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Sample records for health drink tea

  1. Steep your genes in health: drink tea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Tea, one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world, has many health benefits. Tea polyphenols support health by promoting antioxidant enzymes, promoting apoptosis, preventing angiogenesis, and modulating epigenetic change. Considerable basic science and epidemiologic evidence supports the regular consumption of this tasty, inexpensive beverage. PMID:20396424

  2. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed.

  3. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsiu Chen; Wang, Chi-Jane; Cheng, Shu Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chen, Po See; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2014-02-01

    The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12). Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1%) students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001), coffee drinking (p < 0.001), alcohol drinking (p < 0.001), minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009), poorer sleepers (p = 0.037), higher body mass index (p = 0.004), and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001). Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Tea and health: studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a healthpromoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption.

  5. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  6. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  7. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    PubMed

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  8. Element composition of tea leaves and tea infusions and its impact on health.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fwu-Ming; Chen, Hong-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Tea infusion is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide next to water, with about 20 billion cups consumed daily. In Taiwan, daily consumption averages 2.5 cups of tea infusion per person. Many studies have concluded that tea has numerous beneficial effects on health. However, some undesirable trace elements, such as arsenic, chromium, cadmium, lead, etc., are a concern. This study has three aims: (1) to measure the concentrations of arsenic and heavy metal elements, such as chromium, cadmium, and lead, as well as the essential trace elements contained in dried tea leaves of the common brands in Taiwan; (2) to determine the percentage released and concentration of each of these elements after infusion of these tea leaves with boiling water; (3) to assess the carcinogenic risk from daily tea consumption, to provide reference values for the general public. This study showed the total content of arsenic and heavy metals in green tea, oolong tea, and black tea produced in Taiwan was 0.11, 5.61, and 10.11 microg/g, respectively, indicating that the level of arsenic and heavy metal contamination of tea leaves was lower in Taiwan than other regions of the world. The hazard index (HI) of daily tea drinking of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea was low and within the bounds of safety (<1). Tea is an indispensable part of everyday life for many people in Taiwan, studies should continue to ensure that public health is maintained.

  9. Hugging, Drinking Tea, and Listening: Mental Health Needs of Turkish Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohtorik, Yasemin; McWilliams, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Twelve Turkish immigrants were interviewed in a hypothesis-generating, qualitative investigation of their immigration experiences and mental health needs. Findings suggest high levels of psychological distress associated with homesickness, lack of English proficiency, problematic immigration status, difficulty adjusting to a new culture, and…

  10. Hugging, Drinking Tea, and Listening: Mental Health Needs of Turkish Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohtorik, Yasemin; McWilliams, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Twelve Turkish immigrants were interviewed in a hypothesis-generating, qualitative investigation of their immigration experiences and mental health needs. Findings suggest high levels of psychological distress associated with homesickness, lack of English proficiency, problematic immigration status, difficulty adjusting to a new culture, and…

  11. Tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chenshu; Tang, Rongrui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between tea drinking habits and osteoporotic hip/femur fractures. Methods: Paired case-control method was used for face-to-face interviews from January 2010 to June 2014. Patients (n=435) with newly osteoporotic hip/femur fracture and 435 controls with the same gender and age (±3) were given questionnaire survey. The survey content included general situation, detailed tea drinking and other diet condition, health-related behavior and family history of fractures, etc. Results: Single factor logistic analysis showed that the habit of drinking tea can significantly reduce the risk of hip/femur fracture. Cumulative year of tea drinking, the cumulative amount of tea and tea concentration (low dose group) have the maximum protection for fracture, while the high dose group is weaker in protection (trend test, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, energy, BMI, education degree, parents’ history of fracture, second hand smoke exposure, calcium supplements, and equivalent energy consumption of physical activity, etc, the above association still showed significant linear trend, but the associated strength was slightly reduced. But stratified analysis found that the effect of tea drinking was only statistically significant in men. And there were no statistically significant differences of people with different education degree. Conclusions: Regular tea drinking can reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip/femur fractures in middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27182250

  12. Green tea and bone health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  13. [Studies on tea and health].

    PubMed

    Han, Chi

    2011-11-01

    Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective

  14. Is Green Tea Drinking Associated With a Later Onset of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Cai, Hui; Ji, Butian; Wen, Wanqing; Franke, Adrian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have found that tea polyphenols inhibit aromatase. Due to the substantial difference in levels of estrogens between pre- and post-menopausal women, the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk may depend on menopausal status. Methods We examined this hypothesis in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a population-based cohort study of 74,942 Chinese women. Results We found a time-dependent interaction between green tea consumption and age of breast cancer onset (p for interaction, 0.03). In comparison with non-tea drinkers, women who started tea-drinking at 25 years of age or younger had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.69(95% CI:0.41–1.17) to develop premenopausal breast cancer. On the other hand, compared with non-tea drinkers, women who started tea drinking at 25 years of age or younger had an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with an HR of 1.61(95% CI:1.18–2.20). Additional analyses suggest regularly drinking green tea may delay the onset of breast cancer. Conclusions Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:20006278

  15. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  16. Potential exposure and risk of fluoride intakes from tea drinks produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Fu, Chi Betsy

    2008-03-01

    Tea is the second most commonly consumed drink in the world. Excess fluoride intakes from tea drinks may cause health effects. This work assesses infusible fluoride levels in popular tea sold in Taiwan and evaluates potential exposure factors. Lungjing, pouchong, tienguanyin, oolong, pureh, and black tea specimens were purchased from different counties in Taiwan. Fluoride levels were evaluated in one complete cycle of tea making as well as at different calcium carbonate contents in water, with glass or porcelain teapots, and with/without adding sugar. Oolong tea leaves in each manufacturing step were also analyzed for infusible fluoride. Potential fluoride intakes and risks are estimated based on a national survey. Among six kinds of tea, black tea had the highest fluoride concentrations (8.64+/-2.96 mg/l), whereas pureh (1.97+/-2.70 mg/l) had the lowest levels. Higher percentages of infusible fluoride can be rinsed away from tea leaves curved lengthways compared to those curved end-to-end in the first 2.5 min. The use of glass or porcelain teapots and calcium carbonate content (up to 400 mg/l) in water would not affect infusible fluoride levels, whereas adding sugar increased the infusible fluoride in the first few minutes. In addition, it was found that the critical step during the manufacturing process affecting the percentage of infusible fluoride was ball rolling rather than fermentation. Furthermore, intakes of high amounts (> or =5 l/week) of certain tea may result in excess risks of dental or skeletal fluorosis. Tea lovers could be exposed to excess fluoride and may be at risk of fluorosis.

  17. [The textual research on the related names of ancient health-care drinks].

    PubMed

    Su, Nuo

    2009-03-01

    There are many kinds of related names of ancient health-care drinks such as tea, tea soup, herb soup, soup, boiled water, thirsty water and cold decoction etc. Following textual research on each connotation of all kinds of names, they have the same aspects as well as different special contents. Among them, the tea soup is some kind of health-care and curative drink, mainly containing tea with other plant decoctions; not only referring to the drinking tea, but also the decoction drunk as tea. The 'tea soup can mostly reflect the original meaning of ancient health-care drinks, and also accord with the understanding of current health-care drinks, thus comprehensively and exactly summarize the content of ancient health-care drinks.

  18. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  19. Tea and cognitive health in late life: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Xu, H; Liu, F; Feng, L

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on the association between tea consumption and cognitive health in late life. Population-based studies reviewed in this article suggest that tea drinking has beneficial effects on cognitive function of elderly persons. However, a cause-effect relationship between tea consumption and cognitive decline and dementia could not be drawn given inconsistent findings from only two longitudinal cohort studies. The neuroprotective effects of tea consumption could be due to catechins, L-theanine and other compounds in tea leaves. More longitudinal observational study is needed. Information on life-time tea consumption and blood concentrations of catechins and L-theanine could be collected in future studies.

  20. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    PubMed

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluoride concentrations in three types of commercially packed tea drinks in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Hsiao, Pao-Kuei; Chiang, Kuang-Mao

    2003-01-01

    Tea is a popular drink around the world. It is also one of the major sources of fluoride intake. The objectives of this study were to assess fluoride concentrations in popular non-, semi-, and full-fermented tea drinks sold on the Taiwan market. Concentration differences among three types of commercially available tea drinks (tea leaf, tea bag, and packaged tea beverage) were explored. Several influential factors in intake concentrations were evaluated. The acute threshold intake (ATI) and allowable daily intake (ADI) of those tea drinks were also estimated. For each commercial type, samples from the most popular tea in one particular fermentation degree (non, semi, and full) were randomly purchased and analyzed for fluoride concentrations. Fluoride levels in different rounds of tea, in different containers, and with different ratios of water and tea leaf were also assessed. In total, 132 tea samples were analyzed. The mean fluoride concentrations in leaf tea without the first round, leaf tea with the first round, bagged tea, and packaged tea were 7.04, 7.79, 5.37, and 25.7 mg/l, respectively. Most of the intake concentrations in those samples exceeded 4 mg/l F, the lower bound of fluoride levels reported in the literatures to be associated with a lower IQ in children and a higher risk of bone fracture. Fluoride concentrations in packaged tea were the highest among the three types of commercially available tea. For studied leaf and bagged tea, almost a constant amount of fluoride was infused from the same amount of tea leaf regardless of the water volume. Besides this, making tea with glass or pottery tea makers would not affect fluoride intake concentrations. Acute intoxication is unlikely to occur. However, tea lovers in high fluoride content areas shall consider limit their consumption of tea drinks to avoid potential chronic effects.

  2. A comparison of the potential health risk of aluminum and heavy metals in tea leaves and tea infusion of commercially available green tea in Jiangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanhai; Fu, Qing-Long; Achal, Varenyam; Liu, Yonglin

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals and Al in tea products are of increasing concern. In this study, contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in commercially available green tea and its infusions were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. Both target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were employed to assess the potential health risk of studied metals in tea leaves and infusions to drinkers. Results showed that the average contents of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in tea leaves were 487.57, 0.055, 0.29, 1.63, 17.04, 7.71, and 0.92 mg/kg, respectively. Except for Cu, metal contents were within their maximum limits (1, 5, 30, and 5 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively) of current standards for tea products. Concentrations of metals in tea infusions were all below their maximum limits (0.2, 0.005, 0.05, 1.0, 0.02, and 0.01 mg/L for Al, Cd, Cr(VI), Cu, Ni, and Pb, respectively) for drinking water, and decreased with the increase of infusion times. Pb, Cd, Cu, and Al mainly remained in tea leaves. The THQ from 2.33 × 10(-5) to 1.47 × 10(-1) and HI from1.41 × 10(-2) to 3.45 × 10(-1) values in tea infusions were all less than 1, suggesting that consumption of tea infusions would not cause significant health risks for consumers. More attention should be paid to monitor Co content in green tea. Both THQ and HI values decreased with the increase of infusion times. Results of this study suggest that tea drinkers should discard the first tea infusion and drink the following infusions.

  3. Rapid enumeration of low numbers of moulds in tea based drinks using an automated system.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Amano, Norihide; Nasu, Masao

    2011-01-31

    Aseptically prepared cold drinks based on tea have become popular worldwide. Contamination of these drinks with harmful microbes is a potential health problem because such drinks are kept free from preservatives to maximize aroma and flavour. Heat-tolerant conidia and ascospores of fungi can survive pasteurization, and need to be detected as quickly as possible. We were able to rapidly and accurately detect low numbers of conidia and ascospores in tea-based drinks using fluorescent staining followed by an automated counting system. Conidia or ascospores were inoculated into green tea and oolong tea, and samples were immediately filtered through nitrocellulose membranes (pore size: 0.8 μm) to concentrate fungal propagules. These were transferred onto potato dextrose agar and incubated for 23 h at 28 °C. Fungi germinating on the membranes were fluorescently stained for 30 min. The stained mycelia were counted selectively within 90s using an automated counting system (MGS-10LD; Chuo Electric Works, Osaka, Japan). Very low numbers (1 CFU/100ml) of conidia or ascospores could be rapidly counted, in contrast to traditional labour intensive techniques. All tested mould strains were detected within 24h while conventional plate counting required 72 h for colony enumeration. Counts of slow-growing fungi (Cladosporium cladosporioides) obtained by automated counting and by conventional plate counting were close (r(2) = 0.986). Our combination of methods enables counting of both fast- and slow-growing fungi, and should be useful for microbiological quality control of tea-based and also other drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health-promoting effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yasuo; MIYOSHI, Noriyuki; ISEMURA, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings. PMID:22450537

  5. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using tea waste loaded with Al/Fe oxides: A novel, safe and efficient biosorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hui-mei; Chen, Gui-jie; Peng, Chuan-yi; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Dong, Yang-yang; Shang, Guang-zhi; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Hong-jian; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading Al/Fe oxides onto tea waste and was tested for the ability to remove fluoride from drinking water. Key factors, including adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration, contact time and initial pH of the biosorbent, were investigated. It was found that the solution pH played an important role in the removal of fluoride. The biosorbent combinations Tea-Al or Tea-Al-Fe could reduce the fluoride concentration to below 1.5 mg/L in the drinking water, a level which meets the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the residual concentrations of Al and Fe in the drinking water after Tea-Al-Fe treatment were below the standards set by WHO when treatment was conducted at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 10.0. The experimental data were analyzed using two-parameter theoretical models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacities for the original tea, Tea-Fe, Tea-Al and Tea-Al-Fe biosorbents were 3.83, 10.47, 13.79 and 18.52 mg/g, respectively. These findings demonstrate the suitability of a prepared biosorbent based on tea waste for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  6. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  7. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  8. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    PubMed

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  9. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  10. Fluoride in drinking water, brick tea infusion and human urine in two counties in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-rong; Liu, Qing-bin; Wang, Wu-yi; Yang, Lin-sheng; Li, Yong-hua; Feng, Fu-jian; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Hou, Kun; Wang, Ge

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this study was to detect the fluoride level in the drinking water and the urine of habitants aged 16-55 years living in Inner Mongolia China. Furthermore, fluoride concentration of the brick tea infusion samples which were drunk by Mongolia herdsmen in everyday life living in SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, Inner Mongolia China was also determined. A total of 117 participants (61 female and 56 male) were recruited from two counties for a cross-sectional study on health effects of chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water and drinking brick tea infusion. The fluoride concentration in drinking water, urine and brick tea infusion samples were determined using fluoride ion selective electrode method obtained from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.32+/-0.01 mg/L at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner, 0.70+/-0.19 mg/L at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, and 2.68+/-1.15 mg/L at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city. The average fluoride concentration in brick tea infusion samples which collected from Mongolia herdsmen at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.81+/-1.09 mg/L. The average urinary fluoride concentration at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner was 0.59+/-0.48 mg/L, at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.45+/-0.93 mg/L and at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city was 3.06+/-1.53 mg/L. The higher fluoride levels in the urine of participants may be associated to higher fluoride in drinking water at ZhalaiNuoer of Manzhouli city. However, drinking brick tea infusions with higher fluoride may be the cause of the higher fluoride contents in the Mongolia herdsmen's urine.

  11. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  12. Interaction Between the FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking Is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Nie, Chao; Liu, Xiaomin; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Fengyu; Lu, Jiehua; Li, Jianxin; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gregory, Simon G; Gottschalk, William; Lutz, Michael W; Land, Kenneth C; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Ming, Qi; Yang, Huanming; Min, Junxia; Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Gu, Jun; Hauser, Elizabeth; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at advanced ages. Such a significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p = 0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p = 0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably stronger among those who carry two copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry one copy. On the basis of previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209 gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs.

  13. The effect of drinking tea at high altitude on hydration status and mood.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Rycroft, Jane A; Aspen, Jennifer; Chapman, Clare; Brown, Bryce

    2004-04-01

    The effect of drinking tea on hydration status and mood was studied in nine male and four female members of expeditions based at Mt. Everest base camp at an altitude of 5,345 m. Whilst exposed to altitude-cold diuresis, participants were subjected to a crossover experimental design comprising two 24-h dietary interventions. In the "tea" condition, hot brewed tea formed a major part of fluid intake, whereas in the "no-tea" condition tea was excluded from the diet. Subjects were prohibited in both cases from consuming other caffeinated beverages, caffeinated foods, and alcoholic drinks. Mean fluids ingested [mean (SE); tea=3,193 (259) ml versus no tea=3,108 (269) ml] and urine volume (tea=2,686 (276) ml versus no tea=2,625 (342) ml] were similar under both conditions. Statistical analysis found no difference in urine stimulated as a result of the tea intervention (P=0.81). Several markers of hydration status were also taken immediately pre and post each condition, including measures of urine specific gravity, urine electrolyte balance (K+, Na+), and urine colour. None of these measures indicated a difference in hydration status as a result of the dietary intervention in either the control or tea condition. A difference was, however, found in mood, with subjects reporting reduced fatigue when tea was included in the diet (P=0.005). The study shows therefore that even when drunk at high altitude where fluid balance is stressed, there is no evidence that tea acts as a diuretic when consumed through natural routes of ingestion by regular tea drinkers, but that it does have a positive effect on mood.

  14. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  15. Green tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer: a large-scale, population-based case-control study in urban Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Lu; Yu, Herbert; Ni, Quan-Xing; Risch, Harvey; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the etiology of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies on tea consumption and pancreatic cancer risk have been inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between green tea drinking and the risk of pancreatic cancer in urban Shanghai, China. Methods In this population-based case-control study conducted in urban Shanghai, 908 cases of pancreatic cancer and 1067 healthy controls were recruited. Information on tea drinking, including type of tea, amount of tea consumption, temperature of tea, and the duration of regular tea drinking, were collected via interview questionnaire. Results We examined the association of multiple tea drinking habits with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In women, regular green tea drinking was associated with 32% reduction of pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.96), compared to those who did not drink tea regularly. Increased consumption and longer duration of tea drinking were both associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk in women. Among regular tea drinkers, lower temperature of tea was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in both men and women, independent of amount or duration of tea drinking. Conclusions Habits of green tea drinking, including regular drinking, amount of consumption, persistence of the habit, and tea temperature, may lower pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22944495

  16. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  17. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  18. Mood and drinking: a naturalistic diary study of alcohol, coffee and tea.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the pattern of associations between mood and consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea may provide information about the factors governing beverage drinking. The associations between mood and the consumption of alcohol, coffee and tea during everyday life were assessed. A naturalistic study was carried out with 18 male and 31 female volunteers from two working groups (psychiatric nursing and school teaching). Participants completed daily records of drink consumption, together with ratings of anxious and positive moods for 8 weeks. Potential moderators of associations were self-reported drinking to cope, high perceived job demands and social support at work. Day-by-day associations were analysed using Spearman correlations. There were substantial individual-differences in associations between mood and daily alcohol, coffee and tea consumption. Overall, alcohol intake was associated with high positive and low anxious mood. This effect was not present among participants with high drinking to cope ratings. Coffee and tea drinking were not consistently related to mood across the entire sample. However, job demands influenced the association between coffee consumption and anxious mood in men, and those who experienced high job demands drank more coffee on days on which they felt anxious. In contrast, women but not men who enjoyed high social support at work felt more relaxed on days on which they drank more tea. These results indicate that people vary widely in the extent to which mood is related to the drinking of alcohol, coffee and tea. The strength of associations is influenced by gender, motivational factors, and by stress and coping resources.

  19. GxE Interactions between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Are Significantly Associated with Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting; Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Nie, Chao; Cheng, Lingguo; Li, Yang; Tao, Wei; Gu, Jun; Land, Kenneth C.; Yashin, Anatoli; Tan, Qihua; Yang, Ze; Bolund, Lars; Yang, Huanming; Hauser, Elizabeth; Willcox, D. Craig; Willcox, Bradley J.; Tian, Xiao-Li; Vaupel, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles. PMID:24895270

  20. Evaluating the buffering capacity of various soft drinks, fruit juices and tea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Jindal, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least. PMID:21116386

  1. Effect of supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract on their erosive potential against dentine.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, C S; Kato, M T; Buzalaf, M A R

    2011-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors reduce dentine erosion. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract, a natural inhibitor of MMPs, on their erosive potential against dentine. For each drink tested (Coca-Cola, Kuat guarana, Sprite and light Coca-Cola), 40 dentine specimens were divided into two subgroups differing with respect to supplementation with green tea extract at 1.2% (OM24, 100%Camellia sinensis leaf extract, containing 30 ± 3% of catechin; Omnimedica, Switzerland) or not (control). Specimens were subjected to four pH cycles, alternating de- and remineralization in one day. For each cycle, samples were immersed in pure or supplemented drink (10 minutes, 30 mL per block) and in artificial saliva (60 minutes, 30 mL per block) at 37 °C, under agitation. Dentine alterations were determined by profilometry (μm). Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p < 0.05). A significant difference was observed among the drinks tested with Sprite leading to the highest surface loss and light Coca-Cola to the lowest. Supplementation with green tea extract reduced the surface loss by 15% to 40% but the difference was significant for Coca-Cola only. Supplementation of soft drinks with green tea extract might be a viable alternative to reduce their erosive potential against dentine. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  2. U.S. Rep. William Nelson drinking tea from shuttle beverage container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. William Nelson of Florida tries drinking tea from a straw-equipped beverage dispenser in JSC's life sciences laboratory during a space food orientation session. The congressman is in early stages of training for a position on the STS 61-C mission.

  3. U.S. Rep. William Nelson drinking tea from shuttle beverage container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    U.S. Rep. William Nelson of Florida tries drinking tea from a straw-equipped beverage dispenser in JSC's life sciences laboratory during a space food orientation session. The congressman is in early stages of training for a position on the STS 61-C mission.

  4. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  5. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  6. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  7. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis.

  8. [Soft-drinks and health].

    PubMed

    Amato, D; Maravilla, A; García-Contreras, F; Paniagua, R

    1997-01-01

    To analyze published papers about soft drinks use, and to describe possible health benefits, risks, and damages related to soft drink consumption. INFORMATION SOURCE: A search was done in the MEDLINE compact disks, from January 1970 to January 1997, with the keywords soft drink, beverages, carbonated beverages, cola, Coca-Cola and sweetening-agents. Ninety nine papers reporting health-related damages or benefits in clinical or experimental studies were reviewed. All articles with a clear description of at least one beneficial or harmful effect related to soft drink consumption were considered. There were reports on 25 harmful effects and of 7 possibly beneficial effects. Data are classified in prophylactic and therapeutic uses, dental caries and other dental disorders, mineral metabolism disorders, acid-peptic disease, neoplasm, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, effects on central nervous system, reproduction, allergy, and miscellaneous. High prevalence of exposure and excessive consumption of soft drinks may represent a public health problem in Mexico. Data analysis shows that soft drink consumption may not be as harmless as generally believed. Many of the reports are anecdotal, without a suitable methodological design. A wide field for research is present in this area.

  9. Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisory Tables

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Health Advisory Program, published concentrations of drinking water contaminants at Drinking Water Specific Risk Level Concentration for cancer and concentrations of contaminants at which noncancer adverse health effects are not antcipated to occur

  10. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Sage Tea Drinking: Decreased DNA Damage and Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption.

  11. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  12. Tea and health: preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    PubMed Central

    Bolling, Bradley W.; Chen, Chung-Yen Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Recent findings Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and tea catechins to body weight control and energy metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, bone mineral density, cognitive function and neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. The evidence for the efficacy and potency of tea and tea extracts in benefiting these outcomes ranges from compelling for cardiovascular disease to equivocal at best for some forms of cancer. Summary Although randomized clinical trials of tea have generally been of short duration and with small sample sizes, together with experimental and epidemiological studies, the totality of the data suggests a role for tea in health promotion as a beverage absent in calories and rich in phytochemicals. Further research is warranted on the putative benefits of tea and the potential for synergy among its constituent flavonoids, l-theanine, and caffeine. PMID:19057186

  13. Green tea consumption in everyday life and mental health.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Mari; Nakamura, Keiko; Jing Shi, Hui; Kizuki, Masashi; Seino, Kaoruko; Inose, Tomoko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-12-01

    Green tea has been widely acknowledged in Japan to induce a pleasurable mental feeling. Recent laboratory studies have suggested positive psychological effects as a result of consuming green tea. The present study examined whether green tea consumption in everyday life in Japan is associated with positive mental health. A cross-sectional study was performed in February-March 2002. The subjects of the study consisted of a general population of 600 Japanese aged 20-69 years. Responses of 380 subjects, obtained by home-visit interview, were analysed. The questionnaire inquired about consumption of brewed green tea and other beverages, perceived mental health status, lifestyle and others. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) was used for the assessment of mental ill-health (GHQ score >or=4). After adjustments for age, area, perceived mental stress, lifestyle and daily caffeine intake, the consumption of brewed green tea was not statistically associated with any decrease in risk of mental ill-health among either males or females (odds ratio (OR)=0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47-1.29 for males; OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.51-1.14 for females). Daily caffeine intake (100 mg) inclusive of green tea, black tea, coffee and other caffeine-containing beverages was associated with a higher risk of mental ill-health among females (OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.01-1.56). The results provide population-based evidence on the consumption of brewed green tea in everyday life and mental health, together with information on consumption patterns of various beverages and lifestyles.

  14. Membrane clarification of tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Kumar, Chandini S; Sharma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The ready-to-drink (RTD) tea beverages are becoming increasingly popular owing to the health benefits associated with tea polyphenols, but instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is a common problem encountered in the product. Membrane technology provides a scope to produce natural, additive-free RTD teas while overcoming the major disadvantages associated with the conventional decreaming methods. Approaches employing membranes for the clarification of extracts from black and green tea have been discussed together with their relative advantages and limitations. The article also outlines the concerns to be addressed in the future attempts employing membrane technology.

  15. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David

    1997-01-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  16. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  17. [Suppression of glucose absorption by various health teas in rats].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Masui, Hironori; Sano, Mitsuaki

    2004-04-01

    The inhibitory effects on the intestinal digestion and absorption of sugar of health teas that claim beneficial dietary and diabetes-controlling effects were compared in rats using portal cannulae. The measured durations were the times during which the elevation of portal glucose levels resulting from continuous intragastric infusion of sucrose or maltose was suppressed by concentrated teas. The teas investigated included salacia oblonga, mulberry, guava, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba. The duration of the inhibitory effect on the sucrose load of salacia oblonga, mulberry, and guava were 110 min, 20 min, and 10 min, respectively. In contrast, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba had no significant effect on the continuous infusion of sucrose. These results suggest that there is considerable difference in the efficacy of commercial health teas in influencing glucose absorption.

  18. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  19. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A

    2000-07-01

    Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.

  20. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower trabecular separation via increasing bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. These osteoprotective effects appear to be mediated through antioxidant or antiinflammatory pathways along with their downstream signaling mechanisms. A short-term clinical trial of green tea polyphenols has translated the findings from ovariectomized animals to postmenopausal osteopenic women through evaluation of bioavailability, safety, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, and quality of life. For future studies, preclinical animal studies to optimize the dose of tea polyphenols for maximum osteoprotective efficacy and a follow-up short-term dose-response trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women are necessary to inform the design of randomized controlled studies in at-risk populations. Advanced imaging technology should also contribute to determining the effective dose of tea polyphenols in achieving better bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which are critical steps for translating the putative benefit of tea consumption in osteoporosis management into clinical practice and dietary guidelines.

  1. Green tea drinking improves erythrocytes and saliva oxidative status in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Narotzki, B; Reznick, A Z; Mitki, T; Aizenbud, D; Levy, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that green tea (GT) drinking combined with vitamin E supplementation reduced plasma protein carbonyls and increased erythrocytes catalase activity in exercising healthy elderly. In the present study we set out to investigate the antioxidative effects of GT drinking in an aging population. We performed an interventional, crossover, controlled prospective trial with 35 healthy elderly subjects (mean age 67.3±4.8 years), supplemented with four daily placebo maltodextrin "tea-bags" for 12 weeks, followed by four 1.5 g daily GT bags for another 12 weeks. Data were obtained at baseline, at the end of the placebo period, and at the end of the GT intervention period. We found that GT did not alter erythrocyte catalase activity. However, it provided protection against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis which declined by 10.2% (p<0.001). No changes were observed in saliva oral peroxidase enzymes. Nonetheless, saliva total antioxidant capacity increased by 42.0% (p<0.01). Plasma oxidative products, such as protein carbonyls, lipid peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were stable throughout the intervention period. We conclude that four daily cups of GT are well tolerated in elderly free living subjects. Our results demonstrate that both erythrocyte resistances to oxidation and saliva antioxidant capacity are improved by GT drinking. The clinical implications of these oxidation modifications require further research.

  2. Decolorization and mineralization of Oolong tea polyphenols in colored soft drink wastewater by photo Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, M; Sekine, M; Morito, Y; Kawase, Y

    2011-01-01

    The decolorization and the mineralization of the colored soft drink wastewater including Oolong tea polyphenols by the photo Fenton reaction have been investigated. The decolorization of the colored soft drink wastewater including Oolong tea polyphenols by the photo Fenton reaction could be divided into 3 phases. Just after H2O2 was added to the solution, the color of the solution immediately increased from absorbance of 0.247 to 0.711 at the wavelength of 400 nm, which was defined as the 1st phase. Subsequently the significant decolorization by the photo Fenton reaction occurred at the 2nd phase. Finally, complete decolorization (the color attributed to the color of Fe3+) could be achieved in 180 min at the 3rd phase. The instantaneous and considerable color increase at the 1st phase could be attributed to the formation of intermediate colored compounds like quinones and soluble iron complexes produced by the Fenton reaction. About 95% mineralization of model colored soft drink wastewater with 229 mg L(-1) initial TOC concentration was achieved after 165 min.

  3. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Rakic, V; Beilin, L J; Burke, V

    1996-01-01

    1. A postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP) in older men and women increases the risks of falls and impaired cerebral perfusion. Postprandial hypotension has been suggested to be greater in hypertensive subjects, particularly in those on antihypertensive medication. 2. Caffeine, given as tablets or as strong coffee, may attenuate postprandial falls in BP in older subjects, but findings are not consistent. 3. In a randomized controlled intervention in 171 healthy non-smokers over the age of 50 years, we compared the effects of coffee-drinking with abstaining from caffeine in normotensives (NT), untreated hypertensives (UNHT) and subjects on drug treatment for hypertension (TRHT). Tea drinking was a third intervention used only in TRHT. 4. After adjustment for the effects of the initial value on changes in BP, there were no significant differences related to hypertension or to hypertensive agents in the magnitude of postprandial falls in BP. 5. After the intervention, changes in fasting supine and standing systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were not significantly different from controls in NT, UNHT and TRHT, but fasting supine and standing diastolic BP were significantly higher in coffee drinkers in the UNHT group. 6. In normotensive coffee drinkers there was a significant reduction in the postprandial fall in supine systolic BP of 4.1 mmHg (+/- s.e.m. 1.1) and in standing systolic BP of 5.2 +/- 1.6 mmHg. Among untreated hypertensives, abstainers showed a significant attenuation of the postprandial fall in supine, but not standing, systolic BP. Among treated hypertensives who were tea drinkers the postprandial fall decreased for supine systolic BP by 3.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg (P = 0.029) and for standing systolic BP by 5.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg. 7. Both tea and coffee were potentially beneficial in decreasing postprandial falls in systolic BP, but coffee drinking may increase fasting diastolic pressures in untreated hypertensives.

  4. [A case of hypokalemic myopathy induced by excessive drinking of a beverage containing green tea extract].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Megumi; Yamashiro, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Fumikazu; Nagasaka, Takamura; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    A 49-year-old man subacutely developed muscle weakness in four extremities over a few days. He had no past or family history of muscle weakness. His blood tests showed significant hypokalemia without endocrinological abnormalities. With the diagnosis of hypokalemic myopathy, potassium was administered orally, and his symptoms improved. The patient had been drinking a beverage containing green tea extract too much two weeks before the symptoms developed, in addition to taking a cold remedy for ten years. Thus, hypokalemia is considered to be induced by the excessive intake of caffeine that accompanies the excessive consumption of the beverage and cold remedy.

  5. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2005-06-01

    Tea, in the form of green or black tea, is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Extracts of tea leaves also are sold as dietary supplements. However, with the increasing interest in the health properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and noncancer health benefits of both green and black tea. In Part II, a review of anticancer properties of green tea extracts is presented. Green tea contains a unique set of catechins that possess biological activity in antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, and antiproliferative assays potentially relevant to the prevention and treatment of various forms of cancer. Although there has been much focus on the biological properties of the major tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and its antitumor properties, tea offers other health benefits; some due to the presence of other important constituents. Characteristics unrelated to the antioxidant properties of green and black teas may be responsible for tea's anticancer activity and improvement in cardiac health and atherosclerosis. Theanine in green tea may play a role in reducing stress. Oxidized catechins (theaflavins in black tea) may reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Synergistic properties of green tea extracts with other sources of polyphenolic constituents are increasingly recognized as being potentially important to the medicinal benefits of black and green teas. Furthermore, due to presumed antioxidant and antiaging properties, tea is now finding its way into topical preparations. Each of these aspects is surveyed.

