a higher wfc than their colleagues without work shifts and on-call availability. The central role of work shifts in determining wfc suggests the need to act on schedule organization and on training programs for supervisors and workers.

  6. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  7. Consumer empowerment in mental health organizations: concept, benefits, and impediments.

    PubMed

    Salzer, M S

    1997-05-01

    This article proposes a framework for promoting consumer empowerment in mental health organizations. Consumer empowerment involves consumer participation in organizational decision-making, program development and evaluation, access to resources, and opportunities for consumers to develop and run services as well as to maintain personal dignity and integrity. The benefits include increased service innovation, responsiveness to changes in the market place, accountability, as well as the enhancement of quality of care, the protection of consumer rights, among others.

  8. Health, supervisory support, and workplace culture in relation to work-family conflict and synergy.

    PubMed

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    This research examined health, supervisory support, and workplace culture as predictors of work interfering with family, family interfering with work, and work-family synergy. The analysis of data from 2,796 respondents from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce yielded significant relations among measures of mental health, self-rated health, supervisory support, and work-family culture with a focus on career concerns. Support was found for a measure of work-family synergy. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Health in All Policies: concept, theory and application.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Delany, Toni; Macdougall, Colin; Williams, Carmel; Broderick, Danny; Wildgoose, Deborah; Harris, Elizabeth; Mcdermott, Dennis; Kickbusch, Ilona; Popay, Jennie; Marmot, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article describes some of the crucial theoretical, methodological and practical issues that need to be considered when evaluating Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiatives. The approaches that have been applied to evaluate HiAP in South Australia are drawn upon as case studies, and early findings from this evaluative research are provided. The South Australian evaluation of HiAP is based on a close partnership between researchers and public servants. The article describes the South Australian HiAP research partnership and considers its benefits and drawbacks in terms of the impact on the scope of the research, the types of evidence that can be collected and the implications for knowledge transfer. This partnership evolved from the conduct of process evaluations and is continuing to develop through joint collaboration on an Australian National Health & Medical Research Council grant. The South Australian research is not seeking to establish causality through statistical tests of correlations, but instead by creating a 'burden of evidence' which supports logically coherent chains of relations. These chains emerge through contrasting and comparing findings from many relevant and extant forms of evidence. As such, program logic is being used to attribute policy change to eventual health outcomes. The article presents the preliminary program logic model and describes the early work of applying the program logic approach to HiAP. The article concludes with an assessment of factors that have accounted for HiAP being sustained in South Australia from 2008 to 2013.

  10. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quantitative key-informant survey.

    PubMed

    Borba, Christina P C; Ng, Lauren C; Stevenson, Anne; Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Harris, Benjamin L; Parnarouskis, Lindsey; Gray, Deborah A; Carney, Julia R; Domínguez, Silvia; Wang, Edward K S; Boxill, Ryan; Song, Suzan J; Henderson, David C

    2016-01-02

    Between 1989 and 2004, Liberia experienced a devastating civil war that resulted in widespread trauma with almost no mental health infrastructure to help citizens cope. In 2009, the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare collaborated with researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital to conduct a rapid needs assessment survey in Liberia with local key informants (n = 171) to examine the impact of war and post-war events on emotional and behavioral problems of, functional limitations of, and appropriate treatment settings for Liberian youth aged 5-22. War exposure and post-conflict sexual violence, poverty, infectious disease and parental death negatively impacted youth mental health. Key informants perceived that youth displayed internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mental health-related functional impairment at home, school, work and in relationships. Medical clinics were identified as the most appropriate setting for mental health services. Youth in Liberia continue to endure the harsh social, economic and material conditions of everyday life in a protracted post-conflict state, and have significant mental health needs. Their observed functional impairment due to mental health issues further limited their access to protective factors such as education, employment and positive social relationships. Results from this study informed Liberia's first post-conflict mental health policy.

  11. A mental health needs assessment of children and adolescents in post-conflict Liberia: results from a quant