  6. Hypokalaemia and drinking green tea: a literature review and report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Chong, Sebastian Jen Kin; Howard, Kerry Antoinette; Knox, Chloe

    2016-02-16

    We report the association between excessive consumption of green tea and hypokalaemia in an Oriental couple. Both patients were asymptomatic and the abnormal electrolyte level was only detected on routine blood tests. When they were advised to reduce the consumption of green tea, the abnormally low potassium level was reversed. We have not found such an association reported in the medical literature. The health benefits of green tea consumption are well publicised but the potential side-effects of overconsumption are less well known. We would like to report this association to alert clinicians about this potentially serious complication. This is especially relevant for those who are also taking prescribed medications that can lower potassium levels and/or sensitise patients to potential harm from hypokalaemia.

  7. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non-alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (∼2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women.

  8. Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study123

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data from in vitro and animal studies support a protective role for tea in the etiology of digestive system cancers; however, results from prospective cohort studies have been inconsistent. In addition, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of tea consumption with the incidence of all digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Objective: We investigated the association of regular tea intake (≥3 times/wk for >6 mo) with risk of digestive system cancers. Design: We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996–2000. Adjusted HRs and associated 95% CIs were derived from Cox regression models. Results: After a mean follow-up of 11 y, 1255 digestive system cancers occurred (stomach, esophagus, colorectal, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder/bile duct cancers) in 69,310 nonsmoking and non–alcohol-drinking women. In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (∼2–3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers. Conclusion: In this large prospective cohort study, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers in Chinese women. PMID:23053557

  9. Chemopreventive efficacy of green tea drinking against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of tumour-related deaths. In the present study, the chemopreventive effect of green tea on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied in male Wistar rats. The DMH group received subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) once a week for 30 weeks, the normal group received the vehicle of DMH, and the DMH + green tea group received DMH simultaneously with 1% green tea as their sole source of drinking fluid throughout the experimental period. In the DMH group treated with green tea, significant reductions in gene overexpressions of colonic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumour necrosis factor α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and NF-κB immunostaining indicates the anti-inflammatory effect of green tea in attenuating colon cancer. Moreover, the anti-angiogenic and anti-invasiveness effects of green tea were revealed as reductions of both vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7 mRNA expression levels. These effects were confirmed by the significant reduction of serum tumour necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein levels, inhibition of tumour incidence, and nearly normal survival rate and colonic architecture. It can be concluded that green tea exerts a potent chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis possibly due to the inhibition of NF-κB.

  10. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  11. Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chei, Choy-Lye; Loh, Julian Kenrick; Soh, Avril; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between coffee and tea, and risk of hypertension remains controversial in Western populations. We investigated these associations in an Asian population. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years and residing in Singapore from 1993 to 1998. Information on consumption of coffee, tea, and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline, and self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension was assessed during two follow-up interviews (1999-2004, 2006-2010). We identified 13,658 cases of incident hypertension after average 9.5 years. Compared to those who drank one cup of coffee/day, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for tea had slight increase in risk, but these risk estimates were attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for caffeine. After adjusting for coffee, there was a stepwise dose-response relationship between caffeine intake and hypertension risk; compared to the lowest intake (<50 mg/day), those in the highest intake (≥300 mg/day) had a 16% increase in risk; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31 (p trend = 0.02). Drinking coffee <1 cup/week or ≥3 cups/day had lower risk than drinking one cup/day. Caffeine may account for increased risk in daily tea drinkers and in those who drank one cup of coffee/day. The inverse U-shaped association with coffee suggests that at higher doses, other ingredients in coffee may offset the effect of caffeine and confer benefit on blood pressure.

  12. An intervention study on the effect of matcha tea, in drink and snack bar formats, on mood and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2017-09-01

    Matcha tea is gaining popularity throughout the world in recent years and is frequently referred to as a mood-and-brain food. Previous research has demonstrated that three constituents present in matcha tea, l-theanine, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and caffeine, affect mood and cognitive performance. However, to date there are no studies assessing the effect of matcha tea itself. The present study investigates these effects by means of a human intervention study administering matcha tea and a matcha containing product. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study, 23 consumers participated in four test sessions. In each session, participants consumed one of the four test products: matcha tea, matcha tea bar (each containing 4g matcha tea powder), placebo tea, or placebo bar. The assessment was performed at baseline and 60min post-treatment. The participants performed a set of cognitive tests assessing attention, information processing, working memory, and episodic memory. The mood state was measured by means of a Profile of Mood States (POMS). After consuming the matcha products compared to placebo versions, there were mainly significant improvements in tasks measuring basic attention abilities and psychomotor speed in response to stimuli over a defined period of time. In contrast to expectations, the effect was barely present in the other cognitive tasks. The POMS results revealed no significant changes in mood. The influence of the food matrix was demonstrated by the fact that on most cognitive performance measures the drink format outperformed the bar format, particularly in tasks measuring speed of spatial working memory and delayed picture recognition. This study suggests that matcha tea consumed in a realistic dose can induce slight effects on speed of attention and episodic secondary memory to a low degree. Further studies are required to elucidate the influences of the food matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  14. Risk of Colon Cancer and Coffee, Tea, and Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink Intake: Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Albanes, Demetrius; Beeson, W. Lawrence; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Buring, Julie E.; Flood, Andrew; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Jacobs, Eric J.; Krogh, Vittorio; Larsson, Susanna C.; Marshall, James R.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sieri, Sabina; Spiegelman, Donna; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja; Willett, Walter C.; Zhang, Shumin M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. Methods We investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a pooled analysis of primary data from 13 cohort studies. Among 731 441 participants followed for up to 6–20 years, 5604 incident colon cancer case patients were identified. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random-effects model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Compared with nonconsumers, the pooled multivariable relative risks were 1.07 (95% CI = 0.89 to 1.30, Ptrend = .68) for coffee consumption greater than 1400 g/d (about six 8-oz cups) and 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61, Ptrend = .01) for tea consumption greater than 900 g/d (about four 8-oz cups). For sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption, the pooled multivariable relative risk comparing consumption greater than 550 g/d (about 18 oz) to nonconsumers was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.66 to 1.32, Ptrend = .91). No statistically significant between-studies heterogeneity was observed for the highest category of each beverage consumed (P > .20). The observed associations did not differ by sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, physical activity, or tumor site (P > .05). Conclusions Drinking coffee or sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks was not associated with colon cancer risk. However, a modest positive association with higher tea consumption is possible and requires further study. PMID:20453203

  15. Detection of caffeine in tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink by direct analysis in real time (DART) source coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.

  16. All teas are not created equal: the Chinese green tea and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung O

    2006-04-14

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, next only to water. It can be categorized into three types, depending on the level of fermentation, i.e., green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented) and black (fermented) tea. In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black tea in terms of antioxidant activity owing to the higher content of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. The processes used in the manufacture of black tea are known to decrease levels of the monometric catechins to a much greater extent than the less severe conditions applied to other teas. The cardioprotective effect of flavonoids from green tea can be attributed to not only antioxidant, antithrombogenic and anti-inflammatory properties but also improvement of coronary flow velocity reserve. In this article, I will discuss the effects of green tea on atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, and, finally, its comparison with black tea.

  17. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid and selective quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink teas from Chinese market using SPE and UPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Yun; Song, Weiqi; Zhao, Bo; Dou, Yuling

    2012-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) sample pre-treatment was developed and validated for the rapid quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink (RTD) teas. UPLC analysis of twenty-seven RTD teas from the Chinese market revealed that the L-theanine levels in various types of RTD teas were significantly different. RTD green teas were found to contain highest mean L-theanine level (37.85±20.54 mg/L), followed by jasmine teas (36.60±12.08 mg/L), Tieguanying teas (18.54±3.46 mg/L) black teas (16.89±6.56), Pu-erh teas (11.31±0.90 mg/L) and oolong teas (3.85±2.27 mg/L). The ratio of total polyphenols content to L-theanine content could be used as a featured parameter for differentiating RTD teas. L-theanine in RTD teas could be a reliable quality parameter that is complementary to total polyphenols.

  19. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  20. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  1. Reduced Dental Plaque Formation in Dogs Drinking a Solution Containing Natural Antimicrobial Herbal Enzymes and Organic Matcha Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    The results of an exploratory, multicenter clinical study confirmed the hypothesis that a novel, natural, and safe oral care product (OCP) reduced the rate of plaque formation on teeth of dogs consuming the OCP (antimicrobial plant-derived enzymes, organic matcha green tea, cultured dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, and ascorbic acid) compared to controls. Healthy dogs without periodontitis, of varying breeds, sex, and age, were recruited and enrolled, using nonrandomized stratification methods, into a control and treatment groups. Treatment group dogs drank only water into which OCP was suspended, for 28 days. Control group dogs drank their normal household water. On day 0 all teeth were cleaned by a veterinarian and gingivitis was assessed. On days 14, 21, and 28 plaque index, plaque thickness, gingivitis, freshness of breath, and general health were assessed. Over the 28 days of study, dogs on the OCP had significant reduction in plaque index and plaque thickness compared to controls. By day 14 OCP reduced plaque formation by 37%; the 28-day reduction in plaque index and coverage averaged 22% with no measurable gingivitis or calculus. Conclusion. Using the OCP attenuated dental plaque formation when consumed as normal drinking water and in the absence of other modes of oral care.

  2. Reduced Dental Plaque Formation in Dogs Drinking a Solution Containing Natural Antimicrobial Herbal Enzymes and Organic Matcha Green Tea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The results of an exploratory, multicenter clinical study confirmed the hypothesis that a novel, natural, and safe oral care product (OCP) reduced the rate of plaque formation on teeth of dogs consuming the OCP (antimicrobial plant-derived enzymes, organic matcha green tea, cultured dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, and ascorbic acid) compared to controls. Healthy dogs without periodontitis, of varying breeds, sex, and age, were recruited and enrolled, using nonrandomized stratification methods, into a control and treatment groups. Treatment group dogs drank only water into which OCP was suspended, for 28 days. Control group dogs drank their normal household water. On day 0 all teeth were cleaned by a veterinarian and gingivitis was assessed. On days 14, 21, and 28 plaque index, plaque thickness, gingivitis, freshness of breath, and general health were assessed. Over the 28 days of study, dogs on the OCP had significant reduction in plaque index and plaque thickness compared to controls. By day 14 OCP reduced plaque formation by 37%; the 28-day reduction in plaque index and coverage averaged 22% with no measurable gingivitis or calculus. Conclusion. Using the OCP attenuated dental plaque formation when consumed as normal drinking water and in the absence of other modes of oral care. PMID:27867678

  3. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-07-06

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health.

  4. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health I: Attitudes and Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Polen, Michael R.; Green, Carla A.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Anderson, Bradley M.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite considerable research, relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health remain controversial, due to potential confounding by health-related attitudes and practices associated with drinking, measurement challenges, and marked gender differences in drinking. We examined gender/alcohol consumption differences in health-related attitudes and practices, and evaluated how these factors affected relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health status. Methods A stratified random sample of adult health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). Using MANCOVAs and adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices, we examined gender differences in relationships between alcohol consumption and health. Results More frequent heavy drinking was associated with worse health-related attitudes and values, worse feelings about visiting the doctor, and worse health-related practices. Relationships between health-related practices and alcohol use differed by gender, and daily or almost daily heavy drinking was associated with significantly lower physical and mental health for women compared to men. Drinking status (lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and level of regular alcohol consumption) was related to health status and vitality, even after adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices. Relationships did not differ by gender. Former drinkers reported lower physical and mental health status than either lifelong abstainers or current drinkers. Conclusions Drinking status is independently related to physical health, mental health, and vitality, even after controlling for the health-related attitudes, values, and practices expected to confound these relationships. Among current drinkers, women who engage in very frequent heavy drinking have worse physical and mental health than their male counterparts. PMID:23946720

  5. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health I: Attitudes and Health Practices.

    PubMed

    Polen, Michael R; Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M

    2010-04-01

    Despite considerable research, relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health remain controversial, due to potential confounding by health-related attitudes and practices associated with drinking, measurement challenges, and marked gender differences in drinking. We examined gender/alcohol consumption differences in health-related attitudes and practices, and evaluated how these factors affected relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health status. A stratified random sample of adult health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). Using MANCOVAs and adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices, we examined gender differences in relationships between alcohol consumption and health. More frequent heavy drinking was associated with worse health-related attitudes and values, worse feelings about visiting the doctor, and worse health-related practices. Relationships between health-related practices and alcohol use differed by gender, and daily or almost daily heavy drinking was associated with significantly lower physical and mental health for women compared to men. Drinking status (lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and level of regular alcohol consumption) was related to health status and vitality, even after adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices. Relationships did not differ by gender. Former drinkers reported lower physical and mental health status than either lifelong abstainers or current drinkers. Drinking status is independently related to physical health, mental health, and vitality, even after controlling for the health-related attitudes, values, and practices expected to confound these relationships. Among current drinkers, women who engage in very frequent heavy drinking have worse physical and mental health than their male counterparts.

  6. Oolong tea: A critical review of processing methods, chemical composition, health effects, and risk.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Wai; Cao, Zi-Jun; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Zhu, Lin; Yi, Tao

    2017-07-05

    Oolong tea (OT) is a traditional Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) and is especially popular in south China. This review is to comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done towards to the processing, phytochemistry, health benefit, and risk of OT. These literatures were carried out not only from different electronic databases but also from text books written in English, Japanese, and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). The full process OT producing is depicted below in this review. The phytochemistry of OT has been comprehensively investigated. More than 100 chemical compositions have been isolated and identified. In health benefit, OT performs outstandingly in reducing obesity and controlling diabetes explained by modern pharmacological studies. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (6) in OT prevention of cancerous cells developing. OT can also improve and reduce on heart and vascular disease, protect teeth and bone, function as anti-oxidative and antibacterial agents. This review also mentioned the risk, summarized briefly on various forms of toxicity and harmful associated with OT. In short, this review can provided a natural product library of OT, gave inspirations for further new garden systems, designed idea on quality, bioactivity-oriented screening. In addition, it is suggested more scientists and education is necessary to guarantee the stability and safety of drinking OT.

  7. Tea and health--a review of the current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, tea has been numbered among stimulants, i.e. products of no nutritional value. Nowadays, with advance of research studies, the amount of data suggesting beneficial effect of tea on health is increasing. Polyphenols are the basic tea ingredients to which positive effect on human body is attributed. Their wide spectrum of biochemical activity, including a strong antioxidant potential, contributes to the situation in which tea may have various beneficial functions in the body. Research studies focus mostly on green tea which is believed to reduce the risk of many modern diseases. However, so far the preventive effect of tea has not been confirmed yet. Despite it being a natural product, too much tea in a diet carries the risk of excessive caffeine intake and decreased absorption of non-heme iron which may be of detrimental consequences for some groups of consumers.

  8. Drinking water quality in six small tea gardens of Sonitpur District of Assam, India, with special reference to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joydev; Chetia, Mridul; Misra, A K

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water by arsenic and other heavy metals and their related toxicology is a serious concern now-a-days. Millions of individual world-wide are suffering from the arsenic and other heavy metal related diseases due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. 60 water samples from different sources of 6 small tea gardens of Sonitpur district were collected to study the potability of water for drinking purposes. The water samples collected from sources like tube wells, ring wells and ponds were analyzed for arsenic, heavy metals like iron, manganese and mercury with sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, pH, total hardness, chloride, fluoride and sulphate. Some drain water samples of the tea garden areas were also collected to analyze the above mentioned water parameters to see the contamination level. Experiments revealed that 78% samples of total collection had arsenic content above the permissible limit (0.01 ppm) of WHO guideline value for drinking water. The highest arsenic was observed 0.09 ppm at one sample of Gobindra Dahal tea garden of Gohpur sub division of Sonitpur district. 94% samples had contamination due to manganese 39% samples had iron and 44% samples had Hg. The water quality data was subjected to some statistical treatments like NDA, cluster analysis and pearson correlation to observe the distribution pattern of the different water quality parameters. A strong pearson correlation coefficient was observed between parameters-arsenic and manganese (0.865) and arsenic and mercury (0.837) at 0.01 level, indicated the same sources of drinking water contamination.

  9. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  10. Inhibitory effect of green tea in the drinking water on tumorigenesis by ultraviolet light and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in the skin of SKH-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Huang, M T; Ferraro, T; Wong, C Q; Lou, Y R; Reuhl, K; Iatropoulos, M; Yang, C S; Conney, A H

    1992-03-01

    Green tea was prepared by extracting 12.5 g of green tea leaves twice with 500 ml of boiling water, and the extracts were combined. This 1.25% green tea extract (1.25 g of tea leaves/100 ml of water) contained 4.69 mg of green tea extract solids per ml and was similar in composition to some green tea beverages consumed by humans. A 2.5% green tea extract (2.5 g of tea leaves/100 ml of water) was prepared similarly. Treatment of female SKH-1 mice with 180 mJ/cm2 of ultraviolet B light (UVB) once daily for 7 days resulted in red sunburn lesions of the skin. The intensity of red color and area of these lesions were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by the administration of 1.25 or 2.5% green tea extract as the sole source of drinking water before and during UVB treatment. Treatment of female SKH-1 mice with 180 mJ/cm2 of UVB once daily for 10 days followed 1 wk later by twice weekly application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 25 wk resulted in the development of skin tumors. The formation of skin tumors was inhibited by administration of 1.25% green tea extract as the sole source of drinking water prior to and during the 10 days of UVB treatment and for 1 wk after UVB treatment. In additional experiments, female SKH-1 mice were treated with 200 nmol of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed 3 wk later by irradiation with 180, 60, or 30 mJ/cm2 of UVB twice weekly for 30 wk. UVB-induced formation of skin tumors and increased spleen size were inhibited by administration of 1.25% green tea extract as the sole source of drinking water prior to and during the 30 wk of UVB treatment. In these experiments, treatment of the animals with the green tea extract not only decreased the number of skin tumors but also decreased substantially the size of the tumors. In additional studies, SKH-1 mice were initiated by topical application of 200 nmol of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by twice weekly application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 25 wk

  11. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  12. Probable gastrointestinal toxicity of Kombucha tea: is this beverage healthy or harmful?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Smolinske, S; Greenbaum, D

    1997-10-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha "mushroom" in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association.

  13. Effects of green tea and EGCG on cardiovascular and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Swen

    2007-08-01

    Since ancient times green tea has been considered a health-promoting beverage. In recent years, scientists throughout the world have investigated the potential benefits of green tea and its most abundant catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The anti-cancer effects of green tea and EGCG were the focus of early research, and encouraging data from in vitro, animal model, and human studies have emerged. Due to the dominant role of cardiovascular disease and the dramatic rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus as major and interlinked healthcare problems, green tea and EGCG are increasingly being investigated in these areas. Dose-response relationships observed in several epidemiological studies have indicated that pronounced cardiovascular and metabolic health benefits can be obtained by regular consumption of 5-6 or more cups of green tea per day. Furthermore, intervention studies using similar amounts of green tea, containing 200-300 mg of EGCG, have demonstrated its usefulness for maintaining cardiovascular and metabolic health. Additionally, there are numerous in vivo studies demonstrating that green tea and EGCG exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in these model systems. Therefore, green tea and EGCG can be regarded as food components useful for the maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. To prove the effectiveness for disease prevention or treatment, several multi-center, long-term clinical studies investigating the effects of one precisely-defined green tea product on cardiovascular and metabolic endpoints would be necessary. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the research investigating the effects of green tea and green tea catechins on cardiovascular and metabolic health.

  14. Change in the flavor of black tea drink during heat processing.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, K; Masuda, H

    2001-07-01

    Heat processing during canning is responsible for the change in flavor of black tea infusion. The quantitative change in the volatile components of the black tea infusion during heat processing is not sufficient for explaining the sensory evaluation. In this study, application of aroma extract dilution analysis using the volatile fraction before and after black tea (Darjeeling) samples were heat processed resulted in the detection of 10 odor-active peaks for which flavor dilution (FD) factors changed. Seven potent odorants were identified from these peaks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among these components, 3-methylbutanal (stimulus), methional (potato-like), beta-damascenone (sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (putrid), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) showed the highest FD factors after heat processing of the black tea sample. Therefore, these odorants were the most important components involved in changing the black tea odor during heat processing. In addition, the precursor of beta-damascenone in black tea infusion was investigated, and 3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-beta-ionol was determined to be one of the beta-damascenone-generating compounds for the first time.

  15. [The protective effects of green tea drinking and garlic intake on lung cancer, in a low cancer risk area of Jiangsu province, China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zi-yi; Han, Ren-qiang; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Wang, Xu-shan; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Zuo-feng; Zhao, Jin-kou

    2013-02-01

    To understand the relationship between green tea drinking and/or garlic consumption and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Ganyu county, Jiangsu province. Epidemiological data including demography, lifestyle, environmental exposures and dietary habits were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Both green tea drinking and garlic consumption were inversely associated with lung cancer and the adjusted ORs were: 0.78 (95%CI: 0.65 - 0.95) for green tea, 0.79 (95%CI: 0.66 - 0.95) for garlic intake, and 0.69 (95%CI: 0.53 - 0.89) for both, respectively. They also modified the associations of smoking, fried food intake and cooking oil under high-temperature with lung cancer as risk factors. Potential interactions were found between garlic or green tea and the risk factors of lung cancer. Both green tea drinking and garlic consumption might serve as protective factors on lung cancer.

  16. Differential effects of black versus green tea on risk of Parkinson's disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Louis C; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Au, Wing-Lok; Tan, June H; Tan, Eng-King; Yu, Mimi C

    2008-03-01

    Data from Asian populations on dietary and lifestyle factors associated with Parkinson's disease are sparse. In 1993-2005, the authors examined these factors in relation to Parkinson's disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women. Baseline data were collected through in-person interviews using structured questionnaires. All 157 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified either through follow-up interviews or via linkage with hospital discharge databases and Parkinson's disease outpatient registries and were confirmed by review of medical records. Current versus never smokers exhibited a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (relative risk = 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.16, 0.52). Total caffeine intake was inversely related to Parkinson's disease risk (p for trend = 0.002); the relative risk for the highest versus lowest quartile was 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.88). Black tea, a caffeine-containing beverage, showed an inverse association with Parkinson's disease risk that was not confounded by total caffeine intake or tobacco smoking (p for trend = 0.0006; adjusted relative risk for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake = 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.67). Green tea drinking was unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk. Diet had no strong influence on risk. Ingredients of black tea other than caffeine appear to be responsible for the beverage's inverse association with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Differential Effects of Black versus Green Tea on Risk of Parkinson's Disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Louis C.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Au, Wing-Lok; Tan, June H.; Tan, Eng-King; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from Asian populations on dietary and lifestyle factors associated with Parkinson's disease are sparse. In 1993-2005, the authors examined these factors in relation to Parkinson's disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women. Baseline data were collected through in-person interviews using structured questionnaires. All 157 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified either through follow-up interviews or via linkage with hospital discharge databases and Parkinson's disease outpatient registries and were confirmed by review of medical records. Current versus never smokers exhibited a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (relative risk = 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.16, 0.52). Total caffeine intake was inversely related to Parkinson's disease risk (p for trend = 0.002); the relative risk for the highest versus lowest quartile was 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.88). Black tea, a caffeine-containing beverage, showed an inverse association with Parkinson's disease risk that was not confounded by total caffeine intake or tobacco smoking (p for trend = 0.0006; adjusted relative risk for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake = 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.67). Green tea drinking was unrelated to Parkinson's disease risk. Diet had no strong influence on risk. Ingredients of black tea other than caffeine appear to be responsible for the beverage's inverse association with Parkinson's disease. PMID:18156141

  18. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate precipitates salivary proteins including alpha-amylase: biochemical implications for oral health.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kumiko; Ohara, Masaru; Hayashi, Ikue; Hino, Takamune; Nishimura, Rumi; Iwasaki, Yoriko; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Sugiyama, Masaru; Amano, Hideaki

    2012-04-01

    Green tea is a popular drink throughout the world, and it contains various components, including the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Tea interacts with saliva upon entering the mouth, so the interaction between saliva and EGCG interested us, especially with respect to EGCG-protein binding. SDS-PAGE revealed that several salivary proteins were precipitated after adding EGCG to saliva. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) peptide mass fingerprinting indicated that the major proteins precipitated by EGCG were alpha-amylase, S100, and cystatins. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that EGCG bound to alpha-amylase at dissociation constant (K(d)) = 2.74 × 10(-6) M, suggesting that EGCG interacts with salivary proteins with a relatively strong affinity. In addition, EGCG inhibited the activity of alpha-amylase by non-competitive inhibition, indicating that EGCG is effective at inhibiting the formation of fermentable carbohydrates involved in caries formation. Interestingly, alpha-amylase reduced the antimicrobial activity of EGCG against the periodontal bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Therefore, we considered that EGCG-salivary protein interactions might have both protective and detrimental effects with respect to oral health.

  19. Herbal teas and populace health care in tropical China.

    PubMed

    Hu, S Y

    1997-01-01

    Commercial Chinese herbal tea is the development of the populace in tropical and subtropical China consequential to their fight against infectious diseases and their struggle to explore local plants to relieve fever, to alleviate pain, to restore strength and to modulate immunity against viral epidemics. From these ethnomedical experiences, two types of herbal teas were commercialized, namely, liangcha and medicated teas. Liangcha refers to a ready-made decoction infused from wild plants served in simple stores in cities and towns. Medicated teas are parcelled material prepared from crude drugs with or without tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Ktze,), sold in colorful boxes and bags to people for use at home. Investigations of liangcha were made in Hong Kong and Macao, and studies for medicated teas were done from samples obtained in Chinese stores at Boston. A total of 127 source species of these herbal teas were identified and arranged in two alphabetical lists by the botanical names, each followed by an English common name in parenthesis, part used, frequency in samples, and family. External recognizing characters of medicated teas, discussions of problems encountered in identifying source species, relevant toxicities, and potential new vegetal pharmaceutical resources are given.

  20. Tea and health: Preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the review is to update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and t...

  1. Unexplained severe illness possibly associated with consumption of Kombucha tea--Iowa, 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-12-08

    Kombucha tea is a popular health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha mushroom in sweet black tea. Although advocates of Kombucha tea have attributed many therapeutic effects to the drink (1-3), its beneficial and/or adverse effects have not been determined scientifically. During April 1995, cases of unexplained severe illness (including one death) occurred in two persons in a rural town in northwestern Iowa who had been drinking Kombucha tea daily for approximately 2 months. Based on the findings of a preliminary investigation by the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH), on April 10 IDPH issued a news release recommending that persons refrain from drinking Kombucha tea until the role of the tea in the two cases of illness had been evaluated fully. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases by the IDPH, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  2. Coffee, tea, and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Pereira, Mark A; Koh, Woon-Puay; Arakawa, Kazuko; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2008-10-01

    Increasing coffee intake was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in populations of European descent; however, data from high-risk Asian populations are lacking as are data on tea intake in general. We investigated the prospective associations between intakes of coffee, black tea, and green tea with the risk of type 2 diabetes in Singaporean Chinese men and women. We analyzed data from 36 908 female and male participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study aged 45-74 y in 1993-1998 who had multiple diet and lifestyle measures assessed and then were followed up between 1999 and 2004. We used Cox regression models to investigate the association of baseline coffee and tea intakes with incident type 2 diabetes during follow-up, with adjustment for a number of possible confounding or mediating variables. In multivariate models participants reporting > or =4 cups of coffee/d had a 30% reduction in risk of diabetes [relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.93] compared with participants who reported nondaily consumption. Participants reporting > or =1 cup of black tea/d had a suggestive 14% reduction in risk of diabetes (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.00) compared with participants who reported 0 cups/d, and we observed no association with green tea. Regular consumption of coffee and potentially black tea, but not green tea, is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in Asian men and women in Singapore.

  3. Relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Duru, Gerard; Berger, Genevieve; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate potential statistical relationships between black tea consumption and key health indicators in the world. The research question is: Does tea consumption is correlated with one or more epidemiological indicators? Design Ecological study using a systematic data-mining approach in which the unit of the analysis is a population of one country. Setting Six variables, black tea consumption data and prevalence data of respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, have been studied at a global level. Participants Data from 50 participating countries in the World Health Survey were investigated. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Level of statistical relationships between variables. Results Principal component analysis established a very high contribution of the black tea consumption parameter on the third axis (81%). The correlation circle confirmed that the ‘black tea’ vector was negatively correlated with the diabetes vector and was not correlated with any of the other four health indicators. A linear correlation model then confirmed a significant statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence. Conclusions This innovative study establishes a linear statistical correlation between high black tea consumption and low diabetes prevalence in the world. These results are consistent with biological and physiological studies conducted on the effect of black tea on diabetes and confirm the results of a previous ecological study in Europe. Further epidemiological research and randomised studies are necessary to investigate the causality. PMID:23138107

  4. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  5. Beneficial effects of green tea--a review.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Giménez, Rafael

    2006-04-01

    Tea is the most consumed drink in the world after water. Green tea is a 'non-fermented' tea, and contains more catechins, than black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong antioxidants. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medicine as a healthful beverage. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect, body weight control, antibacterial and antivirasic activity, solar ultraviolet protection, bone mineral density increase, anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. However, although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.

  6. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year.

  7. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  8. Dynamic hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction and quantification using gas chromatography combined with electron capture detection of organochlorine pesticides in green tea leaves and ready-to-drink tea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Huang, Shang-Da

    2006-11-24

    The dynamic hollow fiber protected liquid phase microextraction (DHFP-LPME) technique was evaluated for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green tea leaves and ready-to-drink tea prior to gas chromatography combined-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. A conventional microsyringe with a 1.5 cm length of hollow fiber attached to its needle was connected to a syringe pump to perform the extraction. The microsyringe was used as both the microextraction device and the sample introduction device for GC-ECD analysis. In this work, the organochlorine pesticides were extracted and condensed to a volume of 3 microl of organic extracting solvent (1-octanol) confined within a 1.5 cm length of hollow fiber. The effects of extraction solvent, extraction time, sample agitation, plunger speed, and extraction temperature and salt concentration content on the extraction performance were also investigated. Good enrichments were achieved (34-297-fold) with this method, and good repeatabilities of extraction were obtained, with full name (RSDs) below 12.57%. Detection limits were much below 1 microg l(-1) for ready-to-drink tea and much below 1 microg g(-1) for green tea leaves.

  9. Mechanisms underlying beneficial health effects of tea catechins to improve insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-A

    2008-06-01

    Tea is a popular beverage with a number of putative beneficial health effects. A recent large epidemiological study in Japan demonstrates that increased tea consumption is associated with decreased cardiovascular mortality (but not cancer mortality) in a dose-dependent manner. The polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant tea catechin. Beneficial effects of EGCG therapy have been reported in a number of human and animal studies. Emerging evidence suggests that EGCG may improve endothelial function, hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, insulin resistance, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Studies in cultured cells and animal models suggest molecular mechanisms for EGCG to activate specific cellular signaling pathways that may play major roles in prevention and amelioration of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In this review, the beneficial health effects of tea and molecular mechanisms of EGCG related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases will be discussed.

  10. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-05

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas.

  11. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Michael; Limeback, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand. PMID:28713433

  12. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    PubMed

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  13. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using modified ultrafine tea powder processed using a ball-mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huimei; Xu, Lingyun; Chen, Guijie; Peng, Chuanyi; Ke, Fei; Liu, Zhengquan; Li, Daxiang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-07-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading zirconium(IV) onto ball-milled, ultrafine tea powder (UTP-Zr) for removal of fluoride from drinking water. To evaluate the fluoride adsorption capacity of UTP-Zr over a wide range of conditions, the biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial pH, initial fluoride concentration and presence of other ions were varied. UTP-Zr performed well over the considerably wide pH range of 3-10. The residual concentration of Zr in the treated water was below the limit of detection (0.01 mg/L). Fluoride adsorption by the UTP-Zr biosorbent followed the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 12.43 mgF/g at room temperature. The fluoride adsorption kinetics fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The synthesized biosorbent was characterized by BET, SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS to reveal how UTP-Zr interacts with fluoride. Results from this study demonstrated that UTP-based biosorbents will be useful and safe for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  14. Green tea catechins based functional drink (Green cool) improves the antioxidant status of SD rats fed on high cholesterol and sucrose diets.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Huma, Nuzhat; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2013-07-01

    In the recent epoch, functional and nutraceuticals foods are gaining wide range of acceptability from the consumers. In the present research investigation, efforts were directed to exploit the green tea phytochemicals. Functional beverage was prepared with catechins and epigallocatechins gallate (EGCG) added individually @550 mg/500mL in respective drink. Prepared drinks were evaluated for their physicochemical analysis. Efficacy trial was also conducted, in which diets consisting of high sucrose and cholesterol were provided to rats with concurrent intake of functional drinks. CIE-Lab Color analysis of functional drinks showed that indices of color tonality were non-significantly affected. However, decreasing trend in pH and increased tendency in acidity of drink was noted. While scores for sensory evaluation remained in acceptable range showing suitability for industrial applications. Results of efficacy trial revealed that functional drinks improved serum antioxidant potential of rats. Thus results paved the way for the development of functional beverages using green tea catechins for vulnerable segments.

  15. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.

  16. Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

    1988-12-22

    Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

  17. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  18. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  19. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  20. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities.

    PubMed

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-10-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions.

  1. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  2. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited. PMID:25674149

  3. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited.

  4. Coffee, tea, and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Pereira, Mark A; Koh, Woon-Puay; Arakawa, Kazuko; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing coffee intake was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in populations of European descent; however, data from high-risk Asian populations are lacking as are data on tea intake in general. Objective We investigated the prospective associations between intakes of coffee, black tea, and green tea with the risk of type 2 diabetes in Singaporean Chinese men and women. Design We analyzed data from 36 908 female and male participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study aged 45-74 y in 1993-1998 who had multiple diet and lifestyle measures assessed and then were followed up between 1999 and 2004. We used Cox regression models to investigate the association of baseline coffee and tea intakes with incident type 2 diabetes during follow-up, with adjustment for a number of possible confounding or mediating variables. Results In multivariate models participants reporting ≥4 cups of coffee/d had a 30% reduction in risk of diabetes [relative risk (RR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.93] compared with participants who reported nondaily consumption. Participants reporting ≥1 cup of black tea/d had a suggestive 14% reduction in risk of diabetes (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.00) compared with participants who reported 0 cups/d, and we observed no association with green tea. Conclusion Regular consumption of coffee and potentially black tea, but not green tea, is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in Asian men and women in Singapore. PMID:18842784

  5. Characteristics Associated with Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks among US Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  6. Characteristics associated with consumption of sports and energy drinks among US adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou

    2013-01-01

    Sales of sports and energy drinks have increased dramatically, but there is limited information on regular consumers of sports and energy drinks. Characteristics associated with sports and energy drink intake were examined among a sample representing the civilian noninstitutionalized US adult population. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data for 25,492 adults (18 years of age or older; 48% males) were used. Nationwide, 31.3% of adults were sports and energy drink consumers during the past 7 days, with 21.5% consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week and 11.5% consuming sports and energy drinks three or more times per week. Based on multivariable logistic regression, younger adults, males, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, not-married individuals, adults with higher family income, those who lived in the South or West, adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity, current smokers, and individuals whose satisfaction with their social activities/relationships was excellent had significantly higher odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. In this model, the factor most strongly associated with weekly sports and energy drink consumption was age (odds ratio [OR]=10.70 for 18- to 24-year-olds, OR=6.40 for 25- to 39-year-olds, OR=3.17 for 40- to 59-year-olds vs 60 years or older). Lower odds for consuming sports and energy drinks one or more times per week were associated with other/multiracial (OR=0.80 vs non-Hispanic white) and obesity (OR=0.87 vs underweight/normal weight). Separate modeling of the association between other beverage intake and sports and energy drink intake showed that higher intake of regular soda, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, fruit drinks, milk, 100% fruit juice, and alcohol were significantly associated with greater odds for drinking sports and energy drinks one or more times per week. These findings can help medical care providers and public health officials identify adults most in

  7. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  8. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  9. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... College of Medicine) - Describes the concern of methane contamination in drinking water. Water (PDF, 216.82 KB)(U.S. Navy and ... different types of bottled waters, safety regulations, and water contamination outbreaks. Facts - Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water ( ...

  10. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? A typical 25-ounce (750 ml) bottle of table wine holds about 5 "standard" drinks, each containing about 5 ounces. This serving size of wine contains about the same amount of alcohol as ...

  11. Beneficial effects of tea and its polyphenols against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Adhami, Vaqar M; Saleem, Mohammad; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2006-02-01

    Tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Depending upon the level of fermentation, tea can be categorized into three types: green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented), and black (highly to fully fermented). In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black and oolong tea in terms of antioxidant and health promoting benefits owing to the higher content of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Tea polyphenols comprise about one-third of the weight of the dried leaf, and they exhibit biochemical and pharmacological activities including antioxidant activities, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and modulation of carcinogen metabolism. Several studies demonstrate that most tea polyphenols exert their effects by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) since excessive production of ROS has been implicated in the development of a variety of ailments including cancer of the prostate gland (CaP). Using cell culture and animal model systems, molecular targets for these remarkable beneficial effects of green tea drinking on CaP prevention and therapy have been defined. Geographical and case-control studies are showing that green tea drinking could afford CaP chemopreventive effects in human population. In this review we attempt to summarize the experimental as well as the epidemiological basis for the possible role of tea and its polyphenols for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of CaP.

  12. Tea Tree Oil

    MedlinePlus

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  13. Tea and bone health: Findings from human studies, potential mechanisms, and identification of knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Nash, Leslie A; Ward, Wendy E

    2017-05-24

    The population of the developed world is aging. With this aging population, strategies for prevention rather than treatment of chronic disease, such as osteoporosis, are essential for preserving quality of life and reducing health care costs. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world and is a rich source of flavonoids that may benefit bone health. There is strong evidence from human studies that habitual tea consumption is positively associated with higher BMD at multiple skeletal sites, while the association with fracture risk is less clear. Fracture studies demonstrate a reduction or no difference in fragility fracture with tea consumption. There are key questions that need to be answered in future studies to clarify if higher consumption of tea not only supports a healthy BMD, but also reduces the risk of fragility fracture. And if the latter relationship is shown to exist, studies to elucidate mechanisms can be designed and executed. This review discusses findings from epidemiological studies as well as potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in tea may mediate an effect, and identifies key knowledge gaps in this research area.

  14. Lead, arsenic, fluoride, and iron contamination of drinking water in the tea garden belt of Darrang district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Borah, Kamala Kanta; Bhuyan, Bhabajit; Sarma, Hari Prasad

    2010-10-01

    Drinking water quality with respect to lead, iron, fluoride, and arsenic has been carried out in and around tea gardens of Darrang district of Assam, India. The district lies between 26 degrees 25(') and 26 degrees 55(') northern latitude and 91 degrees 45(') and 91 degrees 20(') east longitude and covers an area of 3,465.30 km(2). Twenty-five different sampling stations were selected for the study. Iron, lead, and arsenic were analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200, while fluoride was measured by the SPADNS method using a UV-VIS spectrometer, Shimadzu 1240 model. The study revealed that the water sources in the area are heavily polluted with lead. Statistical analysis of the data is presented to determine the distribution pattern, localization of data, and other related information. Statistical observations imply non-uniform distribution of the studied parameters with a long asymmetric tail either on the right or left side of the median.

  15. Mental Health, Binge Drinking, and Antihypertension Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Jim E.; Haskard, Kelly B.; Haviland, Mark G.; Williams, Summer L.; Werner, Leonard S.; Anderson, Donald L.; DiMatteo, M. Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported mental health and binge drinking, as well as health status, sociodemographic, social support, economic resource, and health care access indicators to antihypertension medication adherence. Method: Analysis of 2003 California Health Interview Survey data. Results: Having poor mental…

  16. Mental Health, Binge Drinking, and Antihypertension Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Jim E.; Haskard, Kelly B.; Haviland, Mark G.; Williams, Summer L.; Werner, Leonard S.; Anderson, Donald L.; DiMatteo, M. Robin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported mental health and binge drinking, as well as health status, sociodemographic, social support, economic resource, and health care access indicators to antihypertension medication adherence. Method: Analysis of 2003 California Health Interview Survey data. Results: Having poor mental…

  17. L-theanine, unique amino acid of tea, and its metabolism, health effects, and safety.

    PubMed

    Türközü, Duygu; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-05-24

    Tea has been a very popular beverage around the world for centuries. The reason that it is delicious, enabling hydration, showing warming and relaxing effect can be mentioned why it is consumed so much in addition to its prominent health effects. Although the catechins and caffeine are the primary bioactive components that are related with the health effects of the tea, the health effects of theanine amino acid, which is a nonproteinic amino acid special to tea, has become prominent in recent years. It has been known that the theanine amino acid in tea has positive effects especially on relaxing, cognitive performance, emotional status, sleep quality, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and common cold. The results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted on the safety of theanine express that L-theanine is reliable in general even if it is consumed too much with diet. However, it has not revealed a clear evidence-based result yet regarding theanine metabolism, health effects, and its safety. Within this frame, chemical structure of theanine, its biosynthesis, dietary sources, metabolism, health effects, and safety are discussed in present study.

  18. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  19. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  20. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  1. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  2. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  3. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  5. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  6. Tea Consumption and Mortality Among Oldest-Old Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality among oldest-old Chinese. Design Population-based longitudinal data from The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) was analyzed using Cox semi-parametric proportional hazard model. Setting 631 randomly selected counties and cities of China’s 22 provinces. Participants 9,093 old adults aged 80 and above who provided complete data at baseline survey (year 1998). Measurements Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency around age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey, and follow-up survey was conducted respectively in years 2000, 2002 and 2005. Results Among oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for occasional tea drinkers respectively (P for linear trend=0.003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status around age 60 was used in analysis. Further analysis showed that compared to consistently infrequent tea drinkers, subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at both age 60 and at baseline survey had a 10% reduction in mortality (HR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.97). Conclusion Tea consumption is associated reduced risk of mortality among oldest-old Chinese. PMID:24117374

  7. Coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C A; Bolton-Smith, C; Woodward, M; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aim was to determine if there was a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland. DESIGN--The relationship between self reported coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease (history, symptoms, or electrocardiographic evidence) was investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis in the Scottish Heart Health Study (SHHS), a cross sectional study. SETTING--Twenty two Scottish districts were surveyed for the SHHS between 1984 and 1986. SUBJECTS--A total of 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Of the 9740 subjects who were assigned a category, 21.8% (2122) were classified as having indications of coronary heart disease. Men and women were combined in the odds ratio analysis because they showed almost identical patterns in the prevalence of coronary heart disease across the coffee and tea quarters (grouped according to consumption). Those who did not drink coffee had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) prevalence of coronary heart disease than the three groups for coffee drinkers. Adjustments for risk factors including cigarette smoking, total blood cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure did not remove the significance of the odds ratios. There was a positive dose-response effect between tea consumption and coronary heart disease which was removed after adjustment for various risk factors. CONCLUSIONS--These findings do not support a positive relationship between coffee or tea consumption and coronary heart disease in this British study where most coffee consumed is instant coffee. PMID:8350026

  8. Team awareness, problem drinking, and drinking climate: workplace social health promotion in a policy context.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Joel B; Patterson, Camille R; Reynolds, G Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Lehman, Wayne E K

    2004-01-01

    (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with co-workers). Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed no change at 13%. Employees receiving Team Awareness also showed

  9. Team Awareness, Problem Drinking, and Drinking Climate: Workplace Social Health Promotion in a Policy Context

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed

  10. Assessment of safety and health in the tea industry of Barak valley, Assam: a fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajat; Dey, Sanjoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional safety and health system measurement procedures, practiced in various industries produce qualitative results with a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a fuzzy-logic-based approach to developing a fuzzy model for assessing the safety and health status in the tea industry. For this, the overall safety and health status at a tea estate has been considered as a function of 4 inputs: occupational safety, occupational health, behavioral safety and competency. A set of fuzzy rules based on expert human judgment has been used to correlate different fuzzy inputs and output. Fuzzy set operations are used to calculate the safety and health status of the tea industry. Application of the developed model at a tea estate showed that the safety and health status belongs to the fuzzy class of good with a crisp value of 7.2.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of drinking, binge drinking, and related health and social problems in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines prevalence and predictors of drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related social and health problems in Puerto Rico. Respondents constitute a multi-stage household probability sample (N = 1,510) from San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. Men compared to women (Coeff: .34; 95 CI = .19-.50; p < .001), those with more liberal norms (Coeff: 1.05; 95 CI = .87-1.23; p < .001) and those with more positive attitudes about drinking (Coeff: 1.06; 95 CI= .63-1.49; p < .001) have a higher average number of weekly drinks. Those in the 40-49 age group have a lower mean number of weekly drinks than those in the 18-29 age group (Coeff.: -.23; 95 CI = -.42-.03; p < .02). Those with income between $30,001 and $40,000 a year compared to those with less than $10,000, (OR: .28; 95 CI = .08-1.93; p < .039) report fewer social/health problems. Protestants compared to Catholics (AOR: 1.94; 95 CI = 1.08-3.47; p < .026), those with more liberal drinking norms (AOR: 3.62; 95 CI = 1.87-6.99; p < .001) and more positive attitudes about drinking (AOR: 3.41; 95 CI = 1.04-11.09; p < .001), and those who consume a higher number of drink per week (AOR: 1.03; 95 CI = 1.01-1.05; p < .001) and binge (AOR: 3.52; 95 CI = 2.14-5.80; p < .001) are more likely to report social and health problems associated with alcohol use. The finding that male gender is not associated with binge drinking and social and health problems was not expected. Puerto Ricans appear to drink less than the general population and Hispanics and Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Up to date epidemiological findings provide information about high risk groups and correlates of alcohol problems in the population. These are now available for Puerto Rico and can be used in the design of prevention interventions. (Am J Addict 2016;25:478-485). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Identification, quantitation, and comprehensive assessment of green, white, and pu-erh teas using UPLC/UV/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), an important drink and a traditional medicine for thousands of years, contains many compounds of potential benefit to health. Growing season, geographic region, and fermentation method create many variations in tea composition, which contributes to the unique characteris...

  13. Study of health problems and nutritional status of tea garden population of Assam.

    PubMed

    Medhi, G K; Hazarika, N C; Shah, B; Mahanta, J

    2006-12-01

    Assam is the highest tea producer state in the country. There is scarcity of reliable information on health and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam to enable initiating public health response to their health needs. To describe health problems and nutritional status among tea garden population of Assam. Community-based cross-sectional survey in eight randomly selected tea gardens of Dibrugarh district of Assam. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of participants were recorded. Health problems and nutritional status were assessed through medical examination, evaluation of medical records, anthropometry and laboratory investigations. Percentage prevalence; Chi-square test was applied wherever applicable. Out of 4,016 participants, 1,863 were male and 2,153 were female. They were mostly illiterate and nearly 52.9% (1,197 of 2,264) of adults were manual workers in the garden. Alcohol and oral tobacco use were common. Prevalence of underweight among children was 59.9% (357 of 596) and thinness among adults was 69.9% (1,213 of 1,735). Anemia was widespread. Worm infection (65.4%, 217 of 332); skin problems; respiratory infections, including tuberculosis; filariasis were present in a significant way. Children suffered more in various diseases. Major noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, stroke were emerging in the community and were associated with modifiable risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use. Health status of the population can be ameliorated through better hygienic practices, environmental sanitation, creating health awareness, nutritional intervention and overall improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the population.

  14. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  15. A comparative analysis of chemical compositions in Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara, a novel Chinese tea, by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Fang; Ouyang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yi-Qun; Wang, Ting-Mei; Li, Wei-Xi; Tian, Hai-Yan; Cao, Hong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-02-01

    Camellia sinensis var. puanensis Kurihara (Puan tea) is a kind of ancient tea plant newly found in Jiangxipo and the surrounding areas of Puan County (Guizhou, China). People there always believe that drinking Puan tea is beneficial to the promotion of health and prevention of diseases. However, detailed information on its compositions has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, the varieties and contents of purine alkaloids and polyphenols in Puan tea were identified and determined by HPLC and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Our results showed that theacrine, but not caffeine, was the dominated purine alkaloid detected in Puan tea. Meanwhile, Puan tea contained B-type procyanidin dimer, trimer and dimer monogallate, which were not detected in Camellia sinensis, Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia assamica var. kucha. The obtained results could support the local uses of Puan tea in health and nutrition and contribute to the research of tea variety.

  16. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols) found in green tea: (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities. PMID:25191312

  17. Green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Men’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2011-01-01

    Tea and its constituents have demonstrated anticarcinogenic activity in both in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Results from epidemiologic studies, however, have been inconsistent. Some factors that coexist with tea consumption, such as cigarette smoking, may confound or modify the association between tea consumption and cancer risk. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in a population-based prospective cohort study, the Shanghai Men’s Health Study. The analysis included 60 567 Chinese men aged 40–74 years at baseline. During ∼5 years of follow-up, 243 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of developing colorectal cancer. Regular green tea consumption (ever drank green tea at least three times per week for more than six consecutive months) was associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in non-smokers (multivariable-adjusted HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34–0.86). The risk decreased as the amount of green tea consumption increased (Ptrend = 0.01). Each 2 g increment of intake of dry green tea leaves per day (approximately equivalent to the amount of tea in a tea bag) was associated with a 12% reduction in risk (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78–0.99). No significant association was found among smokers (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.66–1.34). This study suggests that regular consumption of green tea may reduce colorectal cancer risk among non-smokers. PMID:21856996

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  19. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.

  20. Energy drinks: an emerging public health hazard for youth.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-05-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a public health threat and are increasingly consumed by youth internationally. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. We review these practices and the current inconsistent state of labeling. We also examine international support for regulation of these products, including a survey showing that 85 per cent of United States parents agreed that regulations requiring caffeine content disclosure and warning labels on energy drinks are warranted. We then examine the regulatory structure for energy drinks in the United States, analyzing legal and self-regulatory strategies to protect consumers, especially youth, from these potentially dangerous products. Recommended government interventions include revised labeling requirements, addressing problematic ingredients, and enacting retail restrictions. We conclude by identifying areas for future research.

  1. Something in the water: contaminated drinking water and infant health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Meckel, Katherine; Neidell, Matthew; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the effects of in utero exposure to contaminated drinking water on fetal health. To do this, we examine the universe of birth records and drinking water testing results for the state of New Jersey from 1997 to 2007. Our data enable us to compare outcomes across siblings who were potentially exposed to differing levels of harmful contaminants from drinking water while in utero. We find small effects of drinking water contamination on all children, but large and statistically significant effects on birth weight and gestation of infants born to less educated mothers. We also show that those mothers who were most affected by contamination were the least likely to move between births in response to contamination. PMID:27134285

  2. Something in the water: contaminated drinking water and infant health.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Meckel, Katherine; Neidell, Matthew; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides estimates of the effects of in utero exposure to contaminated drinking water on fetal health. To do this, we examine the universe of birth records and drinking water testing results for the state of New Jersey from 1997 to 2007. Our data enable us to compare outcomes across siblings who were potentially exposed to differing levels of harmful contaminants from drinking water while in utero. We find small effects of drinking water contamination on all children, but large and statistically significant effects on birth weight and gestation of infants born to less educated mothers. We also show that those mothers who were most affected by contamination were the least likely to move between births in response to contamination.

  3. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2014-04-01

    Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population.

  4. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Caitlin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% (“high end”) of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages. PMID:27274417

  5. Demographics, Health, and Risk Behaviors of Young Adults Who Drink Energy Drinks and Coffee Beverages.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Caitlin K; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2016-06-01

    Objective: The present study investigates risk behaviors, sleep habits, and mental health factors associated with caffeinated beverage use in young adults. Materials and Methods: Students from a midsize private university (n = 159) completed a 15-minute anonymous questionnaire, including questions on risk behaviors, sleep habits, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. We compared behaviors between the top ∼15% ("high end") of energy drink users (≥3/month) and coffee users (≥16/month) to those with less frequent or no caffeine consumption. Results: Caffeine consumption was frequent among young adults. In the last month, 36% of students had an energy drink, 69% had coffee or espresso, and 86% reported having any caffeine; however, the majority of students were unaware of the caffeine content in these beverages. High-end energy drink consumers reported more risk-taking behaviors (increased drug and alcohol use and less frequent seat belt use), sleep disturbances (later bedtimes, harder time falling asleep, and more all-nighters), and higher frequency of mental illness diagnoses than those who consumed fewer energy drinks. In contrast, the frequency of most risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and mental illness diagnoses was not significantly different between the high-end and general population of coffee drinkers. Conclusion: Students with delayed sleep patterns, mental illness, and higher frequency of substance use and risk behaviors were more likely to be regular energy drink users but not regular coffee drinkers. It is unclear whether the psychoactive content in energy drinks results in different behavioral effects than just caffeine in coffee, and/or different personality/health populations are drawn to the two types of beverages.

  6. Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Longstreth, W.T.; Crane, Paul K.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually by an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study. PMID:21841254

  7. Gender differences in tea, coffee, and cognitive decline in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L; O'Meara, Ellen S; Longstreth, W T; Crane, Paul K; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2011-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study.

  8. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  9. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark

    2010-12-14

    To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Randomised controlled crossover study. 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium (13)Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Cumulative percentage dose of (13)C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of (13)C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, -0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference -0.40, -0.01 to -0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696.

  10. COFFEE, TEA AND SUGAR-SWEETENED CARBONATED SOFT DRINK INTAKE AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 14 COHORT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Li, Ruifeng; Spiegelman, Donna; Anderson, Kristin E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Bergkvist, Leif; Bernstein, Leslie; Black, Amanda; van den Brandt, Piet A.; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Koushik, Anita; Männistö, Satu; Marshall, James R.; Miller, Anthony B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Robien, Kim; z, Thomas E.; Schairer, Catherine; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coffee has been hypothesized to have pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties, while tea may contain anti-carcinogenic compounds. Studies assessing coffee intake and pancreatic cancer risk have yielded mixed results, while findings for tea intake have mostly been null. Sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink (abbreviated as SSB) intake has been associated with higher circulating levels of insulin, which may promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined SSB intake and pancreatic cancer risk; results have been heterogeneous. METHODS In this pooled analysis from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2,185 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 853,894 individuals during follow-up. Multivariate (MV) study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS No statistically significant associations were observed between pancreatic cancer risk and intake of coffee (MVRR=1.10, 95% CI=0.81-1.48 comparing ≥900 to <0g/day; 237g≈8oz), tea (MVRR=0.96, 95% CI=0.78-1.16 comparing ≥400 to 0g/day; 237g≈8oz) or SSB (MVRR=1.19, 95% CI=0.98-1.46 comparing ≥250 to 0g/day; 355g≈12oz) (p-value, test for between-studies heterogeneity >0.05). These associations were consistent across levels of sex, smoking status and body mass index. When modeled as a continuous variable, a positive association was evident for SSB (MVRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.12). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT Overall, no associations were observed for intakes of coffee or tea during adulthood and pancreatic cancer risk. Although we were only able to examine modest intake of SSB, there was a suggestive, modest positive association for risk of pancreatic cancer for intakes of SSB. PMID:22194529

  11. Effects of an intervention with drinking chamomile tea on sleep quality and depression in sleep disturbed postnatal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Min; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chamomile tea on sleep quality, fatigue and depression in postpartum women. Sleep quality is a significant issue for postnatal women. Chamomile is widely used as a folk remedy for its presumed sedative-hypnotic effects. A pretest-post-test randomized controlled trial was used. A total of 80 Taiwanese postnatal women with poor sleep quality (Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale; PSQS score ≧16) were recruited from November 2012-August 2013. They were systematically assigned, with a random start, to either the experimental group (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). The participants in the experimental group were instructed to drink chamomile tea for a period of 2 weeks. The participants in the control group received regular postpartum care only. The PSQS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Postpartum Fatigue Scale were used to assess outcomes. Two-sample t-tests were used to examine the mean differences in outcome variables between the two groups. Compared with the control group, the experimental group demonstrated significantly lower scores of physical-symptoms-related sleep inefficiency (t = -2·482, P = 0·015) and the symptoms of depression (t = -2·372, P = 0·020). However, the scores for all three instruments were similar for both groups at 4-week post-test, suggesting that the positive effects of chamomile tea were limited to the immediate term. Chamomile tea may be recommended to postpartum women as a supplementary approach to alleviating depression and sleep quality problems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tentative identification, quantitation, and principal component analysis of green pu-erh, green, and white teas using UPLC/DAD/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Pei; Lin, Longze; Harnly, J.M.; Yu, Liangli (Lucy); Li, Zhangwan

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), an important drink and a natural medicine for thousands of years, contains many health beneficial compounds. Growing season, geographical region, and fermentation methods create many variations in tea compositions, which contribute to each tea's uniqueness. In this study, a simple, rapid, and efficient ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with diode array detector (DAD) and mass spectroscopic (MS) detection and chemometrics analysis was used to analyse three different types of teas (green pu-erh, green tea, white tea). Using the developed method, 68 compounds were identified and 54 were quantified based on retention times, UV spectra, and MS spectra by referencing to available standards and data in the literatures. The results showed the chemical differences between the tested teas. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to classify and distinguish between tea samples. PMID:25544798

  13. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents RETHINKING DRINKING Alcohol and Your Health Visit NIAAA's Fully Interactive Web ...

  14. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health III: Avoiding vs. Seeking Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Janoff, Shannon L; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M; Perrin, Nancy A

    2010-01-01

    Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals' reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations.

  15. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health III: Avoiding vs. Seeking Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Polen, Michael R.; Leo, Michael C.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Anderson, Bradley M.; Weisner, Constance M.; Perrin, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inability to predict most health services use and costs using demographics and health status suggests that other factors affect use, including attitudes and practices that influence health and willingness to seek care. Alcohol consumption has generated interest because heavy, chronic consumption causes adverse health consequences, acute consumption increases injury, and moderate drinking is linked to better health while hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems are stigmatized and may affect willingness to seek care. Methods A stratified random sample of health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). We linked survey data to 24 months of health-plan records to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes, practices, health, and service use. In-depth interviews with a stratified 150-respondent subsample explored individuals’ reasons for seeking or avoiding care. Results Quantitative results suggest health-related practices and attitudes predict subsequent service use. Consistent predictors of care were having quit drinking, current at-risk consumption, cigarette smoking, higher BMI, disliking visiting doctors, and strong religious/spiritual beliefs. Qualitative analyses suggest embarrassment and shame are strong motivators for avoiding care. Conclusions Although models included numerous health, functional status, attitudinal and behavioral predictors, variance explained was similar to previous reports, suggesting more complex relationships than expected. Qualitative analyses suggest several potential predictive factors not typically measured in service-use studies: embarrassment and shame, fear, faith that the body will heal, expectations about likelihood of becoming seriously ill, disliking the care process, the need to understand health problems, and the effects of self-assessments of health-related functional limitations. PMID:23795149

  16. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.

    2000-03-15

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

  17. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  18. Drinking habits and health in Northern Italian and American men.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, E; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Krogh, V; Fusconi, E; Dorn, J M; Farinaro, E

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol drinking habits in two male cohorts, one Italian and one American, and to investigate whether cardiovascular disease risk factors are related to different drinking patterns. Furthermore, socio-demographic characteristics were taken into account. The Italian sample was drawn from the National Alpines Association. A dietary questionnaire was sent to the members of this association as an additional supplement to their monthly magazine. Eleven thousand one hundred and thirty-four men, 18-94 years, from Northern Italy were included in this analysis. The American sample is part of the Western New York Health Study (WNYHS) including 1927 male participants. In both populations, those who drank more than 4 drinks/day were the least educated and showed the highest percentage of current smokers; the highest prevalence of hypertension occurred in heavier drinkers and those who mostly drank without food. By contrast, lifetime abstainers exhibited the lowest percentage of hypertension and the highest level of serum cholesterol; in both populations the highest prevalence of diabetes was present in lighter drinkers. The current study shows that drinking habits are quite different in the two countries and are basically linked with socio-demographic and behavioral variables and support the notion that excess volume of alcohol consumed, and drinking without food, are associated with a higher risk of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, particularly for Italians.

  19. Underage Drinking: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) Treatments and Therapies Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask ( ... With Your College-Bound Young Adult About Alcohol (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) - PDF Statistics and ...

  20. Human Health Relevance of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim

    2015-05-01

    In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should be prioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency.

  1. Tea creaming in nonfermented teas from Camellia sinensis and Ilex vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Talcott, Stephen T

    2012-11-28

    Tea creaming is the development of a cloudy or hazy appearance in tea and ready-to-drink tea products on cooling and is highly undesirable in the tea beverage industry. Commonly associated with fermented black or oolong teas, the objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical mechanism of the formation of tea cream in nonfermented green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a caffeine-containing botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) that is free of catechin-based polyphenolics. Four tea-creaming activators (phenolics, soluble protein, caffeine, and metal ions) were added to tea infusions as well as decaffeinated teas created by chloroform extraction. Tea-creaming activators increased the weight and turbidity of both teas with the exception of soluble protein addition (as bovine serum albumin) to green tea, whereas the greatest increase in turbidity occurred with the addition of metal ions in green tea. Tea creaming was equally developed at three incubation temperatures (4, 25, and 40 °C) in both teas, but tea-creaming compositions in each tea were different at the incubating temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of each tea was lowered after creaming due to the loss of antioxidants that participated in tea cream formation.

  2. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water

  3. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In

  4. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality.

  5. A two-stage, single-arm, phase II study of EGCG-enriched green tea drink as a maintenance therapy in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Dominique; Labbé, David P; Araya-Farias, Monica; Doyen, Alain; Bazinet, Laurent; Duchesne, Thierry; Plante, Marie; Grégoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Bachvarov, Dimcho; Têtu, Bernard; Bairati, Isabelle

    2013-11-01

    A two-stage, single-arm, phase II study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-enriched tea drink, the double-brewed green tea (DBGT), as a maintenance treatment in women with advanced stage serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00721890). Eligible women had FIGO stage III-IV serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer. They had to undergo complete response after debulking surgery followed by 6 to 8 cycles of platinum/taxane chemotherapy at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec. They all had to drink the DBGT, 500 mL daily until recurrence or during a follow-up of 18 months. The primary endpoint was the absence of recurrence at 18 months. Statistical analyses were done according to the principle of intention to treat. Using a two-stage design, the first stage consisted of 16 enrolled patients. At the end of the follow-up, if 7 or fewer patients were free of recurrence, the trial stopped. Otherwise, accrual would continue to a total of 46 patients. During the first stage of the study, only 5 of the 16 women remained free of recurrence 18 months after complete response. Accordingly, the clinical trial was terminated. Women's adherence to DBGT was high (median daily intake during intervention, 98.1%, interquartile range: 89.7-100%), but 6 women discontinued the intervention before the end of their follow-up. No severe toxicity was reported. DBGT supplementation does not appear to be a promising maintenance intervention in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer after standard treatment. © 2013.

  6. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  7. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  8. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Yeh, James K; Felton, Carol K; Xu, Ke T; Pence, Barbara C; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-09-04

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. Evidence suggests the importance of oxidative stress in bone metabolism and bone loss. Tea consumption may be beneficial to osteoporosis due to its antioxidant capability. However, lack of objective data characterizing tea consumption has hindered the precise evaluation of the association between tea ingestion and bone mineral density in previous questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. On the other hand, although published studies suggest that Tai Chi (TC) exercise can benefit bone health and may reduce oxidative stress, all studies were conducted using a relatively healthy older population, instead of a high-risk one such as osteopenic postmenopausal women. Therefore, this study was designed to test an intervention including green tea polyphenol (GTP) and TC exercise for feasibility, and to quantitatively assess their individual and interactive effects on postmenopausal women with osteopenia. One hundred and forty postmenopausal women with osteopenia (defined as bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip between 1 to 2.5 SD below the reference database) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms: (1) placebo group receiving 500 mg medicinal starch daily, (2) GTP group receiving 500 mg of GTP per day, (3) placebo+TC group receiving both placebo treatment and TC training (60-minute group exercise, 3 times per week), and (4) GTP+TC group receiving both GTP and TC training for 24 weeks. The outcome measures were bone formation biomarker (serum bone alkaline phosphatase), bone resorption biomarker (serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase), and oxidative DNA damage biomarker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine). All outcome measures were determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Urinary and serum GTP concentrations were also determined at baseline, 4, 12, and 24 weeks for bioavailability. Liver function was monitored monthly for safety. A model of repeated measurements with random

  9. Interactions of black tea polyphenols with human gut microbiota: implications for gut and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    van Duynhoven, John; Vaughan, Elaine E; van Dorsten, Ferdi; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; de Vos, Ric; Vervoort, Jacques; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Roger, Laure; Draijer, Richard; Jacobs, Doris M

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies have convincingly associated consumption of black tea with reduced cardiovascular risk. Research on the bioactive molecules has traditionally been focused on polyphenols, such as catechins. Black tea polyphenols (BTPs), however, mainly consist of high-molecular-weight species that predominantly persist in the colon. There, they can undergo a wide range of bioconversions by the resident colonic microbiota but can in turn also modulate gut microbial diversity. The impact of BTPs on colon microbial composition can now be assessed by microbiomics technologies. Novel metabolomics platforms coupled to de novo identification are currently available to cover the large diversity of BTP bioconversions by the gut microbiota. Nutrikinetic modeling has been proven to be critical for defining nutritional phenotypes related to gut microbial bioconversion capacity. The bioactivity of circulating metabolites has been studied only to a certain extent. Bioassays dedicated to specific aspects of gut and cardiovascular health have been used, although often at physiologically irrelevant concentrations and with limited coverage of relevant metabolite classes and their conjugated forms. Evidence for cardiovascular benefits of BTPs points toward antiinflammatory and blood pressure-lowering properties and improvement in platelet and endothelial function for specific microbial bioconversion products. Clearly, more work is needed to fill in existing knowledge gaps and to assess the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of known and newly identified BTP metabolites. It is also of interest to assess how phenotypic variation in gut microbial BTP bioconversion capacity relates to gut and cardiovascular health predisposition.

  10. Reported alcohol drinking and mental health problems in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Ho, S Y; Wang, M P; Lo, W S; Lam, T H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between reported alcohol drinking and mental health problems in Hong Kong adolescents. In a school-based questionnaire survey in 2012-13 on 4620 Secondary one (US Grade seven) to six students (mean age 14.5, SD 1.6 years; 53.4% boys), alcohol drinking was classified as never drinking (reference), experimental, former, less-than-weekly and weekly drinking. Binge drinking was defined as drinking at least five drinks on one occasion. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with five subscales (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer relationship problems and prosocial activity) and the total difficulties score (sum of the first four subscales). Multilevel regression was used to analyse the associations of mental health problems with drinking frequency and binge drinking, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with never drinking, higher total difficulties scores were associated with less-than-weekly drinking (adjusted odds ratio AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.91), weekly drinking (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 2.18-4.70), and binge drinking (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.42-3.32). Weekly drinking was most strongly associated with hyperactivity (AOR 6.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.32) among all subscales. Girls were more likely than boys to report emotional problems (AOR 3.36 vs 1.47) and hyperactivity (AOR 19.2 vs 2.31) related to weekly alcohol drinking (both P for interaction <0.05). In Hong Kong adolescents, less-than-weekly, weekly, and binge drinking are associated with higher risks of mental health problems based on self-reported data. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the causality between alcohol drinking and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  12. Comparison of the antioxidant activity of roasted tea with green, oolong, and black teas.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Eiki; Tohyama, Naoki; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-12-01

    Although the antioxidant properties of green, oolong, and black teas have been well studied, antioxidant activity has not been examined in roasted tea. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the antioxidant activity of roasted tea in comparison with those of green, oolong, and black teas. Using water extracts of the various teas, we examined the total phenolic content as well as the antioxidant activities, including the reducing power, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and the inhibition of hemolysis caused by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced lipid oxidation in erythrocyte membranes. The roasted tea contained lower levels of total phenolics than green, oolong, or black tea (green tea > oolong tea > black tea > roasted tea). The relative reducing power and DPPH scavenging activity decreased in the following order: green tea > roasted tea > oolong tea > black tea. Also, green tea was more effective against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis than other teas (green tea>roasted tea = oolong tea = black tea). These results suggest that roasted tea is beneficial to health, in humans, because of its high antioxidant activity.

  13. Human exposure asseessment to different arsenic species in tea.

    PubMed

    Mania, Monika; Szynal, Tomasz; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Strzelecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    /kg, 90th percentile: 0.114 mg/kg), and 0.030 mg/kg, (median: 0.025 mg/kg, 90th percentile: 0.030 mg/kg) respectively. Whilst for the green teas, these were correspondingly mean total arsenic content: 0.134 mg/kg (median: 0.114 mg/kg, 90th percentile: 0.234 mg/kg) and inorganic arsenic, mean: 0.100 mg/kg (median: 0.098 mg/kg, 90th percentile: 0.150 mg/kg). The estimated average adult exposures to inorganic arsenic in black and green tea were less than 1% of the BMDL05. Green tea samples, with the highest measured inorganic arsenic, were found to cause an intake exceeding 0.5% of the BMDL05 value. However when the drinking water is also accounted for when teas are prepared, then the exposure from black and green tea becomes exceeding 0.7% and 1.3% of the BMDL05 value respectively. Findings thus demonstrate that drinking black or green teas does not pose a significant health threat to consumers, even though contaminations in some individual samples were significant. total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, tea consumption, exposure assessment.

  14. Australian print news media coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic drinks sends mixed health messages.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to analyse the contribution of Australian print news coverage to the public profile of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages. News media portrayal of health contributes to individuals' decision-making. The focus on sugar-sweetened beverages reflects their contribution to excessive energy intake. One year's coverage of sweet, non-alcoholic beverages by major Australian newspapers was analysed using content and frame analysis. Research questions addressed which sweet drinks are most prominently covered, what makes sweet drinks newsworthy and how are the health aspects of sweet drinks framed? Fruit juice was the most widely covered sweet drink, closely followed by carbonated, sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Overall coverage was positively oriented towards sweet drinks, with fruit juice primarily portrayed as having health benefits. Some coverage mentioned risks of sweet drinks, such as obesity, tooth decay, metabolic syndrome and heart attack. Sweet drinks often enjoy positive coverage, with their health benefits and harms central to their ability to attract journalists' attention. However, the mix of coverage may be contributing to consumer confusion about whether it is safe and/or healthy to consume sweet non-alcoholic drinks. Framing of sweet drinks as healthy may undermine efforts to encourage individuals to avoid excess consumption of energy-dense drinks which offer few or minimal health benefits. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Fast and simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas, mate, instant coffee, soft drink and energetic drink by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core column.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, M A; Manchón, N; D'Arrigo, M; Guillamón, E; Villares, A; García-Lafuente, A; Ramos, A; Martínez, J A

    2011-01-31

    A fast HPLC method with diode-array absorbance detector and fluorescence detector for the analysis of 19 phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols and caffeine in different types of samples was developed. Using a C(18) reverse-phase fused-core column separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 5 min with an overall sample-to-sample time of 10 min. Evaluation of chromatographic performance revealed excellent reproducibility, resolution, selectivity and peak symmetry. Limits of detection for all analyzed compounds ranged from 0.5 to 211 μg L(-1), while limits of quantitation ranged between 1.5 and 704 μg L(-1). The developed method was used for the determination of analytes present in different samples, including teas (black, white, green), mate, coffee, cola soft drink and an energetic drink. Concentration of the analyzed compounds occurring in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 314 mg L(-1). Caffeine was the analyte found in higher concentrations in all samples. Phytochemical profiles of the samples were consistent with those reported in the literature.

  16. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in Tula region].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu I; Liapina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region has been performed Thepriority contaminants of drinking water have been detected On the basis of risk assessment methodology non-carcinogenic health risks to the child population was calculated. A direct relationship between the incidence of some diseases in childhood population and pollution by chemical contaminants of drinking water has been established.

  17. Source density analysis of the human EEG after ingestion of a drink containing decaffeinated extract of green tea enriched with L-theanine and theogallin.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Kler, A; Kriesl, E; Lehnfeld, R; Keplinger-Dimpfel, I K

    2007-01-01

    Source density analysis of EEG recordings from 12 healthy human volunteers was used in a randomized, placebo controlled cross over study to investigate the change in physiological parameters after ingestion of a soft drink containing green tea extract enriched with L-theanine and theogallin. EEG was recorded 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after ingestion during different recording conditions. Visually evoked P300 potentials were recorded every hour in addition to the EEG recordings. Analysis of the data revealed a general attenuation of electrical delta power under the condition of eyes open during the first hour (statistically significant at p < 0.01). During a reading test increases of delta and theta power were observed at frontal electrode sites starting with the second hour after administration, significant at the third and fourth hour (p < 0.04) in comparison to placebo. These changes indicate a higher level of mental performance. Increases of beta 1 power starting with the second hour indicated a higher degree of relaxation. However, no statistical significance was reached. Analysis of visually evoked P300 waves revealed a decrease in latency at the last hour (statistical significance p < 0.04) as well as increases of amplitudes at the electrode position Cz (from the first to the third hour, statistically not significant). This type of result in general suggests an improvement of attention. Thus, decaffeinated extract of green tea still has a stimulating effect despite the lack of caffeine presumably due to its high content in L-theanine and theogallin as found in preclinical experiments.

  18. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively.

  19. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size.

    PubMed

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Teevale, Tasileta; Sheridan, Janie

    2017-09-14

    With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012). In total, 8500 students answered a comprehensive questionnaire about their health and well-being, including multiple measures of mental well-being, and were weighed and measured for height. More than one-third (35%) of young people consumed energy drinks in the past week, and 12% consumed energy drinks four or more times in the past week. Energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms, greater emotional difficulties and lower general subjective well-being. Frequent energy drink consumption was also associated with binge drinking, smoking, engagement in unsafe sex, violent behaviours, risky motor vehicle use and disordered eating behaviours. There was no association between consumption of energy drinks and student body size. Consumption of energy drinks is associated with a range of health risk behaviours for young people. Strategies to limit consumption of energy drinks by young people are warranted. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. World Health Organization discontinues its drinking-water guideline for manganese.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because "this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value." In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water--from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn.

  1. The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: the Japan public health center-based study cohort.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Saito, Isao; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Junko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-05-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the impact of both green tea and coffee consumption on strokes. We investigated the association of the combination of those consumption with stroke incidence in a general population. We studied 82 369 Japanese (aged 45-74 years; without cardiovascular disease [CVD] or cancer in 1995 and 1998 for Cohort I and II, respectively) who received 13 years of mean follow-up through the end of 2007. Green tea and coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaire at baseline. In the 1 066 718 person-years of follow-up, we documented the incidence of strokes (n=3425) and coronary heart disease (n=910). Compared with seldom drinking green tea, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.86 (0.78-0.95) and 0.80 (0.73-0.89) in green tea 2 to 3 and ≥ 4 cups/d, respectively. Higher green tea consumption was associated with inverse risks of CVD and strokes subtypes. Compared with seldom drinking coffee, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.80 (0.72-0.90), and 0.81 (0.72-0.91) for coffee 3 to 6 times/week and 1 and ≥ 2 times/day, respectively. Coffee consumption was associated with an inverse risk of CVD and cerebral infarction. Higher green tea or coffee consumption reduced the risks of CVD and stroke subtypes (especially in intracerebral hemorrhage, P for interaction between green tea and coffee=0.04). None of the significant association was observed in coronary heart disease. Higher green tea and coffee consumption were inversely associated with risk of CVD and stroke in general population.

  2. Role of Green Tea Flavonoids and Other Related Contents in Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis and leaves through the oxidation process. It mainly originates in China and has been used traditionally throughout Asia. In the West, black tea has been used mostly, but green tea has become the most popular beverage throughout the world. It is also used as a raw material in cosmetics, health foods, and as an added ingredient in various beverages. Different varieties of green tea are available. The main differences between the varieties are due to harvesting time, production procedures, and horticulture. Drinking green tea has many positive effects on the body. It helps to nourish our five vital organs, among which the most important is the heart. It also has many qualities to help improve our state of mind (thus possibly reducing the consumption of alcohol), it acts as a stimulant, cures blotchiness, fulfills thirst, eliminates indigestion, cures beriberi disease, prevents fatigue, and improves kidney and brain function.

  3. Children's and parents' health perception of different soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tamara; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-02-14

    Beverages are among the first independent product choices that school-aged children will make and unhealthy choices can be a threat to children's health. The present study investigated which beverage attributes shape adults' and children's health perceptions. For this purpose, 100 children (fifty-two boys; mean age 8·8 (SD 1·1) years) and their parents were invited to independently perform a beverage-sorting task. Participants were asked to place twenty commonly consumed soft drinks in a line ranging from 'unhealthy' to 'healthy'. The sorting data were analysed using multidimensional scaling with property fitting and hierarchical clustering. Sugar content (βparents= - 0·78, βchildren= - 0·68; P< 0·001), artificial sweeteners (βparents= - 0·68, βchildren= - 0·66; P< 0·001), fruit content (βparents= 0·33, βchildren= 0·36; P< 0·05) and caffeine content (βparents= - 0·45, βchildren= - 0·46; P< 0·01) were found to be the predictors of parents' and children's health perceptions. Parents' and children's estimates were strongly related (rs 0·70 (SD 0·15)); both groups classified the beverages into similar clusters. However, compared with their parents, children perceived beverages such as fruit juices and grapefruit soda to be healthier. In conclusion, parents' and children's health perceptions were strongly related based on the same relevant attributes for evaluation. However, fruit content was considered a more important criterion by children, which might lead to differences in the health perception between children and their parents. Low fruit content and the belief of beverages being 'natural' could positively bias perceptions. Therefore, certain soft drinks such as squashes or fruit lemonades are problematic, and the consumer's awareness of their low nutritional quality should be raised.

  4. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate.

  5. Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: findings from northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Razvodovsky, Yury; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2013-12-15

    Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours. Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours. Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking water fluoridation and oral health inequities in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Emery, J C Herbert

    2012-02-01

    One argument made in favour of drinking water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on oral health. We examined the association between exposure to fluoridation and oral health inequities among Canadian children.PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: We analyzed data from 1,017 children aged 6-11 from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey that included a clinic oral health examination and a household interview. The outcome measure was a count of the number of decayed, missing (because of caries or periodontal disease) or filled teeth, either deciduous or permanent (dmftDMFT). Data were analyzed using linear (ordinary least squares) and multinomial logistic regression; we also computed the concentration index for education-related inequity in oral health. Water fluoridation status (the intervention) was assigned on the basis of the site location of data collection. Fluoridation was associated with better oral health (fewer dmftDMFT), adjusting for socio-economic and behavioural variables, and the effect was particularly strong for more severe oral health problems (three or more dmftDMFT). The effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT was observed across income and education categories but appeared especially pronounced in lower education and higher income adequacy households. dmftDMFT were found to be disproportionately concentrated in lower-education households, though this did not vary by fluoridation status. The robust main effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT and the beneficial effect across socio-economic groups support fluoridation as a beneficial and justifiable population health intervention. Fluoridation was equitable in the sense that its benefits were particularly apparent in those groups with the poorest oral health profiles, though the nature of the findings prompts consideration of the values underlying the judgement of health equity.

  7. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  8. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2017-02-22

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at risk for regular energy drink consumption and to explore the association of regular energy drinks consumption with health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences in adolescents. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were analysed. We assessed socio-demographic characteristics, energy drink consumption, health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences based on self-reports from 8977 adolescents aged 11-15 years (mean age/standard deviation 13/1.33; 50.0% boys). The prevalence of regular energy drink consumption in the present sample was 20.6% (95%CI: 20%-21%). Regular energy drink consumption was more frequent among boys and older adolescents. Adolescents with a medium-level family affluence were less likely to drink energy drinks regularly. Adolescents who consumed energy drinks regularly had more health and behavioural problems and negative school experiences.

  9. Energy drink consumption and associated health behaviors among university students in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Spierer, David K; Blanding, Nineequa; Santella, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe energy drink consumption and health behaviors among college students attending a predominantly minority university. Undergraduate and graduate students attending a private, minority-serving university were invited to participate in an online survey between September 2009 and August 2010. Out of 2,500 students, 407 participated yielding a response of 16 %. Analysis assessed energy drink consumption as well as participation in sport activities and high-risk behaviors. Energy drink consumption is significantly related with drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving (r = .14, p < .05) and to riding with a drunk driver (r = .15, p < .05). Athletes were more likely to engage in drinking alcohol to inebriation and driving F (1, 186) = 6.12, p < .02. Energy drink consumption is a common practice among racial minority university students. Tailored health promotion strategies and interventions are needed to address misconceptions of energy drink and alcohol mixing.

  10. Green Tea in Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Green tea consumption has been associated with a decrease in the risk of some cancer types in humans. Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive...suggest that drinking green tea may lower the risk of prostate cancer (Cap) in humans. Here we report that polyphenolic mixture obtained from green tea 0.1...GTP (w/v) in drinking water at a human achievable dose (equivalent to six cups of green tea per day) significantly inhibits prostate cancer

  11. Potential natural antioxidants: adjuvant effect of green tea polyphenols in periodontal infections.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Chidambaram

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols constitute the major component in green tea, which represent a cluster known as catechins. The presence of polyphenols, especially the amino acid theanine and catechins with its antioxidant properties in green tea make them ideal for medicinal- dental applications. The objective of the paper is to delineate the role of green tea polyphenols in periodontal disease. The Pub med data base was searched for human clinical studies, reviews pertinent to application of green tea polyphenols in periodontal health dating from Sep 1980- Sep 2014. The retrieved inference from the epidemiological surveys, in vitro studies and overviews of polyphenols, postulate green tea as potential natural antioxidant. Green tea mouthwashes possess limitations, which make them ineffective during the chronic stages of periodontitis. Human studies reveal that the prognosis of periodontal disease is better when the green tea catechins are used via local drug delivery. The maintenance of periodontal health could be enhanced by emphasizing the habit of drinking green tea in periodontitis patients. The future scope of the research demands the analysis of polyphenols at molecular level to have a better understanding of its overwhelming applications.

  12. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America?

  13. The effects of social and health consequence framing on heavy drinking intentions among college students.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, John H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2015-02-01

    Many interventions targeting college student drinking have focused on negative health effects of drinking heavily; however, some research suggests that social factors may have a stronger influence on the drinking behaviour of young people. Moreover, few studies have examined message framing effects in the context of alcohol consumption. This study investigated the effects of social and health consequence framing on college students' intentions to engage in heavy drinking. This study used a 2 × 2 experimental design with an appended control condition. One hundred and twenty-four college students (74 women; M(age) = 18.9) participated in this study for course credit. Participants read vignettes that were ostensibly written by a recent graduate from the university, who described an episode of drinking in which he or she experienced either social or health consequences. These consequences were framed as either a gain (i.e., positive consequences of not drinking heavily) or a loss (i.e., negative consequences of drinking heavily). After reading the vignette, participants completed a measure of heavy drinking intentions. Regression analyses revealed that social consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a loss and that health consequences were associated with lower heavy drinking intentions when framed as a gain. These effects were stronger among those who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of previous drinking. Results suggest that interventions that focus on the negative health effects of heavy drinking may be improved by instead emphasizing the negative social consequences of drinking heavily and the positive health consequences of avoiding this behaviour. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain frames are more effective than loss frames when highlighting the health consequences of health risk behaviours, such as heavy drinking. The heavy drinking behaviour of young

  14. Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking.

  15. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  16. Associations between binge and heavy drinking and health behaviors in a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lisa A; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Frueh, B Christopher; Ellis, Charles; Egede, Leonard E

    2011-12-01

    Binge and heavy drinking are noted in the literature for their relatively high prevalence and adverse health-related effects. We used data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to determine the associations between binge and heavy drinking and a wide range of health-related variables, including positive and negative health behaviors, preventive care practices, and quality of life indices in a nationally representative sample of 344,793 adults. Rates of binge and heavy drinking in the current sample were 15% and 5%, respectively. Binge and heavy drinking were more common among men, younger adults, and individuals with higher incomes and at least some college education. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, binge and heavy drinking were associated with a number of adverse health-related and preventive care behaviors (e.g., smoking, failing to receive a mammogram), as well as less life satisfaction and a greater number of poor mental health days than those who did not engage in these drinking behaviors. Interestingly, binge and heavy drinking were also associated with some positive health-related variables (e.g., recent physical activity, positive perceptions of one's own health). The current study findings provide additional information regarding the relations between health-related attitudes and behaviors and binge and heavy drinking in the U.S. population. Implications of study findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Tea in chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S; Mukhtar, H

    1996-02-01

    This review summarizes available information on epidemiological and experimental data showing an association of tea consumption with cancer prevention. Studies showing cancer risk associated with tea consumption are also summarized. Tea is grown in about 30 countries and, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Experimental studies demonstrating the chemopreventive effects of tea have been conducted principally with green tea; limited studies have also assessed the usefulness of black tea. Majority of these studies have been carried out in skin tumor model system where consumption through drinking water of water extracts of tea or a polyphenolic fraction isolated from tea has been shown to afford protection against chemical carcinogen- or ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis. Tea consumption has also been shown to afford protection against chemical carcinogen-induced lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum, pancreas, liver, breast and colon carcinogenesis in specific bioassay models. Evidence has also accumulated showing that tea polyphenols prevent tumor promoter- and ultraviolet B-induced inflammatory responses in murine skin. The species and strains of animals, dose, route, frequency and duration of carcinogen administration, as well as types, route of administration and duration of tea or its polyphenolic component(s) treatment are described in detail. A brief description regarding mechanism(s) responsible for the broad chemopreventive effects of tea is provided. Epidemiologic studies, though inconclusive, in general suggest a possible preventive effect of tea consumption on human cancer. On the basis of available information, epidemiologic and experimental studies are ongoing to draw the possible relationship between tea consumption and cancer causation and prevention. Appropriate strategies for future clinical chemoprevention trials to translate animal data to human cancer risk are warranted.

  18. Effect of black tea consumption on radial blood pulse spectrum and cognitive health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Jan, Ming-Yie; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-04-01

    Black tea consumption has been proven to improve endothelial function and to lower the risk of stroke and cognitive impairment. Several effects of black tea on cardiovascular system had been surveyed. However, the black tea effect on pressure pulse spectrum remains unknown. The study was aimed to investigate the influence of black tea on radial blood pressure and Pulse Spectrum. Fourteen healthy subjects received water and single doses of black tea (0.05g/Kg) in separate weeks. The radial blood pressure and pulse wave were measured and the pressure pulses were evaluated using harmonic analysis. This report confirmed that black tea consumption (dose=0.05g/Kg) significantly increased third, fifth, (P<0.1), sixth, seventh, and eighth harmonics (p<0.05) of radial pressure wave comparing to water control. We proposed that black tea may increase cerebral blood flow (CBF), which was deduced from the results and from the conclusions of previous studies. The results also showed that the harmonic components of pressure pulse could be the vascular kinetic index that assessed the hemodynamic status in each time frame before and after consumption of black tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health importance of arsenic in drinking water and food.

    PubMed

    Otleş, Semih; Cağindi, Ozlem

    2010-08-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid of global concern. It usually originates geogenically but can be intensified by human activities such as applications of pesticides and wood preservatives, mining and smelting operations, and coal combustion. Arsenic-contaminated food is a widespread problem worldwide. Data derived from population-based studies, clinical case series, and case reports relating to ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water, medications, or contaminated food or beverages show the capacity of arsenate and arsenite to adversely affect multiple organ systems. Chronic arsenic poisoning can cause serious health effects including cancers, melanosis (hyperpigmentation or dark spots, and hypopigmentation or white spots), hyperkeratosis (hardened skin), restrictive lung disease, peripheral vascular disease (blackfoot disease), gangrene, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease.

  20. Problems with provision: barriers to drinking water quality and public health in rural Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.

  1. Optimization of a new resin, Amberlyst 36, as a solid-phase extractor and determination of copper(II) in drinking water and tea samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kendüzler, Erdal; Türker, Ali Rehber

    2005-11-01

    A new simple and reliable method has been developed to separate and preconcentrate trace copper ion in drinking water and tea samples for subsequent measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The copper ions are adsorbed quantitatively during passage of aqueous solutions through Amberlyst 36 cation exchange resin. After the separation and preconcentration stage, the analyte was eluted with a potassium cyanide solution and determined by FAAS. Different factors including pH of sample solution, sample volume, amount of resin, flow rate of aqueous solution, volume and concentration of eluent, and matrix effects for preconcentration were examined. The analytical figures of merit for the determination of copper are as follows: analytical detection limit (3 sigma), 0.26 microg/L; precision (RSD), 3.1% for 100 microg/L; enrichment factor, 200 (using 1000 mL of sample solution and 5 mL of eluent); time of analysis, 3.5 h (for obtaining enrichment factor of 200); capacity of resin, 125 mg/g. The method was applied for copper determination by FAAS in tap water, commercial natural spring water, commercial treated drinking water, and commercial tea bag sample. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by analyzing tea leaves (GBW 07605). The results demonstrated good agreement with the certified values.

  2. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  3. Identification, quantitation, and method validation for flavan-3-ols in fermented ready-to-drink teas from the Italian market using HPLC-UV/DAD and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Chiara; Canale, Francesca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bicchi, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    The present study is focused on flavan-3-ols characterizing the antioxidant properties of fermented tea (Camellia sinensis). These bioactive compounds, object of nutritional claims in commercial products, should be quantified with rigorous analytical procedures whose accuracy and precision have been stated with a certain level of confidence. An HPLC-UV/DAD method, able to detect and quantify flavan-3-ols in infusions and ready-to-drink teas, has been developed for routine analysis and validated by characterizing several performance parameters. The accuracy assessment has been run through a series of LC-MS/MS analyses. Epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechingallate, and (-)-catechingallate were chosen as markers of the polyphenolic fraction. Quantitative results showed that samples obtained from tea leaves infusion were richer in polyphenolic antioxidants than those obtained through other industrial processes. The influence of shelf-life and packaging material on the flavan-3-ols content was also considered; markers decreased, with an exponential trend, as a function of time within the shelf life while packaging materials demonstrated to influence differently the flavan-3-ol fraction composition over time. The method presented here provides quantitative results with a certain level of confidence and is suitable for a routine quality control of iced teas whose antioxidant properties are object of nutritional claim.

  4. Health risks of energy drinks: what nurses and consumers need to know.

    PubMed

    Guilbeau, Janis R

    2012-01-01

    Energy drinks have become very popular, yet they present health concerns and workplace safety issues related to mental and physical effects of the drinks, which are mainly related to the central nervous system and include heightened alertness, altered sleep patterns, arrhythmias and, rarely, seizures. In the workplace, any pharmacologic agent or substance, such as energy drinks, may present a risk to the delivery of health care, and the use energy drinks during pregnancy and lactation are a concern and patient education is warranted. © 2012 AWHONN.

  5. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    PubMed

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  6. The Health Risks of Obesity: Worse Than Smoking, Drinking, or Poverty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    dramatically in the past 20 years, in conjunction with a national trend toward sedentary lifestyles . Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk. The...negative effects of obesity and other known health risks, such as smoking, heavy drinking, and poverty , have been well documented. But until now, no one has...Kenneth Wells, examined the comparative effects of obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and poverty on chronic health conditions and health expenditures

  7. Human health risk assessment of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Gebhart, Ann Marie; Miller, Thea Clipson; Hammer, Frank

    2004-09-01

    2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used as a vulcanization accelerator in rubber products that come into contact with potable drinking water. When such products are evaluated for contact with potable water and submitted for ANSI/NSF Standard 61 certification, any chemical extracting from these products must be below an appropriate action level of exposure. As defined by Standard 61, a total allowable concentration (TAC) is the maximum concentration of a nonregulated contaminant allowed in a public drinking water supply, and the single product allowable concentration (SPAC) is 10% of the TAC. Currently, MBT has a TAC of 40 microg/L and a SPAC of 4 microg/L. A comprehensive health effects evaluation of MBT was performed to determine whether these action levels should be revised. Epidemiological investigations indicate that workers occupationally exposed to MBT have an increased risk of death from bladder cancer. Genotoxicity investigations in bacterial and mammalian test systems provide some evidence indicating that MBT has the potential to induce mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Toxicity studies in rats and mice chronically exposed to MBT identified increases in various tumours, such as adrenal gland tumours, pituitary gland tumours, liver tumours and renal pelvis tumours. The biological significance of most of these tumours is questionable due to a variety of factors, such as a lack of dose-response between tumour incidence and dose, and the effect of test article vehicle (corn oil) upon tumour rates. Potential human health effects of exposure to MBT can be predicted from an NTP 2-year cancer study in rats, as well as epidemiological investigations in occupationally exposed workers. A comprehensive review of the epidemiological and toxicological dataset for MBT indicates that the induction of renal pelvis transitional cell tumours is the most sensitive and relevant health effects endpoint upon which to base a revised TAC and SPAC. A multistage model was used to

  8. Parents' beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions.

    PubMed

    Munsell, Christina R; Harris, Jennifer L; Sarda, Vishnudas; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2016-01-01

    To assess potential misperceptions among parents regarding the healthfulness of sugary drinks for their children. Online survey of parents. Participants identified the categories and specific brands of sugary drinks they provided for their children. They also indicated their perceptions of sugary drink categories and brands as healthy options for children, perceived importance of on-package claims in purchase decisions and their concerns about common sugary drink ingredients. Online market research panel. Parents (n 982) of 2- to 17-year-olds, 46 % non-white or Hispanic. Ninety-six per cent of parents provided on average 2·9 different categories of sugary drinks for their children in the past month. Flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks were rated as the healthiest sugary drink categories. Across all categories and brands, parents who purchased specific products rated them as significantly healthier than those who did not (P<0·05). Over half of parents reported concern about caffeine, sugar and artificial sweeteners in sugary drinks that their children consume and approximately one-third reported that on-package ingredient claims were important in their purchase decisions. Nearly all parents provide sugary drinks for their children and many believe that some sugary drinks are healthy options for children, particularly flavoured waters, fruit drinks and sports drinks. Furthermore, many parents rely upon on-package claims in their purchase decisions. Given excessive consumption of added sugar by children in the home, there is a continuing need to address parents' misperceptions about the healthfulness of many sugary drink products.

  9. Calories and sugars in boba milk tea: implications for obesity risk in Asian Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Min, Jae Eun; Green, David B; Kim, Loan

    2017-01-01

    In the last several decades, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions, and increases the risk for a host of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain kinds of cancers. Boba milk tea, first became popular in the 1990s throughout Asia, and has gained more popularity in the United States and in Europe since 2000. Currently, available nutrition data from online sites suggest this beverage contains high amounts of sugar and fat. One published nutrition study suggests that boba tea drinks are part of the larger group of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) because these beverages are usually sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This study experimentally determined the sugar composition (sucrose, fructose, glucose, and melezitose) and calorific values of boba milk tea drinks and their components. Results suggested that boba drinks fit the US Dietary Guidelines definition of a SSB. One 16-ounce boba drink exceeds the upper limit of added sugar intake recommended by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. The high caloric and sugar content of boba beverages pose public health concerns as they have the potential to further exacerbate the childhood obesity epidemic. Nutrition education targeting Asian populations should give special attention to boba tea as a SSB. Also, prudent public health recommendations should be suggested for moderate consumption of these beverages. With the growing popularity of boba beverages in the United States, the findings from this study provide public health practitioners with valuable data on how boba beverages compare with other SSBs.

  10. “Not Getting Tanked:” Definitions of Moderate Drinking and Their Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Polen, Michael R.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Castleton, David K.; Perrin, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background People encounter large amounts of sometimes-inconsistent information about risks and benefits of alcohol consumption, and about what constitutes “low-risk” or “moderate” drinking. Methods We used 150 in-depth interviews linked to questionnaire data to learn how people define moderate drinking and to describe the relationships between definitions, attitudes, and beliefs about moderate drinking and individuals’ drinking patterns. Results People adhere to definitions of moderate alcohol consumption that could put them, or others, at risk for short-or long-term negative consequences of drinking. Definitions that confused increased tolerance of alcohol with moderate drinking, and those that defined moderate drinking by the absence of short-term negative consequences or ability to maintain control over drinking, ignore long-term risks of heavy consumption. Individuals with risky attitudes were also more likely to report at-risk drinking practices. Conclusions Americans have complex beliefs about benefits and risks of alcohol consumption, and public health officials have not succeeded in conveying strong or clear messages about what constitutes low-risk drinking or about dose-response effects. Different (but more consistent) approaches to public education may be needed to increase knowledge about drinking-related risks. The prevalence of diverse norm-based definitions suggests that alternative normative information could help people reassess their own consumption. PMID:16930868

  11. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  12. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  13. Self-Efficacy, Planning, and Drink Driving: Applying the Health Action Process Approach.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hollie; Sheehan, Mary; Palk, Gavan; Watson, Angela

    2016-05-19

    This study examines the constructs from the health action process approach (HAPA) theoretical model (Schwarzer, 1992) on future drink driving avoidance by first time drink driving offenders. This research presents an advance in health related theory by the novel application of the health model to predict risk avoidance. Baseline interviews were conducted with 198 first time drink driving offenders at the time of court appearance, and offenders were followed up 6-8 months following the offense date. The key outcome variables used in 3 stages were behavioral expectation, planning, and self-reported avoidance of drink driving at follow-up. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for each stage. High task self-efficacy and female gender were significantly related to having no behavioral expectation of future drink driving. High maintenance self-efficacy was significantly related to high levels of planning to avoid future drink driving. Those with higher planning scores at baseline had significantly higher odds of reporting that they had avoided drink driving at follow up. Planning plays an important role in drink driving rehabilitation and should be a focus of early intervention programs aimed at reducing drink driving recidivism following a first offense. Self-efficacy is an important construct to consider for the behavior and could strengthen a planning focused intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. World Health Organization Discontinues Its Drinking-Water Guideline for Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because “this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value.” Objective: In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water—from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. Methods: For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Discussion: Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. Conclusions: The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn. PMID:22334150

  15. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  16. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  17. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan

    2017-03-01

    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  18. A metabonomic analysis on health effects of drinking water on male mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Yao; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Health effects of drinking water on the male mice (Mus musculus) were investigated by metabonomics after exposure to the Taihu drinking water for 90 days. Metabonomics data combined with the results of conventional serum biochemistry tests and hepatic histopathology showed that the drinking water induced adverse health effects on the male mice. It was found that the serum levels of pyruvate, glutamine, arginine, lysine, N-acetyl glycoproteins, choline and citrate were significantly decreased in the treatment group. These results indicated that Taihu drinking water may induce damages on mice liver via perturbations of energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and apoptosis. These observations yielded novel insights regarding the environmental health risk of Taihu drinking water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of fourteen phenolic acids in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drinks.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Marwan; Makahleh, Ahmad; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2017-11-01

    A vortex-assisted liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for the determination of fourteen phenolic acids (cinnamic, m-coumaric, chlorogenic, syringic, ferulic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, 2, 4-dihydroxybenzoic, sinapic, gentisic and gallic acids) in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drink samples has been developed. The separation was achieved using a Poroshell 120-EC-C18 column under a gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.6mLmin(-1) and mobile phase composed of methanol and acetic acid (1%, v/v). Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, the fourteen phenolic acids were separated in less than 32min. The extraction was performed using a small volume (400µL) of ternary organic solvents (1-pentanol, propyl acetate and 1-hexanol) dispersed into the aqueous sample (10mL) and assisted by vortex agitation (2500rpm for 45s), the analytes were next back-extracted from the organic solvent using 0.02M KOH (40µL) with vortex speed and time of 2500rpm and 60s, respectively. Under these conditions, enrichment factors of 30-193-fold were achieved. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-0.68µgL(-1). Recoveries in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drinks were in the range 72.2-112%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of the phenolic acids in honey, iced tea and canned coffee drinks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social networking and young adults' drinking practices: innovative qualitative methods for health behavior research.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Goodwin, Ian; McCreanor, Tim; Griffin, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Understandings of health behaviors can be enriched by using innovative qualitative research designs. We illustrate this with a project that used multiple qualitative methods to explore the confluence of young adults' drinking behaviors and social networking practices in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Participants were 18-25 year old males and females from diverse ethnic, class, and occupational backgrounds. In Stage 1, 34 friendship focus group discussions were video-recorded with 141 young adults who talked about their drinking and social networking practices. In Stage 2, 23 individual interviews were conducted using screen-capture software and video to record participants showing and discussing their Facebook pages. In Stage 3, a database of Web-based material regarding drinking and alcohol was developed and analyzed. In friendship group data, young adults co-constructed accounts of drinking practices and networking about drinking via Facebook as intensely social and pleasurable. However, this pleasure was less prominent in individual interviews, where there was greater explication of unpleasant or problematic experiences and practices. The pleasure derived from drinking and social networking practices was also differentiated by ethnicity, gender, and social class. Juxtaposing the Web-based data with participants' talk about their drinking and social media use showed the deep penetration of online alcohol marketing into young people's social worlds. Multiple qualitative methods, generating multimodal datasets, allowed valuable nuanced insights into young adults' drinking practices and social networking behaviors. This knowledge can usefully inform health policy, health promotion strategies, and targeted health interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  2. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk.

  3. Health Risk Assessment for Groundwater Resource Used for Drinking Water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Shen-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater has been massively used for drinking by local residents due to deficiency in surface water in Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. A long-term survey of groundwater quality revealed that concentrations of water quality items in some of the monitoring wells exceeded the Taiwanese standards for drinking water quality. Water of poor quality can have an adverse health impact. Effective health risk-based groundwater management typically faces great challenges because of the inherent spatial variability in groundwater quality. In this study, we target to spatially analyze the health hazard and risk from consumption of groundwater for drinking. We computed the hazard quotient and health risk using exposure and risk model and hydrochemical data surveyed by Taiwan Water Resource Agency and Environmental Protection Agency. The zone suitable for groundwater used is delineated based on the results of the spatial health risk map. The results of the analysis can help government administrator in managing groundwater used for drinking in Pingtung Plain in Taiwan.

  4. Rethinking Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are having drinking-related problems with your job, relationships, health, or the law, you should still seek help. Read More "Rethinking Drinking" Articles Rethinking Drinking / The Importance of Drinking Patterns / Dr. George Koob: ... Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of ...

  5. Arsenic, drinking water, and health: a position paper of the American Council on Science and Health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth G; Ross, Gilbert L

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this American Council on Science and Health report is to review issues and sources of uncertainty affecting assessment of potential health risks related to drinking water in the United States. Some background is included on how these issues arose, as is a review of the 1999 National Research Council report (with references to an updated version), to formulate a position based on the current science concerning how much of a risk of adverse health effects actually exists from arsenic in drinking water in the United States. ACSH concludes that there is clear evidence that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic at concentrations of at least several hundred micrograms per liter may cause: (1) cancer of skin, bladder, lung (and possibly several other internal organs, including kidney, liver, and prostate), and (2) noncancer effects, including classic cutaneous manifestations that are distinctive and characteristic of chronic arsenic poisoning (diffuse or spotted hyperpigmentation and palmar-plantar hyperkeratoses). Noncancer effects may be multisystemic, with some evidence of peripheral vascular, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse reproductive outcomes. Further study is needed to know if beneficial effects of arsenic in animal studies apply to humans. ACSH concludes that there is little, if any, evidence of a detrimental health effect in humans from inorganic arsenic in drinking water at the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 50 microg/L or below, either in the United States or elsewhere. As noted in the 1999 NRC report, "No human studies of sufficient statistical power or scope have examined whether consumption of arsenic in drinking water at the current MCL results in an increased incidence of cancer or noncancer effects" (NRC, 1999, p. 7). Based on our review, described in this article, ACSH finds that the limitations of the epidemiological data available and the state-of-the-science on the mode-of-action of

  6. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p < 0.05) in soil. Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p < 0.05). However, the additions of charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  7. Report: EPA Needs to Demonstrate Public Health Benefits of Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-P-0032, December 5, 2014. The EPA needs to enforce grant requirements for collecting DWSRF project information to demonstrate the public health results of the $11.37 billion it has invested in drinking water infrastructure since 2009.

  8. EPA Issues Health Advisories to Protect Americans from Algal Toxins in Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today issued health advisory values that states and utilities can use to protect Americans from elevated levels of algal toxins in drinking water. Algal blooms in rivers, lakes, and bays so

  9. Tea and Coffee Consumption and MRSA Nasal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Eric M.; Mainous, Arch G.; Everett, Charles J.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Hot tea and coffee have been found to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of tea, coffee, or both is associated with less frequent nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the relationship between the consumption of coffee, hot tea, cold tea, and soft drinks, and MRSA nasal carriage among the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. RESULTS An estimated 2.5 million persons (1.4% of the population) were MRSA nasal carriers. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis controlling for age, race, sex, poverty-income ratio, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, individuals who reported consuming hot tea were one-half as likely to have MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no hot tea (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.71). Similarly, individuals who reported consuming coffee had about a one-half reduction in the risk of MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no coffee (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–0.93). CONCLUSIONS Consumption of hot tea or coffee is associated with a lower likelihood of MRSA nasal carriage. Our findings raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible. PMID:21747100

  10. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomised controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L; Lane, J; Holyoak, C; Nicol, B; Mayes, A E; Dadd, T

    2011-12-01

    Regular consumption of green tea may be cardioprotective. In the present study we investigated the health effects of dietary supplementation with green tea catechins and the potential modifying effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val/Met genotype. Subjects (sedentary males, aged 40-69 years, with BMI ≥ 28 and ≤ 38 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume decaffeinated green tea extract (DGT; 530 mg containing about 400 mg total catechins/capsule, twice daily) and placebo in a complete cross-over design. Ambulatory blood pressure and biomarkers of metabolic function (cholesterol, TAG, glucose and insulin) were measured at weeks 0 and 6. Although a marked increase in the concentration of plasma epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), urinary epigallocatechin (EGC) and urinary 4'-O-methyl EGC was found after DGT treatment, no effect on blood pressure or biomarkers of metabolic function was observed. However, a period × treatment interaction (P < 0·05) was detected for body-weight change. Despite a similar increase in estimated energy intake during intervention period 1, body weight decreased by 0·64 (sd 2·2) kg and increased by 0·53 (sd 1·9) kg in the DGT and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0·025), suggesting a protective effect of green tea catechins on weight gain. Additionally, the COMT Val/Met genotype influenced urinary accumulation of EGC and 4'-O-methyl EGC (P < 0·01). Mean concentrations were lower in individuals homozygous for the high-activity G-allele, possibly reflecting increased metabolic flux and a more rapid conversion to downstream metabolic species, compared with individuals carrying at least one copy of the low-activity A-allele. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and further explore the modifying effect of genotype.

  11. Assessing human health effects from chemical contaminants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cohn, P D; Fagliano, J A; Klotz, J B

    1994-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies in New Jersey have examined the relationship between exposure to water contaminants and the occurrence of leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and adverse reproductive outcomes. Public drinking water supplies need to be monitored on a continual basis.

  12. Minerals in drinking water: impacts on taste and importance to consumer health.

    PubMed

    Whelton, A J; Dietrich, A M; Burlingame, G A; Schechs, M; Duncan, S E

    2007-01-01

    More than 100 years of research has focused on removing acute and chronic health threats to produce safe drinking water, but limited research has focused the consequences of removing minerals that affect drinking water taste and health. This paper covers the human sense of taste, typical variations in drinking water taste, comparisons of global taste standards, the role of water chemistry and future research needs for understanding consumer preference. Results of several consumer tap and bottled water acceptability investigations conducted by the authors are presented.

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  14. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  15. Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753

  16. Defluoridation technology for drinking water and tea by green synthesized Fe3O4/Al2O3 nanoparticles coated polyurethane foams for rural communities.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sonu; Khan, Suphiya

    2017-08-14

    Fluoride (F) contaminated ground water poses a serious public health concern to rural population with unaffordable purification technologies. Therefore, development of a cost-effective, portable, environment and user-friendly defluoridation technique is imperative. In the present study, we report on the development of a green and cost-effective method that utilizes Fe3O4 and Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized using jojoba defatted meal. These NPs were impregnated on to polyurethane foam (PUF) and made into tea infusion bags. The Al2O3 NPs-PUF displayed a higher water defluoridation capacity of 43.47 mg g(-1) of F as compared to 34.48 mg g(-1) of F with Fe3O4 NPs-PUF. The synthesized Al2O3-PUF infusion bags removed the F that was under the permissible limit of 1.5 mg L(-1). The sorption experiments were conducted to verify the effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, size of PUF and initial F concentration. The different properties of adsorbent were characterized using a combination of FESEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR techniques, respectively. The calculated total cost per NPs-PUF pouch developed is as low as US $0.05, which makes the technology most suitable for rural communities. This paper will be beneficial for researchers working toward further improvement in water purification technologies.

  17. Use of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract and water-soluble nanomicelles of green rooibos extract encapsulated with ascorbic acid for enhanced aspalathin content in ready-to-drink iced teas.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Viljoen, Melvi; De Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Brand, D Jacobus; Manley, Marena

    2010-10-27

    Heat-induced changes in aspalathin, iso-orientin, and orientin content of ready-to-drink (RTD) green rooibos iced tea formulations were investigated. An organic-solvent-based aspalathin-enriched extract prepared from green rooibos was used "as-is" or encapsulated with ascorbic acid in a water-soluble nanomicelle-based carrier system. The common iced tea ingredients, ascorbic acid, and/or citric acid were added to the iced tea containing green rooibos extract. Only citric acid was added to the iced tea containing the nanomicelles. Heat treatments consisted of pasteurization (93 °C/5 min and 93 °C/30 min), normal-temperature sterilization (NTS; 121 °C/15 min), and high-temperature sterilization (HTS; 135 °C/4 min). Pasteurization had little or no effect on the flavonoid content. NTS and HTS induced significant losses in the flavonoids. The addition of citric and ascorbic acids improved the stability of the flavonoids, but encapsulation of green rooibos extract with ascorbic acid in nanomicelles did not offer additional stability. The only benefit of using the water-soluble nanomicelles was the improved clarity of the RTD product. Iso-orientin and orientin contents were substantially less affected than aspalathin by the heat treatments, partially because of conversion of aspalathin to these flavones, which countered losses. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a known dehydration product of hexoses under mild acidic conditions and also a degradation product of ascorbic acid, was observed in formulations containing citric and/or ascorbic acids.

  18. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  19. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  20. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. Objective: We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. Method: In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. Results: During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. Conclusions: The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations. PMID:23425894

  1. An emerging adolescent health risk: caffeinated energy drink consumption patterns among high school students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Donald; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of energy drink use among adolescents, and determine whether more frequent use of energy drinks is associated with poorer health and behavioral outcomes. Data were from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 8210 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 attending public schools in Atlantic Canada. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlates of energy drink use patterns, including substance use, sensation seeking, risk of depression, and socioeconomic status. Nearly two-thirds of survey respondents (62%) reported consuming energy drinks at least once in the previous year, with about 20% reporting use once or more per month. Sensation seeking, depression, and substance use were all higher among energy drink users relative to non-users, and in higher frequency users relative to lower frequency users. The prevalence of energy drink consumption among high school students was high. The association of energy drinks with other potential negative health and behavioral outcomes suggests that use of these products may represent a marker for other activities that may negatively affect adolescent development, health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health implications of PAH release from coated cast iron drinking water distribution systems in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Blokker, E J Mirjam; van de Ven, Bianca M; de Jongh, Cindy M; Slaats, P G G Nellie

    2013-05-01

    Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations.

  3. Stevens-Johnson syndrome caused by a health drink (Eberu) containing ophiopogonis tuber.

    PubMed

    Mochitomi, Y; Inoue, A; Kawabata, H; Ishida, S; Kanzaki, T

    1998-10-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome is considered to be a severe type of erythema exsudativum multiforme. It is characterized by erythema with bullous and eroded lesions of skin and mucous membranes. We report a case of Steven-Johnson syndrome following consumption of a health drink containing ophiopogonis tuber. A 66-year-old female took an O.T.C. health drink for fever. The next morning, she noted erythema and swelling of her face, neck, and chest. She started to develop bullous and eroded lesions on the skin of her entire body and the mucous membranes of her oral cavity, conjunctiva, and cornea, and she became feverish. She had high degrees of corneal erosion and liver dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diffuse necrosis of the epidermis. After admission to the hospital, steroid pulse therapy (1000 mg/day of methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was continued for 5 days. The health drink induced a positive drug lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) and patch test. A challenge test was done with a one hundredth dose, and it was positive. We did patch tests with all components of the drink and found that Mai-Meu-Dong-Tang (ophiopogonis) alone was positive at 72 hours. There is no previous report of Stevens-Johnson syndrome caused by a health drink or Mai-Meu-Dong-Tang. Even though it is a health drink, we should be aware of the possibility of a severe reaction.

  4. World Health Organization increases its drinking-water guideline for uranium.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality in July, 2011. In this edition, the drinking-water guideline for uranium (U) was increased to 30 μg L(-1) despite the conclusion that "deriving a guideline value for uranium in drinking-water is complex, because the data [from exposures to humans] do not provide a clear no-effect concentration" and "Although some minor biochemical changes associated with kidney function have been reported to be correlated with uranium exposure at concentrations below 30 μg L(-1), these findings are not consistent between studies" (WHO, Uranium in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, available: , accessed 13 October 2011). This paper reviews the WHO drinking-water guideline for U, from its introduction as a 2 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 1998 through its increase to a 30 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 2011. The current 30 μg L(-1) WHO health-based drinking-water guideline was calculated using a "no-effect group" with "no evidence of renal damage [in humans] from 10 renal toxicity indicators". However, this nominal "no-effect group" was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and glucose excretion in urine. In addition, the current 30 μg L(-1) guideline may not protect children, people with predispositions to hypertension or osteoporosis, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, and anyone with a long exposure. The toxic effects of U in drinking water on laboratory animals and humans justify a re-evaluation by the WHO of its decision to increase its U drinking-water guideline.

  5. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    TMEM16A was found recently to be a calcium-activated Cl− channel (CaCC). CaCCs perform important functions in cell physiology, including regulation of epithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and smooth muscle contraction. CaCC modulators are of potential utility for treatment of hypertension, diarrhea, and cystic fibrosis. Screening of drug and natural product collections identified tannic acid as an inhibitor of TMEM16A, with IC50 ∼ 6 μM and ∼100% inhibition at higher concentrations. Tannic acid inhibited CaCCs in multiple cell types but did not affect CFTR Cl− channels. Structure-activity analysis indicated the requirement of gallic or digallic acid substituents on a macromolecular scaffold (gallotannins), as are present in green tea and red wine. Other polyphenolic components of teas and wines, including epicatechin, catechin, and malvidin-3-glucoside, poorly inhibited CaCCs. Remarkably, a 1000-fold dilution of red wine and 100-fold dilution of green tea inhibited CaCCs by >50%. Tannic acid, red wine, and green tea inhibited arterial smooth muscle contraction and intestinal Cl− secretion. Gallotannins are thus potent CaCC inhibitors whose biological activity provides a potential molecular basis for the cardioprotective and antisecretory benefits of red wine and green tea.—Namkung, W., Thiagarajah, J. R., Phuan, P.-W., Verkman, A. S. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels by gallotannins as a possible molecular basis for health benefits of red wine and green tea. PMID:20581223

  6. Coffee and Green Tea Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Malignant Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma in Japan: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ugai, Tomotaka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of coffee and green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.Methods: In this analysis, a total of 95,807 Japanese subjects (45,937 men and 49,870 women; ages 40-69 years at baseline) of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study who completed a questionnaire about their coffee and green tea consumption were followed up until December 31, 2012, for an average of 18 years. HRs and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a Cox regression model adjusted for potential confounders as a measure of association between the risk of malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma associated with coffee and green tea consumption at baseline.Results: During the follow-up period, a total of 411 malignant lymphoma cases and 138 multiple myeloma cases were identified. Overall, our findings showed no significant association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma for both sexes.Conclusions: In this study, we observed no significant association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma.Impact: Our results do not support an association between coffee or green tea consumption and the risk of malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1352-6. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

  8. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Elahe; Mirlohi, Maryam; Fallah, Azizolah; Babashahi, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tea is the most popular nonalcoholic beverage worldwide. In recent years, some Iranian studies have shown the occurrence of toxic elements in fresh or dried tea leaves as well as in brewed tea. The present study aimed to ascertain the health risks associated with exposure to toxic and essential element through black tea consumption in Iran by systematically reviewing the accredited articles in the field. Methods: In order to obtain the relevant articles and academic databases, the search engines covering the specific disciplines were searched for the keywords, including tea, elements, heavy metals and determination. Having provided the complete list of sound articles, being conducted in Iran was considered as the inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were established as failure to provide information on the validity parameters and accuracy in the analytical methods. Choosing well conducted, reliable studies, analytical results for the concentration of each element in black tea were utilized in the determination of the hazard quotient (HQ) for the given element and the hazard index (HI) was then determined for all of the elements in each study. Results: Among the total studies, two were considered to be reliable. Aluminum was found to be the most abundant element in black tea marketed in Iran. Although the HQ for manganese was the highest among the studied elements, HQ and HI values for both toxic elements and essential elements were calculated as less than 1. Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals. PMID:25538829

  9. Polyamines in tea processing.

    PubMed

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  10. Green Tea in Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Epidemiological studies, though inconclusive suggest that drinking green tea may lower the risk of prostate cancer (CaP) in humans. Here we report...that polyphenols present in green tea especially its major constituent (-) epigallocatechin- 3-gallate (EGCG) possesses both cancer preventive and...polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea at a human achievable dose (equivalent to six cups of green tea per day) significantly inhibited CaP

  11. Use (and misuse) of the responsible drinking message in public health and alcohol advertising: a review.

    PubMed

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries specifically addressing "responsible drinking." Search descriptors included responsible, responsibility, drinking, alcohol, brewer, and campaign. Eighteen articles constituted the final sample. The matrix method was utilized to organize and abstract pertinent information. Misunderstanding stemming from the inconsistency and counterintuitive nature of brewer-sponsored "responsible drinking" campaigns is further compounded by researchers' use of the term and concept of "responsible drinking" in their scholarly reports. In articulating the definition of "responsible drinking," researchers employ subjective notions and personal ideas, thus not differentiating the construct's meaning from the one acquired in brewer-sponsored campaigns. Researchers are consistently inconsistent when identifying specific health measures that promote and/or contradict responsible alcohol consumption. To evade the subjective notions of researchers and restrictive impressions attached by the alcohol industry, the manner in which individuals interpret, perceive, and practice responsible drinking must be systematically explored and examined using theoretically based constructs.

  12. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  13. Predicting the Population Health Impacts of Community Interventions: The Case of Alcohol Outlets and Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Jennifer; Colson, K Ellicott; Margerson-Zilko, Claire; Hubbard, Alan; Galea, Sandro

    2016-11-01

    A substitution estimator can be used to predict how shifts in population exposures might change health. We illustrated this method by estimating how an upper limit on alcohol outlet density might alter binge drinking in the New York Social Environment Study (n = 4000), and provided statistical code and sample data. The largest differences in binge drinking were for an upper limit of 70 outlets per square mile; there was a -0.7% difference in binge drinking prevalence for New York City overall (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.2%, -1.3%) and a -2.4% difference in binge drinking prevalence for the subset of communities the intervention modified (95% CI = -0.5%, -4.0%). A substitution estimator is a flexible tool for estimating population intervention parameters and improving the translation of public health research results to practitioners.

  14. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  15. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in the Tula region].

    PubMed

    Grigorev, Yu I; Lyapina, N V

    2014-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region was performed. Priority contaminants of drinking water were established. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated carcinogenic risk for children's health. A direct relationship between certain classes of diseases and pollution of drinking water with chemical contaminants has been determined.

  16. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  17. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Woodward, M; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1999-08-01

    To relate habitual (cups per day) tea and coffee consumption to conventional coronary risk factors and subsequent risk of coronary heart disease and death. Cohort study. Nationwide random population study. Over 11,000 men and women aged 40-59 who took part in the Scottish Heart Health Study lifestyle and risk factor survey in 1984-87. Participants were followed up to the end of 1993, an average of 7.7 years, for all cause mortality, coronary death, or any major coronary event (death, non-fatal infarction or coronary artery surgery). Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard in consumers of tea and coffee relative to the zero consumption group, both before and after correction for other factors. Coffee and tea consumption showed a strong inverse relation. For many conventional risk factors, coffee showed a weak, but beneficial, gradient with increasing consumption, whereas increasing tea consumption showed the reverse. Increasing coffee consumption was associated with beneficial effects for mortality and coronary morbidity, whereas tea showed the opposite. Adjusting for age and social class had some effect in reducing associations. Multiple adjustment for other risk factors removed the associations for tea and most of those for coffee although there was a residual benefit of coffee consumption in avoiding heart disease among men. The epidemiological differences shown in this study occurred despite the pharmacological similarities between tea and coffee. Either they differ more than is realised, or they identify contrasting associated lifestyle and health risks, for which this multiple adjustment was inadequate.

  18. Effects of green tea consumption on human fecal microbiota with special reference to Bifidobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Hisada, Takayoshi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-11-01

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Its beneficial health effects and components have been extensively reviewed. However, little is known about the influence of green tea consumption on the human intestinal microbiota (HIM), which plays a crucial role in human health. Ten volunteers who did not usually consume green tea, drank it for 10 days and then stopped drinking it for 7 days. Their fecal samples were collected at three time points: before beginning the 10-day green-tea regime, at the conclusion of that 10 days, and 7 days after stopping the regime. Their fecal samples were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism with specific primer-restriction enzyme systems for HIM and by using a real-time PCR method for the Bifidobacterium species. Although the HIM of each subject was relatively stable, the proportion of Bifidobacterium species played an important role in the classification of their fecal microbiota. Although there were inter-individual differences in the Bifidobacterium species, an overall tendency for the proportion of bifidobacteria to increase because of green tea consumption was noted. However, little change was observed in the composition of Bifidobacterium species in each sample. This suggests that the change in proportion was induced, not by an inter-species transition, but by an intra-species increase and/or decrease. In conclusion, green tea consumption might act as a prebiotic and improve the colon environment by increasing the proportion of the Bifidobacterium species.

  19. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  1. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  2. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  3. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  4. Tea and Risk of Age-Related Cataracts: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yan; He, Fan; Lin, Jun-Fen; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Yin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background The antioxidant properties of tea extracts are considered to be effective in protecting against cataracts. However, there is still insufficient epidemiological knowledge about the protective effects of different types of tea on age-related cataracts. Methods The data was derived from the Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance (ZJMPHS) Program on health and related factors in the elderly. The relationships between consumption of different types of tea and risk of age-related cataracts were assessed after adjusting for related covariates. Results The prevalence of age-related cataracts in this study population was 4.4% (409/9343). After adjustment for potential confounders, tea drinking was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.91). Compared to nondrinkers, green tea drinkers had a significantly reduced risk of cataracts (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40–0.85). Average tea consumption of 14–27 cups (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33–0.93) and over 28 cups (adjusted OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34–0.99) per week had a protective effect against cataracts in comparison to no consumption. In addition, ingesting a moderate concentration of tea significantly decreased the risk of cataract compared to no consumption (adjusted OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27–0.71). Conclusions Tea ingestion was associated with reduced risk of age-related cataracts. In light of these findings, we suggest that reasonable tea consumption (ie, favoring green tea and consuming an average of over 500 mL per day at moderate concentration) should offer protection against age-related cataracts. PMID:27180932

  5. Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra

    2011-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO3-) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

  6. Human health impacts of drinking water (surface and ground) pollution Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandour, R. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study was done on 30 drinking tap water samples (surface and ground) and 30 urine samples taken from patients who attended some of Dakahlyia governorate hospitals. These patients were complaining of poor-quality tap water in their houses, which was confirmed by this study that drinking water is contaminated with trace elements in some of the studied areas. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water (surface and ground) in Dakahlyia governorate and its impact on human health. This study reports the relationship between nickel and hair loss, obviously shown in water and urine samples. Renal failure cases were related to lead and cadmium contaminated drinking water, where compatibilities in results of water and urine samples were observed. Also, liver cirrhosis cases were related to iron-contaminated drinking water. Studies of these diseases suggest that abnormal incidence in specific areas is related to industrial wastes and agricultural activities that have released hazardous and toxic materials in the drinking water and thereby led to its contamination in these areas. We conclude that trace elements should be removed from drinking water for human safety.

  7. Drinking water and health research: a look to the future in the United States and globally.

    PubMed

    Sobsey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Drinking water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally because many of them remain unsafe and vulnerable. Greater efforts are needed to address the key issues and questions which influence the provision of safe drinking water. Efforts are needed to re-evaluate and set new and better priorities for drinking water research and practice. More stakeholders need to be included in the processes of identifying key issues and setting priorities for safe drinking water. The overall approach to drinking water research and the provision of safe drinking water needs to become more rational and scientific, and become more visionary and anticipatory of the ever-present and emerging risks to drinking water safety. Collectively, we need to do a better job of making safe water available, accessible and affordable for all. One such approach to safe water for all is household water treatment and safe storage, which is being promoted globally by the World Health Organization and many other stakeholders and partners to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease.

  8. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    McFeters, G A; LeChevallier, M W; Singh, A; Kippin, J S

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  9. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  10. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  11. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  12. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  13. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and serum uric acid level: the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyon K; Curhan, Gary

    2007-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect serum uric acid levels and risk of gout via various mechanisms. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Using data from 14,758 participants ages >/=20 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), we examined the relationship between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level using linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relationship with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >7.0 mg/dl among men and >5.7 mg/dl among women) using logistic regression. Intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Serum uric acid level decreased with increasing coffee intake. After adjusting for age and sex, serum uric acid level associated with coffee intake of 4 to 5 and >/=6 cups daily was lower than that associated with no intake by 0.26 mg/dl (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.11, 0.41) and 0.43 mg/dl (95% CI 0.23, 0.65; P for trend < 0.001), respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, the differences remained significant (P for trend < 0.001). Similarly, there was a modest inverse association between decaffeinated coffee intake and serum uric acid levels (multivariate P for trend 0.035). Total caffeine from coffee and other beverages and tea intake were not associated with serum uric acid levels (multivariate P for trend 0.15). The multivariate odds ratio for hyperuricemia in individuals with coffee intake >/=6 cups daily compared with those with no coffee use was 0.57 (95% CI 0.35, 0.94; P for trend 0.001). These findings from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that coffee consumption is associated with lower serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia frequency, but tea consumption is not. The inverse association with coffee appears to be via components of coffee other than caffeine.

  14. Do quantity-frequency data underestimate drinking-related health risks?

    PubMed

    Sobell, L C; Cellucci, T; Nirenberg, T D; Sobell, M B

    1982-08-01

    Identifying health impairment related to ethanol consumption is one of the major objectives of public health research. The most frequently used method for assessing drinking behavior in public health surveys and related research has been estimation formulae, like the Quantity-Frequency (QF) method which derives an estimate of typical/average levels of daily consumption. In recent years, questions have arisen as to whether the QF method can accurately reflect actual drinking patterns. This study compares a QF method of assessing daily drinking behavior with a newer, more quantitative method (Time-Line, TL) of assessing daily drinking. The QF and TL methods yielded similar mean daily ethanol consumption levels; however, in contrast to the TL method, the QF method seriously masked subjects' actual drinking patterns by failing to identify certain types of ethanol consumption days, especially those thought to be associated with health risks. These findings, while provocative, were obtained with a small number of subjects (N = 40). Extrapolation to populations other than problem drinkers, while likely, awaits further empirical validation.

  15. Environmental health risk assessment of nickel contamination of drinking water in a country town in NSW.

    PubMed

    Alam, Noore; Corbett, Stephen J; Ptolemy, Helen C

    2008-01-01

    To assess the health risks associated with consumption of drinking water with elevated nickel concentration in a NSW country town named Sampleton. We used enHealth Guidelines (2002) as our risk assessment tool. Laboratory test results for nickel in water samples were compared with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004 and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality 2005. The mean nickel concentration in the drinking water samples tested over a 4-year period (2002-2005) was 0.03 mg/L (95% CI: 0.02-0.04). The average daily consumption of two litres of water by a 70-kg adult provided 0.06 mg (0.03 mg x 2) of nickel, which was only 7% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) based on experiments on nickel-sensitive people in a fasting state. The mean nickel concentration in drinking water appears to have no health risks for the inhabitants of Sampleton.

  16. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  17. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  18. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents. PMID:28913331

  19. Gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2012-10-01

    To examine gender-specific relationships between alcohol drinking patterns (average drinking frequency, typical drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in the Korean population. Cross-sectional study using complex sampling design analyses. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, which was conducted in 2008. Current drinkers (n 3793, 1963 men and 1830 women). After adjusting for confounders (age, educational level, income, physical activity, smoking, energy intake and drinking frequency in the analysis for drinking quantity), the associations of drinking quantity and frequency of binge drinking with the prevalence of MetS were gender-specific. Seven or more drinks for men and ≥ 3 drinks for women per typical occasion and binge drinking ≥ 1 time/week for both sexes resulted in significantly higher odds for the prevalence of MetS compared with men and women who had 1 or 2 drinks and no instances of binge drinking. The association of drinking quantity and the criteria of MetS was stronger for men with high blood pressure and abdominal obesity, whereas it was stronger for women with high glucose. Binge drinking frequency was dose-dependently associated with high TAG, high glucose, high blood pressure and abdominal obesity in men, and with high glucose and high blood pressure in women. Interestingly, average drinking frequency was not associated with the prevalence of MetS in either sex. Higher drinking quantity and frequent binge drinking are indicators of a higher prevalence of MetS, and the association strength is thought to be gender-specific.

  20. Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Lenny R.; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2007-01-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non–industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science. PMID:17329656

  1. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2007-04-01

    In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.

  2. Changing drinking pattern does not influence health perception: a longitudinal study of the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrodt, Marsha L; Fuchs, Flávio D; Couper, David J; Goff, David C; Sanford, Catherine Paton; Hutchinson, Richard G; Bursac, Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate if dynamic changes in the pattern of alcoholic beverages consumption are associated with modifications in health perception. Design, setting, and participants This study investigated 12 332 middle aged men and women from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study who reported drinking status and perceived health triennially from 1987 to 1995. Crude and adjusted risks for change in health perception between visits two and three by change in drinking status between visits one and two were computed. In the multivariate analysis the sample was restricted to participants with stable drinking status between visit two and three and stable health perception between visits one and two, to assure that exposure and outcome were not temporary. Covariates included age, sex, race, income, smoking status, educational level, and obesity. Results Health for persons who stopped or started drinking, or continued to abstain was more likely to decline than was health for persons who continued to drink even after adjustment and restrictions (drinking cessation: OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.3; started drinking; OR =  1.4, 95% CI = 0.9, 2.2; continued abstaining from alcohol: OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.9). Among participants with poor perceived health, starting, stopping, or continuing to abstain from alcohol did not improve health in relation to participants that continued to drink. Conclusion Increasing and decreasing drinking patterns and continuous abstinence were associated with declining health perception in comparison with continuous drinking, while starting or stopping drinking did not improve health perception of persons with poor perceived health. These findings suggest that change in health perception was not biologically related to alcohol consumption. PMID:16537353

  3. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health - Recent findings and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; deKok, T.M.; Levallois, P.; Brender, J.; Gulis, G.; Nolan, B.T.; VanDerslice, J.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  4. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health--recent findings and research needs.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary H; deKok, Theo M; Levallois, Patrick; Brender, Jean; Gulis, Gabriel; Nolan, Bernard T; VanDerslice, James

    2005-11-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  5. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (P<0·05). Health professionals should consider the clustering of sports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  6. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  7. Binge drinking, poor mental health, and adherence to treatment among California adults with asthma.

    PubMed

    Haskard, Kelly B; Banta, Jim E; Williams, Summer L; Haviland, Mark G; DiMatteo, M Robin; Przekop, Peter; Werner, Leonard S; Anderson, Donald L

    2008-06-01

    Binge drinking and poor mental health may affect adherence to treatment for individuals with asthma. The purposes were to (a) examine the relationship of self-reported binge drinking and mental health to adherence to daily asthma control medications and (b) identify other demographic and health-related factors associated with asthma control medication adherence. Secondary analyses of 2003 adult California Health Interview Survey data were undertaken, and these analyses identified 3.2 million California adults who had been told by a physician they had asthma. Of these, approximately 1.7 million were symptomatic. Binge drinking significantly predicted medication nonadherence among California adults with symptomatic asthma (OR = .63, 95% CI = .45-.89), whereas poor mental health did not. Other predictors of nonadherence (odds ratios < 1, p < .05) included being overweight, younger age, having some college education, being a current smoker, and having no usual source of medical care. Predictors of adherence (odds ratios > 1, p < .05) were older age, more frequent asthma symptoms, more ER visits, more missed work days, being African American, and being a non-citizen. Intervention efforts could be directed toward improving medication adherence among adult asthma patients who engage in risky health behaviors such as binge drinking. Also at risk for medication nonadherence and therefore good targets for asthma control medication management interventions are adults who are overweight, younger (18-44 age range), have some college education, and no usual source of medical care.

  8. [Human health risk from the chemical composition of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Turbinskiĭ, V V; Masliuk, A I

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance and development of the centralized household underground water supply system in the closed administrative-territorial entity Seversk, Tomsk Region, when the aquifers are inadequately protected and there is a hydrological association of individual aquifers with polluted surface waters require a hygienic estimation based on the use of a risk methodology, including that considering the regional feature of sanitary situation establishment. No risk realization has been ascertained for damage to critical organs and systems in pediatric and adult populations under the population influence of the chemical substances available in drinking water.

  9. Energy drinks and their adverse health effects: A systematic review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fahad; Rehman, Hiba; Babayan, Zaruhi; Stapleton, Dwight; Joshi, Divya-Devi

    2015-04-01

    With the rising consumption of so-called energy drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing significant adverse health events after the ingestion of these beverages. To gain further insight about the clinical spectrum of these adverse events, we conducted a literature review. Using PubMed and Google-Scholar, we searched the literature from January 1980 through May 2014 for articles on the adverse health effects of energy drinks. A total of 2097 publications were found. We then excluded molecular and industry-related studies, popular media reports, and case reports of isolated caffeine toxicity, yielding 43 reports. Energy drink consumption is a health issue primarily of the adolescent and young adult male population. It is linked to increased substance abuse and risk-taking behaviors. The most common adverse events affect the cardiovascular and neurological systems. The most common ingredient in energy drinks is caffeine, and it is believed that the adverse events are related to its effects, as well as potentiating effects of other stimulants in these drinks. Education, regulation, and further studies are required.

  10. Access to drinking water and health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntouda, Julien; Sikodf, Fondo; Ibrahim, Mohamadou; Abba, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Water is at the center of the plant and animal life, the foundation upon which the health of human settlement and development of civilizations rely on. In tropical regions, 80% of diseases are transmitted either by germs in the water, or by vectors staying in it. In Sub-Saharan Africa, statistics show particularly high levels of unmet needs of populations in access to drinking water in a context of socioeconomic development. For this purpose, this study aims to determine the influence of access to drinking water on the health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Cameroon, Senegal and Chad, it is clear from the descriptive analysis that 60% (Cameroon), and 59% (Chad) of the cases of childhood diarrhea in these two countries are due to the consumption of dirty water. In terms of explanatory analysis, we note that when a household in Cameroon, Senegal or Chad does not have access to drinking water, children under 5 years old residing there are respectively 1.29, 1.27 and 1.03 times more likely to have diarrhea than those residing in households with easy access to drinking water. In view of these results, it is recommended to increase access to drinking water in particular by reducing disparities between the rich and poor people. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  11. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Lori E A; Bharadwaj, Lalita A; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000-2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative ( 8 ), qualitative ( 5 ) or mixed ( 3 ) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of "health" was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store

  12. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  13. Future challenges to protecting public health from drinking-water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eileen A; Post, Gloria B; Buckley, Brian T; Lippincott, Robert L; Robson, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation.

  14. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Lori E. A.; Bharadwaj, Lalita A.; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store

  15. Public health and regulatory considerations of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    PubMed

    Raucher, R S

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the public health and economic issues associated with drinking water quality regulations in the United States. A historic perspective is provided by the use of filtration and chlorine disinfection, and of public health laws from the early 20th century up to passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), in 1974. The contaminants regulated under the Act, and the 1986 Amendments to the SDWA, are evaluated according to health endpoint, related issues in risk assessment, and the cost of complying with associated regulations. Risk-cost and benefit-cost analyses are offered for carcinogens, systemics, and pathogens. The paper describes the evolution of public health issues from the initial focus on waterborne infectious diseases to concerns over chemical contaminants, and the recent reemergence of microbials as the high-priority public health concern.

  16. Parental decisions, child health and valuation of avoiding arsenic in drinking water in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Boyle, Kevin J; Crocker, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is a widespread public health hazard. Water sources without high arsenic levels are scarce, affecting people's availability for work and other activities when they have to seek safe water to drink. While children are particularly susceptible to chronic arsenic exposure, limited information and heavy constraints on resources may preclude people in developing countries from taking protective actions. Since parents are primary decision-makers for children, a model of stochastic decision-making analytically linking parent health and child health is used to frame the valuation of avoiding arsenic exposure using an averting behavior model. The results show that safe drinking water programs do work and that people do take protective actions. The results can help guide public health mitigation policies, and examine whether factors such as child health and time required for remediation have an effect on mitigation measures.

  17. Diet drink consumption and the risk of cardiovascular events: a report from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Ankur; Rubenstein, Linda; Robinson, Jennifer; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Shikany, James M; Johnson, Karen C; Snetselaar, Linda; Wallace, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Data are limited regarding the influence of diet drink consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between diet drink intake and cardiovascular events. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, utilizing data from the national, multicenter Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI OS), recruiting subjects from 1993 to 1998. Post-menopausal women with available diet drink intake data, without pre-existing CVD and who survived ≥ 60 days were included in the study. A composite of incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and CVD death was used as the primary outcome. CVD death and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare primary and secondary outcomes across diet drink intake strata. In all, 59,614 women, mean age 62.8 years, were included for analysis. In unadjusted analysis over a follow-up of 8.7 ± 2.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 8.5 % of the women consuming ≥ 2 diet drinks/day, compared to 6.9 %, 6.8 % and 7.2 % in the 5-7/week, 1-4/week and 0-3/month groups, respectively. After controlling for other CVD risk factors, women who consumed ≥ 2 drinks/day had a higher adjusted risk of CVD events (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5), CVD mortality (HR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.03-2.3) and overall mortality (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.04-1.5) compared to the reference group (0-3 drinks/month). This analysis demonstrates an association between high diet drink intake and CVD outcomes and mortality in post-menopausal women in the WHI OS.

  18. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water.

  19. Taxing soft drinks in the Pacific: implementation lessons for improving health.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Quested, Christine; Juventin, Lisa; Kun, Russ; Khan, A Nisha; Swinburn, Boyd

    2011-03-01

    A tax on soft drinks is often proposed as a health promotion strategy for reducing their consumption and improving health outcomes. However, little is known about the processes and politics of implementing such taxes. We analysed four different soft drink taxes in Pacific countries and documented the lessons learnt regarding the process of policy agenda-setting and implementation. While local social and political context is critically important in determining policy uptake, these case studies suggest strategies for health promotion practitioners that can help to improve policy uptake and implementation. The case studies reveal interaction between the Ministries of Health, Finance and Revenue at every stage of the policy making process. In regard to agenda-setting, relevance to government fiscal priorities was important in gaining support for soft drink taxes. The active involvement of health policy makers was also important in initiating the policies, and the use of existing taxation mechanisms enabled successful policy implementation. While the earmarking of taxes for health has been widely recommended, the revenue may be redirected as government priorities change. Health promotion practitioners must strategically plan for agenda-setting, development and implementation of intersectoral health-promoting policies by engaging with stakeholders in finance at an early stage to identify priorities and synergies, developing cross-sectoral advocacy coalitions, and basing proposals on existing legislative mechanisms where possible.

  20. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  1. Association between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hasselkvist, Agneta; Johansson, Anders; Johansson, Ann-Katrin

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between soft drink consumption, oral health and some lifestyle factors in Swedish adolescents. A clinical dental examination and a questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors, including drinking habits, oral hygiene, dietary consumption, physical activity and screen-viewing habits were completed. Three hundred and ninety-two individuals completed the study (13-14 years, n = 195; 18-19 years, n = 197). The material was divided into high and low carbonated soft drink consumption groups, corresponding to approximately the highest and the lowest one-third of subjects in each age group. Differences between the groups were tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression. Intake of certain dietary items, tooth brushing, sports activities, meal patterns, screen-viewing behaviors, BMI and parents born outside Sweden differed significantly between high and low consumers in one or both of the two age groups. Dental erosion (both age groups) and DMFT/DMFS (18-19 years group) were significantly higher in the high consumption groups. Logistic regression showed predictive variables for high consumption of carbonated soft drinks to be mainly gender (male), unhealthy dietary habits, lesser physical activity, higher BMI and longer time spent in front of TV/computer. High soft drink consumption was related to poorer oral health and an unhealthier lifestyle.

  2. Solar photo-Fenton process for the treatment of colored soft drink wastewater: decolorization, mineralization and COD removal of oolong tea effluent.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Makoto; Salehi, Zeinab; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The decolorization and mineralization of dark-brown-colored oolong tea effluent by the solar photo-Fenton process has been examined. The solar photo-Fenton process for a fine day achieved 92% decolorization after 60 min and 94% mineralization after 80 min. For a cloudy day, about 88% decolorization and 85% mineralization were obtained after 290 min. For reference the UV light photo-Fenton process was also conducted. Very similar degradation efficiencies were found between the solar and UV light photo-Fenton processes. However, the intrinsic low cost associated with abundant solar energy turned out to be more efficient in treating oolong tea effluent as compared with UV light. The decolorization and mineralization profiles under the different light intensities could be unified with the accumulated light energy instead of with irradiation time. This implies that the solar photo-Fenton process should be designed and operated on the basis of the accumulated energy rather than the reaction time. The COD removal was 99.3% after 75 min under the fine condition. This removal rate for a fine day was approximately twice as fast than that for a cloudy day and comparable to that by the UV light irradiation. The results obtained in this study suggest that the solar photo-Fenton process offers a promising technology for decolorization and degradation of oolong tea effluent.

  3. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group interviews…

  4. Integrating mHealth Mobile Applications to Reduce High Risk Drinking among Underage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi, Donna M.; Cochran, Allyson R.; Kelly, John F.; Cornelius, Judith B.; Belk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: College students embrace mobile cell phones (MCPs) as a primary communication and entertainment device. The aim of this study was to investigate college students' perceptions toward using mHealth technology to deliver interventions to prevent high-risk drinking and associated consequences. Design/setting: Four focus group interviews…

  5. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

    Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Pauline Mendola, Ph.D. Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency; Yajua...

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  7. Use (and Misuse) of the Responsible Drinking Message in Public Health and Alcohol Advertising: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries…

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  9. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that many improved drinking water supplies suffer from poor reliability. This study investigates what impact poor reliability may have on achieving health improvement targets. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment was conducted of the impact of interruptions in water supplies that forced people to revert to drinking raw water. Data from the literature were used to construct models on three waterborne pathogens common in Africa: Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Risk of infection by the target pathogens is substantially greater on days that people revert to raw water consumption. Over the course of a few days raw water consumption, the annual health benefits attributed to consumption of water from an improved supply will be almost all lost. Furthermore, risk of illness on days drinking raw water will fall substantially on very young children who have the highest risk of death following infection. Agencies responsible for implementing improved drinking water provision will not make meaningful contributions to public health targets if those systems are subject to poor reliability. Funders of water quality interventions in developing countries should put more effort into auditing whether interventions are sustainable and whether the health benefits are being achieved.

  10. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  11. Use (and Misuse) of the Responsible Drinking Message in Public Health and Alcohol Advertising: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Goodson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to present a comparative analysis examining the alcohol industry's and scholarly researchers' use of the concept "responsible drinking." Electronic databases associated with health, education, sociology, psychology, and medicine were the date sources. Results were limited to English, peer-reviewed articles and commentaries…

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

    Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Pauline Mendola, Ph.D. Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency; Yajua...

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life among Heavy-Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; McCausland, Claudia M.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine unique contributions of depression, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences on functional health outcomes in college students. Methods: Participants were heavy-drinking undergraduate students (N = 207) who completed self-report questionnaires. Results: For men and women, depression predicted overall general…

  14. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  15. Health effects of drinking water disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, L.W.; Bercz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes toxicological studies conducted with drinking water disinfectants. Toxicological effects, which are associated with the disinfectants themselves as well as with the by-products formed when disinfectants react with organic material present in water, are considered. The health impact of chemical reactions occurring between residual disinfectants and nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is also discussed. 40 references, 5 tables.

  16. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... But this does not seem to occur in humans.Flutamide (Eulexin)The body breaks down flutamide (Eulexin) ... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ...

  17. Tea, obesity, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung-Hsi; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Lee, Meng-Jung; Chen, Chia-Lin

    2006-02-01

    Tea has been found to possess widespread biological functions based on a variety of laboratory data. The effects of tea on obesity and diabetes have received increasing attention. This paper reviews the evidence for the connections among tea catechins, and obesity and diabetes. Tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), appear to have antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. While few epidemiological and clinical studies show the health benefits of EGCG on obesity and diabetes, the mechanisms of its actions are emerging based on the various laboratory data. These mechanisms may be related to certain pathways, such as through the modulations of energy balance, endocrine systems, food intake, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the redox status, and activities of different types of cells (i. e., fat, liver, muscle, and beta-pancreatic cells). Because the EGCG receptor, the so-called 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR), has been discovered with colocalization of other types of LR and cytoskeleton in both cancer cells and normal cells, this may explain that EGCG possesses numerous actions. The mechanistic results of this review may possibly be utilized in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases using tea- and EGCG-based folk medicines.

  18. Caffeinated energy drink consumption among adolescents and potential health consequences associated with their use: a significant public health hazard.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Nada; Soliman, Ashraf T; Elsedfy, Heba; Di Maio, Salvatore; El Kholy, Mohamed; Fiscina, Bernadette

    2017-08-23

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. The consumption of EDs has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. EDs contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of EDs poses a risk of caffeine toxicity and other ill effects when consumed by young people. Caffeine intoxication may result in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and even death. Other health concerns related to consumption of EDs include obesity and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of EDs. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors in adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. Several researchers have demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. 1) health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks; 2) emergency department clinicians should consider asking patients about ED and traditional caffeine usage and substance use when assessing patient symptoms; 3) policy makers should  increase their attention on introducing regulatory policies on television food advertising to which youth are exposed;  4) failure to comply with standards for efficacious product labelling, and absence of broader education regarding guidelines, need to be addressed and 5) further studies must be done to

  19. Yellow tea is more potent than other types of tea in suppressing liver toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Goto, Miho; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Oi, Naomi; Okamoto, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    The present study compared the effects of six Chinese teas categorized by their production process: green, white, yellow, oolong, black and pu-erh teas, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. Wistar rats were given ad libitum the Chinese teas prepared according to the home-style methods for 1 week, and then intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (1 mg/kg body weight) or olive oil as a vehicle. The yellow tea significantly ameliorated the increase in the activity of the alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferases in plasma. Thus, the drinking of yellow tea may contribute to protection against liver injury.

  20. Health risk assessment of cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R; Humpage, Andrew R

    2005-04-01

    Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a 'water bloom'. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1 microg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1 microg/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for

  1. Bounding Analysis of Drinking Water Health Risks from a Spill of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water.

    PubMed

    Rish, William R; Pfau, Edward J

    2017-10-03

    A bounding risk assessment is presented that evaluates possible human health risk from a hypothetical scenario involving a 10,000-gallon release of flowback water from horizontal fracturing of Marcellus Shale. The water is assumed to be spilled on the ground, infiltrates into groundwater that is a source of drinking water, and an adult and child located downgradient drink the groundwater. Key uncertainties in estimating risk are given explicit quantitative treatment using Monte Carlo analysis. Chemicals that contribute significantly to estimated health risks are identified, as are key uncertainties and variables to which risk estimates are sensitive. The results show that hypothetical exposure via drinking water impacted by chemicals in Marcellus Shale flowback water, assumed to be spilled onto the ground surface, results in predicted bounds between 10(-10) and 10(-6) (for both adult and child receptors) for excess lifetime cancer risk. Cumulative hazard indices (HICUMULATIVE ) resulting from these hypothetical exposures have predicted bounds (5th to 95th percentile) between 0.02 and 35 for assumed adult receptors and 0.1 and 146 for assumed child receptors. Predicted health risks are dominated by noncancer endpoints related to ingestion of barium and lithium in impacted groundwater. Hazard indices above unity are largely related to exposure to lithium. Salinity taste thresholds are likely to be exceeded before drinking water exposures result in adverse health effects. The findings provide focus for policy discussions concerning flowback water risk management. They also indicate ways to improve the ability to estimate health risks from drinking water impacted by a flowback water spill (i.e., reducing uncertainty). © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  3. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed.

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Cyanobacterial (Blue-green Algal) Toxins in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.; Humpage, Andrew R.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a ‘water bloom’. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1μg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1μg/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for

  5. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia, Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Desai, Gaurav; Vasisth, Smriti; Patel, Maharshi; Mehta, Vaibhav; Bhavsar, Bharat

    2012-07-01

    16 water samples were collected to study the physical and chemical quality of water of main source of drinking water in the villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia of Vadodara district of Gujarat. The values recommended by Indian Standard for Drinking Water (IS 10500:1991) were used for comparison of observed values. The study indicates that the contamination problem in these villages is not alarming at present, but Waghodia being industrial town, ground water quality may deteriorate with passage of time, which needs periodical monitoring. The study provides the local area baseline data which may be useful for the comparison of future study.

  6. Usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic.

    PubMed

    Gilder, David A; Luna, Juan A; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results could be used by clinic staff to screen for underage drinking and associated problems in youth served by the clinic, and the process of organizing, evaluating, and implementing the survey results accomplished several important goals of community-based participatory research.

  7. Maternal total caffeine intake, mainly from Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy was associated with risk of preterm birth: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-04-01

    The relation of maternal caffeine intake with birth outcomes is still inconclusive and has not been examined in Japan, where the sources of caffeine intake are different from those in Western countries. We hypothesized that maternal consumption of total caffeine and culture-specific major sources of caffeine would be associated with birth outcomes among Japanese pregnant. The study subjects were 858 Japanese women who delivered singleton infants. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Birth outcomes considered were low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation), and small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile). The main caffeine sources were Japanese and Chinese tea (73.5%), coffee (14.3%), black tea (6.6%), and soft drinks (3.5%). After controlling for confounders, maternal total caffeine intake during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 100 mg/d caffeine increase, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.58; P for trend = .03). However, no evident relationships were observed between total caffeine intake and risk of LBW or SGA. As for caffeine sources, higher Japanese and Chinese tea consumption was associated with an increased risk of PTB (odds ratio per 1 cup/d increase, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30; P for trend = .04), but not LBW or SGA. There were no associations between consumption of the other beverages examined and birth outcomes. In conclusion, this prospective birth cohort in Japan suggests that higher maternal total caffeine intake, mainly in the form of Japanese and Chinese tea, during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of PTB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

  9. HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

  10. Soft Drink and Juice Consumption and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T.; Odegaard, Andrew; Anderson, Kristin; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron; Koh, Woon-Puay; Pereira, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (called soft drinks) and juices, which have a high glycemic load relative to other foods and beverages, have been hypothesized as pancreatic cancer risk factors. However, data thus far are scarce, especially from non-European descent populations. We investigated whether higher consumption of soft drinks and juice increases the risk of pancreatic cancer in Chinese men and women. Methods A prospective cohort analysis was done to examine the association between soft drink and juice consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer in 60,524 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study with up to 14 years of follow-up. Information on consumption of soft drinks, juice, and other dietary items, as well as lifestyle and environmental exposures, was collected through in-person interviews at recruitment. Pancreatic cancer cases and deaths were ascertained by record linkage of the cohort database with records of population-based Singapore Cancer Registry and the Singapore Registry of Births and Deaths. Results The first 14 years for the cohort resulted in cumulative 648,387 person-years and 140 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Individuals consuming ≥2 soft drinks/wk experienced a statistically significant increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–3.15) compared with individuals who did not consume soft drinks after adjustment for potential confounders. There was no statistically significant association between juice consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusion Regular consumption of soft drinks may play an independent role in the development of pancreatic cancer. PMID:20142243

  11. Arsenic-induced micronuclei formation in mammalian cells and its counteraction by tea.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dona; Roy, Madhumita; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Bhattacharya, Rathin K

    2005-01-01

    The Gangetic plain of West Bengal, India, has been engulfed by a disastrous environmental calamity of arsenic contamination of the ground water. Chronic arsenic toxicity caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water has been one of the worst health hazards gradually affecting nine districts of West Bengal since the early 1980s. Over and above hyperpigmentation and keratosis,weakness, burning sensation of the eyes, swelling of the legs, liver fibrosis, chronic lung disease, gangrene of the toes, neuropathy, and skin cancer are other manifestations. Induction of cancer is frequently associated with DNA damage, changes in ploidy of cells, and non-random chromosome aberrations. Counteraction of these genotoxic and cytogenetic abnormalities with natural dietary polyphenols could be a useful strategy to combat arsenic-induced DNA damage and thereby cancer. A review of the literature showed that it is the antioxidant property of tea polyphenols that affords protection against various types of cancer. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the extracts of green tea and black tea (Darjeeling and Assam) as well as their polyphenols could ameliorate this arsenic-induced genotoxicity. The normal mammalian cell culture derived from male Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) was used as the test system to assess the genotoxicity by micronucleus assay. The results showed that both green tea and black tea extracts have equal potential in modulating the arsenic-induced genotoxicity. This effect was perhaps induced by the constituent polyphenols present in green and black tea. In addition, the repair activity of the damaged cells was enhanced when treated with these tea extracts and their polyphenols. Thus, tea and its polyphenols may have a promising role in counteracting the devastating effects of arsenic.

  12. Bacteriological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, there has been increase in packaged water consumption in Nigeria. Although, there are several studies on microbial safety of sachet packaged drinking water, there is no information on prevailing pathogens. A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported from 2005 for microbiological safety of packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria was conducted using "sachet water", "bottled water" and "packaged water" and Nigeria as search algorithms in public scientific literature databases. It was observed in this study that Escherichia spp., (65.5 %), Salmonella spp., (44.8 %), Bacillus spp., (44.1 %) and Staphylococcus spp. (37.9 %) were more prevailing in the samples. The high rate of contamination observed is of public health importance. There is need for use of molecular based methods to understand microbial ecology, epidemiology, virulence factors and survival of isolated water borne pathogens in packaged drinking water sold in Nigeria.

  13. [Tea, coffee intakes and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Yan, L J; Chen, F; Liu, D M; Huang, J F; Liu, F P; Wu, J F; Liu, F Q; Ye, J Z; Qiu, Y; Lin, L S; He, B C

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of tea and coffee intakes on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) stratified by milk intake. Methods: A case-control study involving 593 OSCC patients confirmed by pathological diagnoses and 1 128 gender-age frequency matched controls was conducted in Fujian province during September 2010-March 2016. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the effects of coffee, tea intakes and related variables on OSCC. Additive interaction was estimated by relative excess risk interaction (RERI), attributable proportions interaction (API) and synergy index (SI). Results: Tea intake was significantly associated with decreased risk of OSCC: the adjusted ORs were 0.54 for all subjects (95%CI: 0.41-0.71), 0.47 for milk consumers (95%CI: 0.31-0.71) and 0.57 for non-milk consumers (95%CI: 0.40-0.81). Moreover, starting tea drinking at age ≥25 years, moderate tea concentration and water temperature, drinking green tea and oolong tea showed effects to decrease the risk for OSCC in three groups. Additionally, there was a tendency of a reduced risk with increased daily tea drinking and longer tea-drinking period (all trend P<0.05). No significant association was observed between coffee intake and OSCC. A multiplicative but not additive interactions was found between tea drinking and milk intake. Additionally, we did not observe multiplicative and additive interaction between coffee drinking and milk intake. Conclusion: Tea drinking is a protective factor for OSCC, and there is a multiplicative interaction between tea drinking and milk intake. Therefore, tea drinking and increasing intake of milk can reduce the risk of OSCC at certain extent.

  14. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  15. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Christiana; Hagan, John E

    2012-03-24

    Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  16. The introduction and expansion of GIS into a small local health department drinking-water program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, local health departments are using geographic information systems (GIS) on a daily basis. Although small health departments as well as large ones may have the capability to use GIS, more care is required in planning projects, selecting software and hardware, training staff, and data maintenance. A drinking-water program in a small local health department in Whatcom County, Washington, offers several GIS case studies, including source mapping for public and private water systems, delineation of wellhead protection areas, and related emergency response examples. The author recommends ways in which GIS users and researchers in small local health departments can better collaborate, use the Internet, and avoid pitfalls.

  17. Can student health professionals accurately estimate alcohol content in commonly occurring drinks?

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Julia; Searle, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Correct identification of alcohol as a contributor to, or comorbidity of, many psychiatric diseases requires health professionals to be competent and confident to take an accurate alcohol history. Being able to estimate (or calculate) the alcohol content in commonly consumed drinks is a prerequisite for quantifying levels of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to assess this ability in medical and nursing students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 891 medical and nursing students across different years of training was conducted. Students were asked the alcohol content of 10 different alcoholic drinks by seeing a slide of the drink (with picture, volume and percentage of alcohol by volume) for 30 s. Results: Overall, the mean number of correctly estimated drinks (out of the 10 tested) was 2.4, increasing to just over 3 if a 10% margin of error was used. Wine and premium strength beers were underestimated by over 50% of students. Those who drank alcohol themselves, or who were further on in their clinical training, did better on the task, but overall the levels remained low. Conclusions: Knowledge of, or the ability to work out, the alcohol content of commonly consumed drinks is poor, and further research is needed to understand the reasons for this and the impact this may have on the likelihood to undertake screening or initiate treatment. PMID:27536344

  18. Health risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water from Anhui Province in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-jian; Jin, You-qian; Wei, Jun-ling

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 249 drinking water samples collected from different regions of Anhui Province in China. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from 0.12 to 1.94 mg L(-1) (mean = 0.57 mg L(-1)) in the following order: Huaibei plain region > Jianghuai hill region ≈ Dabieshan mountainous region > plain along the Yangtze River region > southern Anhui mountainous region. The fluoride contents were less than 0.50 mg L(-1) in 66.66 % of the drinking water samples, 0.51-1.0 mg L(-1) in 23.29 %, and higher than 1.0 mg L(-1) in 12.04 %. The fluoride levels in some samples were lower than the recommended values for controlling dental caries (0.50-1.0 mg L(-1)). The total fluoride intake from drinking water was between 0.14 and 2.33 mg per day in different regions of the province, supposing an individual consumes 1.2 L of water per day. Therefore, measures should be taken to increase fluoride intake in the Jianghuai hill region, Dabieshan mountainous region, plain along the Yangtze River, and southern Anhui mountainous region to control dental caries. On the other hand, the fluoride levels must be reduced in the Huaibei plain region to decrease endemic fluorosis. The results serve as crucial guidelines for managing fluoride safety in drinking water and controlling endemic fluorosis in different regions of Anhui Province.

  19. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  20. Effects of dietary green tea polyphenol supplementation on the health of workers exposed to high-voltage power lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhang, He; Sun, Ye; Sun, Chengxun

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been several decades since the focus on the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) of high-voltage power lines on human health, no consistent conclusion has been drawn. The present study aimed to investigate the change in oxidative stress after exposure to ELF-EMFs, and potential protective effects of green tea polyphenol supplementation (GTPS) on ELF-EMFs induced oxidative stress. A total of 867 subjects, including workers with or without exposure to ELF-EMFs of 110-420kV power lines, participated and were randomized into GTPS and placebo treatment groups. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were assessed by urinary tests of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG. Significant increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG were observed in workers with ELF-EMFs exposure, which were diminished after 12 months of GTPS. No protective effects of GTPS on oxidative stress and oxidative damage to DNA were observed after three months of GTPS withdraw. We found a negative impact of high-voltage power lines on the health of workers. Long-term GTPS could be an efficient protection against the health issues induced by high-voltage power lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  2. Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ye-Won; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2016-03-15

    The introduction of ready-to-drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health-related information, the objective of the study was to investigate how sensory and non-sensory factors, in particular health-related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages, depending on consumers' age and gender. Regardless of the product information, old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, young consumers tended to be influenced by extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not so much influenced by health beneficial information as were the old consumers. The findings of the study implied that the influence of non-sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending mostly on consumers' age, and little on gender, for RTD green tea beverages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Development of California Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Howd, R A; Brown, J P; Morry, D W; Wang, Y Y; Bankowska, J; Budroe, J D; Campbell, M; DiBartolomeis, M J; Faust, J; Jowa, L; Lewis, D; Parker, T; Polakoff, J; Rice, D W; Salmon, A G; Tomar, R S; Fan, A M

    2000-01-01

    As part of a program for evaluation of environmental contaminants in drinking water, risk assessments are being conducted to develop Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water, based solely on public health considerations. California's Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 mandated the development of PHGs for over 80 chemicals by 31 December 1999. The law allowed these levels to be set higher or lower than federal maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), including a level of zero if data are insufficient to determine a specific level. The estimated safe levels and toxicological rationale for the first 26 of these chemicals are described here. The chemicals include alachlor, antimony, benzo[a]pyrene, chlordane, copper, cyanide, dalapon, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-D, diethylhexylphthalate, dinoseb, endothall, ethylbenzene, fluoride, glyphosate, lead, nitrate, nitrite, oxamyl, pentachlorophenol, picloram, trichlorofluoromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, uranium and xylene(s). These risk assessments are to be considered by the State of California in revising and developing state MCLs for chemicals in drinking water (which must not exceed federal MCLs). The estimates are also notable for incorporation or consideration of newer guidelines and principles for risk assessment extrapolations.

  4. Drinking water quality in villages of southwestern Haryana, India: assessing human health risks associated with hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vinod K.; Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Sushma; Sheoran, Aleenjeet; Garima; Meenakshi; Jain, Sandeep

    2009-09-01

    The chemical quality of groundwater of western Haryana, India was assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 275 water samples were collected from deep aquifer based hand-pumps situated in 37 different villages/towns of Bhiwani region. The water samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, e.g., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total harness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride and fluoride concentrations. In this study, the average TDS content was greater ranging 1,692 (Bhiwani block) to 2,560 mg l-1 (Siwani block), and other important parameters of water, e.g., TA (442-1,232 mg l-1), TH (437-864 mg l-1) and bicarbonate (554-672 mg l-1), were also higher than maximum permissible limit by WHO or BIS. The fluoride appeared as a major problem of safe drinking water in this region. We recorded greater fluoride concentration, i.e., 86.0 mg l-1 from Motipura village that is highest fluoride level ever recorded for Haryana state. The average fluoride concentration ranged between 7.1 and 0.8 mg l-1 in different blocks of western Haryana. On the basis of fluoride concentration, Siwani block showed the maximum number of water samples (84% of total collected samples) unsuitable for drinking purposes (containing fluoride >1.5 mg l-1) followed by Charki Dadri block (58%), Bhiwani block (52%), Bawani Khera block (33%) and Loharu block (14%). This study clearly suggest that some health deteriorating chemicals in drinking water were at dangerous level and; therefore, water quality could be a major health threat for local residents of western Haryana. The high fluoride level in drinking water has posed some serious dental health risks in local residents.

  5. Health Risk Estimation for Unregulated DBPs in Chloraminated Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when natural organic matter (NOM) reacts with chemical oxidants in the water disinfection process. Halogenated DBPs are both cytotoxic and genotoxic, which have the potential to cause adverse health effects (1). Currently, 4 species of t...

  6. [Optimal fluoride level in drinking water and public health].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, E; Sgan-Cohen, H; Vered, Y; Leventhal, A

    2003-11-01

    Water fluoridation is a safe, efficient, and well-proven way of preventing dental decay in the community. In countries such as Israel, where dental care is not covered by the national insurance law, this has an important role in reducing social inequalities in health care. For toddlers and children, water fluoridation is the only way of promoting dental health without a need for regular visits to dental clinics, and without regard to parent awareness and motivation. The other methods of fluoride supplementation do not succeed in reaching the level of safety and cost-efficiency of water fluoridation, and their use is successful only among upper socio-economic classes. Water fluoridation has been defined by the US CDC as one of the main achievements in health care during the 20th century. In spite of the legal difficulties raised by various activist groups, the use of water fluoridation is growing steadily among developed as well as third world countries. The Israeli bylaw of national water fluoridation that is in effect will enable the safe improvement of the overall dental health status of the population at an extremely low cost.

  7. Effects of black tea on body composition and metabolic outcomes related to cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Croft, Kevin D; Burrows, Sally; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo P J; Fuchs, Dagmar; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-07-25

    There is increasing evidence that tea and its non-caffeine components (primarily flavonoids) contribute to cardiovascular health. Randomized controlled trials have shown that tea can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. We have previously reported a non-caffeine associated beneficial effect of regular black tea consumption on blood pressure and its variation. To explore the non-caffeine associated effects of black tea on body weight and body fat distribution, and cardiovascular disease related metabolic outcomes. regular tea-drinking men and women (n = 111; BMI 20-35 kg m(-2)) were recruited to a randomized controlled double-blind 6 month parallel-designed trial. Participants consumed 3 cups per day of either powdered black tea solids (tea) or a flavonoid-free flavour- and caffeine-matched placebo (control). Body weight, waist- and hip-circumference, endothelial function and plasma biomarkers were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Compared to control, regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months inhibited weight gain (-0.64 kg, p = 0.047) and reduced waist circumference (-1.88 cm, P = 0.035) and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.03, P = 0.005). These effects were no longer significant at 6 months. There were no significant effects observed on fasting glucose, insulin, plasma lipids or endothelial function. Our study suggests that short-term regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months can improve body weight and body fat distribution, compared to a caffeine-matched control beverage. However, there was no evidence that these effects were sustained beyond 3 months.

  8. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health II: Predictors of Preventive Service Use.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Perrin, Nancy A; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M

    2010-07-01

    Chronic diseases and injuries are elevated among people with substance use problems/dependence, yet heavier drinkers use fewer routine and preventive health services than non-drinkers and moderate drinkers, while former drinkers and abstainers use more than moderate drinkers. Researchers hypothesize that drinking clusters with attitudes and practices that produce better health among moderate drinkers and that heavy drinkers avoid doctors until becoming ill, subsequently quitting and using more services. Gender differences in alcohol consumption, health-related attitudes, practices, and prevention-services use may affect these relationships. A stratified random sample of health-plan members (7884; 2995 males, 4889 females) completed a mail survey that was linked to 24 months of health-plan records. Data were used to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes/practices, health, and prevention-service use. Controlling for attitudes, practices, and health, female lifelong abstainers and former drinkers were less likely to have mammograms; individuals with alcohol use disorders and positive AUDIT scores were less likely to obtain influenza vaccinations. AUDIT-positive women were less likely to undergo colorectal screening than AUDIT-positive men. Consistent predictors of prevention-services use were: self-report of having a primary care provider (positive); disliking visiting the doctor (negative); smoking cigarettes (negative), and higher BMI (negative). When factors associated with drinking are controlled, patterns of alcohol consumption have limited effects on preventive service use. Individuals with stigmatized behaviors (e.g., hazardous/harmful drinking, smoking, or high BMIs) are less likely to receive care. Making care experiences positive and carefully addressing stigmatized health practices could increase preventive service use.

  9. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health II: Predictors of Preventive Service Use

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Polen, Michael R.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Anderson, Bradley M.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and injuries are elevated among people with substance use problems/dependence, yet heavier drinkers use fewer routine and preventive health services than non-drinkers and moderate drinkers, while former drinkers and abstainers use more than moderate drinkers. Researchers hypothesize that drinking clusters with attitudes and practices that produce better health among moderate drinkers and that heavy drinkers avoid doctors until becoming ill, subsequently quitting and using more services. Gender differences in alcohol consumption, health-related attitudes, practices, and prevention-services use may affect these relationships. Methods A stratified random sample of health-plan members (7884; 2995 males, 4889 females) completed a mail survey that was linked to 24 months of health-plan records. Data were used to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes/practices, health, and prevention-service use. Results Controlling for attitudes, practices, and health, female lifelong abstainers and former drinkers were less likely to have mammograms; individuals with alcohol use disorders and positive AUDIT scores were less likely to obtain influenza vaccinations. AUDIT-positive women were less likely to undergo colorectal screening than AUDIT-positive men. Consistent predictors of prevention-services use were: self-report of having a primary care provider (positive); disliking visiting the doctor (negative); smoking cigarettes (negative), and higher BMI (negative). Conclusions When factors associated with drinking are controlled, patterns of alcohol consumption have limited effects on preventive service use. Individuals with stigmatized behaviors (e.g., hazardous/harmful drinking, smoking, or high BMIs) are less likely to receive care. Making care experiences positive and carefully addressing stigmatized health practices could increase preventive service use. PMID:23814545

  10. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  11. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.

    PubMed

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  12. Adoption of a microbial health-based target for Australian drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Gibney, Katherine; Leder, Karin

    2015-09-01

    The health-based targets of 1 in 10,000 for infection and 10(-6) disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year are increasingly being considered, or have already been adopted, to define microbial safety targets for water. The aim of this paper is to convey information about how these two targets compare by converting each of the target values to a common metric. The metric chosen for viral (rotavirus and norovirus) and protozoan (Cryptosporidium) reference pathogens is the estimated maximum number of annual drinking water-associated cases of acute diarrhoeal disease tolerated. For the reference bacterial pathogen Campylobacter, sequelae to acute diarrhoeal illness have also been considered in estimating the tolerable number of cases for the DALY target. Also investigated is whether non-compliance with targets would be detected as a waterborne disease outbreak by the health surveillance system in an extreme hypothetical situation whereby all tolerable cases per annum occurred as a single event. The paper highlights that verification of compliance with targets cannot be demonstrated by the absence of reported drinking water-associated outbreaks alone and concludes that introduction of a quantitative health-based outcome for drinking water in Australia would help improve water quality management by providing a common goal directly linked to health outcomes.

  13. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

  14. [Methods for assessing the potential health risks of traces of pharmaceuticals in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Kozísek, Frantisek; Jeligová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals leads also to higher release of its non-metabolized residues into environment, mostly hydrosphere. Some of these substances may reach also processed drinking water. Although it is found in traces, it causes public concern as it can represent a non-targeted and unwanted medication. Toxicologists and public health authorities are appealed to assess potential health risks carefully and to communicate the risk adequately to public. As health risks assessment of environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals is a new field of expertise, its methodology has not been unified and standardized yet, but several different procedures have been proposed and used. The paper provides overview of these methods.

  15. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M F; Brownell, K D

    2000-06-01

    Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs.

  16. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, M F; Brownell, K D

    2000-01-01

    Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, or snack foods. The tax rates may be too small to affect sales, but in some jurisdictions, the revenues generated are substantial. Nationally, about $1 billion is raised annually from these taxes. The authors propose that state and local governments levy taxes on foods of low nutritional value and use the revenues to fund health promotion programs. PMID:10846500

  17. Fluoride intake and its safety among heavy tea drinkers in a British fluoridated city.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, G N

    1991-01-01

    Tea-drinking in very young children has been studied in a British city. The results suggested that the fluoride in tea would, in some cases, be sufficient to influence caries. Clinical findings to some extent supported this. The main purpose of the investigation reported here was to determine maximum possible fluoride intake in adults who were heavy tea drinkers in a fluoridated city and relate it to toxic thresholds. Heavy tea drinkers were traced through Health Visitors and voluntary organizations and the volumes and fluoride concentrations of their drinks were measured. Even the highest intake found (9 mg) is below the probable intake in Bartlett, Texas (8 ppm of fluoride), in relation to which no undesirable symptoms have been reported (Leone et al. 1954). This confirms the safety of fluoridation. The effects on fluoride concentration of evaporating soft and hard fluoride-containing waters to small bulk were compared. The results showed ceilings of 3 ppm of fluoride in hard water and about 14 ppm in soft water, much higher than the levels expected on the basis of the usually stated solubility of CaF2 (16 or 8 ppm of fluoride). However, under normal household conditions, it is most unlikely that dangerous levels of fluoride would be ingested from boiled water.

  18. Coffee, tea, colas, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoon Ju; Kristal, Alan R; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2008-03-01

    Associations of coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages with ovarian cancer risk remain uncertain. In a population-based study in Washington State, 781 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2002 to 2005 and 1,263 controls completed self-administered questionnaires detailing consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated coffee, teas, and colas and in-person interviews regarding reproductive and hormonal exposures. We assessed risk associated with coffee, tea, and cola drinking and with total caffeine consumption using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffees were associated with ovarian cancer risk; also, we observed no association of total caffeine with risk using a combined index that summed intake from coffee, tea, and carbonated soft drinks. Among teas, neither herbal/decaffeinated nor black teas were associated with risk; however, women who reported drinking >or=1 cup/d of green tea had a 54% reduction in risk (P trend = 0.01). Associations of green tea with risk were similar when invasive and borderline cases were considered separately and when Asian women were excluded from analysis. Green tea, which is commonly consumed in countries with low ovarian cancer incidence, should be further investigated for its cancer prevention properties.

  19. Partisan Responses to Public Health Messages: Motivated Reasoning and Sugary Drink Taxes.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-08-11

    This study examines the public's motivated reasoning of competitive messages about sugary drink taxes, a public health policy approach attempted with some recent success in the United States. In an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey fielded in the fall of 2012, we randomized participants (N = 5,147) to receive one of four messages: control, a strong protax message, a two-sided message, or a message refuting arguments made in soda company antitax messages. The protax message showed no effects on tax support, while the two-sided message depressed Republicans' support. The refutation message boosted independents' support but produced backlash among Republicans. This motivated response was pronounced among Republicans who were plausibly previously exposed to the sugary drink tax debate. These findings reinforce the communication challenges in an increasingly politicized US health policy discourse. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  20. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F = 0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F = 0.1 to 0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F = 0.1%). Time to maximum serum 26Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8 h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability × daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water. PMID:18848597

  1. Alcohol and tea consumption are associated with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in Taiwanese men

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Pin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Objective Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis (AEE) is commonly found in men, and might be a risk factor of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine if specific dietary habits increase the risk of AEE in asymptomatic Taiwanese men. Methods We recruited male adults undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for health check. We excluded subjects with reflux symptoms, or taking anti-reflux medications or drugs that potentially impair lower esophageal sphincter function or cause mucosal injury. The frequency of consuming reflux-provoking diets including alcohol, tea, coffee, tomato/citric juice, chocolate, sweet food, and spicy food was assessed. The erosive esophagitis was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification after endoscopy. Frequent consumption of a specific diet was defined as ≥4 days/week of consuming that diet. Results A total of 1256 participants were recruited. After excluding 424 ineligible subjects, AEE was identified in 180 (22%) among 832 asymptomatic subjects. The risk of AEE increased with the number of days per week of consuming alcohol or tea: nondrinkers (19%, 17%), occasional drinkers (<1 day/week; 19%, 15%), regular drinkers (1–3 days/week; 26%, 21%), frequent drinkers (4–6 days/week; 32%, 22%), and daily drinkers (42%, 28%), respectively (trend test P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate analysis showed that hiatus hernia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6–9.6), drinking alcohol ≥4 days/week (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0), and drinking tea ≥4 days/week (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) are independent risk factors of AEE. The risk of AEE was 3.8 times greater for those drinking both alcohol and tea ≥4 days/week than the non-drinkers. Conclusions Frequent alcohol and tea consumption increased the risk of AEE in Taiwanese men. PMID:28264069

  2. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J

    1995-12-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along with the understanding that boron may be nutritionally essential. A rat developmental toxicity study with a NOAEL of 9.6 mg B/kg/day was selected as the pivotal study on which to base this risk assessment, since it represents the most sensitive endpoint of toxicity. A detailed evaluation of these and other studies allowed modifications of the default values for uncertainty factors to account for the pharmacokinetic similarities among species, the lack of metabolism of inorganic boron-containing compounds, the similarity of the toxicity profile across species, the quality of the toxicological database, and other factors according to the approach described by Renwick previously. Benchmark dose calculations were performed, and the results were in close agreement with the NOAEL selected for this risk assessment. The Reference Dose was calculated to be 0.3 mg B/kg/day, resulting in an acceptable daily intake of 18 mg B/day. Considering that the U.S. average dietary intake of boron is 1.5 mg B/day, 16.5 mg B/day could be available for drinking water or other exposures, if any. A preliminary review of boron data in the National Inorganic Radionuclide Survey by the EPA indicates the median boron level in U.S. drinking water supplies to be 0.031 mg B/liter, and most exposures are less than 2.44 mg B/liter (99th percentile). It is concluded that boron in U.S. drinking water would not be expected to pose any health risk to the public.

  3. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    PubMed

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  4. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  5. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  6. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  7. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-07-24

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  8. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-01-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  9. Chlorinated drinking water, cancers and adverse health outcomes in Gangtok, Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rabi N; Goel, Sudha

    2007-10-01

    Long-term impacts of drinking chlorinated water on the incidence of cancers and other adverse health outcomes were assessed in a population-based cross-sectional study. The study was conducted by comparing a group exposed to chlorinated drinking water for more than thirty years with control groups with less or no exposure to chlorine. A house-to-house survey was completed to gather information on residential history, age, education, income, source and extent of treatment of water and health characteristics. All residents below thirty years of age were excluded from the database used for analyses to ensure that the groups were comparable. Fourteen cancer cases were found in the long-term exposed groups of 1085 persons and 9 cancer cases in the two control populations of 725 persons. The odds ratio for cancers (OR) was 1.05 (95% CI = 0.43-2.65) and is not statistically significant. Reciprocal or inverse odds [corrected] ratios for gastrointestinal disorders, kidney problems and skin infections were statistically significant ranging from 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01-4.17) to 2.2 (95% CI = 1.45-3.33). These OR values indicate that there is no significant association between the incidence of cancer and exposure to chlorinated water while chlorinating drinking water significantly reduced the incidence of non-carcinogenic adverse health effects like gastrointestinal diseases, skin infections, and kidney diseases.

  10. Focus on: ethnicity and the social and health harms from drinking.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is differentially associated with social and health harms across U.S. ethnic groups. Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks are disadvantaged by alcohol-attributed harms compared with Whites and Asians. Ethnicities with higher rates of risky drinking experience higher rates of drinking harms. Other factors that could contribute to the different effects of alcohol by ethnicity are social disadvantage, acculturation, drink preferences, and alcohol metabolism. This article examines the relationship of ethnicity and drinking to (1) unintentional injuries, (2) intentional injuries, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), (4) gastrointestinal diseases, (5) cardiovascular diseases, (6) cancers, (7) diabetes, and (8) infectious diseases. Reviewed evidence shows that Native Americans have a disproportionate risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicides and violence, FAS, and liver disease mortality. Hispanics are at increased risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicide, liver disease, and cirrhosis mortality; and Blacks have increased risk for alcohol-related relationship violence, FAS, heart disease, and some cancers. However, the scientific evidence is incomplete for each of these harms. More research is needed on the relationship of alcohol consumption to cancers, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS across ethnic groups. Studies also are needed to delineate the mechanisms that give rise to and sustain these disparities in order to inform prevention strategies.

  11. Focus On: Ethnicity and the Social and Health Harms From Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is differentially associated with social and health harms across U.S. ethnic groups. Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks are disadvantaged by alcohol-attributed harms compared with Whites and Asians. Ethnicities with higher rates of risky drinking experience higher rates of drinking harms. Other factors that could contribute to the different effects of alcohol by ethnicity are social disadvantage, acculturation, drink preferences, and alcohol metabolism. This article examines the relationship of ethnicity and drinking to (1) unintentional injuries, (2) intentional injuries, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), (4) gastrointestinal diseases, (5) cardiovascular diseases, (6) cancers, (7) diabetes, and (8) infectious diseases. Reviewed evidence shows that Native Americans have a disproportionate risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicides and violence, FAS, and liver disease mortality. Hispanics are at increased risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicide, liver disease, and cirrhosis mortality; and Blacks have increased risk for alcohol-related relationship violence, FAS, heart disease, and some cancers. However, the scientific evidence is incomplete for each of these harms. More research is needed on the relationship of alcohol consumption to cancers, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS across ethnic groups. Studies also are needed to delineate the mechanisms that give rise to and sustain these disparities in order to inform prevention strategies. PMID:24881331

  12. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brendan; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Timpson, Hannah; Razzaq, Abdul; Cheater, Sylvia; Ireland, Robin; Bromley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510 ml to 1140 ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases. We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England.

  13. Modelling the Health Impact of an English Sugary Drinks Duty at National and Local Levels

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brendan; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin; Timpson, Hannah; Razzaq, Abdul; Cheater, Sylvia; Ireland, Robin; Bromley, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence associates excess refined sugar intakes with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Worryingly, the estimated volume of sugary drinks purchased in the UK has more than doubled between 1975 and 2007, from 510ml to 1140ml per person per week. We aimed to estimate the potential impact of a duty on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) at a local level in England, hypothesising that a duty could reduce obesity and related diseases. Methods and Findings We modelled the potential impact of a 20% sugary drinks duty on local authorities in England between 2010 and 2030. We synthesised data obtained from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS), drinks manufacturers, Office for National Statistics, and from previous studies. This produced a modelled population of 41 million adults in 326 lower tier local authorities in England. This analysis suggests that a 20% SSB duty could result in approximately 2,400 fewer diabetes cases, 1,700 fewer stroke and coronary heart disease cases, 400 fewer cancer cases, and gain some 41,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per year across England. The duty might have the biggest impact in urban areas with young populations. Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting health benefits for a duty on sugary drinks. It might also usefully provide results at an area level to inform local price interventions in England. PMID:26121677

  14. Green, oolong and black tea extracts modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, M -H.; Wang, C -H.; Chen, H -L.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare effects of ethanol-soluble fractions prepared from various types of teas on sucrose-induced hyperlipidemia in 5-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 6-8 per group) weighed approximately 200 g were randomly divided into control diet, sucrose-rich diet, green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Control-diet group was provided with modified AIN-93 diet while the others consumed sucrose-rich diet. Tea extracts (1% w/v) were supplied in the drink for green tea, oolong tea and black tea groups. Results indicated sucrose-rich diet induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Food intake was reduced by oolong tea extract. Consuming oolong and black tea extracts also significantly decreased body weight gains and food efficiency. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized by green and black tea drink on day 18 and by oolong tea extract on day 25, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized by green tea on day 18 and by oolong tea and black tea on day 25, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected by any tea extract. The triglyeride content in the liver as well as the cholesterol content in the heart of rats fed sucrose-rich diet were elevated and were normalized by all types of tea drink tested. Although green and oolong tea extracts contained similar composition of catechin, our findings suggest green tea exerted greater antihyperlipidemic effect than oolong tea. Apparent fat absorption may be one of the mechanisms by which green tea reduced hyperlipidemia as well as fat storage in the liver and heart of rats consumed sucrose-rich diet.

  15. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  16. Alcohol-drinking patterns and metabolic syndrome risk: the 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some studies have revealed that mild to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of MS, most of these studies have focused the effect of alcohol consumption amount on MS. We examined the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and MS by using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire to study 1,768 alcohol drinkers (847 men, 921 women) aged 20-75 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007. When compared with the subjects in the reference group (AUDIT score ≤ 7), the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MS of subjects in the highest group (AUDIT score ≥ 16) were 3.92 (2.40-6.22) in men and 2.27 (0.87-5.89) in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the items of the AUDIT score, several alcohol-drinking patterns, including "drinking frequency," "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of high-risk drinking," "frequency of inability to stop drinking," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to remember after drinking" were strongly associated with the prevalence of MS in men. In women, there were significant relationships between MS and "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to stop drinking." In summary, AUDIT score was strongly associated with MS in Korean adults, particularly in men. Accordingly, in addition to the amount of daily alcohol consumption, alcohol-drinking patterns should be addressed in the prevention and treatment of MS.

  17. [Impact of the mineral composition of drinking water on children's health].

    PubMed

    Rylova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of highly mineralized drinking water on children's health. To reveal a relationship of children's health to the chemical composition of portable water, two Kazan districts differing in the conditions of water supply and the mineral composition of the water were selected. A total of 833 schoolchildren aged 7-9 years underwent a questionnaire survey and their objective status was examined. Special methods were used to determine the urinary content of trace elements, such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and gross elements, such as calcium and magnesium, by performing atomic absorption spectrophotometry on an AAS-SA 10 MP apparatus.

  18. Antioxidative activities of oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Hackman, Robert M; Ensunsa, Jodi L; Holt, Roberta R; Keen, Carl L

    2002-11-06

    While the antioxidative properties of green and black tea have been extensively studied, less attention has been given to these properties in oolong tea. The reducing powers, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities, the amount of total phenolic compounds, the inhibitory effect on FeCl(2)/H(2)O(2) (Fenton reaction system)-induced DNA damage, and the inhibitory effect on erythrocyte hemolysis of an oolong tea water extract (OTE) were evaluated in the present study. The OTE was found to have strong antioxidative activities in all of the model systems tested. When the OTE was separated into different fractions according to molecular weight, it was found that the fractions with higher amounts of phenolic compounds (lower molecular weight) have stronger antioxidative activities. The present results support the concept that oolong tea contains several low molecular weight antioxidants that may have health promotion activities.

  19. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.

  20. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  1. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-07-28

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed.

  2. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Deinzer, M; Schaumburg, F; Klein, E

    1978-06-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  3. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Deinzer, M.; Schaumburg, F.; Klein, E.

    1978-01-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far. The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged. The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  4. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07-1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54-2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41-0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20-0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42-0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important.

  5. Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    There is an expanding body of evidence that free-living amoebae (FLA) increase both the numbers and virulence of water-based, human-pathogenic, amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARM). Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and other opportunistic human pathogens are known to be both ARM and also the etiologic agents of potentially fatal human lung infections. However, comparatively little is known about the FLA that may facilitate ARM growth in drinking water. This review examines the available literature on FLA in treated drinking water systems; in total 26 studies from 18 different countries. FLA were reported to breakthrough the water treatment barrier and enter distribution systems, in addition to the expected post-treatment system ingress. Once in the distribution system there is evidence of FLA colonization and regrowth especially in reservoirs and in-premise plumbing storage tanks. At the point of use the average FLA detection rate was 45% but highly variable (n = 16, σ = 31) due to both differences in both assay methods and the type of water systems examined. This review reveals that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk. However, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health, in households and institutions, due to exposure to FLA facilitated pathogenic ARM.

  6. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  7. Determination of pesticide residue transfer rates (percent) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy; Leung, Daniel

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents a study on pesticide residue transfer rates (%) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. In the study, a brewing procedure simulated the preparation of a hot tea drink as in routine. After brewing, pesticide residues were extracted from brewed tea using a method known as QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). An UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to identify and quantify up to 172 pesticides in both tea leaves and brewed tea samples. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards, and the calibration curves consisted of six points (0.4, 2.0, 8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 40.0 μg/L equivalent in sample). The method was validated at four concentration levels (4.0, 12, 20.0, and 32.0 μg/L equivalent in sample) using five different brewed tea matrices on two separate days per matrix. Method performance parameters included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty, which were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Approximately, 95% of the pesticides studied had recoveries between 81 and 110%, intermediate precision ≤20%, and measurement uncertainty ≤40%. From a pilot study of 44 incurred tea samples, pesticide residues were examined for their ability to transfer from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. Each sample, both tea leaves and brewed tea, was analyzed in duplicate. Pesticides were found to have different transfer rates (%). For example, imidacloprid, methomyl, and carbendazim had transfer rates of 84.9, 83.4, and 92.4%, respectively.

  8. Health and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    PubMed

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-06-26

    Heavy drinking among university students has been globally recognized as a major public health burden. In the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, studies on this issue have been scant, country-specific and in different time frames. The aim of this study was to identify social and behavioral factors associated with binge drinking among university students in nine ASEAN countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among 8809 undergraduate university students from 13 universities in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam using self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the associated factors. More than half (62.3%) of the study sample were female with a mean age of 20.5 (SD = 2.0) years. Of total, 12.8% were infrequent (drinking remained significantly associated with being in older age groups, living with parents or guardians, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, poor subjective health status, lower level of life satisfaction, tobacco and illicit drug use, depressive symptoms and high level physical activity. Among females, higher prevalence of binge drinking remained significantly associated with being in the older age groups, poorer family background, living in an upper-middle- or high-income country, lower level of non-organized religious activity, lack of knowledge on alcohol-heart disease relationship, lack of knowledge on alcohol-high blood pressure relationship, weak beliefs in the importance of limiting alcohol use, lower level of life satisfaction, use of other substances such as tobacco and illicit drug, depressive symptoms and high level of physical activity. Findings from

  9. Health impairments arising from drinking water polluted with domestic sewage and excreta in China.

    PubMed

    Ling, B

    2000-01-01

    Raw water of poor quality still causes many drinking-water associated health problems all over China, largely because of poor sanitation, inadequate disposal of sewage and excreta. Eutrophication due to excess of total nitrogen and phosphorous in some sources for drinking-water has led to massive proliferation of cyanobacteria. The dominant species of cyanophyta can produce microcystins, a potent liver cancer promotor. As in previous studies, high incidence of liver cancer coincided with high microcystin concentration in the source water, especially in pond water. A frequent consequence of heavy pollution of source water is further the high incidence of infectious intestinal diseases, which are more than 10-100 times as frequent in China than in developed countries.

  10. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots.

  11. Response of Apc(min) and A33 (delta N beta-cat) mutant mice to treatment with tea, sulindac, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).

    PubMed

    Orner, Gayle A; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza; Blum, Carmen A; Díaz, G Darío; Li, Qingjie; Al-Fageeh, Mohamad; Tebbutt, Niall; Heath, Joan K; Ernst, Matthias; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2002-09-30

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of tea, and a recent report described the potent antimutagenic activity of white tea in comparison with green tea against several heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) [Mutat. Res. 495 (2001) 61]. We compared the inhibitory effects of white and green teas with sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, in two different mouse models of intestinal tumorigenesis. In the Apc(min) mouse, white and green teas given at human-relevant concentrations (1.5% w/v, 2-min brew), and sulindac (80 ppm in the drinking water), each suppressed polyp formation by approximately 50%, and the combination of white tea plus sulindac was more effective than either treatment alone (P=0.05). Mice expressing an N-terminally truncated, oncogenic version of beta-catenin (A 33(delta N beta-cat) mutant mice) developed colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) spontaneously, but PhIP treatment increased the incidence and number of ACF per colon. In the normal-looking intestinal mucosa of Apc(min) and A 33(delta N beta-cat) mice, white tea plus sulindac treatment markedly attenuated the expression of beta-catenin protein, and this was recapitulated in vitro in cells transiently transfected with beta-catenin plus Tcf-4 and treated with tea or the major tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Expression of a beta-catenin/Tcf reporter was inhibited by EGCG in the transfected cells, and the beta-catenin/Tcf target genes cyclin D1 and c-jun were downregulated in vivo by tea plus sulindac treatment. Collectively, the data support a chemopreventive role for tea and sulindac against intermediate and late stages of colon cancer, via effects on the beta-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway.

  12. Direct enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in tea drinks by 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-beta-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Matsunaga, Akinobu; Yanai, Hiroko

    2004-08-01

    Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography was applied to the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin using 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-beta-cyclodextrin together with sodium dodecyl sulfate and borate-phosphate buffer. Factors affecting chiral resolution and migration time of catechin and epicatechin were studied. The optimum running conditions were found to be 200 mM borate-20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.4) containing 25 mM 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl-beta-cyclodextrin and 240 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate with an effective voltage of +25 kV at 20 degrees C using direct detection at 210 nm. Under these conditions, the resolution (Rs) of racemic catechin and epicatechin were 4.15 and 1.92, respectively. With this system, catechin and epicatechin enantiomers along with other four catechins ((-)-catechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate) and caffeine in tea samples were analyzed successfully. The difference of migration time between catechin and epicatechin is discussed.

  13. Antioxidant activity of soya hypocotyl tea in humans.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Haba, R; Terashima, K; Arai, Y; Miura, T; Chiba, H; Takamatsu, K

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of isoflavones has not been shown in humans. Newly-developed isoflavone-rich soya hypocotyl tea contains about 12 mg isoflavones per liter. 15 tea drinkers and 23 control young female students were randomly selected from volunteers, and underwent physical examination, blood chemistry and urinary analysis before and after one month of tea drinking. A three-day dietary record was taken before each physical examination. The tea drinkers showed a lower level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine hydroperoxide (PEOOH) in the red blood cells and a significant reduction of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8ohdG) in the urine compared to the controls.

  14. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  15. Drinking patterns and the development of functional limitations in older adults: longitudinal analyses of the health and retirement survey.

    PubMed

    Lin, James C; Guerrieri, Joy Gioia; Moore, Alison A

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether consistent low-risk drinking is associated with lower risk of developing functional limitations among older adults. Data were obtained from five waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Function was assessed by questions measuring four physical abilities and five instrumental activities of daily living. Five different drinking patterns were determined using data over two consecutive survey periods. Over the follow-up periods, 38.6% of older adults developed functional limitations. Consistent low-risk drinkers had lower odds of developing functional limitations compared with consistent abstainers, and the effect of consistent low-risk drinking was greater among those aged 50 to 64 years compared with those aged ≥65 years. Other drinking patterns were not associated with lower odds of incident functional limitation. Consistent low-risk drinking was associated with lower odds of developing functional limitations, and this association was greater among older middle-aged adults aged 50 to 64 years.

  16. [Health risk assessment on pesticide residues in drinking water in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Lan, Tao; Xu, Xinyun; Huang, Guangwen; Yu, Shuyuan; Liu, Guihua; Li, Jin

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a health risk assessment of pesticide residues and its annual trend analysis in drinking water in Shenzhen City. The water quality monitoring data of product water, pipe water and secondary supply water during from 2011 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. The risk evaluation models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were employed to perform health risk assessments for children and adults on the 12 non-carcinogenic materials (namely, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, malathion, glyphosate, dimethoate, bentazone, atrazine, chlorothalonil, furadan). Results The results of the analysis for water quality from 84 factory samples, 11 peripheral samples and one secondary supply water sample showed that all of the measured indicators in the above mentioned water samples met the National Health Standards (GB 5749-2006) published by Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The adults and children' s health indices (HIs) of the 12 non-carcinogenic materials were greater than 1 (2. 323 - 6. 312). Dimethoate in factory and peripheral water samples posed the largest risks of harm among the non-carcinogenic pollutants measured. And its HIi were also greater than 1 (1. 995 - 5. 094) and followed by hexachlorobenzene and heptachlor. Annual rising trend on health risk of the 12 pesticide residues indicated that their HIT on adults was 2323. 18 x 10(-3) in 2011, 2340. 18 x 10(-3) in 2012 and 2431. 97 x 10(-3) in 2013, and on children 2965. 07 x 10 (-3) in 2011, 2986. 77 x 10(-3) in 2012 and 3103. 93 x 10(-3) in 2013, respectively. This study also suggested that the average risk of peripheral water samples (HIT was equal to 2619. 64 x 10(-3) was greater than that of factory samples (HIT was same as 2366. 92 x 10(-3), and more children' s health risk than adults' risk. Health risks of pesticide residues in drinking water in Shenzhen have exceeded the threshold value and dimethoate was the

  17. [The green tea, a good choice for cardiovascular disease prevention?].

    PubMed

    Hernández Figueroa, Tania T; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2004-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) has been used for centuries as a medical drink. Around two-thirds of the world's population drink tea. It is originated from southern China and entensive cultivated in Asia and in central African countries. Tea can be grouped into three main types, black, oolong, and green tea. Green tea is not fermented and is a major beverage consumed in Asian countries. Green tea is produced from freshly harvest leaves of the tea plant and they contain water, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and polyphenols of the flavonoid type. The major flavonoids in green tea are catechins which constitute about one third of its total dry weight. The major catechin present is epigallocatechin gallate (>50%). New data have increased the interest in green tea or its catechins and its role in treatment of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors. The aim of the present paper is to review some studies that have found a relationship between green tea and CHD risk factors. From some of them it can be summarized that of green tea and its catechins consumptions (i) decrease body weight by interfering within the sympathoadrenal system and fatty acid synthesis, (ii) decrease cholesterol absorption and plasma levels, (iii) have strong free radical-scavenging activity inhibiting LDL oxidation, (iv) reduce the adhesion molecule expression, (v) have antitrombotic activities by inhibiting platelet aggregation and (vi) decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The positive effects found suggest that a daily intake of 7 cups of green tea (3.5 g catechins) is a good choose for CHD prevention; however, it is still necessary more studies to check the action of the green tea and its catechins in humans in order to recommended its use in the general population or only in target subjects.

  18. Drinking Water Uranium and Potential Health Effects in the German Federal State of Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Benfer, Mira

    2017-08-18

    Mainly due to its nephrotoxic and osteotoxic potential, uranium (U) increasingly finds itself in the spotlight of environmental and health-related research. Germany decided on a binding U guideline value in drinking water of 10 µg/L, valid since 2011. It is yet widely unknown if and how public health was affected by elevated U concentrations before that. In this ecological study we summarized available drinking water U data for the German federal state of Bavaria (703 analyses in total for 553 different municipalities) at county level (for 76 out of 96 Bavarian counties, representing about 83% of Bavaria's and about 13% of Germany's total population) in terms of mean and maximum U concentration. Bavaria is known to regionally exhibit mainly geogenically elevated groundwater U with a maximum value of 40 µg/L in the database used here. Public health data were obtained from federal statistical authorities at county resolution. These included incidence rates of diagnosed diseases suspected to be potentially associated with chronic U uptake, e.g., diseases of the skeleton, the liver or the thyroid as well as tumor and genito-urinary diseases. The datasets were analyzed for interrelations and mutual spatial occurrence using statistical approaches and GIS as well as odds ratios and relative risks calculations. Weak but significant positive associations between maximum U concentrations and aggregated ICD-10 diagnose groups for growths/tumors as well as liver diseases were observed, elevated incidence rates of thyroid diseases seem to occur where mean drinking water U concentrations exceed 2 µg/L. Here, we discuss obtained results and their implications for potential impacts of hydrochemistry on public health in southeast Germany.

  19. Drinking Water Uranium and Potential Health Effects in the German Federal State of Bavaria

    PubMed Central

    Benfer, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Mainly due to its nephrotoxic and osteotoxic potential, uranium (U) increasingly finds itself in the spotlight of environmental and health-related research. Germany decided on a binding U guideline value in drinking water of 10 µg/L, valid since 2011. It is yet widely unknown if and how public health was affected by elevated U concentrations before that. In this ecological study we summarized available drinking water U data for the German federal state of Bavaria (703 analyses in total for 553 different municipalities) at county level (for 76 out of 96 Bavarian counties, representing about 83% of Bavaria’s and about 13% of Germany’s total population) in terms of mean and maximum U concentration. Bavaria is known to regionally exhibit mainly geogenically elevated groundwater U with a maximum value of 40 µg/L in the database used here. Public health data were obtained from federal statistical authorities at county resolution. These included incidence rates of diagnosed diseases suspected to be potentially associated with chronic U uptake, e.g., diseases of the skeleton, the liver or the thyroid as well as tumor and genito-urinary diseases. The datasets were analyzed for interrelations and mutual spatial occurrence using statistical approaches and GIS as well as odds ratios and relative risks calculations. Weak but significant positive associations between maximum U concentrations and aggregated ICD-10 diagnose groups for growths/tumors as well as liver diseases were observed, elevated incidence rates of thyroid diseases seem to occur where mean drinking water U concentrations exceed 2 µg/L. Here, we discuss obtained results and their implications for potential impacts of hydrochemistry on public health in southeast Germany. PMID:28820453

  20. Levels of perfluorinated chemicals in municipal drinking water from Catalonia, Spain: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Ingrid; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí; Bigas, Esther; Llebaria, Xavier; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (PFBuS, PFHxS, PFOS, THPFOS, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTDA, and PFOSA) were analyzed in municipal drinking water samples collected at 40 different locations from 5 different zones of Catalonia, Spain. Detection limits ranged between 0.02 (PFHxS) and 0.85 ng/L (PFOA). The most frequent compounds were PFOS and PFHxS, which were detected in 35 and 31 samples, with maximum concentrations of 58.1 and 5.30 ng/L, respectively. PFBuS, PFHxA, and PFOA were also frequently detected (29, 27, and 26 samples, respectively), with maximum levels of 69.4, 8.55, and 57.4 ng/L. In contrast, PFDoDA and PFTDA could not be detected in any sample. The most contaminated water samples were found in the Barcelona Province, whereas none of the analyzed PFCs could be detected in two samples (Banyoles and Lleida), and only one PFC could be detected in four of the samples. Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L/day, the maximum daily intake of PFOS and PFOA from municipal drinking water would be, for a subject of 70 kg of body weight, 1.7 and 1.6 ng/kg/day. This is clearly lower than the respective Tolerable Daily Intake set by the European Food Safety Authority. In all samples, PFOS and PFOA also showed lower levels than the short-term provisional health advisory limit for drinking water (200 ng PFOS/L and 400 ng PFOA/L) set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in drinking water in Catalonia are not expected to pose human health risks, safety limits for exposure to the remaining PFCs are clearly necessary, as health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure is set to 40 ng/L for PFOA.

  1. Motivational interviewing does not affect risk drinking among young women: A randomised, controlled intervention study in Swedish youth health centres.

    PubMed

    Palm, Anna; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Wennberg, Peter; Högberg, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse risk and binge drinking at 12-month follow-up in young women with risk drinking who received motivational interviewing compared with controls. Young women attending Swedish youth health centres were randomised into intervention or control groups. The intervention group members were asked about their alcohol consumption by a midwife/social worker using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption. A score of ⩾5 was used as the cut-off value for risk drinking. Participants with risk drinking in the intervention group received motivational interviewing within the same visit. Participants in the control group had a regular visit with a midwife/social worker and answered the same questions about alcohol consumption in a questionnaire after their visit. A questionnaire with the same questions was administered to participants 12 months after baseline. Of 1445 eligible young women, 1051 (73%) consented to randomisation and were enrolled in the study. The follow-up rate was 54%. There was a significant decrease in risk- and binge drinking, from baseline to follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Generalised estimating equation analyses demonstrated no significant effect between groups. Of participants who did not have risk drinking at baseline, about 20% in both groups had developed high-risk drinking by the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN RISK DRINKING BETWEEN YOUNG WOMEN WHO RECEIVED MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING AND CONTROLS WERE FOUND THERE WAS A LARGE INTRA-INDIVIDUAL MOBILITY IN YOUNG WOMEN'S RISK DRINKING BEHAVIOUR THIS HIGHLIGHTS THE IMPORTANCE OF FINDING RELIABLE SCREENING TOOLS THAT CAN CAPTURE THE MOBILITY IN DRINKING BEHAVIOUR IN YOUTH MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED BEFORE RECOMMENDATIONS CAN BE MADE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Development of a Health-Protective Drinking Water Level for Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Ting, David; Howd, Robert A.; Fan, Anna M.; Alexeeff, George V.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated animal and human toxicity data for perchlorate and identified reduction of thyroidal iodide uptake as the critical end point in the development of a health-protective drinking water level [also known as the public health goal (PHG)] for the chemical. This work was performed under the drinking water program of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment of the California Environmental Protection Agency. For dose–response characterization, we applied benchmark-dose modeling to human data and determined a point of departure (the 95% lower confidence limit for 5% inhibition of iodide uptake) of 0.0037 mg/kg/day. A PHG of 6 ppb was calculated by using an uncertainty factor of 10, a relative source contribution of 60%, and exposure assumptions specific to pregnant women. The California Department of Health Services will use the PHG, together with other considerations such as economic impact and engineering feasibility, to develop a California maximum contaminant level for perchlorate. We consider the PHG to be adequately protective of sensitive subpopulations, including pregnant women, their fetuses, infants, and people with hypothyroidism. PMID:16759989

  3. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-05-01

    We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. At baseline in 1995-1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than "none" prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.69-1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.48-1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95 % CI, 0.67-1.01). The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They could also be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance.

  4. Coffee, tea, soda, and caffeine intake in relation to risk of adult glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. Methods At baseline in 1995–1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. Results During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than “none” prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69–1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48–1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–1.01). Conclusions The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They also could be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance. PMID:22457000

  5. Drinking water studies: a review on heavy metal, application of biomarker and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

  6. Green tea polyphenol sensing

    PubMed Central

    TACHIBANA, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols have emerged over the past two decades as an important dietary factor for health promotion. There is considerable evidence that tea polyphenols, in particular (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibit carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms for the cancer-preventive activity of EGCG are not completely characterized and many features remain to be elucidated. Recently we have identified a cell-surface EGCG receptor and the relating molecules that confer EGCG responsiveness to many cancer cells at physiological concentrations. Here, we review some of the reported mechanisms for the cancer chemopreventive action of EGCG and provide an overview of several molecules that sense and manage the physiological functions of EGCG. PMID:21422740

  7. Association between green tea consumption and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Liang, Wenbin; Hirayama, Fumi; Binns, Colin W

    2010-07-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage and its health benefits are well known. However, inconsistent results have been reported in observational studies concerning the association between green tea consumption and the lung cancer risk. In this commentary, several methodological issues underlying the measurement of tea exposure are highlighted. The recommendations should be useful for designing and planning prospective cohort studies to ascertain the protective effect of green tea against lung cancer.

  8. Reexamining the risks of drinking-water nitrates on public health.

    PubMed

    Richard, Alyce M; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Nitrates in drinking water are generally considered the sole source of nitrite poisoning with methemoglobinemia in infantile methomoglobinemia (IM). However, IM, which occurs during the first 4 months of life, is actually a constellation of cyanosis and hypoxia associated with methemoglobinemia that can result from several other causes. This review reexamines the role of nitrate levels in drinking water as a cause of IM and identifies other sources of nitrates that can affect public health and cause chronic diseases. Causes of IM include nitrites in foods, environmental chemical exposures, commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals, and the endogenous generation of oxides of nitrogen. Infants with congenital enzyme deficiencies in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methemoglobin reductase are at greater risk of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia from nitrates in water and food and from exposures to hemoglobin oxidizers. Early epidemiological studies demonstrated significant associations between high groundwater nitrate levels and elevated methemoglobin levels in infants fed drinking water-diluted formulas. However, more recent epidemiological investigations suggest other sources of nitrogenous substance exposures in infants, including protein-based formulas and foods and the production of nitrate precursors (nitric acid) by bacterial action in the infant gut in response to inflammation and infection.

  9. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T.; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G.; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  10. A decision support system for drinking water production integrating health risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-07-18

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation.

  11. Reexamining the Risks of Drinking-Water Nitrates on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Alyce M.; Diaz, James H.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitrates in drinking water are generally considered the sole source of nitrite poisoning with methemoglobinemia in infantile methomoglobinemia (IM). However, IM, which occurs during the first 4 months of life, is actually a constellation of cyanosis and hypoxia associated with methemoglobinemia that can result from several other causes. Methods This review reexamines the role of nitrate levels in drinking water as a cause of IM and identifies other sources of nitrates that can affect public health and cause chronic diseases. Results Causes of IM include nitrites in foods, environmental chemical exposures, commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals, and the endogenous generation of oxides of nitrogen. Infants with congenital enzyme deficiencies in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methemoglobin reductase are at greater risk of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia from nitrates in water and food and from exposures to hemoglobin oxidizers. Conclusion Early epidemiological studies demonstrated significant associations between high groundwater nitrate levels and elevated methemoglobin levels in infants fed drinking water–diluted formulas. However, more recent epidemiological investigations suggest other sources of nitrogenous substance exposures in infants, including protein-based formulas and foods and the production of nitrate precursors (nitric acid) by bacterial action in the infant gut in response to inflammation and infection. PMID:25249806

  12. Drinking water and health: Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the toxicity of the by-products of disinfectants have focused on the trihalomethanes (THMs), which are formed during chlorination and for which considerable data on carcinogenicity have been developed. The level of total THMs in finished drinking water, currently regulated at 100 micrograms/L, should be reduced. Noting that chloroform is the principal THM produced by chlorination, the subcommittee found this level to be unsupportable on the basis of the risk values for chloroform developed in this review. Other, non-volatile by-products of chlorination may be important in contributing mutagenic properties to drinking water, especially when the natural water being treated contains high levels of organic matter. Short-term animal skin tests, although not conclusive, provide indications that organic concentrates from chlorinated water are tumorigenic under some experimental conditions. Unfortunately, many by-products of chlorination and other disinfection practices have not been identified. Consequently, the risks of ingesting cannot be quantified at present, but are potentially high enough to warrant continued efforts to analyze them. The use of alternative methods of drinking water disinfection is increasing, largely due to health and regulatory concerns about trihalomethanes. Thus, the nature and toxicity of the by-products of some other widely used water treatments (chloramination, ozonation, and chlorine dioxide) are also evaluated in the report to the extent allowed by available data. The subcommittee calculated quantitative risk assessment for disinfectants or their by-products when there was sufficient data.

  13. Relationship between fluorine in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binbin; Zheng, Baoshan; Zhai, Cheng; Yu, Guangqian; Liu, Xiaojing

    2004-10-01

    In this project, the relationship between fluorine content in drinking water and dental health of residents in some large cities in China was evaluated. The concentration of fluorine in tap water and in urine of local subjects of 28 cities and 4 high fluorine villages in China shows a strong positive correlation (r(2)=0.96, S.E.=0.9881). Our studies indicate that drinking water is the most important source of fluorine intake for Chinese people, and in more than 90% of urban cities, fluorine concentrations in drinking water are below levels recommended by the WHO (approximately 0.5-1.0 mg/l). A 1995 investigation by The National Committee on Oral Health of China (NCOH) shows the relationship between average number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of urban residents and fluorine concentration in drinking water to be negatively correlated but not forming a good linear relationship. Our results, together with the previous study, suggest that: (1) dental caries of the study population can be reduced by drinking water fluoridation and that (2) other factors such as economic level, weather, lifestyle, food habits, living condition, etc., of a city can also affect the incidence of dental caries that cannot be predicted by fluoridation alone. Research on the relation between index of fluorosis (IF) and the fluorine concentration in drinking water for the four high fluorine villages showed that the recommended concentration of fluorine in drinking water can protect from dental fluorosis.

  14. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  15. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature’s nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts. PMID:26818408

  16. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: connecting health and place through source water protection.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Source water protection has gained considerable attention in the water resources literature particularly after several well publicized (non-First Nations) water contamination events in Canada. This short report explores health and place through an examination of access to safe drinking water in a developed country. For First Nations in Canada, safe drinking water remains a serious, albeit under-reported, problem. The incidence of contaminated drinking water is pervasive in many First Nations communities. Attempts to "fix" water quality problems using technology alone have produced only limited success. It will be shown that greater attention to source water protection has potential for both to improve drinking water quality as well as to re-connect health and place for First Nations in Canada.

  17. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be

  18. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Hamden, Khaled; Elloumi, Dhouha; Ali, Madiha Bou; Hargafi, Khaoula; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ayadi, Fatma; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2012-05-16

    Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be considered as a potential strong

  19. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  20. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  1. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F(-)) were prepared with analytical grade Na(+)/F(-) and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F(-) concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p < 10(-5)-10(-9)), results consistent with a substantial spatial variance of water source F(-) levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F(-) in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended

  2. Elevated lead in drinking water in Washington, DC, 2003-2004: the public health response.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L; Calhoun, Thomas; Davies-Cole, John O; Knuckles, Maurice E; Stokes, Lynette; Glymph, Chevelle; Lum, Garret; Moses, Marina S; Goldsmith, David F; Ragain, Lisa

    2007-05-01

    In 2003, residents of the District of Columbia (DC) experienced an abrupt rise in lead levels in drinking water, which followed a change in water-disinfection treatment in 2001 and which was attributed to consequent changes in water chemistry and corrosivity. To evaluate the public health implications of the exceedance, the DC Department of Health expanded the scope of its monitoring programs for blood lead levels in children. From 3 February 2004 to 31 July 2004, 6,834 DC residents were screened to determine their blood lead levels. Children from 6 months to 6 years of age constituted 2,342 of those tested; 65 had blood lead levels > 10 microg/dL (the "level of concern" defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the highest with a level of 68 microg/dL. Investigation of their homes identified environmental sources of lead exposure other than tap water as the source, when the source was identified. Most of the children with elevated blood lead levels (n = 46; 70.8%) lived in homes without lead drinking-water service lines, which is the principal source of lead in drinking water in older cities. Although residents of houses with lead service lines had higher blood lead levels on average than those in houses that did not, this relationship is confounded. Older houses that retain lead service lines usually have not been rehabilitated and are more likely to be associated with other sources of exposure, particularly lead paint. None of 96 pregnant women tested showed blood lead levels > 10 microg/dL, but two nursing mothers had blood lead levels > 10 microg/dL. Among two data sets of 107 and 71 children for whom paired blood and water lead levels could be obtained, there was no correlation (r(2) = -0.03142 for the 107). The expanded screening program developed in response to increased lead levels in water uncovered the true dimensions of a continuing problem with sources of lead in homes, specifically lead paint. This study cannot be used to correlate

  3. Elevated Lead in Drinking Water in Washington, DC, 2003–2004: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, Tee L.; Calhoun, Thomas; Davies-Cole, John O.; Knuckles, Maurice E.; Stokes, Lynette; Glymph, Chevelle; Lum, Garret; Moses, Marina S.; Goldsmith, David F.; Ragain, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2003, residents of the District of Columbia (DC) experienced an abrupt rise in lead levels in drinking water, which followed a change in water-disinfection treatment in 2001 and which was attributed to consequent changes in water chemistry and corrosivity. Objectives To evaluate the public health implications of the exceedance, the DC Department of Health expanded the scope of its monitoring programs for blood lead levels in children. Methods From 3 February 2004 to 31 July 2004, 6,834 DC residents were screened to determine their blood lead levels. Results Children from 6 months to 6 years of age constituted 2,342 of those tested; 65 had blood lead levels > 10 μg/dL (the “level of concern” defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the highest with a level of 68 μg/dL. Investigation of their homes identified environmental sources of lead exposure other than tap water as the source, when the source was identified. Most of the children with elevated blood lead levels (n = 46; 70.8%) lived in homes without lead drinking-water service lines, which is the principal source of lead in drinking water in older cities. Although residents of houses with lead service lines had higher blood lead levels on average than those in houses that did not, this relationship is confounded. Older houses that retain lead service lines usually have not been rehabilitated and are more likely to be associated with other sources of exposure, particularly lead paint. None of 96 pregnant women tested showed blood lead levels > 10 μg/dL, but two nursing mothers had blood lead levels > 10 μg/dL. Among two data sets of 107 and 71 children for whom paired blood and water lead levels could be obtained, there was no correlation (r2 = –0.03142 for the 107). Conclusions The expanded screening program developed in response to increased lead levels in water uncovered the true dimensions of a continuing problem with sources of lead in homes, specifically lead paint

  4. Interactions among chemical components of Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), a naturally low caffeine-containing tea species.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiong; Luo, Wei; Li, Bin

    2014-06-01

    In the 1980s, a novel tea species, Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla Chang), was discovered in Southern China with surprisingly low caffeine content (0.2% by dry weight). Although its health promoting characteristics have been known for a while, a very limited amount of scientific research has been focused on Cocoa tea. Herein, a systematic study on Cocoa tea and its chemical components, interactions and bioactivities was performed. YD tea (Yunnan Daye tea, Camellia sinensis), a tea species with a high caffeine content (5.8% by dry weight), was used as a control. By UV-Vis spectrometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) for chemical composition analysis, C-2 epimeric isomers of tea catechins and theobromine were found to be the major catechins and methylxanthine in Cocoa tea, respectively. More gallated catechins, methylxanthines, and proteins were detected in Cocoa tea compared with YD tea. Moreover, the tendency of major components in Cocoa tea for precipitation was significantly higher than that in YD tea. Catechins, methylxanthines, proteins, iron, calcium, and copper were presumed to be the origins of molecular interactions in Cocoa tea and YD tea. The interactions between catechins and methylxanthines were highly related to the galloyl moiety in catechins and methyl groups in methylxanthines. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity assays revealed that Cocoa tea was a more potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) than YD tea. This study constructs a solid phytochemical foundation for further research on the mechanisms of molecular interactions and the integrated functions of Cocoa tea.

  5. Community drinking water quality monitoring data: utility for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Graber, Judith M; Anderson, Robert; Rockne, Karl; Turyk, Mary; Stayner, Leslie T

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) tracks the occurrence and magnitude of environmental hazards and associated adverse health effects over time. The EPHT program has formally expanded its scope to include finished drinking water quality. Our objective was to describe the features, strengths, and limitations of using finished drinking water quality data from community water systems (CWSs) for EPHT applications, focusing on atrazine and nitrogen compounds in 8 Midwestern states. Water quality data were acquired after meeting with state partners and reviewed and merged for analysis. Data and the coding of variables, particularly with respect to censored results (nondetects), were not standardized between states. Monitoring frequency varied between CWSs and between atrazine and nitrates, but this was in line with regulatory requirements. Cumulative distributions of all contaminants were not the same in all states (Peto-Prentice test P < .001). Atrazine results were highly censored in all states (76.0%-99.3%); higher concentrations were associated with increased measurement frequency and surface water as the CWS source water type. Nitrate results showed substantial state-to-state variability in censoring (20.5%-100%) and in associations between concentrations and the CWS source water type. Statistical analyses of these data are challenging due to high rates of censoring and uncertainty about the appropriateness of parametric assumptions for time-series data. Although monitoring frequency was consistent with regulations, the magnitude of time gaps coupled with uncertainty about CWS service areas may limit linkage with health outcome data.

  6. Tea, but not coffee consumption, is associated with components of arterial pressure. The Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors study in Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-07-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the impact of tea and coffee consumption on arterial blood pressure. The present study aimed to examine the association between blood pressure (BP) components, namely, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (PP), and tea or coffee consumption, taking into account simultaneous consumption. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1352 individuals aged 18 to 69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009 to participate in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. We hypothesized that greater tea consumption would be independently associated with lower BP. Tea and coffee consumptions in deciliters per day were obtained from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified into 3 groups: nonconsumers, ≤3-dL/d consumers, and >3-dL/d consumers of each beverage separately. After exclusion of subjects taking antihypertensive medications, several general linear models were performed to investigate the independent relationship between tea/coffee consumption and BP components. Tea consumers (36.3%) were more likely to be younger women, nonsmokers, with better cardiometabolic profiles, and less frequent chronic pathologies, whereas the reverse was true for coffee consumers (88%). Greater tea consumption was associated with lower SBP and PP values, after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle, and dietary confounding factors, including coffee drinking. No association between BP components and coffee consumption was observed. Daily consumption of 1 dL of tea was associated with a significant reduction of SBP by 0.6 mm Hg and PP by 0.5 mm Hg. Given the widespread consumption of tea and coffee throughout the world, together with the major cardiovascular disease risk, our findings have important implications for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. History of Pu'er Tea and comparative study for the effect of its various extracts on lipid-lowering diet.

    PubMed

    Qiong, Sun; Xishuang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    Pu'er Tea is a kind of traditional historical famous tea which gains its name for native government jurisdiction in Pu'er (now Xishuangbanna in Yunnan, Pu'er city etc), and takes Pu'er (now Ninger county of Pu'er city) city as its collecting and distributing center .It is famous all over the world because of its good benefits for reducing blood lipid, slimming weight, antibacterial, aid digestion, detoxification and other functions, it is even known as the health care beverage with "the fine quality goods for preserving people's health", "a health drink demanded everyday". Although there are a lot of current study literature about the effect of Pu'er Tea on lipid-lowering and reducing weight, but there is rarely contrast study about the effect of lipid-lowering diet with its various extracts. Therefore, this article uses the acetone, water, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to continuously extract Pu'er Tea, then freeze and dry them into four major separate components which include the chloroform layer, ethyl acetate layer, butanol layer and the remaining water layer. Take advantage of different components for filling and feeding the ICR mice which are treated with the processing of obesity molding, then compare the extract of Pu'er Tea with the weight-loss drug L-carnitine which is popular all over the market, explore the slimming effect of each component in Pu'er Tea on the cells of ICR fat mice. The results show that the total water extract of Pu'er Tea, ethyl acetate extract, residual water extract all have obvious effect on reducing body weight and body fat of experimental mice, it also has significant lowering effect on blood lipid and liver lipid in mice, that could significantly inhibit the accumulation of lipid in fat cells and hypertrophy of fat cells, reveal that the Pu'er Tea has good function of lipid-lowering and reducing weight. At the same time, the comprehensive effect of lipid-lowering and reducing weight through Pu 'er Tea is superior to

  8. The Relationship Between Drinking Pattern, Social Capital, and Area-Deprivation: Findings From the Health Survey for England.

    PubMed

    Ng Fat, Linda; Scholes, Shaun; Jivraj, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the relationships between heavy episodic and drinking frequency with area-deprivation and social capital in England. Using the Health Survey for England 2002-2006, a nationally representative crosssectional survey (N = 54,422), multilevel logistic regression models with individuals nested within primary sampling units were carried out, stratified by sex, on (a) drinkers versus nondrinkers, (b) heavy episodic drinking versus drinking less (on the heaviest drinking day), and (c) fewer than 2 drink-free days versus at least 2 drink-free days. Key exposures were individual social capital variables (social trust, active civic participation, social support, neighborhood perception). Models adjusted for age, area-deprivation, economic activity, education, ethnicity, longstanding illness, marital status, and children in the household. Lack of social support (men: OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.60, 0.79]; women: OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.69, 0.86]) and no civic participation (men: OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.67, 0.83]; women: OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.68, 0.78]) decreased the odds of being a drinker versus a nondrinker. Among men, low social trust increased (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [1.04, 1.30]) and no civic participation decreased (OR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.74, 0.89]) the odds of heavy episodic drinking; among women, good overall neighborhood perception decreased the odds (OR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.86, 0.97]). Lack of social support (men: OR = 1.25, 95% CI [1.14, 1.36]; women: OR = 1.20, 95% CI [1.02, 1.40]) and no civic participation (men: OR = 1.25, 95% CI [1.14, 1.36]; women: OR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.25, 1.51]) increased the odds of having fewer than 2 drink-free days. Men and women living in the most deprived areas were less likely to drink, more likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking, and more likely to have at least 2 alcohol-free days, after social capital variables were adjusted for. Social capital is associated with drinking alcohol, and low forms is associated

  9. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jinping; Kong, Xiangyi; Kong, Aiying; Han, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant and is the most widely consumed beverage in the world after water. The main chemical components in teas are phenolic compounds (tea polyphenols, mainly tea catechins). A large number of in vitro and in vivo scientific studies have supported that the tea polyphenols can provide a number of health benefits such as, reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Recently, tea polyphenols have proven highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. A clear understanding of chemistry, stability, pharmacokinetics and metabolic fate of tea will be significant to elucidate many medicinal effects by biochemical theory and pharmaceutical development. This article reviews the current literature on the pharmacoknetics and biotransformation of tea catechins. The half-lives of tea polyphenols are 2-4h and their absorption and elimination are rapid in humans. The peak times (tmax) are 1 and 3 h after oral administration and the peak plasma concentrations are low μM range. It has been reported that catechins are easily metabolized by enzyme and microbe, and the main metabolic pathways are methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, ring-fission metabolism, and so on. The information is important to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and Chemoprevention Studies on Tea in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chow, H-H. Sherry; Hakim, Iman A.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. Plasma levels of unchanged tea catechins in humans are mostly in the sub-μM or nM concentration range, which is much lower than the effective concentrations determined in most in vitro studies. However, some of the catechin metabolites/catabolites are present in the systemic circulation at levels much higher than those of the parent catechins. The contribution of catechin derived metabolites/catabolites to the biological effects associated with green tea is yet to be defined. A limited number of chemoprevention trials of green tea or green tea catechins have been conducted to date and have observed potential preventive activity for oral, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Emerging data from multiple ongoing intervention trials will further contribute to defining the cancer preventive activity of green tea or green tea catechins. PMID:21624470

  12. Characteristics of US Health Care Providers Who Counsel Adolescents on Sports and Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Nan; Wethington, Holly; Onufrak, Stephen; Belay, Brook

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the proportion of health care providers who counsel adolescent patients on sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and the association with provider characteristics. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers who see patients ≤17 years old. The proportion providing regular counseling on sports drinks (SDs), energy drinks (EDs), or both was assessed. Chi-square analyses examined differences in counseling based on provider characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for characteristics independently associated with SED counseling. Results. Overall, 34% of health care providers regularly counseled on both SEDs, with 41% regularly counseling on SDs and 55% regularly counseling on EDs. On adjusted modeling regular SED counseling was associated with the female sex (aOR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93]), high fruit/vegetable intake (aOR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.54–2.73]), family/general practitioners (aOR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.41–0.82]) and internists (aOR: 0.37 [95% CI: 0.20–0.70]) versus pediatricians, and group versus individual practices (aOR: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.42–0.84]). Modeling for SD- and ED-specific counseling found similar associations with provider characteristics. Conclusion. The prevalence of regular SED counseling is low overall and varies. Provider education on the significance of SED counseling and consumption is important. PMID:24790611

  13. Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health.

    PubMed

    Black, Ruth E; Williams, Sheila M; Jones, Ianthe E; Goulding, Ailsa

    2002-09-01

    Information concerning the adequacy of bone mineralization in children who customarily avoid drinking cow milk is sparse. The objective was to evaluate dietary calcium intakes, anthropometric measures, and bone health in prepubertal children with a history of long-term milk avoidance. We recruited 50 milk avoiders (30 girls, 20 boys) aged 3-10 y by advertisement. We measured current dietary calcium intakes with a food-frequency questionnaire and body composition and bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared the results with those of 200 milk-drinking control children. The reasons for milk avoidance were intolerance (40%), bad taste (42%), and lifestyle choice (18%). Dietary calcium intakes were low (443 +/- 230 mg Ca/d), and few children consumed substitute calcium-rich drinks or mineral supplements. Although 9 children (18%) were obese, the milk avoiders were shorter (P < 0.01), had smaller skeletons (P < 0.01), had a lower total-body bone mineral content (P < 0.01), and had lower z scores (P < 0.05) for areal bone mineral density at the femoral neck, hip trochanter, lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, and 33% radius than did control children of the same age and sex from the same community. The z scores for volumetric (size-adjusted) bone mineral density (g/cm(3)) were -0.72 +/- 1.17 for the lumbar spine and -0.72 +/- 1.35 for the 33% radius (P < 0.001). Twelve children (24%) had previously broken bones. In growing children, long-term avoidance of cow milk is associated with small stature and poor bone health. This is a major concern that warrants further study.

  14. From "Evil Influence" to Social Facilitator: Representations of Youth Smoking, Drinking, and Citizenship in Canadian Health Textbooks, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sharon Anne

    2008-01-01

    One route to uncovering schooling's goals for an improved citizenry is to track certain subjects of the compulsory curriculum. In this case, health is investigated, and especially its messages on smoking and drinking. First introduced as scientific temperance instruction (in the 1880s), renamed hygiene (from about 1910), then as health (from the…

  15. From "Evil Influence" to Social Facilitator: Representations of Youth Smoking, Drinking, and Citizenship in Canadian Health Textbooks, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sharon Anne

    2008-01-01

    One route to uncovering schooling's goals for an improved citizenry is to track certain subjects of the compulsory curriculum. In this case, health is investigated, and especially its messages on smoking and drinking. First introduced as scientific temperance instruction (in the 1880s), renamed hygiene (from about 1910), then as health (from the…

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: V. BIOMARKER STUDIES - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: V. Biomarker Studies - a Pilot Study

    Michael T. Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Judy S. Mumford, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

  18. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  19. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: V. BIOMARKER STUDIES - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: V. Biomarker Studies - a Pilot Study

    Michael T. Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Judy S. Mumford, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

  20. Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Simate, Geoffrey S; Iyuke, Sunny E; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Heydenrych, Mike; Walubita, Lubinda F

    2012-02-01

    The volume of industrial and domestic wastewater is increasing significantly year by year with the change in the lifestyle based on mass consumption and mass disposal brought about by the dramatic development of economies and industries. Therefore, effective advanced wastewater treatment is required because wastewater contains a variety of constituents such as particles, organic materials, and emulsion depending on the resource. However, residual chemicals that remain during the treatment of wastewaters form a variety of known and unknown by-products through reactions between the chemicals and some pollutants. Chronic exposure to these by-products or residual chemicals through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. For example, residual aluminium salts in treated water may cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). As for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), despite their potential impacts on human health and the environment having been receiving more and more attention in the recent past, existing information on the toxicity of CNTs in drinking water is limited with many open questions. Furthermore, though general topics on the human health impacts of traditional water treatment chemicals have been studied, no comparative analysis has been done. Therefore, a qualitative comparison of the human health effects of both residual CNTs and traditional water treatment chemicals is given in this paper. In addition, it is also important to cover and compare the human health effects of CNTs to those of traditional water treatment chemicals together in one review because they are both used for water treatment and purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Consumption of fruit juices and fruit drinks: impact on the health of children and teenagers, the dentist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Catteau, C; Trentesaux, T; Delfosse, C; Rousset, M-M

    2012-02-01

    The French dietary guidelines published in 2001 recommend daily consumption of 5 portions of fruit or vegetable. Despite this advice, the consumption of fruit in France, especially in the north of France, is low, whereas sale of 100% fruit juices, fruit drinks, and fruit-flavored beverages is increasing. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns on dental caries has received less attention than the impact on childhood obesity. Nevertheless, the cariogenic potential of soft drinks is known. Drinking fruit juices, fruit drinks, or fruit-flavored beverages over a long period of time and continuous sipping could therefore be harmful for the teeth. The aim of this study was to examine the sugar content of such beverages. Four different major supermarkets were visited to select a representative sample of beverages for sale. Fruit juices, nectars, fruit drinks (water and fruit juices) and fruit-flavored waters were included. Lemonades, teas, and drinks containing artificial sweetener were not included. The data were collected in April 2010 by reading nutrition labels. The variables studied were the sugar content (g/100mL), the presence of added sugar, and the percentage of fruit juices. A descriptive analysis of the variables studied was conducted. The mean sugar content of the French population's favorite juices (orange, grapefruit, pineapple, apple, and grape) was compared to the sugar content of a corresponding 100-g portion of fresh fruit. The data were processed using Microsoft Excel. Hundred and eighty-seven different beverages were analyzed: 89 fruit juices, 26 nectars, 51 fruit drinks (sparkling or flat), and 21 fruit-flavored waters. Unlike fruit-flavored waters, nectars and fruit drinks contained fruit juices. Nectars and fruit drinks contained an average of 44.5% (± 10.7%) and 10.5% (± 3.8%) fruit juice, respectively. The sugar content varied from 0 g/100mL to 17.5 g/100mL. The average sugar content was 2.4 (± 2.1) g/100mL, 8.8 (± 2.3) g/100m

  2. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    PubMed

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who together control 34 percent of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the US, Brazil, and China) from 2000-2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kilojoules per 100 milliliters) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the US, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages