Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.
This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments. PMID:20049237
This article describes the fundamental principles of economic assessment of animal health performance in the modem animal production environment. Animal production is a complex system of combined inputs (eg, physical inputs, managerial decision choices) into a production process that produces products valued by society. Perturbations to this system include disease processes and management inefficiencies. Economic valuation of these perturbations must account for the marginal changes in revenues and cost, the time dimensions of occurrence, the inherent risk characteristics of biologic systems, and any opportunity value that exists that allows management to intervene within the process and make economically influencing decisions. It has been recognized that improving animal health can play a major role in achieving efficient and economically rewarding production.
Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.
Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela; Dawydzik, Lech T
The economic analysis of efficiency of investment in health care and health at large by means of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness techniques is the subject of implementation work in a number of countries. Poland's integration with the countries of the European Union justifies the need to understand and to use economic analyses. Unfortunately, these activities encounter many methodological and executive barriers. The investments in workers' health are not only investments in health care and the improvement of working conditions, but also in compensations, including financial ones, resulting from adverse effects of factors influencing the health of working population. The financial reporting system that exists in Poland does not ensure the possibility of full presentation of the aggregated data on the financing of activities for workers' health and diminishing of the adverse effects of factors present in the work environment. The information on the outcome of the investments in workers' health come from different sources, which means that it applies to different groups subjected to the analysis. The problem lies not only in the assessment of profitability of health investments but also in the social problem of the division of the resultant costs and benefits among various branches of the national economy. Therefore, the analyses involving mutual relations between individual sectors that invest in workers' health and those that bear consequences is essential in the terms of economic analyses. The authors present the determinants of economic evaluation in regard to health of working population in Poland.
El-Fadel, M; Massoud, M
The interest in the association between human health and air pollution has grown substantially in recent years. Based on epidemiological studies in several countries, there is conclusive evidence of a link between particulate air pollution and adverse health effects. Considering that particulate matter may be the most serious pollutant in urban areas and that pollution-related illness results in financial and non-financial welfare losses, the main objective of this study is to assess the economic benefits of reducing particulate air pollution in Lebanese urban areas. Accordingly, the extent and value of health benefits due to decreasing levels of particulate in the air are predicted. Health impacts are expressed in both physical and monetary terms for saved statistical lives, and productivity due to different types of morbidity endpoints. Finally, the study concludes with a range of policy options available to mitigate particulate air pollution in urban areas.
Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R
Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses
Bradley, C A; Iskedjian, M; Lanctôt, K L; Mittmann, N; Simone, C; St Pierre, E; Miller, E; Blatman, B; Chabursky, B; Einarson, T R
To assess and compare the quality of economic studies in selected pharmacy, medical, and health economics journals. DICP The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Hospital Pharmacy, New England Journal of Medicine, Medical Care, Journal of the American Medical Association, PharmacoEconomics, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, and Journal of Health Economics using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Search terms included "economic," "cost," and "cost analysis." Reviewers appraised abstracts to identify original research published during 1989-1993 comparing costs and outcomes between drugs, treatments, and/or services. Initially, 123 articles met criteria; 16 were inappropriate, 17 were randomized out, and 90 (73%) were used (30/group). Quality was assessed using a 13-item checklist. Interrater reliability was 0.91 (p < 0.05) for 9 raters, test-retest reliability was 0.94 (p < 0.001). A 2-way ANOVA, with overall quality scores as a dependent variable with journal type and year as independent variables, was significant (F = 2.79, p = 0.002, r2 = 0.34), with no significant interaction (F = 0.71, p = 0.68) or time effect (F = 0.70, p = 0.60). Journal types differed; pharmacy journals scored significantly lower (chi 2 = 53.89, df = 2, p < 0.001). Items rated adequate (i.e., correct or acceptable) increased over time (chi 2 = 21.18, df = 4, p < 0.001). Ethical issues and study perspective most needed improvement. Article quality for all journal types increased over time nonsignificantly; health economics journals scored highest, then medical journals, with pharmacy journals significantly lower (and having the highest standard deviation). We recommend that authors and reviewers pay closer attention to study perspective and ethical implications.
Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald
The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive
Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno
The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173
Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno
The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.
Chubirko, M I; Pichuzhkina, N M; Masaĭlova, L A; Lastochkina, G V
THE THEME: assessment of the influence of socio-economic factors on health and demographic indicators. population of municipalities of the Voronezh region. the justification of the system of measures aimed at stabilizing the medical-demographic situation at the regional level. methods of Health Statistics; questionnaire. the low socio-economic status of the population is set in the territories, depressed at the level of demographic development. The contribution of socio-economic indicators in health and demographic situation has been determined Reliable cause-effect relationships between health and demographic indicators and the level of socio-economic development of the population have been identified.
Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.
Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989
Gray, Ewan; Lorgelly, Paula K
To define the structure and content of health economics teaching in undergraduate medical degrees in the UK, and identify and quantify differences in student knowledge, with a view to informing the health economics curricula. Semi-structured interviews with senior teaching staff in three Medical Schools, a review of course documentation, and an online survey to assess student knowledge. The survey was scored and mean scores were compared across medical schools, year of study, and teaching components, including the professional background of the teachers. There was considerable diversity across the medical schools in terms of the content of the health economics education, and in the way that the learning was structured and delivered. Student knowledge was found to vary across medical schools; the school with the most intensive health economics curricula was found to perform marginally better. Students who were taught by health economists scored higher than those who were taught by other professions. The teaching and learning environment and level of student knowledge of health economics was found to differ considerably across medical schools. The delivery of health economics teaching by specialised health economists would appear to be one possible strategy to improve student knowledge.
There is a burgeoning literature in health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the health policy making level in a number of countries. However, a search of the literature reveals that in Japan, the world's second largest health care market, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest in economic evaluation is that the fee-for-service and strict price regulation that characterises the system of health care financing in Japan is not conducive to this form of analysis. Moreover, the government and many researchers are satisfied that the current organisation of health care has given long life and low infant mortality at low cost. Even if it is accepted that low health care costs and good health prevail in Japan, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population and the development of new medical technologies will place increasing pressure on health care resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Good economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, has an important role to play.
Edwards, Natalie C; Skelly, Andrea C; Ziewacz, John E; Cahill, Kevin; McGirt, Matthew J
Narrative review. To review the common tenets, strengths, and weaknesses of decision modeling for health economic assessment and to review the use of decision modeling in the spine literature to date. For the majority of spinal interventions, well-designed prospective, randomized, pragmatic cost-effectiveness studies that address the specific decision-in-need are lacking. Decision analytic modeling allows for the estimation of cost-effectiveness based on data available to date. Given the rising demands for proven value in spine care, the use of decision analytic modeling is rapidly increasing by clinicians and policy makers. This narrative review discusses the general components of decision analytic models, how decision analytic models are populated and the trade-offs entailed, makes recommendations for how users of spine intervention decision models might go about appraising the models, and presents an overview of published spine economic models. A proper, integrated, clinical, and economic critical appraisal is necessary in the evaluation of the strength of evidence provided by a modeling evaluation. As is the case with clinical research, all options for collecting health economic or value data are not without their limitations and flaws. There is substantial heterogeneity across the 20 spine intervention health economic modeling studies summarized with respect to study design, models used, reporting, and general quality. There is sparse evidence for populating spine intervention models. Results mostly showed that interventions were cost-effective based on $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Spine care providers, as partners with their health economic colleagues, have unique clinical expertise and perspectives that are critical to interpret the strengths and weaknesses of health economic models. Health economic models must be critically appraised for both clinical validity and economic quality before altering health care policy, payment strategies, or
Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.
We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying
Husereau, Don; Marshall, Deborah A; Levy, Adrian R; Peacock, Stuart; Hoch, Jeffrey S
Many jurisdictions delivering health care, including Canada, have developed guidance for conducting economic evaluation, often in the service of larger health technology assessment (HTA) and reimbursement processes. Like any health intervention, personalized medical (PM) interventions have costs and consequences that must be considered by reimbursement authorities with limited resources. However, current approaches to economic evaluation to support decision making have been largely developed from population-based approaches to therapy-that is, evaluating the costs and consequences of single interventions across single populations. This raises the issue as to whether these methods, as they are or more refined, are adequate to address more targeted approaches to therapy, or whether a new paradigm for assessing value in PM is required. We describe specific issues relevant to the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM and assess whether current guidance for economic evaluation is sufficient to support decision making for PM interventions. Issues were identified through literature review and informal interviews with national and international experts (n = 10) in these analyses. This article elaborates on findings and discussion at a workshop held in Ottawa, Canada, in January 2012. Specific issues related to better guiding economic evaluation of personalized medicine interventions include: how study questions are developed, populations are characterized, comparators are defined, effectiveness is evaluated, outcomes are valued and how resources are measured. Diagnostics-based PM also highlights the need for analyses outside of economic evaluation to support decision making. The consensus of this group of experts is that the economic evaluation of diagnostics-based PM may not require a new paradigm. However, greater complexity means that existing approaches and tools may require improvement to undertake these more analyses.
Rutsohn, Phil; Kent, Cal
West Virginia, as is true for the nation as a whole, spends far less on public health interventions than on curative care. In 2008 the United States spent approximately $2.4 trillion on healthcare, of which approximately $72 billion was allocated for public health activities-obviously a very small percentage (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services 2010). In West Virginia the 2006 per capita budget allocation for Local Boards of Health (LBH) for Basic Public Health Services was about $6.91, and total public health funding was between $63 and $91 per capita depending on the definition of public health. At the same time, Medicaid expenditures by the State are approximately $269 per capita with total Medicaid expenditures around $995 per capita. The difference in funding for Medicaid is almost 10 times the amount allocated to public health. The funding differences between curative care and preventive care may not be the result of the public's lack of understanding of the benefits of prevention, but rather its focus on short term rather than long term economic benefits. For a state like West Virginia, in which per capita income is below the national average, Medicaid is good business for the State's economy. Far too often public health funding is viewed as a drain from a state's budget not as an economic contributor to the state's economy. As a result, the funding of LBHs is almost always insufficient. The authors were interested in evaluating the economic impact of Local Boards of Health on West Virginia's economy. Although the authors recognize that the greatest economic benefits of public health are the costs averted through prevention and early detection, they believe that if LBH produce a positive economic multiplier State officials may view public health allocations in a more positive light. To assess the impact of LBH in West Virginia, spending data for each was collected. The direct, indirect, and induced spending
Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola
To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Swinburn, Tracy K.; Hammer, Monica S.; Neitzel, Richard L.
Introduction Environmental noise pollution increases the risk for hearing loss, stress, sleep disruption, annoyance, cardiovascular disease, and has other adverse health impacts. Recent (2013) estimates suggest that over 100 million Americans are exposed to unhealthy levels of noise. Given the pervasive nature and significant health effects of environmental noise pollution, the corresponding economic impacts may be significant. Methods This 2014 economic assessment developed a new approach to estimate the impact of environmental noise on the prevalence and cost of key components of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the US. By placing environmental noise in context with comparable environmental pollutants, this approach can inform public health law, planning and policy. The effects of hypothetical national-scale changes in environmental noise levels on the prevalence and corresponding costs of hypertension and coronary heart disease are estimated, with the caveat that the national-level US noise data our exposure estimates were derived from are >30 years old. Results The analyses suggest that a 5 dB noise reduction scenario would reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 1.4% and coronary heart disease by 1.8%. The annual economic benefit is estimated at $3.9 billion. Conclusions These findings suggest significant economic impacts from environmental noise-related cardiovascular disease. Given these initial findings, noise may deserve increased priority and research as an environmental health hazard. PMID:26024562
Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C
Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Background Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. Methods To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. Results The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. Conclusions The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware
Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man
Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C
Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.
Discusses the relationship of economics to health, health services, and supply and demand of health care. Examines alternative mechanisms by which health resources can be allocated and considers who should make decisions about rationing medical care. (DB)
Discusses the relationship of economics to health, health services, and supply and demand of health care. Examines alternative mechanisms by which health resources can be allocated and considers who should make decisions about rationing medical care. (DB)
Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng
Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.
Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i) Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) gained and ii) increased productivity in US dollars (USD) as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI). Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive. Specifically, the policy
Dunn, James R; Hayes, Michael V; Hulchanski, J David; Hwang, Stephen W; Potvin, Louise
In 2002-2003, a Needs, Gaps and Opportunities Assessment (NGOA) was conducted to investigate relationships between socio-economic dimensions of housing and health. Recent reviews of the literature point to a dearth of research on the socio-economic dimensions of housing and health, despite its potential for promoting health. The NGOA sought to identify research needs and gaps, and future opportunities for research in housing, socio-economic status and health. The methods used included a literature scan, a scan of research capacity, eight regional stakeholder workshops across Canada, and an open-ended e-mail survey of stakeholders. In this paper, we report the findings of the stakeholder consultations. The main finding of the NGOA was that there is a significant dearth of research on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health but enormous potential for conducting high-impact, longitudinal and quasi-experimental research in the area. Of particular interest to stakeholder participants in the NGOA were the economic aspects of housing and health; the impact of housing on health for vulnerable subgroups (e.g., Aboriginal peoples, immigrants, children, seniors); the role of socio-economically and ethnically mixed communities; and the interaction between socio-economic aspects of housing and biophysical hazards in the home. The NGOA demonstrated that there is a substantial audience eager for knowledge on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health and that such knowledge could make an immediate impact on policy decision-making and program operation. Although knowledge gaps are substantial, the NGOA clearly identifies opportunities for high-impact, longitudinal and quasi-experimental research. Recently signed federal-provincial funding agreements for housing make the findings of the NGOA timely. Moreover, the NGOA results demonstrate how research on housing as a socio-economic determinant of health could be a strategy for improving our understanding of the
Abellán Perpiñán, José María; Sánchez Martínez, Fernando Ignacio; Martínez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo
The aim of this paper is to promote the efficiency in the process of incorporating new health technologies, as well as to guide their implementation by physicians. An iterative method has been used to draw a checklist based on parsimony and measurability criteria. Authors made a first version of the checklist on the basis of theoretical literature and economic evaluation guidelines. This preliminary version was discussed and its validity was tested in two focus groups by doctors and managers of the regional public health systems of Murcia and Andalusia. As a result of this iterative process, we present a 12 criteria checklist in which a score is assigned to everyone of its items. The overall score a study receives (with a maximum of 100 points) is confronting to a set of cost per QALY thresholds, in order to assess if the technology been evaluated is cost-effective or not. The thresholds was selected from a previous study. We present a checklist and user guide which includes a cost per QALY thresholds matrix. This is an original proposal that has not been previously published in the Spanish literature. Our instrument needs some future improvements in terms of its validation and its spread to other types of cost-effectiveness analysis, apart from those that use QALYs. Nevertheless, our proposal may be useful to provide guidance on the usage and financing of new health technologies in Spain.
Thomas, Steve; Keegan, Conor; Barry, Sarah; Layte, Richard; Jowett, Matt; Normand, Charles
The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess
Background The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. Methods The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. Results In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. Conclusions The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory
McCabe, C J; Akehurst, R L
Economic evaluations of health-care technologies are playing an increasingly central role in determining which therapies are available to clinicians in the treatment of a whole range of conditions. In rheumatology, a large body of work has already been done on the cost effectiveness of alternative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and much of the current work on disease modifying therapies incorporates economic evaluations. This chapter describes the main techniques of economic evaluation and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each. Two published economic evaluations are discussed in order to highlight what economic evaluations can offer to the care of people with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as the current limitations of economic evaluation. The objective of this chapter is to equip readers with a critical understanding of economic evaluation that can be used in considering the increasing volume of health economic data that they encounter in their clinical work.
Toumi, Mondher; Motrunich, Anastasiia; Millier, Aurélie; Rémuzat, Cécile; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno; Aballéa, Samuel
Background: Despite the guidelines for Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (CEESP) submission having been available for nearly six years, the dossiers submitted continue to deviate from them, potentially impacting product prices. Objective: to review the reports published by CEESP, analyse deviations from the guidelines, and discuss their implications for the pricing and reimbursement process. Study design: CEESP reports published until January 2017 were reviewed, and deviations from the guidelines were extracted. The frequency of deviations was described by type of methodological concern (minor, important or major). Results: In 19 reports, we identified 243 methodological concerns, most often concerning modelling, measurement and valuation of health states and results presentation and sensitivity analyses; nearly 63% were minor, 33% were important and 4.5% were major. All reports included minor methodological concerns, and 17 (89%) included at least one important and/or major methodological concern. Global major methodological concerns completely invalidated the analysis in seven dossiers (37%). Conclusion: The CEESP submission dossiers fail to adhere to the guidelines, potentially invalidating the health economics analysis and resulting in pricing negotiations. As these negotiations tend to be unfavourable for the manufacturer, the industry should strive to improve the quality of the analyses submitted to CEESP.
-metric exceeds 50,000 people in 10 study areas. On a statewide basis, the population metric is 2 million people (18% of 11 million equivalent-people). The proposed assessment approach is independent of scale, allows for consistent comparison across regions, and provides a foundation for subsequent economic or health assessments.
de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske
Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mannion, R; Small, N
Postmodernism and health economics are both concerned with questions about choices and values, risk and uncertainty. Postmodernists seek to respond to such questions in the context of a world of uncoordinated and often contradictory chances, a world devoid of clear-cut standards. Health economics seeks to respond using the constructs of modernity, including the application of reason to generate better order. In this article we present two sorts of voice. First we introduce postmodernism and those seeking to contribute to economics from a postmodern perspective. Second, we consider critics of a prevalent neo-classicism within health economics both from outside that paradigm and from those more closely associated with it. It is increasingly evident that (health) economics, as presently constituted, is failing both in its descriptive powers and its prescriptive possibilities. Postmodernism offers not just an alternative theoretical approach but the possibility of both expanding the scope of health economics and grounding it more appropriately in the everyday experience of those engaging with health systems.
Pena, P H; Arredondo, A; Ortiz, C; Rosenthal, G
Health economics is a specialized field of economic science that applies the economic perspective to the fields of health, the medical-industrial complex and health services. A brief review of the evolution of this speciality by subject, as well as the level achieved assessed in terms of generation, diffusion, reproduction and application of its specialized knowledge, is presented.
Ferrari, Giulia; Abramsky, Tanya; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James; Morison, Linda; Phetla, Godfrey; Porter, John; Pronyk, Paul
Abstract Objective To explore whether adding a gender and HIV training programme to microfinance initiatives can lead to health and social benefits beyond those achieved by microfinance alone. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from three randomly selected matched clusters in rural South Africa: (i) four villages with 2-year exposure to the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE), a combined microfinance–health training intervention; (ii) four villages with 2-year exposure to microfinance services alone; and (iii) four control villages not targeted by any intervention. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) employing village-level summaries compared associations between groups in relation to indicators of economic well-being, empowerment, intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk behaviour. The magnitude and consistency of aRRs allowed for an estimate of incremental effects. Findings A total of 1409 participants were enrolled, all female, with a median age of 45. After 2 years, both the microfinance-only group and the IMAGE group showed economic improvements relative to the control group. However, only the IMAGE group demonstrated consistent associations across all domains with regard to women’s empowerment, intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviour. Conclusion The addition of a training component to group-based microfinance programmes may be critical for achieving broader health benefits. Donor agencies should encourage intersectoral partnerships that can foster synergy and broaden the health and social effects of economic interventions such as microfinance. PMID:20072767
Koulouri, Agoritsa; Roupa, Zoe; Sarafis, Pavlos; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos
The health level of the population and the way people perceive it has been associated with their physical and mental health, as well as with their social and occupational characteristics. The comparative assessment of mental and health level in shipbuilding industry workers and general population and its relationship to social and economic parameters. A group of one hundred men working in the shipbuilding industry aged 51.8±8.2 years old and a control group of one hundred men of the general population aged 51.1±6.4 were studied. All participants completed the General Health Questionnaire - 28 and Fagerstrom test and a form with demographic, occupational and economic status characteristics. The statistical software SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis. Twenty-six percent of the general population and 47% of men working in the shipbuilding industry assessed their health as moderate/poor. Higher median values of anxiety and depressive symptomatology were observed in individuals characterizing their health as moderate/poor (p<0.001), their work as physically too demanding and in individuals with high dependency on smoking (p<0.05). With regard to the parameter of physical complaints, people working in the shipbuilding industry, non-active employees and those with comorbidities were found more burdened in relation to the general population (p<0.05). Depressive disorders were more common in those stating that their economic situation had been significantly deteriorated and in individuals with chronic diseases, which also showed reduced social functioning (p<0.05). Health level and its individual dimensions are both associated with health self-assessment and occupational and economic status. The coexistence of chronic diseases and smoking dependence affects emotion and social functioning of individuals.
Roemer, M I
The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) devoted their 1979 conference to the subject of economics and health policy. The discussions were held in 4 main sessions: 1) economic context of health problems and services; 2) economic aspects of health service manpower and technology; 3) financial implications of health services organization; and, 4) conclusions on requirements for future research and policy. Summaries stressed the importance of primary care and the need for prudent use of advanced technologies to control rising health costs. In spite of great differences between free market and centrally planned economies, the trend is toward a convergence of all health care systems. Agreement was reached on the fundamental importance of socioeconomic factors in determining health status; need to eliminate waste and improve cost-effectiveness, including more downward delegation of tasks (paramedical personnel and midwives); and the principle of equal distribution of services in populations. Research is needed into the effects of financing and remunerations in developing countries, cost-effectiveness of health care procedures, better matching of skills to tasks, socioeconomics developments in improving health.
Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong
Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.
Hicks, K.; Steele, W.
The SEASAT program will provide scientific and economic benefits from global remote sensing of the ocean's dynamic and physical characteristics. The program as presently envisioned consists of: (1) SEASAT A; (2) SEASAT B; and (3) Operational SEASAT. This economic assessment was to identify, rationalize, quantify and validate the economic benefits evolving from SEASAT. These benefits will arise from improvements in the operating efficiency of systems that interface with the ocean. SEASAT data will be combined with data from other ocean and atmospheric sampling systems and then processed through analytical models of the interaction between oceans and atmosphere to yield accurate global measurements and global long range forecasts of ocean conditions and weather.
Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Crosslin, David R.; Johnson, Frederick S.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.
Health information professionals recognize the need to demonstrate that the benefits of health information technological (HIT) interventions outweigh their costs. However, such cost-benefit analyses are rarely conducted for HIT interventions, due in part to the lack of a standard methodology. In this study, we describe how the U.S. Public Health Service’s guidelines for health economic analyses can be used to evaluate HIT interventions. This framework is described in the context of an economic analysis we are conducting for three HIT interventions to be implemented in a community-based health network caring for Medicaid beneficiaries in Durham County, North Carolina. At present, the 17,779 patients in our study cost Medicaid more than $5 million per month. In sensitivity analyses, we demonstrate that if our information intervention redirects just 10% of low-severity emergency room encounters to outpatient encounters, it will result in $12,523 of monthly savings to the local health system. PMID:16779034
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J C; Uauy, Ricardo D
Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the urgent need to collect more country
Gilmore, E.; Calvin, K. V.; Puett, R.; Sapkota, A.; Schwarber, A.
Climate change is projected to increase risks to human health. One pathway that may be particularly difficult to manage is adverse human health impacts (e.g. premature mortality and morbidity) from increases in mean temperatures and changing patterns of temperature extremes. Modeling how these health risks evolve over decadal time-scales is challenging as the severity of the impacts depends on changes in climate as well as socioeconomic conditions. Here, we show estimates of health damages as well as both direct and indirect economic damages that span climate and socioeconomic dimensions for each US state to 2050. We achieve this objective by extending the integrated assessment model (IAM), Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA). First, we quantify the change in premature mortality. We identify a range of exposure-response relationships for temperature related mortality through a critical review of the literature. We then implement these relationships in the GCAM by coupling them with projections of future temperature patterns and population estimates. Second, we monetize the effect of these adverse health effects, including both direct and indirect economic costs through labor force participation and productivity along a range of possible economic pathways. Finally, we evaluate how uncertainty in the parameters and assumptions affects the range of possible estimates. We conclude that the model is sensitive to assumptions regarding exposure-response relationship and population growth. The economic damages, however, are driven by the estimates of income and GDP growth as well as the potential for adaptation measures, namely the use and effectiveness of air conditioning.
This article intends to understand how health risk is actually valued and managed in public health programs through the case study of the cancer plan in France. A literature review has been carried out with a particular focus on major health risk characteristics from a multidisciplinary perspective. To assess the economic value of the cancer plan in France, the study uses secondary data on the costs of cancer that have been collected and published by the National Institute for Cancer for 2004. A model is designed to evaluate health risk components that can be classified into four main categories relating the level at which risk is analyzed (individual or population) to the main type of intervention needed (preventive or curative) to cope with it. The findings show that actions and interventions dealing with prevention, education, and research represent 3.54% of the total costs of the cancer plan in France while 96.46% relates to health care and economic losses. The proposed classification of health risk components gives more insight and understanding of risks associated with diseases and illness and proposes an operational representation of actions and costs related to the risks. The methodology proposed might be of significant interest to those involved in making health-care financing decisions.
Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Papadopoulos, Angelos A; Niakas, Dimitris
The impact of socioeconomic status on health has been extensively studied and studies have shown that low socio-economic status is related to lower values of various health and quality-of-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of demographic and socio-economic factors on health- related quality of life (HRQoL). A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2003 using a representative sample of a Greek general population (n = 1007, 18+ years old), living in Athens area. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the influence of socio-demographic and economic variables on HRQoL, measured by eight scales of the SF-36. Interaction effects between socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic variables were also performed. Females and elderly people were associated with impaired HRQoL in all SF-36 scales. Disadvantaged SES i. e. primary education and low total household income was related to important decline in HRQoL and a similar relation was identified among men and women. Only the interaction effects between age and SES was statistically significant for some SF-36 scales. Multiple regression analyses produced models explaining significant portions of the variance in SF-36 scales, especially physical functioning. The analysis presented here gives evidence of a relationship existing between SES and HRQoL similar to what has been found elsewhere. In order to protect people from the damaging effects of poverty in health it is important to formulate health promotion educational programs or to direct policies to empower the disposable income etc. Helping people in disadvantaged SES to achieve the good health that people in more advantaged SES attained would help to prevent the widening of health inequalities.
Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik
Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C
There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.
Saint-Pierre, Louise; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Simos, Jean
Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a practice that has grown in popularity worldwide, since the end of the 1990s. Originally used in the framework of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs), HIA has become enriched through the addition of knowledge and principles based on the social determinants of health and the tackling of health inequalities, and has been brought to bear on the policy-planning process at all levels of government. HIA has three overlapping objectives: to assess the potential effects of a policy on health, to encourage citizen and stakeholder participation in the impact analysis process, and to inform the decision-making process. This article briefly defines HIA; defines its standardized process in successive steps, which allows users to give structure to their actions and to establish the steps to be followed (detection, framing, analysis, recommendations and evaluation); and offers three examples of HIA in three different situations: the Geneva canton of Switzerland; Rennes, France; and in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. Together, these illustrations show that HIA is a promising strategy to influence local decisions and to integrate health into projects and policies at the local and regional levels.
Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization). PMID:22978519
Birnbaum, Dana Sophie; Braun, Sebastian
Evaluation represents a substantial component of the concept of Disease Management Programmes. This and the fact that the implementation of Disease Management Programmes constitutes a major change in the German healthcare system require that the criteria established by the German Federal Social Insurance Authority (Bundesversicherungsamt) be carefully reviewed. The present paper focuses on the evaluation method and the economic data. The pre-/-post study design used in the evaluation is known to be vulnerable to threats to internal validity. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether these threats to internal validity which have been known theoretically are confirmed by the results of the final reports. A review of the final reports of health insurance companies like the AOK, Barmer and a group of the BKK in Westfalen-Lippe shows that this question can be answered in the affirmative. The pre-/-post design without control groups is unable to recognize the failure or success of the Disease Management concept. The reasons include a high drop-out rate as well as the lack of consideration of the characteristics of chronic disease. Hence the evaluation method has failed to prove the quality of Disease Management Programmes in Germany. This is why consistent further development is needed.
Babigumira, Joseph B; Morgan, Ian; Levin, Ann
Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However, in order for research to support the
Background Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health economic evaluations of rubella and CRS to identify gaps in the evidence base and suggest possible areas of future research to support the planned global expansion of rubella vaccination and efforts towards potential rubella elimination and eradication. Methods We performed a systematic search of on-line databases and identified articles published between 1970 and 2012 on costs of rubella and CRS treatment and the costs, cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit of rubella vaccination. We reviewed the studies and categorized them by the income level of the countries in which they were performed, study design, and research question answered. We analyzed their methodology, data sources, and other details. We used these data to identify gaps in the evidence and to suggest possible future areas of scientific study. Results We identified 27 studies: 11 cost analyses, 11 cost-benefit analyses, 4 cost-effectiveness analyses, and 1 cost-utility analysis. Of these, 20 studies were conducted in high-income countries, 5 in upper-middle income countries and two in lower-middle income countries. We did not find any studies conducted in low-income countries. CRS was estimated to cost (in 2012 US$) between $4,200 and $57,000 per case annually in middle-income countries and up to $140,000 over a lifetime in high-income countries. Rubella vaccination programs, including the vaccination of health workers, children, and women had favorable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost-benefit ratios in high- and middle-income countries. Conclusions Treatment of CRS is costly and rubella vaccination programs are highly cost-effective. However
The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.
McLaughlin, Nancy; Ong, Michael K; Tabbush, Victor; Hagigi, Farhad; Martin, Neil A
Economic evaluations provide a decision-making framework in which outcomes (benefits) and costs are assessed for various alternative options. Although the interest in complete and partial economic evaluations has increased over the past 2 decades, the quality of studies has been marginal due to methodological challenges or incomplete cost determination. This paper provides an overview of the main types of complete and partial economic evaluations, reviews key methodological elements to be considered for any economic evaluation, and reviews concepts of cost determination. The goal is to provide the clinician neurosurgeon with the knowledge and tools needed to appraise published economic evaluations and to direct high-quality health economic evaluations.
Sadowski, D; Champion, M; Goeree, R; Leddin, D; Otten, N; Morris, G; Beck, I; Faloon, T; Fedorak, R N
The present study provides an overview of the current state of health economics studies of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It indicates the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies, and the state of health economics analysis in general as they apply to GERD. Specifically, this study adopts a pharmacoeconomic perspective, which is a subsection of health economics analytical methods, to provide a comparative analysis of alternative courses of action based on cost and consequence. The pharmacoeconomic outlook is most effective when it considers a comprehensive societal perspective, with special consideration given to other relevant viewpoints, such as the payer, the primary provider and, most important, the patient. Pharmacoeconomics provides several specific analytical techniques for GERD-related health economics analysis. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology consensus conference on GERD in 1996 thought that a cost effective analysis was the most appropriate technique to assess the pharmacoeconomics of GERD. Six previous studies on GERD health economics have been performed comparing omeprazole with H2 receptor antagonists. These studies vary in cost data collected and in analytical techniques. In general, the existing outcome measurements of these previous health economics studies are not ideal. Namely, they combine various GERD grades, use randomized controls, are endoscopically based, assess pharmaceutical therapy only and are short term. More appropriate health economic trials in GERD, which focus on GERD management strategies and therapeutic treatment of GERD, need to be designed and conducted. These economic assessments, however, should not replace detailed thinking, careful observation, good judgement and common sense.
Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).
Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Lázaro y de Mercado, Pablo
An economic analysis was performed in Spain to evaluate the efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of palivizumab in preventing severe RSV infection in premature infants with GA 32-35 and two or more risk factors (RF). The design was a decision tree model using data from the scientific literature and the FLIP I and FLIP II studies IRIS Study Group. The main effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained from both the National Health System (NHS) and societal perspectives. Prophylaxis with palivizumab was found to produce an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 13,849euro/QALY from the NHS perspective, and 4,605euro/QALY from the societal perspective. Palivizumab is a cost-effective therapy as prophylaxis against RSV in infants with GA 32-35 and two or more RF. Its use is efficient from the NHS perspective, since the cost of a QALY, even in the least favourable scenarios, is lower than the threshold of 30,000euro/QALY considered socially acceptable in Europe.
Vemer, P; Corro Ramos, I; van Voorn, G A K; Al, M J; Feenstra, T L
A trade-off exists between building confidence in health-economic (HE) decision models and the use of scarce resources. We aimed to create a practical tool providing model users with a structured view into the validation status of HE decision models, to address this trade-off. A Delphi panel was organized, and was completed by a workshop during an international conference. The proposed tool was constructed iteratively based on comments from, and the discussion amongst, panellists. During the Delphi process, comments were solicited on the importance and feasibility of possible validation techniques for modellers, their relevance for decision makers, and the overall structure and formulation in the tool. The panel consisted of 47 experts in HE modelling and HE decision making from various professional and international backgrounds. In addition, 50 discussants actively engaged in the discussion at the conference workshop and returned 19 questionnaires with additional comments. The final version consists of 13 items covering all relevant aspects of HE decision models: the conceptual model, the input data, the implemented software program, and the model outcomes. Assessment of the Validation Status of Health-Economic decision models (AdViSHE) is a validation-assessment tool in which model developers report in a systematic way both on validation efforts performed and on their outcomes. Subsequently, model users can establish whether confidence in the model is justified or whether additional validation efforts should be undertaken. In this way, AdViSHE enhances transparency of the validation status of HE models and supports efficient model validation.
Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert
Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…
Taking into account the information needed to implement the reform process of the health sector, we present the results of an analysis of costs and the financial consequences of the epidemiological change of four tracer diseases in Mexico, two chronic (diabetes and hypertension) and two infectious diseases (pneumonias and diarrheas). The hospital cost-case management of diabetes expected for 1998 represents the same amount of hospital and ambulatory case management of diarrheas and pneumonias for the same year. The internal competition for resource allocations that is expected, among other factors, is one of the results that permits the argument that changes in the epidemiological profile generate relevant financial consequences in the planning and implementing of structural reforms of the health systems, particularly with regards to the patterns of resource allocation for specific health programs.
Smith, Patricia K; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Loucky, James
Immigration from developing countries to the US generally increases access to health care and clean water, but it also introduces some unhealthy lifestyle patterns, such as diets dense in energy and little regular physical activity. We present a transdisciplinary model of child health and examine the impact of immigration on the physical growth and health of Maya children in Guatemala and the US. Maya-American children are much taller and have longer legs, on average, than their counterparts in Guatemala. This suggests that immigration to the US improves their health. However, the Maya-American children also are much heavier than both Guatemalan Maya and White American children, and have high rates of overweight and obesity. Quantile regression analysis indicates that Maya are shorter except in the upper tail of the stature distribution, and have higher Body Mass Index (BMI) in the tails, but not in the middle of the BMI distribution. Leisure time spent in front of a television or computer monitor tends to raise BMI in the middle and lower tail of the distribution, but not in the upper tail.
Woolderink, M; Lynch, F L; van Asselt, A D I; Beecham, J; Evers, S M A A; Paulus, A T G; van Schayck, C P
Economic evaluations are increasingly used in decision-making. Accurate measurement of service use is critical to economic evaluation. This qualitative study, based on expert interviews, aims to identify best approaches to service use measurement for child mental health conditions, and to identify problems in current methods. Results suggest considerable agreement on strengths (e.g., availability of accurate instruments to measure service use) and weaknesses, (e.g., lack of unit prices for services outside the health sector) or alternative approaches to service use measurement. Experts also identified some unresolved problems, for example the lack of uniform definitions for some mental health services.
Johnson, Julie M.
An assessment of the needs of the economically disadvantaged measured the importance of specific home economics content for high school students. Mailed questionnaires were returned by 470 parents of economically and noneconomically disadvantaged students and representatives from the Nebraska Department of Social Services. The 136 concepts used in…
Carlos, Fernando; Gómez, Jorge Alberto; Anaya, Pablo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has shifted from high to intermediate endemicity in Mexico, which may increase the risk of clinically significant HAV infections in older children, adolescents and adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of single-dose or 2-dose universal infant HAV vaccination strategy in Mexico, compared with no vaccination. A previously published dynamic model estimated the expected number of HAV cases with each strategy, and a decision model was used to estimate the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) expected with each strategy. The time horizon was 25 years (2012-2036) and the base case analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Mexican public health system. Costs and QALYs after the first year were discounted at 5% annually. Input data were taken from national databases and published sources where available. The single-dose HAV vaccination strategy had an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of Mexican peso (MXN) 2,270 per QALY gained, compared with no vaccination. The two-dose strategy had an ICUR of MXN 14,961/QALY compared with no vaccination, and an ICUR of MXN 78,280/QALY compared with the single-dose strategy. The estimated ICURs were below the threshold of 1 x Mexican gross domestic product per capita. When indirect costs were included (societal perspective), the single-dose HAV vaccination strategy would be expected to improve health outcomes and to be cost-saving. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against HAV would be cost-effective in Mexico using either a single-dose or a 2-dose vaccination strategy. GSK study identifier: HO-12-12877.
Carlos, Fernando; Gómez, Jorge Alberto; Anaya, Pablo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has shifted from high to intermediate endemicity in Mexico, which may increase the risk of clinically significant HAV infections in older children, adolescents and adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of single-dose or 2-dose universal infant HAV vaccination strategy in Mexico, compared with no vaccination. A previously published dynamic model estimated the expected number of HAV cases with each strategy, and a decision model was used to estimate the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) expected with each strategy. The time horizon was 25 years (2012–2036) and the base case analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Mexican public health system. Costs and QALYs after the first year were discounted at 5% annually. Input data were taken from national databases and published sources where available. The single-dose HAV vaccination strategy had an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of Mexican peso (MXN) 2,270 per QALY gained, compared with no vaccination. The two-dose strategy had an ICUR of MXN 14,961/QALY compared with no vaccination, and an ICUR of MXN 78,280/QALY compared with the single-dose strategy. The estimated ICURs were below the threshold of 1 x Mexican gross domestic product per capita. When indirect costs were included (societal perspective), the single-dose HAV vaccination strategy would be expected to improve health outcomes and to be cost-saving. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against HAV would be cost-effective in Mexico using either a single-dose or a 2-dose vaccination strategy. GSK study identifier: HO-12-12877. PMID:26503702
Takura, Tomoyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki; Kyo, Syunei
We arranged the main problem and the background factor of the transplantation from a viewpoint of health economics. As a result, we guessed that the people's recognition to public value of the transplantation system was low. And it was one of the fundamental factors to disturb the transplantation. In addition, we researched the explanation method and the case report about a health economics value of transplantation. According to the review, health economics value of transplantation should be accounted by cost-effectiveness (performance). Our country have to promote positively the transplantation, because the cost-effectiveness (USA$/QALY and USA$/DALY) of the transplantation is high.
Manns, Braden J
The pressure for health care systems to provide more resource intensive health care and newer, more costly, therapies is significant, despite limited health care budgets. As such, demonstration that a new therapy is effective is no longer sufficient to ensure that it is funded within publicly funded health care systems. The impact of a therapy on health care costs is also an important consideration for decision-makers who must allocate scarce resources. The clinical benefits and costs of a new therapy can be estimated simultaneously using economic evaluation, the strengths and limitations of which are discussed herein. In addition, this chapter includes discussion of the important economic outcomes that can be collected within a clinical trial (alongside the clinical outcome data) enabling consideration of the impact of the therapy on overall resource use, thus enabling performance of an economic evaluation, if the therapy is shown to be effective.
Zechmeister-Koss, Ingrid; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Zauner, Günther
An increasing number of evidence sources are relevant for populating decision analytic models. What is needed is detailed methodological advice on which type of data is to be used for what type of model parameter. We aim to identify standards in health technology assessment manuals and economic (modeling) guidelines on appropriate evidence sources and on the role different types of data play within a model. Documents were identified via a call among members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and by hand search. We included documents from Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand as well as transnational guidelines written in English or German. We systematically summarized in a narrative manner information on appropriate evidence sources for model parameters, their advantages and limitations, data identification methods, and data quality issues. A large variety of evidence sources for populating models are mentioned in the 28 documents included. They comprise research- and non-research-based sources. Valid and less appropriate sources are identified for informing different types of model parameters, such as clinical effect size, natural history of disease, resource use, unit costs, and health state utility values. Guidelines do not provide structured and detailed advice on this issue. The article does not include information from guidelines in languages other than English or German, and the information is not tailored to specific modeling techniques. The usability of guidelines and manuals for modeling could be improved by addressing the issue of evidence sources in a more structured and comprehensive format.
Butts, Hugh F.
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171
Rubinstein, Adolfo; Belizán, María; Discacciati, Vilda
After 4 years of deepening recession, Argentina's economy plummeted after default in 2002. This crisis critically affected health expenditures and triggered acute rationing. Our objective was to explore health decision-makers' knowledge and attitudes about economic evaluations (EE) and whether health technology assessment (HTA) were increasingly used for decision making. A qualitative design based on semistructured interviews and focus groups was used to explore how decision makers belonging to different health sectors implement resource allocation decisions. Informants were mostly unaware of EE. The most important criteria mentioned to adopt a treatment were evidence of effectiveness, social/stakeholder demand, or resource availability. Despite general positive attitudes about EE, knowledge was rather limited. Although cost considerations were widely accepted by purchasers and managers, clinicians argued about these issues as interfering with the doctor-patient relationship. Other important perceived barriers to HTA use were lack of confidence in the transferability of studies conducted in developed countries and institutional fragmentation of the Argentine healthcare system. The new macroeconomic context was cited as a justification of implicit rationing measures. Although explicit priority setting was implemented by many purchasers and managers, HTA was not used to improve technical and/or allocative efficiency. The crisis seems to be a strong incentive to extend the use of HTA in Argentina, provided decision makers are aware as well as involved in the generation of local studies.
Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Ng, Edwin; Benach, Joan; Chung, Haejoo
Building on previous multilevel studies in social epidemiology, this cross-sectional study examines, simultaneously, the contextual effects of workplace exploitation and area-of-residence economic inequality on social inequalities in health among low-income nursing assistants. A total of 868 nursing assistants recruited from 55 nursing homes in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia were surveyed between 1999 and 2001. Using a cross-classified multilevel design, the authors tested the effects of area-of-residence (income inequality and racial segregation), workplace (type of nursing home ownership and managerial pressure), and individual-level (age, gender, race/ethnicity, health insurance, length of employment, social support, type of nursing unit, preexisting psychopathology, physical health, education, and income) variables on health (self-reported health and activity limitations) and behavioral outcomes (alcohol use and caffeine consumption). Findings reveal that overall health was associated with both workplace exploitation and area-of-residence income inequality; area of residence was associated with activity limitations and binge drinking; and workplace exploitation was associated with caffeine consumption. This study explicitly accounts for the multiple contextual structure and effects of economic inequality on health. More work is necessary to replicate the current findings and establish robust conclusions on workplace and area of residence that might help inform interventions.
Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi
As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.
Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu
Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM2.5 and surface O3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
The 2010 National Health Service Constitution for England specified rights and responsibilities, including health economic evaluation for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Joint Committee on Vaccinations and Immunisations. The National Screening Committee and the Health Protection Agency also provide advice to the Government based on health economic evaluation. Each agency largely follows the methods specified by NICE. To distinguish the methods from neoclassical economics they have been termed "extra-welfarist". Key differences include measurement and valuation of both benefits (QALYs) and costs (healthcare related). Policy on discounting has also changed over time and by agency. The debate over having NICE's methods align more closely with neoclassical economics has been prominent in the ongoing development of "value based pricing". The political unacceptability of some decisions has led to special funding for technologies not recommended by NICE. These include the 2002 Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme and the 2010 Cancer Drugs Fund as well as special arrangements for technologies linked to the end of life and for innovation. Since 2009 Patient Access Schemes have made price reductions possible which sometimes enables drugs to meet NICE's cost-effectiveness thresholds. As a result, the National Health Service in England has denied few technologies on grounds of cost-effectiveness.
The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.
Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel
In a time of economic recession health technology assessment is an established aid in decision making in many countries in order to identify cost-containment policy options. Moreover, as the volume, complexity, and cost of new medical technology increases, the need for evaluating benefits, risks and costs becomes increasingly important. In recent years there has been a proliferation of health technology assessment initiatives internationally, aimed in introducing rationality in the decision-making process, informing reimbursement, providing clinical guidance on the use of medical technologies across the world in an evidence-based decision-making environment and in pricing decisions.
The economic aspects of the health telematics must be considered from two points of view. The administrative applications are suitable as start-applications, because their data structures and processes are well known, and the calculation of the individual monetary effects have a solid empirical basis. However, only the medical applications will exhaust the real potential of health telematics and only these applications will justify the political and financial effort involved.
Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun
Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.
Baker, Rachel; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell
The recognition that health economists need to understand the meaning of data if they are to adequately understand research findings which challenge conventional economic theory has led to the growth of qualitative modes of enquiry in health economics. The use of qualitative methods of exploration and description alongside quantitative techniques gives rise to a number of epistemological, ontological and methodological challenges: difficulties in accounting for subjectivity in choices, the need for rigour and transparency in method, and problems of disciplinary acceptability to health economists. Q methodology is introduced as a means of overcoming some of these challenges. We argue that Q offers a means of exploring subjectivity, beliefs and values while retaining the transparency, rigour and mathematical underpinnings of quantitative techniques. The various stages of Q methodological enquiry are outlined alongside potential areas of application in health economics, before discussing the strengths and limitations of the approach. We conclude that Q methodology is a useful addition to economists' methodological armoury and one that merits further consideration and evaluation in the study of health services.
Satpathy, S K; Bansal, R D
Awareness of the economic manifestation of health and diseases and the limited resources allocated to health care services has brought to the focus a new discipline - health economics. Cost accounting, cost benefit, cost effectiveness methods etc. are increasingly becoming an integral part of the health management and evaluation of health programmes. Various concepts and problems relating to health economics are discussed in the present paper. More efforts should be made to conduct health economic studies in hospitals and health centres by which the process of standardisation of the concepts, would be easier. Health economics should also find its due place in the medical curriculum.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; van der Beek, Eline M.; Garssen, Johan; Nuijten, Mark J. C.; Uauy, Ricardo D.
Background: Despite the interest in the impact of overweight and obesity on public health, little is known about the social and economic impact of being born large for gestational age or macrosomic. Both conditions are related to maternal obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated with increased morbidity for mother and child in the perinatal period. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy, pre- pregnancy maternal obesity and/or excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy are associated with intermittent periods of fetal exposure to hyperglycemia and subsequent hyperinsulinemia, leading to increased birth weight (e.g., macrosomia), body adiposity, and glycogen storage in the liver. Macrosomia is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus later in life. Objective: Provide insight in the short-term health-economic impact of maternal overweight, GDM, and related macrosomia. To this end, a health economic framework was designed. This pilot study also aims to encourage further health technology assessments, based on country- and population-specific data. Results: The estimation of the direct health-economic burden of maternal overweight, GDM and related macrosomia indicates that associated healthcare expenditures are substantial. The calculation of a budget impact of GDM, based on a conservative approach of our model, using USA costing data, indicates an annual cost of more than $1,8 billion without taking into account long-term consequences. Conclusion: Although overweight and obesity are a recognized concern worldwide, less attention has been given to the health economic consequences of these conditions in women of child-bearing age and their offspring. The presented outcomes underline the need for preventive management strategies and public health interventions on life style, diet and physical activity. Also, the predisposition in people of Asian ethnicity to develop diabetes emphasizes the
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) is a European Commission led policy initiative to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe. For monitoring the health and economic impact of the social and technological innovations carried out by more than 500 stakeholder's groups ('commitments') participating in the EIP on AHA, a generic and flexible web-based monitoring and assessment tool is currently being developed. Aim This paper describes the approach for developing and implementing this web-based tool, its main characteristics and capability to provide specific outcomes that are of value to the developers of an intervention, as well as a series of case studies planned before wider rollout. Methods The tool builds up from a variety of surrogate endpoints commonly used across the diverse set of EIP on AHA commitments in order to estimate health and economic outcomes in terms of incremental changes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as health and social care utilisation. A highly adaptable Markov model with initially three mutually exclusive health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death') provides the basis for the tool which draws from an extensive database of epidemiological, economic and effectiveness data; and also allows further customisation through remote data entry enabling more accurate and context specific estimation of intervention impact. Both probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic scenario analysis allow assessing the impact of parameter uncertainty on intervention outcomes. A set of case studies, ranging from the pre-market assessment of early healthcare technologies to the retrospective analysis of established care pathways, will be carried out before public rollout, which is envisaged end 2015. Conclusion Monitoring the activities carried out within the EIP on AHA requires an approach that is both flexible and consistent in the way health and
Boehler, Christian E H; de Graaf, Gimon; Steuten, Lotte; Yang, Yaling; Abadie, Fabienne
The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) is a European Commission led policy initiative to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe. For monitoring the health and economic impact of the social and technological innovations carried out by more than 500 stakeholder's groups ('commitments') participating in the EIP on AHA, a generic and flexible web-based monitoring and assessment tool is currently being developed. This paper describes the approach for developing and implementing this web-based tool, its main characteristics and capability to provide specific outcomes that are of value to the developers of an intervention, as well as a series of case studies planned before wider rollout. The tool builds up from a variety of surrogate endpoints commonly used across the diverse set of EIP on AHA commitments in order to estimate health and economic outcomes in terms of incremental changes in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) as well as health and social care utilisation. A highly adaptable Markov model with initially three mutually exclusive health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death') provides the basis for the tool which draws from an extensive database of epidemiological, economic and effectiveness data; and also allows further customisation through remote data entry enabling more accurate and context specific estimation of intervention impact. Both probabilistic sensitivity analysis and deterministic scenario analysis allow assessing the impact of parameter uncertainty on intervention outcomes. A set of case studies, ranging from the pre-market assessment of early healthcare technologies to the retrospective analysis of established care pathways, will be carried out before public rollout, which is envisaged end 2015. Monitoring the activities carried out within the EIP on AHA requires an approach that is both flexible and consistent in the way health and economic impact is estimated across
Economic evaluations have routinely understated the net benefits of vaccination by not including the full range of economic benefits that accrue over the lifetime of a vaccinated person. Broader approaches for evaluating benefits of vaccination can be used to more accurately calculate the value of vaccination. This paper reflects on the methodology of one such approach - the health investment life course approach - that looks at the impact of vaccine investment on lifetime returns. The role of this approach on vaccine decision-making will be assessed using the malaria health investment life course model example. We describe a framework that measures the impact of a health policy decision on government accounts over many generations. The methodological issues emerging from this approach are illustrated with an example from a recently completed health investment life course analysis of malaria vaccination in Ghana. Beyond the results, various conceptual and practical challenges of applying this framework to Ghana are discussed in this paper. The current framework seeks to understand how disease and available technologies can impact a range of economic parameters such as labour force participation, education, healthcare consumption, productivity, wages or economic growth, and taxation following their introduction. The framework is unique amongst previous economic models in malaria because it considers future tax revenue for governments. The framework is complementary to cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis. The intent of this paper is to stimulate discussion on how existing and new methodology can add to knowledge regarding the benefits from investing in new and underutilized vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rizk, Diaa E E
There is contemporary widespread acceptance in the medical community of the need to address economic perspective of healthcare, specifically whether the benefits of a proposed or existing medical intervention are sufficient to justify that particular use of scarce health resources. The use of any scarce resources whether manpower, buildings or equipment has an opportunity cost in terms of the benefits foregone by denying those resources to other competing claims. Health economics emphasizes the need to assess formally the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. A number of economic evaluation techniques such as cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis have thus been developed to aid this formal assessment and to help identify the most efficient allocation of resources. The methodological quality and principles of economic analyses studies recently published in the biomedical literature, however, can be further improved. The most common limitations are in the methodology or presentation of cost, incremental analyses, sensitivity analysis and discounting. The ten methodological principles that should be incorporated in studies addressing economic analyses are highlighted. Understanding the methodology of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis is critical for biomedical researchers, editors, reviewers and readers from developing countries to accurately interpret the results of the growing body of these articles.
Rodríguez-Ledesma, María de Los Angeles; Constantino-Casas, Patricia; García-Contreras, Fernando; Garduño-Espinosa, Juan
To identify the level of knowledge about health economics of physicians with different academic degree, working place and medical activities. A questionnaire with 24 items about commonly used health economics concepts was applied. Face validity, content, construct, and consistency of the questionnaire were assessed. 523 Mexican physicians from public and private health institutions in Sinaloa and Distrito Federal were interviewed. The average general score was 4.1 +/- 2.1 (0 to 10 scale), for physicians at the IMSS was 4.1 +/- 2.1, SSA 4.3 +/- 2.5, ISSSTE 3.3 +/- 2; SEDENA 3.9 +/- 2.3 and in private medical services 4.4 +/- 2.2 (p = 0.001). Interns scored 3.7 +/- 2.1; physicians with specialties different from family medicine 4.3 +/- 2.2 and family physicians 4 +/- 2 (p = 0.05). The question that got the most correct answers was the definition of direct costs (82%) and the one with fewest was the percentage of the gross national product recommended by the World Health Organization for the health sector (11%). Interviewed physicians had poor knowledge about health economics. Academic degree and institutional work were factors related to that knowledge.
Puig-Junoy, J; Ortún, V; Ondategui, S
To assess the level of agreement in positive questions, and policy-value questions in Health Economics of the members of the Spanish Health Economics Association (AES). A survey was made among the members of the AES (42 academic health economists, 196 health managers, and 34 practising physicians). The survey included 20 positive questions, 11 policy questions, 4 value questions, and 5 socio-demographic questions. An analysis of the average absolute differences between percentage agreeing and percentage disagreeing by type of question was performed. Two main results can be identified. First, there are no significant differences in the level of agreement between health economists, health care managers and practising physicians with respect to positive and policy-value questions. Second, there is no significant difference in the level of agreement in the three identified groups between type of questions (positive versus policy-value questions). There are no significant differences in the agreement about the positive questions between the three identified groups in the AES (academic health economists, health care managers and practising physicians.
Health economics has had a significant impact on the New Zealand health system over the past 30 years. In this paper, I set out a framework for thinking about health economics, give some historical background to New Zealand and the New Zealand health system, and discuss examples of how health economics has influenced thinking about the organisation of the health sector and priority setting. I conclude the paper with overall observations about the role of health economics in health policy in New Zealand, also identifying where health economics has not made the contribution it could and where further influence might be beneficial.
Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith
ABSTRACT Background: Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. Methods: From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Findings: Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage
Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith
Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake
Dozet, Alexander; Ivarsson, Bodil; Eklund, Karin; Klefsgård, Rosemarie; Geijer, Mats
The process of transferring older, vulnerable adults from an elder care facility to the hospital for medical care can be an emotionally and physically stressful experience. The recent development of modern mobile radiography may help to ease this anxiety by allowing for evaluation in the nursing home itself. Up until this point, no health economic evaluation of the technology has been attempted in a Swedish setting. The objective of this study was to determine whether examinations of patients in elder care facilities with mobile radiography were cost-effective from a societal perspective compared with hospital-based radiological examinations. This prospective study included two groups of nursing home residents in two different areas in southern Sweden. All residents in the nursing homes were targeted for the study. Seventy-one patients were examined with hospital-based radiography at two hospitals, and 312 patients were examined using mobile radiography in nursing homes. Given that the diagnostic effects are regarded as equivalent, a cost minimization method was applied. Direct costs were estimated using prices from the county council, Region Skåne, Sweden. From a societal perspective, mobile radiography was shown to have significantly lower costs per examination compared with hospital-based radiography. The difference in health care-related costs was also significant in favour of mobile radiography. Mobile radiography can be used to examine patients in nursing homes at a lower cost than hospital-based radiography. Patients benefit from not having to transfer to a hospital for radiography, resulting in reduced anxiety for patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Goeree, Ron; Diaby, Vakaramoko
In a climate of escalating demands for new health care services and significant constraints on new resources, the disciplines of health economics and health technology assessment (HTA) have increasingly been turned to as explicit evidence-based frameworks to help make tough health care access and reimbursement decisions. Health economics is the discipline of economics concerned with the efficient allocation of health care resources, essentially trying to maximize health benefits to society contingent upon available resources. HTA is a broader field drawing upon several disciplines, but which relies heavily upon the tools of health economics and economic evaluation. Traditionally, health economics and economic evaluation have been widely used at the political (macro) and local (meso) decision-making levels, and have progressively had an important role even at informing individual clinical decisions (micro level). The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to health economics and discuss its relevance to frontline clinicians. Particularly, the content of the paper will facilitate clinicians' understanding of the link between economics and their medical practice, and how clinical decision-making reflects on health care resource allocation.
Sacristán, José Antonio; Costi, María; Valladares, Amparo; Dilla, Tatiana
Since Professor Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom in 1983, the increasing influence of Evidence-based Medicine and Health Technology Assessment has contributed to augment the feeling that clinicians have a secondary role in the therapeutic decision-making process. This article constitutes a reflection on how clinicians may use the results of economic evaluations in their daily clinical practice, making decisions about cost-effectiveness on a case by case basis, and addressing both the patient's and society's needs. To that end, some illustrating examples are taken from the literature to show there are factors with great impact on cost-effectiveness results that can be easily identified and modified by clinicians. The evolution of the discipline and the trend towards a tailored therapy suggest that health economics is not the end of clinical freedom but the start of it.
Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo; Ostlin, Piroska
The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size of the relative risk used may have a significant impact, leading to substantial biases and therefore should be taken into serious consideration in HIA.
Povall, Susan L; Haigh, Fiona A; Abrahams, Debbie; Scott-Samuel, Alex
The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health has called for 'health equity impact assessments' of all economic agreements, market regulation and public policies. We carried out an international study to clarify if existing health impact assessment (HIA) methods are adequate for the task of global health equity assessments. We triangulated data from a scoping review of the international literature, in-depth interviews with health equity and HIA experts and an international stakeholder workshop. We found that equity is not addressed adequately in HIAs for a variety of reasons, including inadequate guidance, absence of definitions, poor data and evidence, perceived lack of methods and tools and practitioner unwillingness or inability to address values like fairness and social justice. Current methods can address immediate, 'downstream' factors, but not the root causes of inequity. Extending HIAs to cover macro policy and global equity issues will require new tools to address macroeconomic policies, historical roots of inequities and upstream causes like power imbalances. More sensitive, participatory methods are also required. There is, however, no need for the development of a completely new methodology. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Evaluation of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) is very important for protecting human health and establishing pollution control policy. Population exposure estimation is the first step in formulating exposure data for quantitative assessment of harmful PM10 pollution. Methods In this paper, we estimate PM10 concentration using a spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution 0.01° × 0.01°. PM10 concentration data from monitoring stations are spatially interpolated, based on accurate population data in 2000 using a geographic information system. Then, an interpolated population layer is overlaid with an interpolated PM10 concentration layer, and population exposure levels are calculated. Combined with the exposure-response function between PM10 and health endpoints, economic costs of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution are analyzed. Results The results indicate that the population in Lanzhou urban areas is distributed in a narrow and long belt, and there are relatively large population spatial gradients in the XiGu, ChengGuan and QiLiHe districts. We select threshold concentration C0 at: 0 μg m-3 (no harmful health effects), 20 μg m-3 (recommended by the World Health Organization), and 50 μg m-3 (national first class standard in China) to calculate excess morbidity cases. For these three scenarios, proportions of the economic cost of PM10 pollution-related adverse health effects relative to GDP are 0.206%, 0.194% and 0.175%, respectively. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations in 2000 is also analyzed. Sandstorm weather in spring, inversion layers in winter, and precipitation in summer are important factors associated with change in PM10 concentration. Conclusions The population distribution by exposure level shows that the majority of people live in polluted areas. With the improvement of evaluation criteria, economic damage of
Sun, Zhaobin; An, Xingqin; Tao, Yan; Hou, Qing
Evaluation of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter) is very important for protecting human health and establishing pollution control policy. Population exposure estimation is the first step in formulating exposure data for quantitative assessment of harmful PM10 pollution. In this paper, we estimate PM10 concentration using a spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution 0.01° × 0.01°. PM10 concentration data from monitoring stations are spatially interpolated, based on accurate population data in 2000 using a geographic information system. Then, an interpolated population layer is overlaid with an interpolated PM10 concentration layer, and population exposure levels are calculated. Combined with the exposure-response function between PM10 and health endpoints, economic costs of the adverse health effects of PM10 pollution are analyzed. The results indicate that the population in Lanzhou urban areas is distributed in a narrow and long belt, and there are relatively large population spatial gradients in the XiGu, ChengGuan and QiLiHe districts. We select threshold concentration C0 at: 0 μg m(-3) (no harmful health effects), 20 μg m(-3) (recommended by the World Health Organization), and 50 μg m(-3) (national first class standard in China) to calculate excess morbidity cases. For these three scenarios, proportions of the economic cost of PM10 pollution-related adverse health effects relative to GDP are 0.206%, 0.194% and 0.175%, respectively. The impact of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations in 2000 is also analyzed. Sandstorm weather in spring, inversion layers in winter, and precipitation in summer are important factors associated with change in PM10 concentration. The population distribution by exposure level shows that the majority of people live in polluted areas. With the improvement of evaluation criteria, economic damage of respiratory disease caused by PM10 is
Dang, Amit; Likhar, Nishkarsh; Alok, Utkarsh
Health economic studies provide information to decision makers for efficient use of available resources for maximizing health benefits. Economic evaluation is one part of health economics, and it is a tool for comparing costs and consequences of different interventions. Health technology assessment is a technique for economic evaluation that is well adapted by developed countries. The traditional classification of economic evaluation includes cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. There has been uncertainty in the conduct of such economic evaluations in India, due to some hesitancy with respect to the adoption of their guidelines. The biggest challenge in this evolutionary method is lack of understanding of methods in current use by all those involved in the provision and purchasing of health care. In some countries, different methods of economic evaluation have been adopted for decision making, most commonly to address the question of public subsidies for the purchase of medicines. There is limited evidence on the impact of health insurance on the health and economic well-being of beneficiaries in developing countries. India is currently pursuing several strategies to improve health services for its population, including investing in government-provided services as well as purchasing services from public and private providers through various schemes. Prospects for future growth and development in this field are required in India because rapid health care inflation, increasing rates of chronic conditions, aging population, and increasing technology diffusion will require greater economic efficiency into health care systems.
Granados, A; Borràs, J M
A brief description of the evolution and role of the Catalan Office for Health Technology Assessment (COHTA) into the framework of the Catalan Health Care Service are presented. Methodological approaches used by COHTA range from synthesis of scientific evidence to the collection of primary data. Regarding the integration of economic appraisal into technology assessment, the main approaches are the following: integration into clinical trials funded by the COHTA and in the reimbursement policies of the Catalan Health Service. COHTA participates in the process of purchasing medical technologies, especially expensive ones, and in the establishment of reimbursement policies of medical technologies. The particular characteristics of COHTA as a regional agency for Technology Assessment and its position into the framework of the Department of Health are discussed. Among the advantages of this position are the knowledge of the relevant questions for policy makers and the potential influence in the process. Among the disadvantages are the possibility of losing autonomy. Regional agencies that are closely related to the regional health services could provide a better understanding of the real problems in clinical practice and in the utilization of health technologies.
The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.
A systematic literature review assessing the directional impact of managed care formulary restrictions on medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and health care resource utilization.
Happe, Laura E; Clark, Deanna; Holliday, Edana; Young, Tramaine
There is extensive literature demonstrating that formulary restrictions reduce the pharmacy costs and utilization of restricted drugs. However, some research suggests that there may be unintended consequences of formulary restrictions on other patient outcomes. While several literature reviews have assessed the relationship between formulary restrictions and medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, or health care resource utilization, these reviews were either not systematic, were conducted more than 5 years ago, or did not assess the aggregate directional impact of the relationships. To conduct a systematic literature review assessing the direction (positive, negative, or neutral) of the relationship between managed care formulary restrictions (including step therapy, cost sharing, prior authorization, preferred drug lists, and quantity limits) on medication adherence, clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and health care resource utilization. Articles published in 1993 or later were identified from PubMed using 2 lists of search terms. List A included 12 formulary restriction terms and List B included 12 patient outcomes terms, resulting in 144 unique search term combinations. Each article was evaluated by 2 investigators against the following exclusion criteria using a stepwise approach: (a) the article was a commentary or review article; (b) the article did not assess the impact of managed care formulary restrictions on outcomes; and (c) the study was conducted outside the United States. The total number of studies was reported by formulary restriction type. Next, the total number of outcomes reported in each study was summed to conduct an outcomes-level analysis. The outcomes were categorized by type of outcome (medication adherence, clinical, economic, or health care resource utilization) and direction of association (positive, negative, or neutral/not significant) based on the relationship reported in each study. The frequencies of each
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.
There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310
Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A
Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.
Hsaio, W C
The implosion of centrally-planned economies has led to a widespread and uncritical belief that a free market is the best mechanism for structuring the economic and social sectors. Many international agencies have pushed this belief on the developing nations. This paper offers a critical analysis of the effectiveness of using free market principles to structure the health sector. We try to answer two questions: in what spheres can the market operate freely? In what spheres is government action required? According to economic theory, the market is only appropriate for producing and distributing private goods. This study analyzed health care and subdivides it into three categories (public, merit, and private goods) to clarify where the market has a legitimate role. Next, we analyze two of the five markets in the health sector--financing and delivery--and assess the respective roles of the market and government Competitive markets have certain prerequisites. We identify the major market failures by evaluating where these conditions are not satisfied. Next, we draw on international experience to ascertain the seriousness of those failures and the capacity of government action to correct them. Lessons are drawn for developing nations about the appropriateness of market strategies to finance and deliver health care.
López Casasnovas, Guillem
The purpose is to offer a subjective reflection on the evolution and the new developments of Health Economics as an academic subject, its influence in the health policies and fundamentals for understanding its big crossroads today.
The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.
Mirvis, David M; Chang, Cyril F; Cosby, Arthur
Most discussions on the relationships between health and economic conditions have focused on the impact of differences in personal finances or national economic conditions on health. Recently, however, the role of health as an 'economic engine' has been promoted. This paradigm proposes that better health leads to economic development. Evidence from historical, national, and transnational studies have shown that improved health increases economic growth through impacts on micro- and macro-economic factors. In this review, we will summarize the evidence supporting these concepts as a basis for discussing their implications for underdeveloped regions within the United States.
Thomas P. Holmes; Randall A. Kramer
Economic valuations of changes in ecosystem health can provide quantitative information for social decisions. However, willingness to pay for ecosystem health may be motivated by an environmental ethic regarding the right thing to do. Counterpreferential choices based on an environmental ethic are inconsistent with the normative basis of welfare economics. In this...
Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio
Objective To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer’s perspective. Design Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Setting Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. Population All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Results Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Conclusions Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST. PMID:25928421
Taddei, Cristina; Gnesotto, Roberto; Forni, Silvia; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Vannucci, Andrea; Garofalo, Giorgio
To estimate the effects of cycling promotion on major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and costs from the public healthcare payer's perspective. Health impact assessment and economic evaluation using a dynamic model over a ten-year period and according to two cycling promotion scenarios. Cycling to work or school in Florence, Italy. All individuals aged 15 and older commuting to work or school in Florence. The primary outcome measures were changes in NCD incidence and healthcare direct costs for the Tuscany Regional Health Service (SST) due to increased cycling. The secondary outcome was change in road traffic accidents. Increasing cycling modal share in Florence from 7.5% to about 17% (Scenario 1) or 27% (Scenario 2) could decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 1.2% or 2.5%, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke by 0.6% or 1.2%. Within 10 years, the number of cases that can be prevented is 280 or 549 for type 2 diabetes, 51 or 100 for AMI, and 51 or 99 for stroke in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. Average annual discounted savings for the SST are estimated to amount to €400,804 or €771,201 in Scenario 1 or Scenario 2, respectively. In Florence, due to the high use of vulnerable motorized vehicles (such as scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles), road traffic accidents are expected to decline in both our scenarios. Sensitivity analyses showed that health benefits and savings for the SST are substantial, the most sensitive parameters being the relative risk estimates of NCDs and active commuting. Effective policies and programs to promote a modal shift towards cycling among students and workers in Florence will contribute to reducing the NCD burden and helping long-term economic sustainability of the SST.
Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.
In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24034906
Ernie Niemi; Ed. Whitelaw
Method is described for assessing the competing demands for forest resources in a forest management plan by addressing economics values, economic impacts, and perceptions of fairness around each demand. Economics trends and forces that shape the dynamic ecosystem-economy relation are developed. The method is demonstrated through an illustrative analysis of a forest-...
Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T
Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.
Szucs, Thomas D
Health economics has experienced a substantial rise within the healthcare industry over the past few years. Several disciplines have developed new techniques to evaluate the economic impact of pharmaceuticals in clinical care. Clinicians, pharmacists, economists, epidemiologists, and operations researchers have contributed to this field. Given the economic reality that resources are limited and needs and expectations are not infinite, medical economists try to find solutions on how these resources can be allocated optimally, to maximize the production of health or what society perceives as health. Health economists differentiate allocation efficiency and production efficiency. From the perspective of a health insurance plan allocation efficiency is reached when those drug classes or clinical programs are covered that will produce most health per expenditure. This requires a common monetary metric of health gains across the broad spectrum of diseases, conditions, and health outcomes. Once it is decided to cover a specific treatment or clinical program, economists try to identify the most cost-effective product within a class of comparable choices using cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses. Both allocation and production efficiency are two critically important concepts for the economic success of biotech products. This article will provide a rationale why health economics is critically important for the future of healthcare and explains fundamental economic tools for evaluating products and services with special emphasis on gene-derived technologies.
Renwick, Matthew J; Mossialos, Elias
Crowdfunding is an expanding form of alternative financing that is gaining traction in the health sector. This article presents a typology for crowdfunded health projects and a review of the main economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding in the health market. We use evidence from a literature review, complimented by expert interviews, to extend the fundamental principles and established theories of crowdfunding to a health market context. Crowdfunded health projects can be classified into four types according to the venture's purpose and funding method. These are projects covering health expenses, fundraising health initiatives, supporting health research, or financing commercial health innovation. Crowdfunding could economically benefit the health sector by expanding market participation, drawing money and awareness to neglected health issues, improving access to funding, and fostering project accountability and social engagement. However, the economic risks of health-related crowdfunding include inefficient priority setting, heightened financial risk, inconsistent regulatory policies, intellectual property rights concerns, and fraud. Theorized crowdfunding behaviours such as signalling and herding can be observed in the market for health-related crowdfunding. Broader threats of market failure stemming from adverse selection and moral hazard also apply. Many of the discussed economic benefits and risks of crowdfunding health campaigns are shared more broadly with those of crowdfunding projects in other sectors. Where crowdfunding health care appears to diverge from theory is the negative externality inefficient priority setting may have towards achieving broader public health goals. Therefore, the market for crowdfunding health care must be economically stable, as well as designed to optimally and equitably improve public health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lehnert, T; Konnopka, A; Riedel-Heller, S; König, H-H
Physical-mental comorbidity is often associated with worse clinical and psychosocial outcomes, reduced health-related quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization. The following article is dedicated to the health economic aspects of physical-mental comorbidity. It presents basic theoretical and methodological aspects of cost-of-illness studies and economic evaluations related to physical-mental comorbidity, which are explained and discussed for the practical example of comorbid depression in diabetes mellitus. The results show that mental comorbidity in diabetes is associated with increased healthcare costs, which can in part be attributed to an increased somatic health service use. Appropriate interventions can lower these excess costs. Economic evaluations assessing the effectiveness of interventions for depressive diabetics have shown that overall health can be improved and costs saved. However, especially in health economics, mental comorbidity in somatic diseases has not been comprehensively investigated and further research is warranted.
Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.
Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853
Merkesdal, Sonja; Ruof, Joerg; Huelsemann, Jan Leo; Mittendorf, Thomas; Handelmann, Silke; Mau, Wilfried; Zeidler, Henning
To render information on the accuracy of patient-reported indirect cost data compared with payer-derived data of the real indirect costs on a patient-by-patient basis concerning disease-related productivity losses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The assessment of indirect cost data was part of a clinical, multicenter, randomized RA trial. A total of 234 patients of working age with a diagnosis of RA (according to 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria) were recruited. Demographics of the cohort were mean age 53 years, mean disease duration 8 years, 76% were women, and all had membership in the regional statutory health insurance plan. Every 3 months corresponding indirect cost data were derived for the cohort from a health economic questionnaire for cost assessment in patients with RA and the payer's database over a period of 18 months. Comparative statistical analyses were performed between patient-reported and insurance claims data. The mean annual productivity losses due to sick leave amounted to 14 and 17 days per patient (questionnaire versus payer data), and productivity losses due to work disability amounted to 3 days (both); monetary valuation renders overall costs of 1,240 and 1,590, respectively. The difference of 17% in overall productivity losses is not significant. Comparison of productivity losses reveals a strong correlation of r = 0.83 in those due to sick leave and of kappa = 0.84 in those due to work disability between questionnaire and payer data. The comparison of questionnaire and payer data shows that RA patients report their productivity losses adequately. Indirect cost assessment should therefore be included in further RA trials and observational studies.
Scott, R. D.; Solomon, S. L.; McGowan, J. E.
Applying economic thinking to an understanding of resource use in patient care is challenging given the complexities of delivering health care in a hospital. Health-care markets lack the characteristics needed to determine a "market" price that reflects the economic value of resources used. However, resource allocation in a hospital can be analyzed by using production theory to determine efficient resource use. The information provided by hospital epidemiologists is critical to understanding health-care production processes used by a hospital and developing economic incentives to promote antibiotic effectiveness and infection control. PMID:11294724
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare or cause...
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Economic assessments. 225.23 Section 225.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.23 Economic assessments. The Secretary shall prepare...
Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung
Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). Methods Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007–2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent’s last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. Results Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report ‘very good’ on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level. PMID:22709921
Robbins, Alicia S.T.
Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137
Dillard, Carole D.; And Others
This annotated bibliography lists books and journal articles published since 1976 which deal with health economics and which are based on health services research supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR). Articles prepared by NCHSR staff are listed as intramural. All other articles cite the NCHSR grant or contract…
Cutler, David M.
Health care is one of the economy's biggest industries, so it is natural that the health care industry should play some role in the teaching of introductory economics. There are many ways that health care can appear in such a context: in the teaching of microeconomics, as a macroeconomic issue, to learn about social welfare, and even to learn how…
Buckles, Stephen; Melican, Claire
Knowledge of economic concepts and ideas and an ability to apply basic economic analysis to solve everyday problems are necessary for individuals to function as productive members of society. This framework is designed to assess the outcomes of student education in and understanding of economics in grade 12 as part of the National Assessment of…
People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.
Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana
The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.
González Pier, Eduardo
Health conditions in Mexico have evolved along with socioeconomic conditions. As a result, today's health system faces several problems characterized by four overlapping transitions: demand, expectations, funding and health resources. These transitions engender significant pressures on the system itself. Additionally, fragmentation of the health system creates disparities in access to services and generates problems in terms of efficiency and use of available resources. To address these complications and to improve equity in access and efficiency, thorough analysis is required in how the right to access health care should be established at a constitutional level without differentiating across population groups. This should be followed by careful discussion about what rules of health care financing should exist, which set of interventions ought to be covered and how services must be organized to meet the health needs of the population.
Laokri, Samia; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Kassa, Ferdinand; Anagonou, Séverin; Dujardin, Bruno
To inform policy-making, we measured the risk, causes and consequences of catastrophic expenditures for tuberculosis and investigated potential inequities. Between August 2008 and February 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted among all (245) smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients of six health districts from southern Benin. A standardised survey questionnaire covered the period of time elapsing from onset of tuberculosis symptoms to completion of treatment. Total direct cost exceeding the conventional 10% threshold of annual income was defined as catastrophic and used as principal outcome in a multivariable logistic regression. A sensitivity analysis was performed while varying the thresholds. A pure gradient of direct costs of tuberculosis in relation to income was observed. Incidence (78.1%) and intensity (14.8%) of catastrophic expenditure were high; varying thresholds was insensitive to the intensity. Incurring catastrophic expenditure was independently associated with lower- and middle-income quintiles (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 36.2, 95% CI [12.3-106.3] and aOR = 6.4 [2.8-14.6]), adverse pre-diagnosis stage (aOR = 5.4 [2.2-13.3]) and less education (aOR = 4.1[1.9-8.7]). Households incurred important days lost due to TB, indebtedness (37.1%), dissaving (51.0%) and other coping strategies (52.7%). Catastrophic direct costs and substantial indirect and coping costs may persist under the 'free' tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment strategy, as well as inequities in financial hardship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries. PMID:22490207
Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark
The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.
Krol, Marieke; Brouwer, Werner
Given its societal importance, unpaid work should be included in economic evaluations of health care technology aiming to take a societal perspective. However, in practice this does not often appear to be the case. This paper provides an overview of the current place of unpaid work in economic evaluations in theory and in practice. It does so first by summarizing recommendations regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor reported in health economic textbooks and national guidelines for economic evaluations. In total, three prominent health economic text-books were studied and 28 national health economic guidelines. The paper, moreover, provides an overview of the instruments available to measure lost unpaid labor and reports on a review of the place of unpaid labor in applied economic evaluations in the area of rheumatoid arthritis. The review was conducted by examining methodology of evaluations published between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2013. The results of this study show that little guidance is offered regarding the inclusion of unpaid labor in economic evaluations in textbooks and guidelines. The review identified five productivity costs instruments including questions about unpaid work and 33 economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis of which only one included unpaid work. The results indicate that unpaid work is rarely included in applied economic evaluations of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, despite this disease expecting to be associated with lost unpaid work. Given the strong effects of certain diseases and treatments on the ability to perform unpaid work, unpaid work currently receives less attention in economic evaluations than it deserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth
Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website: (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years.
Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth
Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years.
Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (http://www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23531108
Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (http://www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years. PMID:23531194
Small, Neil; Mannion, Russell
Mainstream health economics labours under a misleading understanding of the nature of the topic area and suffers from a concomitant poverty of thinking about theory and method. The purpose here is to explore this critical position and argue that health economics should aspire to being more than a technical discipline. It can, and should, engage with transformative discourse. It is argued that the hermeneutic sciences, emphasising interpretation not instrumentality or domination, offer a route into the change to which one seeks to contribute. The article specifically focuses on the way Habermas provides insights in his approach to knowledge, reason and political economy. How he emphasises complexity and interaction within cultural milieu is explored and primacy is given to preserving the life-world against the encroachments of a narrow rationalization. The argument for a critical re-imagining of health economics is presented in three stages. First, the antecedents, current assumptions and critical voices from contemporary economics and health economics are reviewed. Second, the way in which health is best understood via engaging with the complexity of both the subject itself and the society and culture within which it is embedded is explored. Third, the contribution that hermeneutics, and Habermas' critical theory, could make to a new health economics is examined. The paper offers a radical alternative to health economics. It explores the shortcomings of current thinking and argues an optimistic position. Progress via reason is possible if one reframes both in the direction of communication and in the appreciation of reflexivity and communality. This is a position that resonates with many who challenge prevailing paradigms, in economics and elsewhere.
Alt, Volker; Pavlidis, Theodoros; Szalay, Gabor; Heiss, Christian; Schnettler, Reinhard
In today's world, demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and quality of a new treatment strategy is no longer sufficient in many countries for market entry and reimbursement in the public healthcare system. This implies that new implants in orthopedic and orthopedic trauma surgery not only must be shown to lead to better medical outcome compared with the standard of care implant, but also must be shown to exhibit "good value" for the money for the public health-care system based on sound economic data from health-economic studies. The purpose of this article is to elucidate a framework for health-economic aspects alongside implant trials, with the assumption that the new implant is more costly but potentially better than the control implant. Cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies are suitable for the assessment of the health-economic value of a new implant. The following criteria should be considered for a health-economic study design in the context with an implant: i) it should state medical benefits of the new implant compared with the control implant; ii) it should precise the type of health economic study; iii) it should define the methodological approach, perspective of the study, and types of costs; iv) if necessary, it should state discount costs and/benefits; and v) a sound sensitivity analysis should be included. Furthermore, close cooperation between researchers, clinicians, and health economists is essential.
Aberg Yngwe, Monica; Östberg, Viveca
The present study focuses on the relevance of economic resources to psychological and psychosomatic health complaints during adolescence. It explores the link between the family's and the adolescent's economic resources and investigates whether or not differences in health complaints by the family's financial situation can be explained by adolescents' own economic resources. Drawing on data from two Swedish surveys on living conditions during adolescence (in the age group 10-18 years) conducted in 2002-03, logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between adolescents' own and household economic resources on two measures of health complaints. The association between family economic hardship (i.e. lack of cash margin) and adolescents' health complaints largely disappeared when controlling for adolescents' own economic resources. Three measures of own absolute and relative economic resources were used. Out of these, the ability (or not) to buy things that others have was connected with both psychological [Odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-2.9] and psychosomatic complaints (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.3-2.1), irrespective of age and gender. The importance of lacking a personal cash margin or not being able to join friends seemed to differ between age groups and genders. The importance of different aspects of economic resources seems to vary across age groups and gender. However, not being able to buy things that others have was clearly associated with health complaints irrespective of age and gender. Family economic hardship was associated with adolescents' health complaints, and this association was largely explained by adolescents' own economic resources.
Montagne, O; Vedel, I; Durand-Zaleski, I
The fibrates are one of several classes of lipid-reducing agents commonly prescribed to reduce hypercholesterolemia and prevent coronary heart disease. In today's evidence-based, cost-conscious health care environment, interventions promoted by policymakers must provide clear clinical benefits and economic value. We assessed the evidence regarding the impact of fibrates and diet on survival and the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. A literature search was conducted for randomized, controlled trials of diet, fibrates, and heart disease that were published after 1971; both primary and secondary prevention clinical trials were reviewed, and recent literature reviews and meta-analyses were searched. The evidence that diet alone improves survival is poor, although specifically increasing intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid (including n-3 fatty acids) relative to saturated fatty acid intake may provide some clinical benefit in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The cost-effectiveness of dietary intervention is also questionable because compliance is extremely poor. There is no consistent evidence from primary or secondary prevention trials that fibrates improve survival; in fact, fibrates may increase the risk of death from noncoronary causes. No consistent data suggest that fibrates are a cost-effective therapy. Because diet and fibrates do not appear to improve survival or provide value, policymakers should promote the use of alternative drug interventions that have consistently been proved to reduce mortality and are cost-effective.
Those concerned over the excessive commercialization of health care, to the detriment of both professional and patient-centered values, commonly propose remedies that assume that meaningful change can occur largely within the health care sector. I argue instead that a major shift in the public culture and political discourse of the U.S. will be required if the commercialization of health care is to be adequately addressed. The notion that health and health care are commodities to be bought and sold in the market is encouraged by the ideology that is preferably called economism, though also today labeled neoliberalism, market fundamentalism, market triumphalism, and other terms. This ideology has been successful in pushing aside alternative accounts and policies over the past four decades, so that economism-inspired policies seem both commonsensical and inevitable. This dominance of the public political discourse hides two important facts about economism - it is a quasi-religious ideology that pretends to be a reflection of economic science; and it is shot through with internal contradictions that ultimately render it self-defeating as a guide to policy. Advocates for reduced commercialism in health care must directly address economism and attempt to educate the public and policymakers about its flaws. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Dr Matthew Taylor is the director of York Health Economics Consortium and leads the Consortium's health technology assessment program. The work of York Health Economics Consortium involves empirical research in health economics for both the private and public sectors. Dr Taylor is the scientific lead for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Economic and Methodological Unit and a former member of NICE's Public Health Advisory Committee. He is also managing director (Europe) of Minerva, an international network of health economics consultancies.
Dutta, A.; Davis, R.
This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.
The provision of guidelines on cost measurement for health economic evaluations enable research to be more standardized and hence more comparable, which offers clear benefits for policy formulation and health management. The guidelines herein focus on three aspects-the cost of health intervention/health care programs, the cost of illness/health risks, and use of costs in health economic evaluation. For each aspect, the main concepts and methods are outlined, and recommendations for the Thai context are presented. There is particular focus on how to calculate various costs according to different evaluation methods and perspectives, how to evaluate source of cost data, how to make value adjustments and how to present cost measurement findings.
de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Soares, Marta Oliveira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
Most economic evaluations that participate in decision-making processes for incorporation and financing of technologies of health systems use decision models to assess the costs and benefits of the compared strategies. Despite the large number of economic evaluations conducted in Brazil, there is a pressing need to conduct an in-depth methodological study of the types of decision models and their applicability in our setting. The objective of this literature review is to contribute to the knowledge and use of decision models in the national context of economic evaluations of health technologies. This article presents general definitions about models and concerns with their use; it describes the main models: decision trees, Markov chains, micro-simulation, simulation of discrete and dynamic events; it discusses the elements involved in the choice of model; and exemplifies the models addressed in national economic evaluation studies of diagnostic and therapeutic preventive technologies and health programs.
Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène
Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a "gray literature search" utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg
According to the final consensus of a panel of intense discussions, the health care system should/can not be excluded from the economic laws of efficiency. Appropriate adaptation of various methods and instruments of economics make these tools applicable for use in the health care system. Due to errors in the implementation of economic methods, though, the question arises who is economically responsible in the health care system. The answer is found at three different levels of the health care system. The physician plays a leading role, both personally and professionally, in being primarily responsible for the direct medical treatment of the patient. The physician's dependence, however, on the health care system reduces his independence, which markedly affects his decision-making and treatment. Management of and in health care institutions is largely independent of the profession learned. Managers and physicians acting as managers must be appropriately and duly educated in the necessary specific talents and knowledge. The organisation of a health care system should also be reserved for trained specialists where the physicians as well as other professionals are obliged to acquire the skills necessary.
State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Regional Economic Assistance Center.
Interviews with 160 solo individuals and 293 family members revealed demographic characteristics, health care status and needs, and income and spending patterns of migrant farmworkers in the Oak Orchard Community Health Center (New York) service area during 1983. Findings showed that the migrant population was estimated at 1,089 workers and…
Burström, B; Nylén, L; Barr, B; Clayton, S; Holland, P; Whitehead, M
Many OECD countries are currently experiencing economic crisis and introducing counter-measures with unknown effects. To learn from previous experience, we explored whether there were delayed or differential effects of the Swedish recession in the 1990s and the government's response to it for people with limiting longstanding illness or disability (LLSI) from different socioeconomic groups (SEGs), by policy analysis and secondary data analysis of the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions (ULF) from 1978 to 2005. The government policy response involved cutting public expenditure, privatising some services and measures to boost private sector employment. There was a decline in overall employment rates from the early 1990s, particularly among men and women with LLSI and in lower SEGs. Public sector employment declined from 53 to 40 percent among women and from 23 to 14 percent among men. Private sector employment increased modestly for women (from 31 percent to 37 percent), and stayed stable at 59-60 percent among men. Following economic recovery, employment rates continued to decline among men and women with LLSI from manual SEGs, while the employment levels increased among most healthy men and women. There was a concomitant increase in rates of LLSI, sickness absence and rates of disability pension particularly among women in lower SEGs. The policy response to the 1990s economic crisis in Sweden had differential consequences, hitting the employment of women in the public sector, especially women with both LLSI and low socioeconomic status. The observed increase in disability pension rates, particularly among women with LLSI in lower SEGs, may be a delayed effect of the policy response to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morgan, L M
The recent history of Costa Rica's health system is reviewed, emphasizing the health-related effects of the economic crisis of the 1980s. This economic crisis has stopped and in some instances reversed the marked health improvements Costa Rica realized during the decade of the 1970s. The effects of the economic crisis emerge in 4 areas: deterioration in health status, as poverty contributed to higher disease rates; reductions in the government's ability to maintain public health and medical services; increased reliance on foreign aid to finance the health system; and growing national debate over the role of the state in health care. The result of the economic crisis was a reduction in health services and a questioning of the Costa Rican health model. This occurred following the implementation of an expensive health infrastructure and at a time when people most needed health services. During the 1941-70 period, domestic initiative can account for much of the expansion of Costa Rica's social security system, but also at this time international agencies such as the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Inter-American Development began to assist in the expansion of the health system. In 1971 a plan was initiated to create a nationalized health system. By 1980 the success of the health sector reorganization was evident in the statistics: marked improvements in life expectancy, infant mortality, and infectious disease mortality had surpassed the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Ministry of Health. Costa Rica's success was a vindication of both policy goals and funding priorities, for it has been "proved" that primary health care was capable of improving health indices, particularly where the agencies had the active and conscientious support of the national government. By 1977, foreign contracts for aid had expired, and the Ministry declared that the rural health program would be supported totally by the government. The
Iribarren, Sarah J; Cato, Kenrick; Falzon, Louise; Stone, Patricia W
Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and summarized. Seven electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, and relevant references were searched. Eligibility criteria included original articles, comparison of costs and consequences of interventions (one categorized as a primary mHealth intervention or mHealth intervention as a component of other interventions), health and economic outcomes and published in English. Full economic evaluations were appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist and The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Searches identified 5902 results, of which 318 were examined at full text, and 39 were included in this review. The 39 studies spanned 19 countries, most of which were conducted in upper and upper-middle income countries (34, 87.2%). Primary mHealth interventions (35, 89.7%), behavior change communication type interventions (e.g., improve attendance rates, medication adherence) (27, 69.2%), and short messaging system (SMS) as the mHealth function (e.g., used to send reminders, information, provide support, conduct surveys or collect data) (22, 56.4%) were most frequent; the most frequent disease or condition focuses were outpatient clinic attendance, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 79.6% (range 47.62-100, STD 14.18) and the top quartile reported 91.3-100%. In 29 studies (74.3%), researchers reported that the mHealth intervention was cost-effective, economically beneficial, or cost saving at base case. Findings highlight a growing body of economic evidence for mHealth interventions. Although all studies included a comparison of intervention effectiveness of a health
Cato, Kenrick; Falzon, Louise; Stone, Patricia W.
Background Mobile health (mHealth) is often reputed to be cost-effective or cost-saving. Despite optimism, the strength of the evidence supporting this assertion has been limited. In this systematic review the body of evidence related to economic evaluations of mHealth interventions is assessed and summarized. Methods Seven electronic bibliographic databases, grey literature, and relevant references were searched. Eligibility criteria included original articles, comparison of costs and consequences of interventions (one categorized as a primary mHealth intervention or mHealth intervention as a component of other interventions), health and economic outcomes and published in English. Full economic evaluations were appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist and The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Results Searches identified 5902 results, of which 318 were examined at full text, and 39 were included in this review. The 39 studies spanned 19 countries, most of which were conducted in upper and upper-middle income countries (34, 87.2%). Primary mHealth interventions (35, 89.7%), behavior change communication type interventions (e.g., improve attendance rates, medication adherence) (27, 69.2%), and short messaging system (SMS) as the mHealth function (e.g., used to send reminders, information, provide support, conduct surveys or collect data) (22, 56.4%) were most frequent; the most frequent disease or condition focuses were outpatient clinic attendance, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 79.6% (range 47.62–100, STD 14.18) and the top quartile reported 91.3–100%. In 29 studies (74.3%), researchers reported that the mHealth intervention was cost-effective, economically beneficial, or cost saving at base case. Conclusions Findings highlight a growing body of economic evidence for mHealth interventions. Although all studies included a comparison of
Rabarison, Kristina M; Bish, Connie L; Massoudi, Mehran S; Giles, Wayne H
Contemporary public health professionals must address the health needs of a diverse population with constrained budgets and shrinking funds. Economic evaluation contributes to evidence-based decision making by helping the public health community identify, measure, and compare activities with the necessary impact, scalability, and sustainability to optimize population health. Asking "how do investments in public health strategies influence or offset the need for downstream spending on medical care and/or social services?" is important when making decisions about resource allocation and scaling of interventions.
Catalano, Ralph; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Saxton, Katherine; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; LeWinn, Kaja; Anderson, Elizabeth
The recent recession and lingering high unemployment will likely lead to a burst of research studying the health effects of economic decline. We aim to inform that work by summarizing empirical research concerned with those effects. We separate the studies into groups defined by questions asked, mechanisms invoked, and outcomes studied. We conclude that although much research shows that undesirable job and financial experiences increase the risk of psychological and behavioral disorder, many other suspected associations remain poorly studied or unsupported. The intuition that mortality increases when the economy declines, for example, appears wrong. We note that the research informs public health programming by identifying risk factors, such as job loss, made more frequent by economic decline. The promise that the research would identify health costs and benefits of economic policy choices, however, remains unfulfilled and will likely remain so without stronger theory and greater methodological agreement. PMID:21054175
Edwards, R T
As an applied subdiscipline of economics, health economics has flourished, defining itself as the study of how scarce health care resources may be used to meet our needs. This evolutionary pathway has led to health economists adopting a very 'medical' model of health, in which the predominant production function for health is health care. This paper sets out policy challenges to health economics which have arisen in light of growing recognition by governments of the socioeconomic determinants of health and their stated commitment to tackle inequalities in health. It reviews Thomas Kuhn's theory of paradigm shift and Imre Lakatos' theory of scientific research programmes in the natural sciences, favouring the latter as an explanation of the evolution of the subdiscipline of health economics. The paper brings together four recently published visions of the future of health economics-visions that are almost exclusively focused on the production, organization and distribution of health care. In contrast to these visions, in Lakatosian terms, this paper challenges the subdiscipline's core 'positive heuristic', i.e. the set of imperatives which determines how the research programme should unfold, how it may be defended, its scope and boundaries. This paper argues that health economics will need to evolve to embrace a more socioeconomic model of health and, to this end, offers for debate an expansion of Williams' diagrammatic representation of the subdiscipline. It concludes by asking whether the magnitude and the magnetism of health care policy issues will continue to prove too strong to allow health economists, should they wish, to steer their research and educational programmes more directly towards 'health' rather than 'health care' as the relevant social want. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pandit, Jay A; Sirotin, Nicole; Tittle, Robin; Onjolo, Elijah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
HIV/AIDS negatively impacts poverty alleviation and food security, which reciprocally hinder the rapid scale up and effectiveness of HIV care programs. Nyanza province has the highest HIV prevalence (15.3%), and is the third highest contributor (2.4 million people) to rural poverty in Kenya. Thus, we tested the feasibility of providing a micro-irrigation pump to HIV-positive farmers in order to evaluate its impact on health and economic advancement among HIV-positive patients and their families. Thirty HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Kisumu, Kenya were provided a micro-financed loan to receive an irrigation pump and farming guidance from KickStart, the developer of the pump. Economic data, CD4 counts, household health and loan repayment history were collected 12 months after the pumps were distributed. Mean annual family income increased by $1,332 over baseline. CD4 counts did not change significantly. Though income increased, only three (10%) participants had paid off more than a quarter of the loan. We demonstrated the feasibility of an income-generating micro-irrigation intervention among HIV-positive patients and the collection of health and economic data. While family income improved significantly, loan repayment rates were low- likely complicated by the drought that occurred in Kenya during the intervention period.
Robinson, J C
As health policy emphasizes the use of private sector mechanisms to pursue public sector goals, health services research needs to develop stronger conceptual frameworks for the interpretation of empirical studies of health care markets and organizations. Organizational relationships should not be interpreted exclusively in terms of competition among providers of similar services but also in terms of relationships among providers of substitute and complementary services and in terms of upstream suppliers and downstream distributors. This article illustrates the potential applicability of transactions cost economics, agency theory, and organizational economics more broadly to horizontal and vertical markets in health care. Examples are derived from organizational integration between physicians and hospitals and organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit ownership. PMID:11327173
Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella
Although the resources and knowledge for achieving improved global health exist, a new, critical paradigm on health as an aspect of human development, human security, and human rights is needed. Such a shift is required to sufficiently modify and credibly reduce the present dominance of perverse market forces on global health. New scientific discoveries can make wide-ranging contributions to improved health; however, improved global health depends on achieving greater social justice, economic redistribution, and enhanced democratization of production, caring social institutions for essential health care, education, and other public goods. As with the quest for an HIV vaccine, the challenge of improved global health requires an ambitious multidisciplinary research program. PMID:21330597
Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.
This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab.
David J. Nowak
Understanding the environmental, economic, and social/community benefits of nature, in particular trees and forests, can lead to better vegetation management and designs to optimize environmental quality and human health for current and future generations. Computer models have been developed to assess forest composition and its associated effects on environmental...
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...
Venkataramani, Atheendar S.; Chatterjee, Paula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Tsai, Alexander C.
Objectives We assessed whether economic opportunity was independently associated with health behaviors and outcomes in the United States. Methods Using newly available, cross-sectional, county-level data from the Equality of Opportunity Project Database and vital statistics, we estimated associations between all-cause mortality rates (averaged over 2000–2012) and economic opportunity, adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and health system covariates. Our measure of economic opportunity was the county-average rank in the national income distribution attained by individuals born to families in the bottom income quartile. Secondary outcomes included rates of age- and race-specific mortality, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Results An increase in economic opportunity from the lowest to the highest quintile was associated with a 16.7% decrease in mortality. The magnitudes of association were largest for working-age adults and African Americans. Greater economic opportunity was also associated with health behaviors and risk factors. Conclusions Economic opportunity is a robust, independent predictor of health. Future work should investigate underlying causal links and mechanisms. PMID:26691108
Sollenius, Ola; Petrén, Sofia; Björnsson, Liselotte; Norlund, Anders; Bondemark, Lars
Economic evaluation is assuming increasing importance as an integral component of health services research. To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the evidence from studies presenting orthodontic treatment outcomes and the related costs. The literature review was conducted in four steps, according to Goodman's model, in order to identify all studies evaluating economic aspects of orthodontic interventions. The search covered the databases Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and SCOPUS, for the period from 1966 to September 2014. The inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing at least two different orthodontic interventions, evaluation of both economic and orthodontic outcomes, and study populations of all ages. The quality of each included study was assessed as limited, moderate, or high. The overall evidence was assessed according to the GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The applied terms for searches yielded 1838 studies, of which 989 were excluded as duplicates. Application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified 26 eligible studies for which the full-text versions were retrieved and scrutinized. At the final analysis, eight studies remained. Three studies were based on cost-effectiveness analyses and the other five on cost-minimization analysis. Two of the cost-minimization studies included a societal perspective, i.e. the sum of direct and indirect costs. The aims of most of the studies varied widely and of studies comparing equivalent treatment methods, few were of sufficiently high study quality. Thus, the literature to date provides an inadequate evidence base for economic aspects of orthodontic treatment. This systematic review disclosed that few orthodontic studies have presented both economic and clinical outcomes. There is currently
Economic terms such as efficiency, optimality and social welfare carry strong positive connotations. Sometimes non-economists may overlook the substantive difference between the scientific definition of these terms and their use in common parlance. This difference will be highly relevant if and when economic statements about efficiency are presented or interpreted in a normative way, i.e., implying that efficiency equals social desirability. Any statement about efficiency rests on implicit or explicit assumptions concerning the appropriate effectiveness criterion because efficiency invariably is an instrumental or secondary objective only, subject to clarification of the primary objectives to be pursued. In the absence of an agreement on the primary objectives of a collectively funded health scheme, the pursuit of efficiency may lead to health care allocation decisions that are not in line with prevailing social value judgements. Therefore, exposition and acceptance of the specific value judgements underlying economic evaluations of health care programmes should be a prerequisite to any attempt towards their normative interpretation. As regards the implementation of cost benefit evaluation in health care, the cautious stance taken by the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) appears to be well justified in the absence of such a fundamental consensus, especially when these evaluations are meant to address issues of allocative efficiency.
Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
This editorial provides a review of the current ways in which health economics is impacting on policy and reviews some of the key ethical and value-judgmental issues that commonly arise in and as a result of the work of economists. It also briefly highlights the contributions of the authors of this special issue of the journal, all of which illustrate how economists have approached ethical issues in health service policy (both in its financing and its delivery), and some of which explore the major methodological matters that arise and go on to discuss their potential as sources of conflict or harmony with other approaches to the same questions. Key Words: Health economics • value judgments • resource allocation • ethics • QALYs PMID:11479350
Given limited resources policymakers need to decide about how much and in what areas of health services research (HSR) to invest. The purpose of this study is to provide guidance for priority setting of HSR projects based on economic theory. The conceptual analysis starts from the premise that competition in health care is valuable-a position that seems to predominate among Western policymakers. The principle of competition rests on economic theory and, in particular, its branch of welfare economics. Based on economic theory, the role of HSR is to detect and alleviate information asymmetry, negative externalities, and harm caused by competition and inappropriate incentives for competition. A hierarchy of HSR projects is provided; following the ethical principle of harm ('do not harm'), the detection and prevention of harm would receive highest priority among HSR projects. Agreeing that competition is valuable in achieving efficiency and quality of care (and therefore agreeing to the assumptions of economic theory) implies accepting the role of HSR in detecting market failure and the HSR hierarchy as suggested. Disagreement would require an alternative coherent concept of improving efficiency and quality of care.
Icks, A; Chernyak, N; Bestehorn, K; Brüggenjürgen, B; Bruns, J; Damm, O; Dintsios, C-M; Dreinhöfer, K; Gandjour, A; Gerber, A; Greiner, W; Hermanek, P; Hessel, F; Heymann, R; Huppertz, E; Jacke, C; Kächele, H; Kilian, R; Klingenberger, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Krämer, H; Krauth, C; Lüngen, M; Neumann, T; Porzsolt, F; Prenzler, A; Pueschner, F; Riedel, R; Rüther, A; Salize, H J; Scharnetzky, E; Schwerd, W; Selbmann, H-K; Siebert, H; Stengel, D; Stock, S; Völler, H; Wasem, J; Schrappe, M
On August 30, 2010, the German Network for Health Services Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e. V. (DNVF e. V.)] approved the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", supported by the member societies mentioned as authors and published in this Journal [Gesundheitswesen 2010; 72: 739-748]. The present paper focuses on methodological issues of economic evaluation of health care technologies. It complements the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", part 2. First, general methodological principles of the economic evaluations of health care technologies are outlined. In order to adequately reflect costs and outcomes of health care interventions in the routine health care, data from different sources are required (e. g., comparative efficacy or effectiveness studies, registers, administrative data, etc.). Therefore, various data sources, which might be used for economic evaluations, are presented, and their strengths and limitations are stated. Finally, the need for methodological advancement with regard to data collection and analysis and issues pertaining to communication and dissemination of results of health economic evaluations are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Prevention and assessment of infectious diseases among children and adult migrants arriving to the European Union/European Economic Association: a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews for public health and health systems.
Pottie, Kevin; Mayhew, Alain D; Morton, Rachael L; Greenaway, Christina; Akl, Elie A; Rahman, Prinon; Zenner, Dominik; Pareek, Manish; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Meerpohl, Joerg; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Hui, Charles; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Agbata, Eric; Noori, Teymur; Schünemann, Holger J
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis. The search strategy will identify evidence from existing systematic reviews and then update the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence using prospective trials, economic evaluations and/or recently published systematic reviews. Interdisciplinary teams have designed logic models to help define study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy and identifying relevant outcomes. We will assess the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. There are no ethical or safety issues. We anticipate disseminating the findings through open-access publications, conference abstracts and presentations. We plan to publish technical syntheses as GRADEpro evidence summaries and the systematic reviews as part of a special edition open-access publication on refugee health. We are following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols reporting guideline. This protocol is registered in PROSPERO: CRD42016045798. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sophisticated methodology and research centres of health economics and health technology assessment were established in the developed countries over the past 30 years, releasing more and more studies of better and better quality every year. A crucial factor in health policy and reimbursement decisions in these countries is cost-effectiveness results. Due to methodological diversification, results of locally performed health economics studies are constrained in international utility. This fact encourages us to set the current goal of greatest importance, i.e. to standardise country-specific methods, thereby promoting transferability and adaptability of results, being backed by each important health care organisation all over Europe. The situation in the new member states [European Union (EU)12] is profoundly different compared with EU15. In these countries, neither the necessary research institutions nor professionals are in place in sufficient numbers; even in most EU12 countries, the importance of cost-effectiveness has not yet been realised. The present study focuses mainly on the EU12. These countries are absolutely dependent on cost-effectiveness results from abroad, and this seems to persist in the long-term. Transferability and adaptability of the results of health economics studies carried out elsewhere through European collaboration is vital for these countries.
Hiligsmann, Mickael; Kanis, John A; Compston, Juliet; Cooper, Cyrus; Flamion, Bruno; Bergmann, Pierre; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boonen, Steven; Bruyere, Olivier; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre; Goemaere, Stefan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Rozenberg, Serge; Reginster, Jean-Yves
We review the various aspects of health technology assessment in osteoporosis, including epidemiology and burden of disease, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of recent advances in the treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of fracture, in the context of the allocation of health-care resources by decision makers in osteoporosis. This article was prepared on the basis of a symposium held by the Belgian Bone Club and the discussions surrounding that meeting and is based on a review and critical appraisal of the literature. Epidemiological studies confirm the immense burden of osteoporotic fractures for patients and society, with lifetime risks of any fracture of the hip, spine, and forearm of around 40 % for women and 13 % for men. The economic impact is also large; for example, Europe's six largest countries spent €31 billion on osteoporotic fractures in 2010. Moreover, the burden is expected to increase in the future with demographic changes and increasing life expectancy. Recent advances in the management of osteoporosis include novel treatments, better fracture-risk assessment notably via fracture risk algorithms, and improved adherence to medication. Economic evaluation can inform decision makers in health care on the cost-effectiveness of the various interventions. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that the recent advances in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis may constitute an efficient basis for the allocation of scarce health-care resources. In summary, health technology assessment is increasingly used in the field of osteoporosis and could be very useful to help decision makers efficiently allocate health-care resources.
Methods of economic appraisal developed for evaluating activities in health care system may as well be successfully used for evaluating occupational health service activities. This involves the problem of resources management and cost containment not only at the company level, but also at different managerial and institutional levels. The decision makers have to know what resources are spent on occupational health, what is the effectiveness and efficiency of investing in employees health. The key issue of good understanding of the theory and practice of economic appraisal is a precise definition of costs, effectiveness and benefits. Another important area is the identification of information sources and barriers of economic appraisal. The results of the project carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine have provided evidence that defining costs, effectiveness and benefits of preventive activities need to be developed. It becomes even more clear after an analysis of existing limitations of economic appraisal in Polish enterprises.
Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations.
Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry
Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.
McGarity, Arthur E.
This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…
Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport.
This report contains information from a fall 1991 health occupations assessment of 1,021 health-related employers in Eastern Iowa and the Illinois Quad Cities area. Twelve chapters present comprehensive results of all surveys; results of 10 labor market survey instruments developed for chiropractic offices, dentists' offices, emergency medical…
Liaropoulos, L; Kaitelidou, D
In 1983 a health reform aimed to assure universal coverage and equity in the distribution of services in Greece. The reform implied state responsibility for the financing and delivery of services and a reduction of the private sector. The model was a Bismarckian scheme for social insurance. However, healthcare delivery remains fragmented and uncoordinated and the private sector is getting stronger. The dominant payment system is fee-for-service for the private sector and administered prices and salaries for public hospitals and social insurance funds. The many insurers have their own eligibility requirements, validation procedures, etc. Coverage of services by social security funds, probably among the most comprehensive in Europe, is determined more on historical and political grounds than on efficiency or cost-effectiveness. The system is plagued by problems, including geographical inequalities, overcentralization, bureaucratic management, poor incentives in the public sector, open-ended financing, inefficient use of hospital beds, and lack of cost-effectiveness. There are no specific legal provisions for the control of health technology. Technologies are introduced without standards or formal consideration of needs. There are no current efforts to control health technology in Greece. However, health technology assessment (HTA) has gained increasing visibility. In 1997 a law provided for a new government agency responsible for quality control, economic evaluation of health services, and HTA. The hope is that the new law may introduce evaluation and assessment elements into health policy formulation and assure that cost effectiveness, quality, and appropriate use of health technology will receive more attention.
Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources.
Madden, Lynne; King, Lesley; Shiell, Alan
Government anticipates that health economic analysis will contribute to evidence-based policy development. Early examples in Australia where this expectation has been met include the economic evaluations of breast and cervical screening. However, the level of integration of health economics within health services that require this advice appears uneven. We sought to describe how government health departments in Australia use specialist health economic advice to inform policy and planning and the mechanisms through which they access this advice. Information describing the arrangements for gaining health economics input into health decision-making was sought through interviews with a purposeful sample of economists and non-economists employed by all departments of health in Australia (state, territories and national). The survey was undertaken in August 2004. To aid interpretation of the results eight health economic functions were identified. As a comparison, four other government departments in NSW provided information about their access to economic advice. All health departments except one reported being current users of health economics expertise. A variety of arrangements were described to source this, from building organisational capacity with self-sufficient in-house units to forging links with external sources. However, specialist positions for economists or health economists employed within health were few. A framework mapping these arrangements for sourcing advice with the eight common health economic functions to be met is presented. All other non-health government departments approached accessed economic advice, with three having in-house units. A small health economics capacity in Australia has been established over the past 30 years through a variety of structural and strategic mechanisms. Health departments value health economic advice and use a variety of arrangements to obtain this. These arrangements have strengths and weaknesses depending upon the
Madden, Lynne; King, Lesley; Shiell, Alan
Background Government anticipates that health economic analysis will contribute to evidence-based policy development. Early examples in Australia where this expectation has been met include the economic evaluations of breast and cervical screening. However, the level of integration of health economics within health services that require this advice appears uneven. We sought to describe how government health departments in Australia use specialist health economic advice to inform policy and planning and the mechanisms through which they access this advice. Methods Information describing the arrangements for gaining health economics input into health decision-making was sought through interviews with a purposeful sample of economists and non-economists employed by all departments of health in Australia (state, territories and national). The survey was undertaken in August 2004. To aid interpretation of the results eight health economic functions were identified. As a comparison, four other government departments in NSW provided information about their access to economic advice. Results All health departments except one reported being current users of health economics expertise. A variety of arrangements were described to source this, from building organisational capacity with self-sufficient in-house units to forging links with external sources. However, specialist positions for economists or health economists employed within health were few. A framework mapping these arrangements for sourcing advice with the eight common health economic functions to be met is presented. All other non-health government departments approached accessed economic advice, with three having in-house units. Discussion A small health economics capacity in Australia has been established over the past 30 years through a variety of structural and strategic mechanisms. Health departments value health economic advice and use a variety of arrangements to obtain this. These arrangements have
Schweitzer, Julian; Synowiec, Christina
While mHealth has the potential to overcome traditional obstacles to the delivery of health services to the poor in lower and middle-income countries--issues related to access, quality, time, and resources--there is little evidence as to whether the expected benefits and savings can be actualized on a large scale. As a first step to developing the investment case for mHealth, this article outlines some of the key economic and financial questions that need to be answered in developing in-country eHealth investments. The proposed questions focus on the costs of eHealth infrastructure; regulatory structures that provide incentives at different levels of the health delivery system to encourage investment in, and use of, eHealth; and measuring the outcomes of successful eHealth utilization, including anticipated return on investment.
Franken, Margreet; Heintz, Emelie; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Raftery, James
A response to the challenge of high-cost treatments in health care has been economic evaluation. Cost-effectiveness analysis presented as cost per quality-adjusted life-years gained has been controversial, raising heated support and opposition. To assess the impact of economic evaluation in decisions on what to fund in four European countries and discuss the implications of our findings. We used a protocol to review the key features of the application of economic evaluation in reimbursement decision making in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, reporting country-specific highlights. Although the institutions and processes vary by country, health economic evaluation has had limited impact on restricting access of controversial high-cost drugs. Even in those countries that have gone the furthest, ways have been found to avoid refusing to fund high-cost drugs for particular diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, and orphan diseases. Economic evaluation may, however, have helped some countries to negotiate price reductions for some drugs. It has also extended to the discussion of clinical effectiveness to include cost. The differences in approaches but similarities in outcomes suggest that health economic evaluation be viewed largely as rhetoric (in D.N. McCloskey's terms in The Rhetoric of Economics, 1985). This is not to imply that economics had no impact: rather that it usually contributed to the discourse in ways that differed by country. The reasons for this no doubt vary by perspective, from political science to ethics. Economic evaluation may have less to do with rationing or denial of medical treatments than to do with expanding the discourse used to discuss such issues. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E
In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.
Pronk, Nicolaas P
To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for the integration of occupational safety and health and worksite health promotion programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes were undertaken. Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes were considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types.
Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard
The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women's mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men's. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies which operationalised resilience factors
Glonti, Ketevan; Gordeev, Vladimir S.; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Roberts, Bayard
Background The health effects of recent economic crises differ markedly by population group. The objective of this systematic review is to examine evidence from longitudinal studies on factors influencing resilience for any health outcome or health behaviour among the general population living in countries exposed to financial crises. Methods We systematically reviewed studies from six electronic databases (EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) which used quantitative longitudinal study designs and included: (i) exposure to an economic crisis; (ii) changes in health outcomes/behaviours over time; (iii) statistical tests of associations of health risk and/or protective factors with health outcomes/behaviours. The quality of the selected studies was appraised using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed. Results From 14,584 retrieved records, 22 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies were conducted across 10 countries in Asia, Europe and North America over the past two decades. Ten socio-demographic factors that increased or protected against health risk were identified: gender, age, education, marital status, household size, employment/occupation, income/ financial constraints, personal beliefs, health status, area of residence, and social relations. These studies addressed physical health, mortality, suicide and suicide attempts, mental health, and health behaviours. Women’s mental health appeared more susceptible to crises than men’s. Lower income levels were associated with greater increases in cardiovascular disease, mortality and worse mental health. Employment status was associated with changes in mental health. Associations with age, marital status, and education were less consistent, although higher education was associated with healthier behaviours. Conclusions Despite widespread rhetoric about the importance of resilience, there was a dearth of studies
del Rey Calero, Juan
The Global and economic crisis and Health Management The Health care process discussed are 4 steps: assessment, planing, intervention and evaluation. The identify association between social factors linked to social vulnerability (socio economic status, unemployed, poverty) and objective health relate quality of life. The poverty rate is 24.2%, unemployed 26.26%, youth unemployed 56.13%.ratio worker/retired 2.29. Debts 100% GDP The health inequality influence on health related quality of life. The Health System efficiency index. according Bloomber rate (2,013) Spain is 5 degrees in the world, points 68.3 on 100, for the life expectancy 82.3 years, the personal cost of health care 2,271€. Health care 10% GDP (public 7%,private 3%), SS protected population 92.4%, retired person cost 9.2% GDP, p. capita GDP 23,737€. Cost of Care: Hospital/specialist 54%, P. Care 15%, Pharmaceutical 19.8%, P. Health 3.1%.
Harper, Ellen M
The amount of health care data in our world has been exploding, and the ability to store, aggregate, and combine data and then use the results to perform deep analyses have become ever more important. "Big data," large pools of data that can be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed, are now part of every sector and function of the global economy. While most research into big data thus far has focused on the question of their volume, there is evidence that the business and economic possibilities of big data and their wider implications are important for consideration. It is even offering the possibility that health care data could become the most valuable asset over the next 5 years as "secondary use" of electronic health record data takes off.
Swierk, T; Jürgens, C; Grossjohann, R; Flessa, S; Tost, F
Telemedical home monitoring of glaucoma patients is not covered by health insurance in Germany. Various clinical studies have indicated that 24 h monitoring of intraocular and blood pressure of glaucoma patients allows a better evaluation of the individual disease condition. If the necessary parameters can be collected with telemedical home monitoring it will be possible to reduce the number of 24 h intraocular pressure profiles which necessitate hospital admission. Therefore inpatient 24 h profiles have been chosen as a health economical allocation base with a presentable economical value for the comparative examination. Assuming an at least identical or even higher clinical outcome of the telemedical glaucoma home monitoring inpatient 24 h profiles were chosen as a health economical allocation base to compare and contrast these methods. All procedures of the inpatient 24 h profiles at the ophthalmic clinic of Greifswald were measured using the stopwatch method. In a 1 day test run all activities of the medical staff were identified and documented in a list and afterwards measurements were carried out over 7 days with several stopwatches to allow the documentation of parallel activities. To determine the consumption of resources in telemedical home monitoring the self-documentation of all employees involved in the research project TT-MV were evaluated. Expert interviews helped to determine the economically relevant data about the applied medical technology, e.g. measuring devices, server and electronic health records. The number and complexity of the subprocesses of the inpatient 24 h intraocular pressure profiles were significantly higher compared to telemedical home monitoring. The total costs of the inpatient 24 h profiles were 571.21 € per patient including 291.21 € for medical care and 280 € for accommodation. In contrast the total costs of telemedical home monitoring were 288.72 € per patient. A direct cost comparison shows that telemedical home
Nguyen, Timothy K; Goodman, Chris D; Boldt, R Gabriel; Warner, Andrew; Palma, David A; Rodrigues, George B; Lock, Michael I; Mishra, Mark V; Zaric, Gregory S; Louie, Alexander V
Despite the rising costs in radiation oncology, the impact of health economics research on radiation therapy practice analysis patterns is unclear. We performed a systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) and cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to identify trends in reporting quality in the radiation oncology literature over time. A systematic review of radiation oncology economic evaluations up to 2014 was performed, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards guideline informed data abstraction variables including study demographics, economic parameters, and methodological details. Tufts Medical Center CEA registry quality scores provided a basis for qualitative assessment of included studies. Studies were stratified by 3 time periods (1995-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear trend test were used to identify trends over time. In total, 102 articles were selected for final review. Most studies were in the context of a model (61%) or clinical trial (28%). Many studies lacked a conflict of interest (COI) statement (67%), a sponsorship statement (48%), a reported study time horizon (35%), and the use of discounting (29%). There was a significant increase over time in the reporting of a COI statement (P<.001), health care payer perspective (P=.019), sensitivity analyses using multivariate (P=.043) or probabilistic methods (P=.011), incremental cost-effectiveness threshold (P<.001), secondary source utility weights (P=.010), and cost effectiveness acceptability curves (P=.049). There was a trend toward improvement in Tuft scores over time (P=.065). Recent reports demonstrate improved reporting rates in economic evaluations; however, there remains significant room for improvement as reporting rates are still suboptimal. As fiscal pressures rise, we will rely on economic assessments to guide our practice decisions and policies. We recommend improved adherence to
Derstuganova, T M; VelichkovskiĬ, B T; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Malykh, O L; Kochneva, N I; Iarushin, S V
There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes.
Bayoumi, Ahmed M
In health economics, contingent valuation is a method that elicits an individual's monetary valuations of health programmes or health states. This article reviews the theory and conduct of contingent valuation studies, with suggestions for improving the future measurement of contingent valuation for health economics applications. Contingent valuation questions can be targeted to any of the following groups: the general population, to value health insurance premiums for programmes; users of a health programme, to value the associated programme costs; or individuals with a disease, to evaluate health states. The questions can be framed to ask individuals how much they would pay to obtain positive changes in health status or avoid negative changes in health status ('willingness to pay'; WTP) or how much they would need to be paid to compensate for a decrease in health status or for foregoing an improvement in heath status ('willingness to accept'; WTA). In general WTP questions yield more accurate and precise valuations than WTA questions. Payment card techniques, with follow-up bidding using direct interviews with visual aids, are well suited for small contingent valuation studies. Several biases may be operative when assessing contingent valuation, including biases in the way participants are selected, the way in which the questions are posed, the way in which individuals interpret probabilities and value gains relative to losses, and the way in which missing or extreme responses are interpreted. An important aspect of all contingent valuation studies is an assessment of respondents' understanding of the evaluation method and the valuation task. Contingent valuation studies should measure the potential influence of biases, the validity of contingent valuation tests as measures of QOL, and the reliability and responsiveness of responses. Future research should address equity concerns associated with using contingent valuation and explore contingent valuation as a
An increasing number of primary prevention programs aimed at promoting physical exercise in children and adolescents are being piloted. As resources are limited, it is important to ascertain the costs and benefits of such programs. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the currently available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents and to assess their quality. A systematic review was conducted searching in well established literature databases considering all studies before February 2015. Citation tracking in Google Scholar and a manual search of the reference lists of included studies were used to consolidate this. The fundamental methodological elements of the included economic evaluations were extracted, and the quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality Appraisal Questionnaire (PQAQ). In total, 14 studies were included. Considering the performance of the economic evaluation, the studies showed wide variation. Most of the studies used a societal perspective for their analyses and discounted costs and effects. The findings ranged from US$11.59 for a person to become more active (cheapest intervention) up to US$669,138 for a disability adjusted life year (DALY) saved (most expensive intervention), with everything in between. Overall, the results of three studies are below a value of US$3061, with one of them even below US$200.00, for the achieved effects. For the other programs, the context-specific assessment of cost-effectiveness is problematic as there are different thresholds for cost-effectiveness in different countries or no clearly defined thresholds at all. There are multiple methodological difficulties involved in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, which results in little consistency between different evaluations. The quality of the evaluations ranged from poor to excellent while a large majority
Quaglini, S; Dazzi, L; Stefanelli, M; Barosi, G; Marchetti, M
This article describes a system addressed to different health care professionals for building, using, and sharing decision support systems for resource allocation. The system deals with selected areas, namely the choice of diagnostic tests, the therapy planning, and the instrumentation purchase. Decision support is based on decision-analytic models, incorporating an explicit knowledge representation of both the medical domain knowledge and the economic evaluation theory. Application models are built on top of meta-models, that are used as guidelines for making explicit both the cost and effectiveness components. This approach improves the transparency and soundness of the collaborative decision-making process and facilitates the result interpretation.
Howard-Wilsher, Stephanie; Irvine, Lisa; Fan, Hong; Shakespeare, Tom; Suhrcke, Marc; Horton, Simon; Poland, Fiona; Hooper, Lee; Song, Fujian
Health related rehabilitation is instrumental in improving functioning and promoting participation by people with disabilities. To make clinical and policy decisions about health-related rehabilitation, resource allocation and cost issues need to be considered. To provide an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) on economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. We searched multiple databases to identify relevant SRs of economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation. Review quality was assessed by AMSTAR checklist. We included 64 SRs, most of which included economic evaluations alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The review quality was low to moderate (AMSTAR score 5-8) in 35, and high (score 9-11) in 29 of the included SRs. The included SRs addressed various health conditions, including spinal or other pain conditions (n = 14), age-related problems (11), stroke (7), musculoskeletal disorders (6), heart diseases (4), pulmonary (3), mental health problems (3), and injury (3). Physiotherapy was the most commonly evaluated rehabilitation intervention in the included SRs (n = 24). Other commonly evaluated interventions included multidisciplinary programmes (14); behavioral, educational or psychological interventions (11); home-based interventions (11); complementary therapy (6); self-management (6); and occupational therapy (4). Although the available evidence is often described as limited, inconsistent or inconclusive, some rehabilitation interventions were cost-effective or showed cost-saving in a variety of disability conditions. Available evidence comes predominantly from high income countries, therefore economic evaluations of health-related rehabilitation are urgently required in less resourced settings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Jones, P J; Uauy, R; Segal, L; Milner, J
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a major and increasing contributor to morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Much of the chronic disease burden is preventable through modification of lifestyle behaviours, and increased attention is being focused on identifying and implementing effective preventative health strategies. Nutrition has been identified as a major modifiable determinant of NCD. The recent merging of health economics and nutritional sciences to form the nascent discipline of nutrition economics aims to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention, and to evaluate options for changing dietary choices, while incorporating an understanding of the immediate impacts and downstream consequences. In short, nutrition economics allows for generation of policy-relevant evidence, and as such the discipline is a crucial partner in achieving better population nutritional status and improvements in public health and wellness. The objective of the present paper is to summarise presentations made at a satellite symposium held during the 11th European Nutrition Conference, 28 October 2011, where the role of nutrition and its potential to reduce the public health burden through alleviating undernutrition and nutrition deficiencies, promoting better-quality diets and incorporating a role for functional foods were discussed.
Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland
Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios).
Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr
New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.
Tamba, B I; Azoicăi, Doina; Druguş, Daniela
Health economics refers to the analysis of medical institutions considering their economic and social efficacy, but also the regularity and the relationships that govern the phenomena and the processes from the field of health with the final purpose of achieving better results with the minimum of resources; it represents the study of health price in its complexity. The economics of the population's health needs and in particular the health needs in case of the poor groups of the population, consider health to be the main component of global human vulnerability. Health economics tries to change the simple interpretation of health price and disease cost into a wider consideration of a system administration similar to educational and social economics and the study of health in the context of the multiple specializations of the macro economy of the national group, as it is an instrument in the country's great economics symphony.
Sparrow, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep
We assess the economic risk of ill health for households in Indonesia and the role of informal coping strategies. Using household panel data from the Indonesian socio-economic household survey (Susenas) for 2003 and 2004, and applying fixed effects Poisson models, we find evidence of economic risk from illness through medical expenses. For the poor and the informal sector, ill health events impact negatively on income from wage labour, whereas for the non-poor and formal sector, it is income from self-employed business activities which is negatively affected. However, only for the rural population and the poor does this lead to a decrease in consumption, whereas the non-poor seem to be able to protect current household spending. Borrowing and drawing on family network and buffers, such as savings and assets, seem to be key informal coping strategies for the poor, which may have negative long-term effects. While these results suggest scope for public intervention, the economic risk from income loss for the rural poor is beyond public health care financing reforms. Rather, formal sector employment seems to be a key instrument for financial protection from illness, by also reducing income risk.
We have constructed and tested a small device to produce ice in ice/water mixtures using a cold fluid as the heat sink. The device is a flexible heat exchanger constructed from a thin film of a suitable polymer. When filled with circulating liquid coolant the heat exchanger consists of an inflated series of parallel tubes; Ice forms on the outside in complementary half cylinders. When the circulation in cut off, gravity drains the coolant and the static head of the water bath crushes the tubes, freeing them from the ice which floats to the surface. We here report an economic assessment of this device. In its present form, we find it competitive with existing commercial ice making systems. The analysis also points out two areas where further technical progress could lead to a significant economic advantage for the polymer film ice maker.
Garfield, R.; Devin, J.; Fausey, J.
Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists. PMID:10101382
Pronk, Nicolaas P.
Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747
Cox, Malcolm; Pacala, James T; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Shea, Judy A
The US health care system is in a state of rapid evolution, with changing payment, organizational, and management structures. To learn how to function optimally in a system in which care is increasingly managed and competitive, today's medical students must understand the structural and economic underpinnings of the system within which they will practice. At the outset of the Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project, the great majority of medical school curricula were lacking in areas of health care financing and organizational structure. The institutions involved in the UME-21 project sought to address curricular deficiencies in two broad areas: (1) the structure and financing of the US health care system ("health policy") and (2) the manner in which this system is reflected in the organization and activities of health care providers ("care delivery"). This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of the first of the two areas. Data were abstracted from written reports provided by each of the UME-21 schools to the project's Executive Committee and sponsor. In selected cases, additional data were obtained by personal communications with project directors and evaluators. Local UME-21 project leaders verified all data presented. Curricular philosophy and teaching methods varied widely, but health policy curricula were predominantly preclinical and didactic in nature. At the school level, much was achieved in terms of student knowledge, curricula were generally well received by students, attitudes toward managed care generally moved in a positive direction, and behavior may have been positively influenced as well. At the project level, many potentially interesting changes exist within the 18 schools and between the UME-21 and other schools, but it is not clear whether or what parts of the health policy curricula were responsible for these changes. Nonetheless, as measured by changes in health policy-related items
Wright, Steve; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham; Sharac, Jessica; McCrone, Paul
Stigma and discrimination are faced by many with mental health problems and this may affect the uptake of services and engagement in leisure and recreational activities. The aims of this study were to develop a schedule to measure the impact of stigma and discrimination on service use, employment and leisure activities and to estimate the value of such reductions. A questionnaire, the Cost of Discrimination Assessment, was developed and piloted in a sample people with mental health problems. Costs were calculated and test-retest reliability assessed. Test-retest reliability was good for most items. A substantial proportion of the sample had experienced negative impacts on employment as a result of stigma and discrimination. Around one-fifth had reduced contacts with general practitioners in the previous 6 months due to stigma and discrimination and the leisure activity most affected was visiting pubs/restaurants/café. In conclusion, stigma and discrimination result in reduced use of services and reduced engagement in leisure activities. This represents a welfare loss to individuals.
Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D; Yang, Zhifeng
Due to the important role of cities for regional, national, and international economic development and the concurrent degradation of the urban environmental quality under rapid urbanization, a systematic diagnosis of urban ecosystem health for sustainable ecological management is urgently needed. This paper reviews the related research on urban ecosystem health assessment, beginning from the inception of urban ecosystem health concerns propelled by the development needs of urban ecosystems and the advances in ecosystem health research. Concepts, standards, indicators, models, and case studies are introduced and discussed. Urban ecosystem health considers the integration of ecological, economic, social and human health factors, and as such it is a value-driven concept which is strongly influenced by human perceptions. There is not an absolute urban ecosystem standard because of the uncertainty caused by the changing human needs, targets, and expectation of urban ecosystem over time; thus, suitable approaches are still needed to establish health standards of urban ecosystems. Several conceptual models and suitable indicator frameworks have been proposed to organize the multiple factors to represent comprehensively the health characteristics of an urban ecosystem, while certain mathematical methods have been applied to deal with the indicator information to get a clear assessment of the urban ecosystem health status. Instead of perceiving the urban ecosystem assessment as an instantaneous measurement of the health state, it is suggested to conceptualize the urban ecosystem health as a process, which impels us to focus more studies on the dynamic trends of health status and projecting possible development scenarios.
Gros, Blanca; Soto Álvarez, Javier; Ángel Casado, Miguel
Future costs are not usually included in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of published economic analyses that incorporate future costs. A systematic review was conducted of economic analyses published from 2008 to 2013 in three general health economics journals: PharmacoEconomics, Value in Health and the European Journal of Health Economics. A total of 192 articles met the inclusion criteria, 94 of them (49.0%) incorporated future related medical costs, 9 (4.2%) also included future unrelated medical costs and none of them included future nonmedical costs. The percentage of articles including future costs increased from 2008 (30.8%) to 2013 (70.8%), and no differences were detected between the three journals. All relevant costs for the perspective considered should be included in economic evaluations, including related or unrelated, direct or indirect future costs. It is also advisable that pharmacoEconomic guidelines are adapted in this sense.
Abstract International collaborative health research is justifiably expected to help reduce global health inequities. Investment in health policy and systems research in developing countries is essential to this process but, currently, funding for international research is mainly channelled towards the development of new medical interventions. This imbalance is largely due to research legislation and policies used in high-income countries. These policies have increasingly led these countries to invest in health research aimed at boosting national economic competitiveness rather than reducing health inequities. In the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the regulation of research has encouraged a model that: leads to products that can be commercialized; targets health needs that can be met by profitable, high-technology products; has the licensing of new products as its endpoint; and does not entail significant research capacity strengthening in other countries. Accordingly, investment in international research is directed towards pharmaceutical trials and product development public–private partnerships for neglected diseases. This diverts funding away from research that is needed to implement existing interventions and to strengthen health systems, i.e. health policy and systems research. Governments must restructure their research laws and policies to increase this essential research in developing countries. PMID:22271965
Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe
International collaborative health research is justifiably expected to help reduce global health inequities. Investment in health policy and systems research in developing countries is essential to this process but, currently, funding for international research is mainly channelled towards the development of new medical interventions. This imbalance is largely due to research legislation and policies used in high-income countries. These policies have increasingly led these countries to invest in health research aimed at boosting national economic competitiveness rather than reducing health inequities. In the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the regulation of research has encouraged a model that: leads to products that can be commercialized; targets health needs that can be met by profitable, high-technology products; has the licensing of new products as its endpoint; and does not entail significant research capacity strengthening in other countries. Accordingly, investment in international research is directed towards pharmaceutical trials and product development public-private partnerships for neglected diseases. This diverts funding away from research that is needed to implement existing interventions and to strengthen health systems, i.e. health policy and systems research. Governments must restructure their research laws and policies to increase this essential research in developing countries.
Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian
Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as well as regular dialogue between
Buckles, Stephen; Melican, Claire
This document provides a guide for the development of the 2006 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Economics Assessment. The framework is designed to assess the outcomes of student education in and understanding of economics in grade 12 as part of NAEP. Economic literacy is defined as the ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate…
Disease management has become an important element in the improvement of care for people with chronic illnesses and has become embedded in the discussion on health policy in recent years. The approach has been introduced very differently to the health systems worldwide. Since 1 January 2003 accredited disease management programs (DMPs) have been a part of the risk structure compensation scheme of the German statutory health insurance. This is seen as the first step to a morbidity orientation of the risk structure compensation. DMPs have to be evaluated according the German Social Law, especially whether the objectives of the programs and the criteria for inclusion of the patients have been met and the quality of care for the patients is insured. The criteria for evaluation are threefold: medical issues, economic issues and subjective quality of life of the patients. Due to the immense amounts of data which can be expected the evaluation of the German DMPs is a huge logistical challenge. Until now not very much is known about the data quality. The evaluation is focused on the perspective of the sickness funds as e.g. information about indirect cost is not collected. In the article the methods for evaluation are described and critically discussed.
The topic suggests a conflict between ethics and economy in medical care. It is often argued that today's welfare state in affluent societies with their social insurance systems makes it easier for the doctor to translate ethical demands into reality without being hampered by economic restrictions. Both doctors and patients took advantage of this system of medical care by mingling social guarantees for health with the doctor's income. Hence, medical expenses expanded rapidly, additionally promoted by technical progress in medicine. This entailed a proportionate increase in medical expenses in relation to personal income, especially wage income. Budgets of state authorities were streamlined or deficits became larger. This state of affairs was promoted further by mechanisms of distribution of national income in accordance with the slogan "less state, more market". While national income continued to grow, although at a slower rate, the number of jobless persons grew continually and thus also the social expenses, this was not due, as is usually assumed and pretended, to an economic crisis. Society and economy are facing a crisis of distribution of national income under conditions of technical progress as a job killer, making economic production more productive and efficient. Not taking into account the new challenge of social market economy--the German innovation in market economy creating the economic miracle after World War II--reforms of the system of medical care took place and are still continuing along market principles, particularly the latest German reform law leading to individual contracts between patients and their doctors in respect of cost charging. However, marketing principles promote economy in medicine, but they do not promote medical ethics. Further German guidelines for medical care should take stock of past experiences. There will be more competition in the "growing market of medical care" (private and public) and this will need--as economic
McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy
This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences.
Expenditure on medical devices is substantial and is expected to grow in the future. This Editorial draws attention to health economic issues surrounding medical devices. To this effect, opportunities and challenges involved in the economic analysis of the market structure of medical device sectors and in the economic evaluation of medical devices are identified. Markets for medical devices tend to be fragmented and suffer from a lack of transparency and competition. In response to this, there is extensive government intervention in many developed countries with a view to keeping down prices, restricting public reimbursement and promoting an efficient use of medical devices. Studies are called for that evaluate and compare country approaches towards regulating medical device markets with a view to informing medical-device policies. Whereas economic evaluation of medicines is well established, and is used to inform pricing and reimbursement decisions in many developed countries, this is less the case for medical devices. There is a need for economic evaluations of medical devices with a view to demonstrating their cost effectiveness. In addition, countries need to implement frameworks for the assessment of new and emerging medical devices with a view to taking pricing and reimbursement decisions.
Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna
Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.
Hiligsmann, M; Reginster, J-Y
Medical advances and increasing life expectancy have indirectly contributed to the development of chronic complex diseases. Chronic diseases, which last for a lifetime, are responsible, at least in part, for the increase in health care expenditures which poses new challenges to healthcare systems. Under increasing economic pressure, it has become increasingly important to efficiently allocate scarce healthcare resources. By comparing costs and effects of health interventions, health economic evaluation is a powerful tool to help decision makers to make rational decisions. This article introduces the methods for the economic evaluation of health care programs and discusses the challenges of using economic evaluation in medical decision making.
Sands, Peter; El Turabi, Anas; Saynisch, Philip A; Dzau, Victor J
Infectious disease crises have substantial economic impact. Yet mainstream macroeconomic forecasting rarely takes account of the risk of potential pandemics. This oversight contributes to persistent underestimation of infectious disease risk and consequent underinvestment in preparedness and response to infectious disease crises. One reason why economists fail to include economic vulnerability to infectious disease threats in their assessments is the absence of readily available and digestible input data to inform such analysis. In this Viewpoint we suggest an approach by which the global health community can help to generate such inputs, and a framework to use these inputs to assess the economic vulnerability to infectious disease crises of individual countries and regions. We argue that incorporation of these risks in influential macroeconomic analyses such as the reports from the International Monetary Fund's Article IV consultations, rating agencies and risk consultancies would simultaneously improve the quality of economic risk forecasting and reinforce individual government and donor incentives to mitigate infectious disease risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutzwiller, Florian S.; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Blank, Patricia R.; Braunhofer, Peter G.; Mori, Claudio; Szucs, Thomas D.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.
Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of iron repletion using intravenous (i.v.) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with iron deficiency with or without anaemia. Cost-effectiveness was studied from the perspective of the National Health Service in the UK. Methods and results A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare iron repletion with FCM with no iron treatment. Using data from the FAIR-HF trial and publicly available sources and publications, per patient costs and clinical effectiveness of FCM were estimated compared with placebo. Cost assessment was based on study drug and administration costs, cost of CHF treatment, and hospital length of stay. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of FCM use was expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case. The time horizon of the analysis was 24 weeks. Mean QALYs were higher in the FCM arm (difference 0.037 QALYs; bootstrap-based 95% confidence interval 0.017–0.060). The ICER of FCM compared with placebo was €4414 per QALY gained for the FAIR-HF dosing regimen. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the base case result to be robust. Conclusion From the UK payers’ perspective, managing iron deficiency in CHF patients using i.v. FCM was cost-effective in this analysis. The base case ICER was clearly below the threshold of €22 200–€33 300/QALY gained (£20 000–£30 000) typically used by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and proved to be robust in sensitivity analysis. Improved symptoms and better quality of life contributed to this result. PMID:22689292
Broglie, M G
We have briefly tried to inform about the fact why controls of profitableness have to be carried out, how is their course and by virtue of which standards the unprofitableness is assessed. In form of a randomized summary we will once more specify what the physician by all means should do if the fee is reduced or a drug recourse takes place: 1. The date of receipt is to be written clearly visible on the control rescript, since this is of importance for the grace when legal remedies may be applied. 2. Test the rescript, whether or not the reducing or the recourse seems to be justified or whether you have the impression that the data of your activity and management of your practice have not been fully taken into consideration. In this case you at once object and announce a detailed argument. 3. Test quietly, after the first irritation has subsided, whether the points of view explained in the paragraphs 3 and 4 have been taken into consideration, in particular: a. Is the comparative group right? b. Is the present elevation of the average values suited to justify the reducing measure performed? c. Are all peculiarities of the practice taken into consideration? d. Are the peculiarities of the practice sufficiently exactly quantified? e. Was a possible compensatory less expenditure taken into consideration? 4. Summarize the result of your own inquires, as they are described in item 3, in a relevant argument as short as possible. If you need statistical data, which are not at your disposal, for writing this argument, so request such data from the control department of your health-insurance company. 5. In a drug recourse you control, whether or not you can acknowledge the judgment of the arguments for reducing declared. Otherwise you request from your health insurance company the examination into the adequate prescriptions, in which case you probably have to go into the business premises of your health insurance company, in order to be able to take notes there
Halıcı-Tülüce, Nadide Sevil; Doğan, İbrahim; Dumrul, Cüneyt
This paper examines the relationship between health expenditure and economic growth using panel data consisting low and high-income countries. Using dynamic panel data methodology, we analyze twenty five high-income and nineteen low-income economies for the periods of 1995-2012 and 1997-2009, respectively. We find reciprocal relationship between health expenditure and economic growth in the short run and one-way causality from economic growth to public health expenditure in the long-run. In high-income countries, there is a two-way causality for both private and public health expenditures in the short-run, while in the long-run there is a one-way causality between economic growth and private health expenditures. The crucial finding of this study is that private health expenditures have negative influence on economic growth while public health expenditures have both negative and statistically significant effect.
Soeteman, Djøra I; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J V
Some evidence suggests that personality disorders are associated with a high economic burden due to, for example, a high demand on psychiatric, health, and social care services. However, state-of-the-art cost studies for the broad range of personality disorder diagnoses are lacking. The present study examines the direct medical costs, as well as the indirect costs, of patients seeking mental health treatment with DSM-IV personality disorders. The 1740 subjects included in this study were recruited from March 2003 to March 2006 from 6 different mental health care institutes in the Netherlands specializing in the psychotherapeutic treatment of personality disorders. The direct and indirect costs were assessed using the Trimbos and Institute for Medical Technology Assessment Questionnaire on Costs Associated with Psychiatric Illness. Personality disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. The mean total costs of the personality disorder group in the 12 months prior to treatment were 11,126 euros per patient. Two thirds (66.5%) of these costs consisted of direct medical costs, while the remaining costs were related to productivity losses. Borderline and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were uniquely associated with increased mean total costs. Treatment-seeking patients with personality disorders pose a high economic burden on society, a burden substantially higher than that found in, for instance, depression or generalized anxiety disorder. These high societal costs present a strong argument in favor of prioritizing effective personality disorder treatments in reimbursement decisions.
In spite of the rapid economic development experienced by Paraguay during recent years, the country's health conditions remain among the poorest in Latin America. This article strives to explain, by presenting a model of Paraguay's economic and health care systems, why health care and economic growth have not advanced at the same rate. By examining various economic and health care indicators, hospital registries, family planning activities, and statistics on drinking-water and health care services distribution among central departments with established populations, as well as recently populated peripheral areas, the conclusion is reached that the country's poor health conditions might be the direct result of accelerated expansion of the agricultural frontier. In closing, recommendations are made for updating health statistics via new health survey, improved training for rural health care personnel, and closer coordination among the four public hospital systems in the cities.
Persad, Govind C; Elder, Linden; Sedig, Laura; Flores, Leonardo; Emanuel, Ezekiel J
Current challenges in medical practice, research, and administration demand physicians who are familiar with bioethics, health law, and health economics. Curriculum directors at American Association of Medical Colleges-affiliated medical schools were sent confidential surveys requesting the number of required hours of the above subjects and the years in which they were taught, as well as instructor names. The number of relevant publications since 1990 for each named instructor was assessed by a PubMed search. In sum, teaching in all three subjects combined comprises less than two percent of the total hours in the American medical curriculum, and most instructors have not recently published articles in the fields they teach. This suggests that medical schools should reevaluate their curricula and instructors in bioethics, health law, and health economics.
O’Connell, Joan M.; Griffin, Susan
Background Broad adoption of interventions that prove effective in randomized clinical trials or comparative effectiveness research may depend to a great extent on their costs and cost-effectiveness (CE). Many studies of behavioral health interventions for oral health promotion and disease prevention lack robust economic assessments of costs and CE. Objective To describe methodologies employed to assess intervention costs, potential savings, net costs, CE, and the financial sustainability of behavioral health interventions to promote oral health. Methods We provide an overview of terminology and strategies for conducting economic evaluations of behavioral interventions to improve oral health based on the recommendations of the Panel of Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. To illustrate these approaches, we summarize methodologies and findings from a limited number of published studies. The strategies include methods for assessing intervention costs, potential savings, net costs, CE, and financial sustainability from various perspectives (e.g., health-care provider, health system, health payer, employer, society). Statistical methods for estimating short-term and long-term economic outcomes and for examining the sensitivity of economic outcomes to cost parameters are described. Discussion Through the use of established protocols for evaluating costs and savings, it is possible to assess and compare intervention costs, net costs, CE, and financial sustainability. The addition of economic outcomes to outcomes reflecting effectiveness, appropriateness, acceptability, and organizational sustainability strengthens evaluations of oral health interventions and increases the potential that those found to be successful in research settings will be disseminated more broadly. PMID:21656966
Informal care is non-financed care outside the realm of formal healthcare, which represents an increasing challenge for aging societies. Informal care has frequently been neglected in health economic analyses, while in recent years its coverage has increased considerably in the international scientific literature. This review summarizes the methodology of the health-economic assessment of informal care, including the objective and subjective metrics of caregiver burden, its financial and non-financial valuation and practical applications, with special emphasis on the introduction of care-related quality of life instruments (e.g. Care Related Quality of Life - CarerQoL instrument). Care-related quality of life is a different entity from health-related quality of life, the two cannot be combined, so their joint evaluation requires multi-criteria decision analysis methods. Therefore, it is important to determine the societal preferences of care-related quality of life versus health-related quality of life, and map the relationship of care-related quality of life with time. The local validation of tools measuring care-related quality of life, its more widespread practical application and the analysis of its effect on decision making are also important part of the future research agenda. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(35): 1363-1372.
Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe
The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment.
Heintz, Emelie; Arnberg, Karl; Levin, Lars-Åke; Liliemark, Jan; Davidson, Thomas
The responsibility for healthcare in Sweden is shared by the central government, county councils and municipalities. The counties and municipalities are free to make their own prioritizations within the framework of the state healthcare laws. To guide prioritization of healthcare resources in Sweden, there is consensus that cost-effectiveness constitutes one of the three principles. The objective of this paper is to describe how cost-effectiveness, and hence health economic evaluations (HEE), have a role in pricing decisions, reimbursement of pharmaceuticals as well as the overall prioritization and allocation of resources in the Swedish healthcare system. There are various organizations involved in the processes of implementing health technologies in the Swedish healthcare system, several of which consider or produce HEEs when assessing different technologies: the Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency (TLV), the county councils' group on new drug therapies (NLT), the National Board of Health and Welfare, the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU), regional HTA agencies and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The only governmental agency that has official and mandatory guidelines for how to perform HEE is TLV (LFNAR 2003:2). Even though HEEs may seem to have a clear and explicit role in the decision-making processes in the Swedish healthcare system, there are various obstacles and challenges in the use and dissemination of the results.
Introduction: Wildland fires degrade regional air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature report increased rates of emergency department, hospital admission and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. Objective: Our research aimed to characterized excess mortality and morbidity events, and the economic value of these impacts, from wildland fire smoke exposure in the U.S over a multi-year period; to date no other burden assessment has done this. Methods: We first completed a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature and then performed photochemical air quality modeling for the years 2008 to 2012 in the Continental U.S. Finally, we estimated the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden of wildland fires. Results: Our models suggest that areas including northern California, Oregon and Idaho in the West, and Florida, Louisiana and Georgia in the East were most affected by wildland fire events in the form of additional premature deaths and respiratory hospital admissions. We estimated the economic value of these cases due to short term exposures as being between $11 and $20B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $63B (95% confidence intervals $6-$170); we estimate the value of long- term exposures as being between $76 and $130B (2010$) per year, with a net present value of $450B (95% confidence intervals $42-$1,200). Conclusion: The public health burden of wildland fires-in terms of the number and
Escobar, M A
Health economic evaluations provide valuable information for healthcare providers, facilitating the treatment decision-making process in a climate where demand for healthcare exceeds the supply. Although an uncommon disease, haemophilia is a life-long condition that places a considerable burden on patients, healthcare systems and society. This burden is particularly large for patients with haemophilia with inhibitors, who can develop serious bleeding complications unresponsive to standard factor replacement therapies. Hence, bleeding episodes in these patients are treated with bypassing agents such as recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrates (pd-APCC). With the efficacy of these agents now well established, a number of health economic studies have been conducted to compare their cost-effectiveness for the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in haemophiliacs with inhibitors. In a cost-utility analysis, which assesses the effects of treatment on quality of life (QoL) and quantity of life, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained (US $44,834) indicated that rFVIIa was cost-effective. Similarly, eight of 11 other economic modelling evaluations found that rFVIIa was more cost-effective than pd-APCC in the on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes. These findings indicate that treating patients with haemophilia promptly and with the most effective therapy available may result in cost savings.
Background If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Methods Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990–2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. Results We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. Conclusions In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may
Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Charles, Joanna Mary; Lloyd-Williams, Huw
If Public Health is the science and art of how society collectively aims to improve health, and reduce inequalities in health, then Public Health Economics is the science and art of supporting decision making as to how society can use its available resources to best meet these objectives and minimise opportunity cost. A systematic review of published guidance for the economic evaluation of public health interventions within this broad public policy paradigm was conducted. Electronic databases and organisation websites were searched using a 22 year time horizon (1990-2012). References of papers were hand searched for additional papers for inclusion. Government reports or peer-reviewed published papers were included if they; referred to the methods of economic evaluation of public health interventions, identified key challenges of conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions or made recommendations for conducting economic evaluations of public health interventions. Guidance was divided into three categories UK guidance, international guidance and observations or guidance provided by individual commentators in the field of public health economics. An assessment of the theoretical frameworks underpinning the guidance was made and served as a rationale for categorising the papers. We identified 5 international guidance documents, 7 UK guidance documents and 4 documents by individual commentators. The papers reviewed identify the main methodological challenges that face analysts when conducting such evaluations. There is a consensus within the guidance that wider social and environmental costs and benefits should be looked at due to the complex nature of public health. This was reflected in the theoretical underpinning as the majority of guidance was categorised as extra-welfarist. In this novel review we argue that health economics may have come full circle from its roots in broad public policy economics. We may find it useful to think in this broader
Salkeld, G; Davey, P; Arnolda, G
In Australia, as in many other countries, economic evaluation is increasingly seen by health care policy makers as a useful aid to priority setting and resource allocation. In Australia, economic evaluation is now a requirement for new drugs to be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme which provides a government subsidy on the price of listed drugs for purchasers. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of economic evaluation by policy makers, there is a paucity of published evaluations in Australia. We reviewed all of the 33 health-related economic evaluations conducted in Australia and subsequently published since 1978. This study assesses how well informed decision makers might be if they used the results and conclusions of published economic evaluations as an aid to resource allocation. The review highlights several issues: (i) it is difficult to interpret the conclusions or assess the generalisability of individual papers without information on the context of the original study; (ii) the choice of comparator(s) was often unexplained and most papers did not employ marginal analysis; (iii) in the absence of marginal analysis, the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios in league tables must be questioned as well as the completeness (were all the relevant alternatives included?) of studies; and (iv) the quality of effectiveness evidence varies enormously, with some authors content to use the best available evidence (even if it is of poor quality). The development of standards for economic evaluation methods might ensure a more consistent and scientific approach to evaluative work, but they cannot guarantee it. A more concerted effort to disseminate the principles and methods of economic evaluation to policy makers and non-economist evaluators might be a more important precursor to improving the credibility and usefulness of economic evaluations in priority setting.
"Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given.
Grinnell, G.; Gavett, E.
Increased fuel ethanol production through 1995 would raise net farm income, benefiting mainly corn and livestock producers. Production of additional byproduct feeds would depress the price of soybeans. Large ethanol subsidies, which are required to sustain the industry, would offset any savings in agricultural commodity programs. Increased ethanol production would also raise consumer expenditures for food. Any benefits of higher income to farmers would be more than offset by increased Government costs and consumer food expenditures. Direct cash payments to farmers would be more economical than attempting to boost farm income through ethanol subsidies.
Clay, Joy A; Mirvis, David M
This symposium explores the role of health as an 'economic engine' in the lower Mississippi River Delta region of the United States. The health as an economic engine model proposes that health is an important and perhaps critical determinant of economic growth and development. This model is the reverse of the more commonly considered paradigm in which economic conditions are major determinants of health status. This reframing of the conventional pathway draws upon an existing and extensive internationally-based body of knowledge, predominantly from research done in Africa and Asia. We suggest, in this symposium, that the health as an economic engine model can also be applied within the United States, particularly in regions that are economically underdeveloped and have poor health. This reframing has significant implications for population health policy as public health advancement can be legitimately argued to be an investment rather than just an expense. Viewing health as an economic engine supports a call to community-based participatory action on the part of policy makers, researchers, and educators to further both public and private investment in health, particularly for children and the poor.
Mannion, Russell; Small, Neil; Thompson, Carl
As nursing has been subject to successive waves of 'managerialism' there has been a drive on the part of government and elements within the profession to enhance the science base and promote cost-effective health care interventions. This has generated new interest in the 'economics of nursing' as efficiency and 'value for money' are viewed as necessary precondition for the provision of a high quality nursing service. As an academic subject health economics has brought an elegant set of theories to bear on the topic of health and health care. However, mainstream health economics is premised on a series of simplifying assumptions that, if applied uncritically, can induce a range of unintended and adverse consequences. This paper asks how ideas developed in one sphere (health economics) can be become influential in another (nursing management and practice) and it seeks explanations in the theories of Michel Foucault, specifically in his exploration of the reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge. How are our assumptions about what is possible and desirable shaped, how far do mechanisms of surveillance and self-subjugation extend? A range of alternative economic approaches have been developed which challenge many mainstream health economics assumptions. Some of these are better suited to the complex social environment present within health care. Nurses, nurse managers and researchers should question the assumptions of dominant economic models and explore a range of economic frameworks when planning services and evaluating their practice.
Presented is an economic assessment of the specialized study areas, reviewing recommendations from the specialized studies in relation to each other and to the GOJ's 5-year Development and Energy Sector Plans. After analyzing the effects of these recommendations on Jamaica's energy situation and economy, the recommendations are integrated and prioritized in a proposed Combined Energy Program (CEP) which is recommended for immediate GOJ implementation. Highest priority items include research, testing, training, and tax structures to encourage solar hot water and agricultural drying systems; installation of small- and medium-size biogas plants; and negotiating joint port usage for a possible coal-fired electricity plant.
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi
The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets.
Knaul, Felicia Marie; Héctor, Arreola-Ornelas; Escandón, Pablo
Health and the health sector have a direct impact on economic growth and competitiveness. Moreover, the health sector is experiencing increasingly strong links with the economy, which reinforces the key role that health plays in the development of individuals and economies. On the one hand, in addition to its intrinsic value health constitutes an important economic good because it contributes to increasing the capacity of individuals and nations to achieve greater levels of human, economic and social development. In addition, there is a direct relationship between health as a productive sector and the economy that will become more important as world health expenditure increases and because of recent advances in the productivity of the medical sector and the technology used in providing health services. For these reasons, a better understanding of the complex relationship between health, the health sector and economic development will help to increase competitiveness and attain higher levels of growth by enabling a more efficient health system that is in turn based on a solid, fair, equitable and sufficient financial base.
The economic depression of the 1930s represented the most important economic and social crisis of its time. Surprisingly, its effect on health did not show in available morbidity and mortality rates. In 1932, the League of Nations Health Organisation embarked on a six-point program addressing statistical methods of measuring the effect and its influence on mental health and nutrition and establishing ways to safeguard public health through more efficient health systems. Some of these studies resulted in considerations of general relevance beyond crisis management. Unexpectedly, the crisis offered an opportunity to reconsider key concepts of individual and public health.
Hu, T‐W; Mao, Z; Ong, M; Tong, E; Tao, M; Jiang, H; Hammond, K; Smith, K R; de Beyer, J; Yurekli, A
Objective To analyse economic aspects of tobacco control policy issues in China. Methods Published and collected survey data were used to analyse economic consequences of smoking. Economic analysis was used to address the role of tobacco farmers and the cigarette industry in the Chinese economy. Results In the agricultural sector, tobacco has the lowest economic rate of return of all cash crops. At the same time, the tobacco industry's tax contribution to the central government has been declining. Conclusion Economic gains become less important as the negative health impact of smoking on the population garners more awareness. China stands at a crossroads to implement the economic promises of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and promote the health of its population. PMID:16723674
Schmeer, Kammi K.
This research provides a longitudinal view of early childhood economic deprivation and its associations with health among young Hispanic children born in the United States. Of additional interest is whether economic deprivation is associated with child health similarly across all Hispanic children or whether associations differ by maternal nativity or country of origin. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data and multinomial logistic regression are used to estimate the effects of total years in poverty, material hardship, and lack of health insurance on Hispanic children’s health status at age 5 and change in health status between ages 1 and 5. Results show that multiple measures of early childhood economic deprivation have additive negative associations with Hispanic child health, and that living more years in poverty is associated with declining health status among young Hispanic children. Interaction effects indicate that early childhood poverty has stronger associations with lower age 5 health status and declining health between ages 1 and 5 for children with foreign-born Hispanic mothers than for those with native-born Hispanic mothers. No differences were found in the associations between economic deprivation and child health by maternal country of origin. These results suggest an important role of economic resources for protecting Hispanic child health, and that poor Hispanic children with immigrant mothers may be at particularly high risk of developing health problems as they move out of infancy and into early childhood. PMID:22818489
Schmeer, Kammi K
This research provides a longitudinal view of early childhood economic deprivation and its associations with health among young Hispanic children born in the United States. Of additional interest is whether economic deprivation is associated with child health similarly across all Hispanic children or whether associations differ by maternal nativity or country of origin. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data and multinomial logistic regression are used to estimate the effects of total years in poverty, material hardship, and lack of health insurance on Hispanic children's health status at age 5 and change in health status between ages 1 and 5. Results show that multiple measures of early childhood economic deprivation have additive negative associations with Hispanic child health, and that living more years in poverty is associated with declining health status among young Hispanic children. Interaction effects indicate that early childhood poverty has stronger associations with lower age 5 health status and declining health between ages 1 and 5 for children with foreign-born Hispanic mothers than for those with native-born Hispanic mothers. No differences were found in the associations between economic deprivation and child health by maternal country of origin. These results suggest an important role of economic resources for protecting Hispanic child health, and that poor Hispanic children with immigrant mothers may be at particularly high risk of developing health problems as they move out of infancy and into early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.
The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.
Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores
Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects. PMID:25984439
Osypuk, Theresa L; Joshi, Pamela; Geronimo, Kimberly; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores
Although social and economic policies are not considered part of health services infrastructure, such policies may influence health and disease by altering social determinants of health (SDH). We review social and economic policies in the US that have measured health outcomes among adults in four domains of SDH including housing and neighborhood, employment, family strengthening/marriage, and income supplementation. The majority of these policies target low-income populations. These social policies rarely consider health as their initial mission or outcomes. When measuring health, the programs document mental health and physical health benefits more than half the time, although some effects fade with time. We also find considerable segregation of program eligibility by gender and family composition. Policy makers should design future social policies to evaluate health outcomes using validated health measures; to target women more broadly across the socioeconomic spectrum; and to consider family caregiving responsibilities as ignoring them can have unintended health effects.
Xiao, J; Sun, J F; Wang, Q Q; Qi, X; Yao, H Y
Using the guidelines of health economic evaluation reporting is conducive to regulating the contents of this reporting, improving the quality of studies into health economics evaluation. This article summarized the history of the guidelines and specified the instrument used to study " Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES)" and the checklist about Consolidated Health Economics Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS)-the two specific evaluation contents in this guideline, the article also introduced its present application status of the guideline and its pros and cons. The checklist of CHEERS emphasized the evaluation of this report, while QHES instrument focused on quantitative evaluation on the quality of economic studies. Despite different emphasis, the two guides are actually mutually complemented.
Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian; Sellstrom, Eva; Petticrew, Mark
The well established links between poor housing and poor health indicate that housing improvement may be an important mechanism through which public investment can lead to health improvement. Intervention studies which have assessed the health impacts of housing improvements are an important data resource to test assumptions about the potential for health improvement. Evaluations may not detect long term health impacts due to limited follow-up periods. Impacts on socio-economic determinants of health may be a valuable proxy indication of the potential for longer term health impacts. To assess the health and social impacts on residents following improvements to the physical fabric of housing. Twenty seven academic and grey literature bibliographic databases were searched for housing intervention studies from 1887 to July 2012 (ASSIA; Avery Index; CAB Abstracts; The Campbell Library; CINAHL; The Cochrane Library; COPAC; DH-DATA: Health Admin; EMBASE; Geobase; Global Health; IBSS; ICONDA; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; NTIS; PAIS; PLANEX; PsycINFO; RIBA; SCIE; Sociological Abstracts; Social Science Citations Index; Science Citations Index expanded; SIGLE; SPECTR). Twelve Scandinavian grey literature and policy databases (Libris; SveMed+; Libris uppsök; DIVA; Artikelsök; NORART; DEFF; AKF; DSI; SBI; Statens Institut for Folkesundhed; Social.dk) and 23 relevant websites were searched. In addition, a request to topic experts was issued for details of relevant studies. Searches were not restricted by language or publication status. Studies which assessed change in any health outcome following housing improvement were included. This included experimental studies and uncontrolled studies. Cross-sectional studies were excluded as correlations are not able to shed light on changes in outcomes. Studies reporting only socio-economic outcomes or indirect measures of health, such as health service use, were excluded. All housing improvements which
Since the emergence of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) there have been calls for improved methods of assessing economics. Oral assessment has been suggested as a possible technique and this study investigated whether it might be used to allow students to demonstrate achievement in GCSE economics. The empirical study compared…
Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing
Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated.
The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...
The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...
Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.
Rothgang, H; Staber, J
In the course of establishing the discourse of public health ethics in Germany, we discuss whether economic efficiency should be part of public health ethics and, if necessary, how efficiency should be conceptualized. Based on the welfare economics theory, we build a theoretical framework that demands an integration of economic rationality in public health ethics. Furthermore, we consider the possible implementation of welfare efficiency against the background of current practice in an economic evaluation of health care in Germany. The indifference of the welfare efficiency criterion with respect to distribution leads to the conclusion that efficiency must not be the only criteria of public health ethics. Therefore, an ethical approach of principles should be chosen for public health ethics. Possible conflicts between principles of such an approach are outlined.
'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.
Gyles, Collin L; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Carlberg, Jared G; Senanayake, Vijitha; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Inaki; Poley, Marten J; Dubois, Dominique; Jones, Peter J
The relationship between nutrition and health-economic outcomes is important at both the individual and the societal level. While personal nutritional choices affect an individual's health condition, thus influencing productivity and economic contribution to society, nutrition interventions carried out by the state also have the potential to affect economic output in significant ways. This review summarizes studies of nutrition interventions in which health-related economic implications of the intervention have been addressed. Results of the search strategy have been categorized into three areas: economic studies of micronutrient deficiencies and malnutrition; economic studies of dietary improvements; and economic studies of functional foods. The findings show that a significant number of studies have calculated the health-economic impacts of nutrition interventions, but approaches and methodologies are sometimes ad hoc in nature and vary widely in quality. Development of an encompassing economic framework to evaluate costs and benefits from such interventions is a potentially fruitful area for future research. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.
Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara
Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.
Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu
Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.
Economic evaluations are analytic techniques to assess the relative costs and consequences of health care programmes and technologies. Their role is to provide rigorous data to inform the health care decision-making process. Economic evaluation may oversimplify complex health care decisions. These analyses often ignore important health consequences, contextual elements, relationships or other relevant modifying factors, which might not be appropriate in a multi-objective, multi-stakeholder issue. One solution would be to develop a new paradigm based on the issues of perspective and context. Complexity theory may provide a useful conceptual framework for economic evaluation in health care. Complexity thinking develops an awareness of issues including uncertainty, contextual issues, multiple perspectives, broader societal involvement, and transdisciplinarity. This points the economic evaluation field towards an accountability and epistemology based on pluralism and uncertainty, requiring new forms of lay-expert engagement and roles of lay knowledge into decision-making processes. This highlights the issue of reflexivity in economic evaluation in health care. A reflexive approach would allow economic evaluators to analyze how objective structures and subjective elements influence their practices. In return, this would point increase the integrity and reliability of economic evaluations. Reflexivity provides opportunities for critically thinking about the organization and activities of the intellectual field, and perhaps the potential of moving in new, creative directions. This paper argues for economic evaluators to have a less positivist attitude towards what is useful knowledge, and to use more imagination about the data and methodologies they use.
Kim, Lois G; Thompson, Simon G
Health economic decision models are based on specific assumptions relating to model structure and parameter estimation. Validation of these models is recommended as an indicator of reliability, but is not commonly reported. Furthermore, models derived from different data and employing different assumptions may produce a variety of results.A Markov model for evaluating the long-term cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm is described. Internal, prospective and external validations are carried out using individual participant data from two randomised trials. Validation is assessed in terms of total numbers and timings of key events, and total costs and life-years. Since the initial model validates well only internally, two further models are developed that better fit the prospective and external validation data. All three models are then extrapolated to a life-time horizon, producing cost-effectiveness estimates ranging from pound1600 to pound4200 per life-year gained.Parameter uncertainty is now commonly addressed in health economic decision modelling. However, the derivation of models from different data sources adds another level of uncertainty. This extra uncertainty should be recognised in practical decision-making and, where possible, specifically investigated through independent model validation.
Toçi, E; Burazeri, G; Kamberi, H; Jerliu, N; Sørensen, K; Brand, H
Functional health literacy (FHL) has been related to individual characteristics, ill-health and disease knowledge. However, the information about FHL in Kosovo is very limited and thus the aim of this study was to assess the demographic and socio-economic correlates of FHL among users of primary health care in Kosovo, a postconflict country in the Western Balkans. Cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo between November 2012-February 2013, including a representative sample of 1035 consecutive primary care users aged ≥18 years (60% females; overall mean age: 44.3 ± 16.9 years; overall response rate: 86%). Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) was used to assess FHL. General linear model and logistic regression were used to assess the association of TOFHLA score with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Overall, four out of five participants exhibited inadequate or marginal FHL in this Kosovo sample. FHL score was independently and inversely related to age, but positively associated with educational attainment and being in a situation other than unemployed. Limited or marginal FHL was very common among primary care users in Kosovo and considerably higher than in the neighbouring Serbia. The low health literacy levels in Kosovo may provide an additional barrier towards achievement of health care goals. There is a need to design and implement suitable and effective educational and health system interventions in the Kosovo context. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Remoundou, Kyriaki; Koundouri, Phoebe
In this article we critically review the economic literature on the effects of environmental changes on public health, in both the developed and the developing world. We first focus on the economic methodologies that are available for the evaluation of the effects (social costs and benefits) of environmental changes (degradation/preservation) on public health. Then, we explain how the monetary valuations of these effects can feed back in the construction of economic policy for creating agent-specific incentives for more efficient public health management, which is also equitable and environmentally sustainable. Our exposition is accompanied by a synthesis of the available quantitative empirical results. PMID:19742153
Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Anikpo, Emilienne; Karisa, Eddie; Mwabu, Germano
There is growing evidence that HIV/ AIDS has enormous negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations in the African region. Thus, there is urgent need for various disciplines to demonstrate how they can contribute in curbing the spread of this deadly disease in the African region. This paper, using an extended version of Professor Alan Williams schema as the conceptual framework, attempts to demonstrate how health economics can be used to inform policy and managerial choices related to HIV/AIDS advocacy, prevention, treatment and management. It argues that the discipline of health economics (and economics generally) is extremely valuable in: measuring health impacts of the disease and interventions; evaluating the relationships between health care-seeking behaviour of individuals and health system specific attributes; the estimation of determinants of compliance of HIV/AIDS patients with treatment regimen; establishing of health institutions efficiency in combating AIDS; guiding choices of HIV/AIDS interventions; assessing the relationships between HIV/AIDS, development, poverty, and trade; programme planning, monitoring and evaluation; and assessing health system's overall performance. The paper is a modest attempt to show how the discipline of health economics can elucidate, and help in resolving practical and conceptual issues in HIV/AIDS control in Africa.
Background Health economic analysis traditionally relies on patient derived questionnaire data, routine datasets, and outcomes data from experimental randomised control trials and other clinical studies, which are generally used as stand-alone datasets. Herein, we outline the potential implications of linking these datasets to give one single joined up data-resource for health economic analysis. Method The linkage of individual level data from questionnaires with routinely-captured health care data allows the entire patient journey to be mapped both retrospectively and prospectively. We illustrate this with examples from an Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) cohort by linking patient reported study dataset with the routinely collected general practitioner (GP) data, inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) datasets, and Accident and Emergency department data in Wales. The linked data system allows: (1) retrospective and prospective tracking of patient pathways through multiple healthcare facilities; (2) validation and clarification of patient-reported recall data, complementing the questionnaire/routine data information; (3) obtaining objective measure of the costs of chronic conditions for a longer time horizon, and during the pre-diagnosis period; (4) assessment of health service usage, referral histories, prescribed drugs and co-morbidities; and (5) profiling and stratification of patients relating to disease manifestation, lifestyles, co-morbidities, and associated costs. Results Using the GP data system we tracked about 183 AS patients retrospectively and prospectively from the date of questionnaire completion to gather the following information: (a) number of GP events; (b) presence of a GP 'drug' read codes; and (c) the presence of a GP 'diagnostic' read codes. We tracked 236 and 296 AS patients through the OP and IP data systems respectively to count the number of OP visits; and IP admissions and duration. The results are presented under several patient stratification
Husain, Muhammad J; Brophy, Sinead; Macey, Steven; Pinder, Leila M; Atkinson, Mark D; Cooksey, Roxanne; Phillips, Ceri J; Siebert, Stefan
Health economic analysis traditionally relies on patient derived questionnaire data, routine datasets, and outcomes data from experimental randomised control trials and other clinical studies, which are generally used as stand-alone datasets. Herein, we outline the potential implications of linking these datasets to give one single joined up data-resource for health economic analysis. The linkage of individual level data from questionnaires with routinely-captured health care data allows the entire patient journey to be mapped both retrospectively and prospectively. We illustrate this with examples from an Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) cohort by linking patient reported study dataset with the routinely collected general practitioner (GP) data, inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) datasets, and Accident and Emergency department data in Wales. The linked data system allows: (1) retrospective and prospective tracking of patient pathways through multiple healthcare facilities; (2) validation and clarification of patient-reported recall data, complementing the questionnaire/routine data information; (3) obtaining objective measure of the costs of chronic conditions for a longer time horizon, and during the pre-diagnosis period; (4) assessment of health service usage, referral histories, prescribed drugs and co-morbidities; and (5) profiling and stratification of patients relating to disease manifestation, lifestyles, co-morbidities, and associated costs. Using the GP data system we tracked about 183 AS patients retrospectively and prospectively from the date of questionnaire completion to gather the following information: (a) number of GP events; (b) presence of a GP 'drug' read codes; and (c) the presence of a GP 'diagnostic' read codes. We tracked 236 and 296 AS patients through the OP and IP data systems respectively to count the number of OP visits; and IP admissions and duration. The results are presented under several patient stratification schemes based on disease
Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul
The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.
Derumeaux-Burel, Hélène; Derancourt, Christian; Rambhojan, Christine; Branchard, Olivier; Hayes, Nathalie; Bénard, Antoine
The aim of health economic evaluation is to maximize health gains from limited resources. By definition, health economic evaluation is comparative, based on average costs and outcomes of compared interventions. Incremental costs and outcomes are used to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio, which represents the average incremental cost per gained unit of effectiveness (i.e.: a year of life) with the evaluated intervention compared to the reference. The health economic rationale applies to all health domains. We cannot spend collective resources (health insurance) without asking ourselves about their potential alternative uses. This reasoning is useful to caregivers for understanding resources allocation decisions and healthcare recommandations. Caregivers should grab this field of expertise because they are central in this strategic reflection for defining the future French healthcare landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
There is a wide variety of ethical arguments for public financing of health care that share a common structure built on a series of four logically related propositions regarding: (1) the ultimate purpose of a human life or human society; (2) the role of health and its distribution in society in advancing this ultimate purpose; (3) the role of access to or utilisation of health care in maintaining or improving the desired level and distribution of health among members of society, and (4) the role of public financing in ensuring the ethically justified access to and utilisation of health care by members of society. This paper argues that economics has much to contribute to the development of the ethical foundations for publicly financed health care. It focuses in particular on recent economic work to clarify the concepts of access and need and their role in analyses of the just distribution of health care resources, and on the importance of economic analysis of health care and health care insurance markets in demonstrating why public financing is necessary to achieve broad access to and utilisation of health care services. Key Words: Ethics • economics • health care financing PMID:11479353
Jaisson-Hot, Isabelle; Schott, Anne-Marie; Clippe, Christine; Ganne, Christell; Hajri, Touria; Poncet, Bénédicte; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Colin, Cyrille
The increasing costs of care make it important to identify those strategies of greatest value from both an effectiveness and cost perspective. Economic analysis is characterized by a simultaneous consideration of alternatives costs and outcomes, and can provide useful data for managerial decision making. In this paper, methods of economic evaluations in general and in cancer in particular is reviewed. In cancer treatment, preventive, curative or palliative strategies can be concerned. Economic evaluation have become increasingly important in oncology because of the proliferation of expensive new treatments. Furthermore, considering quality of life effects is particularly important in oncology, where many treatments obtain modest improvements in response or survival. Quality of life measurements are also reviewed.
Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo
Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E
Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health
Benatar, S R
Some of the background to the present structure of medicine in South Africa, an outline of some economic aspects of our current (inadequate) health care service and tentative suggestions regarding the directions in which our health services should be moving to facilitate the legitimization (political) and accumulation (economic) processes required to meet the needs and demands of all the people of an internationally recognized, just and free South Africa are presented.
Sorkin, A L
The paper briefly discusses the importance of macro-economic policy in health sector financing. The ways in which monetary and fiscal policy (macro-economic policy) affect interest rates, price levels and aggregate output are presented. The main portion of the paper considers a variety of methods for public financing of health and development projects. These approaches are analyzed in light of distributional and efficiency considerations. One way of increasing health sector resources is through reallocation from other sectors of the economy. The potential for redistribution from the defense to the health service industry is briefly considered.
Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M
This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.
Stosić, Sanja; Karanović, Nevena
One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability.
Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna
Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370
Kathleen L. Wolf; Alicia S.T. Robbins
Background: Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities.Objectives: We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes,...
Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Elder, Randy W; Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L
The objective of this systematic review was to determine the costs, benefits, and overall economic value of communication campaigns that included mass media and distribution of specified health-related products at reduced price or free of charge. Economic evaluation studies from a literature search from January 1980 to December 2009 were screened and abstracted following systematic economic review methods developed by The Community Guide. Data were analyzed in 2011. The economic evidence was grouped and assessed by type of product distributed and health risk addressed. A total of 15 evaluation studies were included in the economic review, involving campaigns promoting the use of child car seats or booster seats, pedometers, condoms, recreational safety helmets, and nicotine replacement therapy. Economic merits of the intervention could not be determined for health communication campaigns associated with use of recreational helmets, child car seats, and pedometers, primarily because available economic information and analyses were incomplete. There is some evidence that campaigns with free condom distribution to promote safer sex practices were cost-effective among high-risk populations and the cost per quit achieved in campaigns promoting tobacco cessation with nicotine replacement therapy products may translate to a cost per quality-adjusted life-year less than $50,000. Many interventions were publicly funded trials or programs, and the failure to properly evaluate their economic cost and benefit is a serious gap in the science and practice of public health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José
The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.
The goal of this presentation is to explore how HIA can help inform hazardous waste permitting regulations and incorporate community vulnerability and cumulative impacts to their potential health risks into permitting decision making by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Presented the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) at the State of California Cumulative Impacts and Community Vulnerability Symposium on July 27 in Diamond Bar, CA.
Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary
Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616
Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary
Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid 'balance sheet' approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy.
Manns, Braden J
The pressure for health care systems to provide more resource-intensive health care and newer, more costly therapies is significant, despite limited health care budgets. It is not surprising, then, that demonstration that a new therapy is effective is no longer sufficient to ensure that it can be used in practice within publicly funded health care systems. The impact of the therapy on health care costs is also important and considered by decision makers, who must decide whether scarce resources should be invested in providing a new therapy. The impact of a therapy on both clinical benefits and costs can be estimated simultaneously using economic evaluation, the strengths and limitations of which are discussed. When planning a clinical trial, important economic outcomes can often be collected alongside the clinical outcome data, enabling consideration of the impact of the therapy on overall resource use, thus enabling performance of an economic evaluation, if appropriate.
Cortès-Franch, Imma; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz
The objectives of the SESPAS 2014 Report are as follows: a) to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on health and health-related behaviors, on health inequalities, and on the determinants of health in Spain; b) to describe the changes in the Spanish health system following measures to address the crisis and assess its potential impact on health; c) to review the evidence on the health impact of economic crises in other countries, as well as policy responses; and d) to suggest policy interventions alternative to those carried out to date with a population health perspective and scientific evidence in order to help mitigate the impact of the economic downturn on health and health inequalities. The report is organized in five sections: 1) the economic, financial and health crisis: causes, consequences, and contexts; 2) the impact on structural determinants of health and health inequalities; 3) the impact on health and health-related behaviors, and indicators for monitoring; 4) the impact on health systems; and 5) the impact on specific populations: children, seniors, and immigrants. There is some evidence on the relationship between the crisis and the health of the Spanish population, health inequalities, some changes in lifestyle, and variations in access to health services. The crisis has impacted many structural determinants of health, particularly among the most vulnerable population groups. Generally, policy responses on how to manage the crisis have not taken the evidence into account. The crisis may contribute to making public policy vulnerable to corporate action, thus jeopardizing the implementation of healthy policies. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
The article considers the public health as a social system because its main elements are human beings and their relationships. The conceptual foundations of characteristics of medical services are discussed as kinds of public benefits and nonmaterial values.
Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A
There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.
Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop
Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.
Ruttan, Vernon W.
For almost half a century World War II and the Cold War provided the political and fiscal context for public investment in science and technoloby. The Bush report, Science the Endless Frontier, which became the charter for post war science policy, advanced an investment rationale for federal support of scientific research. In spite of pressure from Congress and the Office of the President the science community has resisted the development and application of economic criteria for the allocation of research resources.
Franken, Margreet; Koopmanschap, Marc; Steenhoek, Adri
Health technology assessment already informed Dutch policymaking in the early 1980s. Evidence of health economic evaluations is, however, only systematically used in drug reimbursement decision making. Outpatient drugs with an added therapeutic value and expensive specialist drugs require evidence from an economic evaluation. Due to many exemptions, however, the availability of evidence of health economic evaluations remains rather low. Although the Dutch reimbursement agency suggested a cost-effectiveness threshold range depending on the severity of the disease (i.e., €10,000 - 80,000 per Quality Adjusted Life Year), it was never confirmed nor endorsed by the Ministry of Health. It is highly questionable whether health economic evaluations currently play a role in actual Dutch reimbursement decision making. Although the requirements exist in policy procedures, recent cases show that Dutch policymakers experience great difficulties in putting restrictions on reimbursement based on evidence from health economic evaluations. The near future will show whether the need will increase to base decisions on societal value for money, and whether Dutch policymakers show the courage to take health economic evaluations seriously.
Groncki, P J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A
Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward the restructuring of the energy system so as to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. The first strategy is to initiate no additional programs or policies beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is to direct policy toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third is to promote increased supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The analysis indicates that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, and involves substantial environmental costs and impacts on economic performance. However, these relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation turned out to be less than anticipated; therefore, both conservation and R, D, and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy.
Langlotz, Curtis P.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Brikman, Inna; Kishore, Sheel; Kundel, Harold L.; Schwartz, J. Sanford
Most economic studies of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) to date, including our own, have focused on the perspective of the radiology department and its direct costs. However, many researchers have suggested additional cost savings that may accrue to the medical center as a whole through increased operational capacity, fewer lost images, rapid simultaneous access to images, and other decreases in resource utilization. We describe here a new economic analysis framework we have developed to estimate these potential additional savings. Our framework is comprised of two parallel measurement methods. The first method estimates the cost of care actually delivered through online capture of charge entries from the hospital's billing computer and from the clinical practices' billing database. Multiple regression analyses will be used to model cost of care, length of stay, and other estimates of resource utilization. The second method is the measurement of actual resource utilization, such as technologist time, frequency and duration of film searches, and equipment utilization rates. The costs associated with changes in resource use will be estimated using wage rates and other standard economic methods. Our working hypothesis is that, after controlling for the underlying clinical and demographic differences among patients, patients imaged using a PACS will have shorter lengths of stay, shorter exam performance times, and decreased costs of care. We expect our analysis framework to explain and resolve some of the conflicting views of the cost-effectiveness of PACS.
Leyes, John M.; And Others
The research reported pertains to the interrelationships of the economic system, the health-care delivery system, and the health manpower education systems. In this research it was learned that in a part of the intermountain region predominately rural in nature, the economic and the health systems are closely related. Challenge is given to the…
Nechaev, V S; Markun, E R
The article discusses several theoretical characteristics in the development of health economics. Particularly, the need of adequate health financing to implement sector functioning in satisfying the needs of population in medical services is emphasized. The consideration is given to the specificity of medical needs and conclusion is made that particular conditions are to be established for adequate resources support of public health system. The changeable health needs of population can be comprehensively considered only in the public health system with flexible accounting of this kind of changes as related to the health services with operational bringing the amount of financial flows in correspondence with the mentioned alterations.
Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T
In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.
The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors. However, it is in the details that complexity and controversies emerge. Who should the targets be, and what outcomes should be rewarded? How should incentives be structured, to maximize their effectiveness and minimize unintended consequences? In what situations should we be intervening to affect decisions by people who may prefer to be obese or to smoke, and in what situations should we accept their preferences? To begin to answer these questions, the Penn-CMU Roybal P30 Center on Behavioral Economics and Health held its first annual Behavioral Economics and Health Symposium on March 24-25, 2011 with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The symposium drew more than 50 researchers, scholars, and health professionals from a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, economics, law, management, marketing, and psychology. They heard perspectives on behavioral economics from public and private funders, the CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System, and the CEO of stickK.com, a start-up company that uses online, voluntary commitment contracts to help people achieve their goals. Participants formed eight working groups to review the current state-of-the-art in a variety of clinical contexts and to consider how behavioral economics could inform a research agenda to improve health. This Issue Brief summarizes the findings of these working groups and the symposium.
Myers, Steven C.; Nelson, Michael A.; Stratton, Richard W.
Economics departments are faced with growing demands to document what their graduates have learned on completion of the undergraduate major. The results of a national survey of economics department chairs in the United States reveal that nearly two-thirds of the departments have a formal assessment plan. There is substantial agreement on the most…
Greiner, Wolfgang; Klose, Kristina
Measuring health-related quality of life is an important aspect in economic evaluation of health programmes. The development of utility-based (preference-based) measures is advanced by the discipline of health economics. Different preference measures are applied for valuing health states to produce a weighted health state index. Those preference weights should be derived from a general population sample in case of resource allocation on a collective level (as in current valuation studies of the EuroQol group).
Wolff, Hans; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris
Most societies elaborate ways to contain increasing health care expenditures. In Switzerland out of pocket payments and cuts in the catalogue of reimbursed services are used as cost-containment measures. The aims of the study were to estimate the extent of health care renunciation for economic reasons and to identify associated factors. A population-based cross-sectional survey (2008-2009) of a representative sample in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. Health care underuse, income level categories (
Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas
The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…
Kulmala, T; Vaahtera, M; Ndekha, M; Cullinan, T; Salin, M L; Koivisto, A M; Ashorn, P
To study the socio-economic support for good health among subsistence farmers in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Lungwena, a rural area with 17,000 inhabitants in southern Malawi. Seven hundred and ninety five pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at Lungwena Health Centre between June 1995 and September 1996. Interviews about socio-economic conditions. Measurements of cultivated land areas and distances between home and the local health centre. Proportion of households lacking literate adults, adequate water source and sanitation, easy access to modern health care or food security. Only 14% of the interviewed women could read and write and half of the households had no literate members. Every fifth household was lacking both an access to safe drinking water and a proper sanitary facility. The distance to the health centre was more than 5 km among half of the households and only 37% had enough land to grow food for all family members. When other potential means of obtaining food were taken into account, 27% of the households had no food security. Numerous households were lacking more than one socio-economic prerequisites of good health: three or more were missing from a quarter of the families. Socio-economic prerequisites of health were commonly missing in Lungwena. Subsequent health interventions should strengthen the investments into general poverty alleviation.
Chapman, Larry S.
This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…
Sato, Fumiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Kamide, Kei
The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of Indonesian nurses and care workers who immigrated to Japan after the Economic Partnership Agreement was signed by the governments of Japan and Indonesia in 2008. From November 2012 to March 2013, questionnaires were mailed to 206 workers in 87 medical and caregiving facilities that openly accept Indonesian EPA immigrant workers. Responses were received from 71 workers in 35 facilities. Responses from 22.5% of workers suggested that they were at risk of developing mental health problems, and "gender" and "acquisition state of national qualifications" were the main factors influencing their mental health status. The results suggest that support after obtaining national qualifications is inadequate and that mid and long-term support systems that focus on the needs of immigrant healthcare workers after passing national examinations are necessary.
Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.
Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.
Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A
The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources.
Mizumoto, Kaori; Murakami, Genki; Oshidari, Kenro; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Yoshiike, Nobuo
Asia has recorded the fastest economic growth in the world. However, some countries are still struggling with economic stagnation and poverty. Even in the emerging countries, there are economic disparities between urban and rural areas within a country. Reflecting the situations, nutritional issues in Asia came to be the antithetical situation of excess and insufficiency. The rate of overweight and obesity keeps increasing, especially in emerging countries. Meanwhile, underweight is still a critical problem in the region. Although the importance of nutrition is well recognized for social and economic development, it is difficult to identify the immediate outcome of nutrition interventions. Evidence-based decision-making is an important element of quality health care and efficiency and effectiveness are always key words. Along with enhanced attention to accountability and transparency of budget use in health services, attention to the economic evaluation of nutrition interventions has increased in recent years. In this symposium, we will review the current situation of nutritional issues and economic evaluation of nutrition interventions in Asia through experience of an international organization, the basis and trends for health care economics, and also efforts have been made in an Asian country. Discussion will be made about efficient and effective ways to evaluate projects/programmes for nutrition improvement.
Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang
To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.
This page provides information on how organizations can take advantage of available tools and resources to take the initial steps in evaluating a renewable energy project, such as site and economic feasibility assessments.
There is a wide variety of ethical arguments for public financing of health care that share a common structure built on a series of four logically related propositions regarding: (1) the ultimate purpose of a human life or human society; (2) the role of health and its distribution in society in advancing this ultimate purpose; (3) the role of access to or utilisation of health care in maintaining or improving the desired level and distribution of health among members of society, and (4) the role of public financing in ensuring the ethically justified access to and utilisation of health care by members of society. This paper argues that economics has much to contribute to the development of the ethical foundations for publicly financed health care. It focuses in particular on recent economic work to clarify the concepts of access and need and their role in analyses of the just distribution of health care resources, and on the importance of economic analysis of health care and health care insurance markets in demonstrating why public financing is necessary to achieve broad access to and utilisation of health care services.
Krieger, N; Northridge, M; Gruskin, S; Quinn, M; Kriebel, D; Davey, S; Bassett, M; Rehkopf, D; Miller, C
Health impact assessment (HIA) seeks to expand evaluation of policy and programmes in all sectors, both private and public, to include their impact on population health. While the idea that the public's health is affected by a broad array of social and economic policies is not new and dates back well over two centuries, what is new is the notion—increasingly adopted by major health institutions, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Kingdom National Health Services (NHS)—that health should be an explicit consideration when evaluating all public policies. In this article, it is argued that while HIA has the potential to enhance recognition of societal determinants of health and of intersectoral responsibility for health, its pitfalls warrant critical attention. Greater clarity is required regarding criteria for initiating, conducting, and completing HIA, including rules pertaining to decision making, enforcement, compliance, plus paying for their conduct. Critical debate over the promise, process, and pitfalls of HIA needs to be informed by multiple disciplines and perspectives from diverse people and regions of the world. PMID:12933768
Ontology, epistemology and methodology are not subjects frequently discussed in health economics, yet they are of great relevance to the question of how, or whether, to use qualitative methods as a means of examining certain issues. The paper discusses the nature of enquiry in health economics and then details the nature of qualitative methods and the constructivist philosophy with which they are most commonly associated. The paper continues by examining different areas in the study of economics: neo-classical positive economics, alternative approaches to explanatory economics and normative welfare economics. For each area the philosophical approach is outlined as are the areas of research interest. Appropriate roles for qualitative methods within these philosophical approaches are then suggested. The paper concludes by warning that health economists should not use qualitative methods naively. They must be aware of the potential difficulties: both of inadvertently ending up outside the intended research philosophy and of conducting research which is accepted by neither economists nor qualitative researchers. If, however, health economists are aware of ontological, epistemological and methodological issues, they can make an informed decision about the appropriateness of qualitative methods in their research and thereby potentially enhance their ability to answer the questions in which they are interested. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Martin-Carrasco, M; Evans-Lacko, S; Dom, G; Christodoulou, N G; Samochowiec, J; González-Fraile, E; Bienkowski, P; Gómez-Beneyto, M; Dos Santos, M J H; Wasserman, D
This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance paper is a result of the Working Group on Mental Health Consequences of Economic Crises of the EPA Council of National Psychiatric Associations. Its purpose is to identify the impact on mental health in Europe of the economic downturn and the measures that may be taken to respond to it. We performed a review of the existing literature that yields 350 articles on which our conclusions and recommendations are based. Evidence-based tables and recommendations were developed through an expert consensus process. Literature dealing with the consequences of economic turmoil on the health and health behaviours of the population is heterogeneous, and the results are not completely unequivocal. However, there is a broad consensus about the deleterious consequences of economic crises on mental health, particularly on psychological well-being, depression, anxiety disorders, insomnia, alcohol abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Unemployment, indebtedness, precarious working conditions, inequalities, lack of social connectedness, and housing instability emerge as main risk factors. Men at working age could be particularly at risk, together with previous low SES or stigmatized populations. Generalized austerity measures and poor developed welfare systems trend to increase the harmful effects of economic crises on mental health. Although many articles suggest limitations of existing research and provide suggestions for future research, there is relatively little discussion of policy approaches to address the negative impact of economic crises on mental health. The few studies that addressed policy questions suggested that the development of social protection programs such as active labour programs, social support systems, protection for housing instability, and better access to mental health care, particularly at primary care level, is strongly needed.
Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.
The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.
Emlet, Charles A
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.
Emlet, Charles A.
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery. PMID:28366981
Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn
To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.
de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael
This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.
Hogg, Rachel A.
Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201
Al-Janabi, Hareth; Manca, Andrea; Coast, Joanna
Illnesses and interventions can affect the health status of family carers in addition to patients. However economic evaluation studies rarely incorporate data on health status of carers. We investigated whether changes in carer health status could be 'predicted' from the health data of those they provide care to (patients), as a means of incorporating carer outcomes in economic evaluation. We used a case study of the family impact of meningitis, with 497 carer-patient dyads surveyed at two points. We used regression models to analyse changes in carers' health status, to derive predictive algorithms based on variables relating to the patient. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of different models using standard model fit criteria. It was feasible to estimate models to predict changes in carers' health status. However, the predictions generated in an external testing sample were poorly correlated with the observed changes in individual carers' health status. When aggregated, predictions provided some indication of the observed health changes for groups of carers. At present, a 'one-size-fits-all' predictive model of carer outcomes does not appear possible and further research aimed to identify predictors of carer's health status from (readily available) patient data is recommended. In the meanwhile, it may be better to encourage the targeted collection of carer data in primary research to enable carer outcomes to be better reflected in economic evaluation.
Costa Rica has been unusually successful in providing high levels of health for its people given its economic resources. It is proposed that there are two reasons for its success. Having no military, Costa Rica has had resources to invest in health care. Having a relatively equal income and education distribution and a democratic government, it has been able to provide health care widely rather than just to the elites. This paper examines production functions for health and possible directions for appropriate management of health as Costa Rica confronts the chronic disease pattern of the developed world.
van Wier, Marieke F.; Tompa, Emile; Bongers, Paulien M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Bosmans, Judith E.
To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless, only a few of the studies that consider the effectiveness of OHS interventions take the extra step of considering their resource implications. Moreover, the methodological quality of those that do is generally poor. Therefore, this study aims to help occupational health researchers conduct high-quality trial-based economic evaluations by discussing the theory and methodology that underlie them, and by providing recommendations for good practice regarding their design, analysis, and reporting. This study also helps consumers of this literature with understanding and critically appraising trial-based economic evaluations of OHS interventions. PMID:24854249
Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Beregovaya, Irina B.; Khanzhina, Olga A.
The article deals with the issues on economic techniques of occupational health and safety management. Authors’ definition of safety management is given. It is represented as a task-oriented process to identify, establish and maintain such a state of work environment in which there are no possible effects of hazardous and harmful factors, or their influence does not go beyond certain limits. It was noted that management techniques that are the part of the control mechanism, are divided into administrative, organizational and administrative, social and psychological and economic. The economic management techniques are proposed to be classified depending on the management subject, management object, in relation to an enterprise environment, depending on a control action. Technoeconomic study, feasibility study, planning, financial incentives, preferential crediting of enterprises, pricing, profit sharing and equity, preferential tax treatment for enterprises, economic regulations and standards setting have been distinguished as economic techniques.
Worsley, A; Wang, W C; Yeatman, H; Byrne, S; Wijayaratne, P
Home economics and health teachers are to be found in many parts of the world. They teach students about food in relation to its nutritional, safety and environmental properties. The effects of such teaching might be expected to be reflected in the food knowledge of adults who have undertaken school education in these areas. This study examined the food knowledge associations of school home economics and health education among Australian adults. Two separate online surveys were conducted nationwide among 2022 (November 2011) and 2146 Australian adults (November-December 2012). True/false and multiple choice questions in both surveys were used to assess nutrition, food safety and environmental knowledge. Knowledge scores were constructed and compared against respondents' experience of school health or home economics education via multiple regression analyses. The results from both studies showed that home economics (and similar) education was associated with higher levels of food knowledge among several age groups. The associations of home economics education with food knowledge differed across several Australian states and recall of home economics themes differed across the age groups. These findings suggest that home economics education may bring about long-lasting learning of food knowledge. Further research is required, however, to confirm the findings and to test the causal influence of home economics education on adults' food knowledge.
... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...
Belleh, G S; Akhigbe, O O
Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country. PMID:1884083
Belleh, G S; Akhigbe, O O
Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country.
Wyman, M; Feeley, J; Brimacombe, G; Doucette, K
This article reviews the economic dimensions of the CMA's decision-making framework on core and comprehensive services. The framework was developed in a policy context characterized by three government objectives: reduction, reallocation and reassignment of health care resources. One economic-evaluation tool for the determination of core services is cost-effectiveness analysis. Some of the critical demand-side and supply-side considerations include the perceived value of medical services, the availability of private insurance and the supply of health care providers. The article concludes that shifting services to the private sector should not be viewed as a panacea for reducing the costs and improving the economic efficiency of the health care system, or for increasing patient access to, or the cost-effectiveness of high-quality care. PMID:7743446
The term "crisis" in different cultures (such as ancient Greece or China) can have a positive meaning, since it indicates a time of growth, change and opportunity. Over the centuries there have been times of severe economic and social crisis that led to the implementation of major reforms and improved population health. Nowadays, despite the new economic crisis which has also affected health care for its rising costs, health economics does not hesitate to affirm the importance of key objectives such as prevention and medical assistance. Prevention is not prediction. Prevention means "going upstream" and fixing a problem at the source; the goal is to reduce diseases' effects, causes and risk factors, thereby reducing the prevalence of costly medical conditions.
Lucchini, R; Sanguinetti, A; Monacelli, M; Triola, R; Avenia, S; Conti, C; Santoprete, S; Avenia, N
The growth of technological innovation, the request for assistance, the rising patient's expectations and the interest of the industry have led to a rise in the cost of health care systems. In this context the role of the National Health System is not to delay the development or adoption of new technologies, but rather to drive the development selecting priorities and promoting its use. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach for analyzing the medical-clinical, social, organizational, economic, ethical and legal implications of a technology (devices, drugs, procedures) through the assessment of multiple parameters such as effectiveness, safety, costs of the social and organizational impact. A health technology assessment is a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the prerequisites for estimating the consequences of using health technology. Main characteristic of HTA is that the problem is tackled using an approach focused on four main elements: - technology; - patient; - organization; - economy. The authors have applied the HTA method for the analysis of the ultrasonic focus dissector on thyroid surgery. They compared the cost of the surgical procedure using the ultrasonic dissector and without it in a case study of 440 patients who underwent thyroidectomy.
LUCCHINI, R.; SANGUINETTI, A.; MONACELLI, M.; TRIOLA, R.; AVENIA, S.; CONTI, C.; SANTOPRETE, S.; AVENIA, N.
Summary The growth of technological innovation, the request for assistance, the rising patient’s expectations and the interest of the industry have led to a rise in the cost of health care systems. In this context the role of the National Health System is not to delay the development or adoption of new technologies, but rather to drive the development selecting priorities and promoting its use. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach for analyzing the medical-clinical, social, organizational, economic, ethical and legal implications of a technology (devices, drugs, procedures) through the assessment of multiple parameters such as effectiveness, safety, costs of the social and organizational impact. A health technology assessment is a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the prerequisites for estimating the consequences of using health technology. Main characteristic of HTA is that the problem is tackled using an approach focused on four main elements: - technology;- patient;- organization;- economy. The authors have applied the HTA method for the analysis of the ultrasonic focus dissector on thyroid surgery. They compared the cost of the surgical procedure using the ultrasonic dissector and without it in a case study of 440 patients who underwent thyroidectomy. PMID:24091174
The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower investment cost, shorter construction time, and new plants canmore easily be sited. NGCC can also be fitted with carbon capture equipment either during construction or as aretrofit. As a result, NGCC is seen as a potential bridge to a low-CO2 future, which would increasingly rely ontechnologies such as wind, solar, advanced nuclear, and carbon capture as those technologies mature [Cole et al.(2016), Nichols and Victor (2015), and C2ES (2013)]. A logical approach may be to displace coal with new NGCCin the near-term, building NGCC near geological storage sites. Later the NGCC could be retrofit with CO2 capture(NGCC-CCS) when the regulatory or economic drivers are in place [IEA (2007)]. There are, however, technicalchallenges to widespread deployment of NGCC-CCS. First, fugitive methane emissions associated with natural gasproduction, transmission, and distribution processes could offset some of the climate benefits of using natural gas[McJeon et al. (2014)]. Second, applying carbon capture retrofit technologies to NGCC results in cost and energypenalties [Teir et al. (2010)], both of which affect its competitiveness. Third, the lower carbon content of natural gasmay yield difficulties in captur
Do you let medical costs increase in proportion to the growth rate of GDP? A way of thinking of the Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy. Should we exclude public medical insurance? It is not a problem, it is an absolute sum if you are effective. If there is no insurance, and individuals pay the total amount, there is no problem, but it is impossible. Economic development will cease if there is no insurance. As medical personnel, to offer good medical care with an appropriate cost. An appeal to the nation is necessary. Economic technical evaluation to identify a cheap method for each clinical inspection. Does medical insurance have a deficit? I. Japanese Health insurance system. (1) Health insurance union. When you look at the contribution money, it is originally 2,479,800,000,000 yen, with premium income and a profit of 45%. (2) Government management health insurance. When you look at the contribution money, it is originally 2,163,300,000,000 yen, with premium income and a profit of 36%. (1) + (2) Employed insurance meter. (3) Mutual aid. (4) National Health Insurance. II. A clinical economic method. III. Expense of medical care and its effect. A. Expense. B. A medical economic technical evaluation method. 1. Cost-effectiveness analysis CEA. 2. Cost utility analysis CUA. 3. Cost-benefit analysis CBA. 4. Expense minimization analysis.
de Graaff, Barbara; Neil, Amanda; Sanderson, Kristy; Si, Lei; Yee, Kwang Chien; Palmer, Andrew J
Hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) is a common genetic condition amongst people of northern European heritage. HH is associated with increased iron absorption leading to parenchymal organ damage and multiple arthropathies. Early diagnosis and treatment prevents complications. Population screening may increase early diagnosis, but no programmes have been introduced internationally: a paucity of health economic data is often cited as a barrier. To conduct a systematic review of all health economic studies in HH. Studies were identified through electronic searching of economic/biomedical databases. Any study on HH with original economic component was included. Study quality was formally assessed. Health economic data were extracted and analysed through narrative synthesis. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of papers reported on costs or cost effectiveness of screening programmes. Whilst most concluded screening was cost effective compared with no screening, methodological flaws limit the quality of these findings. Assumptions regarding clinical penetrance, effectiveness of screening, health-state utility values (HSUVs), exclusion of early symptomatology (such as fatigue, lethargy and multiple arthropathies) and quantification of costs associated with HH were identified as key limitations. Treatment studies concluded therapeutic venepuncture was the most cost-effective intervention. There is a paucity of high-quality health economic studies relating to HH. The development of a comprehensive HH cost-effectiveness model utilising HSUVs is required to determine whether screening is worthwhile.
Bray, Nathan; Noyes, Jane; Harris, Nigel; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor
Wheelchairs for children with impaired mobility provide health, developmental and psychosocial benefits, however there is limited understanding of how mobility aids affect the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility. Preference-based health-related quality of life outcome measures are used to calculate quality-adjusted life years; an important concept in health economics. The aim of this research was to understand how young wheelchair users and their parents define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment and wheelchair use. The sampling frame was children with impaired mobility (≤18 years) who use a wheelchair and their parents. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted in participants' homes. Qualitative framework analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. An a priori thematic coding framework was developed. Emerging codes were grouped into categories, and refined into analytical themes. The data were used to build an understanding of how children with impaired mobility define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment, and to assess the applicability of two standard measures of health-related quality of life. Eleven children with impaired mobility and 24 parents were interviewed across 27 interviews. Participants defined mobility-related quality of life through three distinct but interrelated concepts: 1) participation and positive experiences; 2) self-worth and feeling fulfilled; 3) health and functioning. A good degree of consensus was found between child and parent responses, although there was some evidence to suggest a shift in perception of mobility-related quality of life with child age. Young wheelchair users define health-related quality of life in a distinct way as a result of their mobility impairment and adaptation use. Generic, preference-based measures of health-related quality of life lack sensitivity in this population
Background Wheelchairs for children with impaired mobility provide health, developmental and psychosocial benefits, however there is limited understanding of how mobility aids affect the health-related quality of life of children with impaired mobility. Preference-based health-related quality of life outcome measures are used to calculate quality-adjusted life years; an important concept in health economics. The aim of this research was to understand how young wheelchair users and their parents define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment and wheelchair use. Methods The sampling frame was children with impaired mobility (≤18 years) who use a wheelchair and their parents. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted in participants’ homes. Qualitative framework analysis was used to analyse the interview transcripts. An a priori thematic coding framework was developed. Emerging codes were grouped into categories, and refined into analytical themes. The data were used to build an understanding of how children with impaired mobility define health-related quality of life in relation to mobility impairment, and to assess the applicability of two standard measures of health-related quality of life. Results Eleven children with impaired mobility and 24 parents were interviewed across 27 interviews. Participants defined mobility-related quality of life through three distinct but interrelated concepts: 1) participation and positive experiences; 2) self-worth and feeling fulfilled; 3) health and functioning. A good degree of consensus was found between child and parent responses, although there was some evidence to suggest a shift in perception of mobility-related quality of life with child age. Conclusions Young wheelchair users define health-related quality of life in a distinct way as a result of their mobility impairment and adaptation use. Generic, preference-based measures of health-related quality of life
Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan
The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…
Lieberthal, Robert D.; Leon, Juan
The authors describe a Wikipedia-based project designed for a graduate course introducing health economics to experienced healthcare professionals. The project allows such students to successfully write articles on niche topics in rapidly evolving health economics subspecialties. These students are given the opportunity to publish their completed…
Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria; Alvarez Muñiz, Manuel
The 3rd Latin American and Caribbean Congress on Health Economics took place at Havana Convention Center from 28th to 31st October 2008. The conference was an excellent opportunity for the exchange of personal encounters regarding health economics and its related disciplines from the perspectives of research, teaching and management. Specialists from mostly Latin American countries attended the event. High-ranking specialists from other countries highlighted the importance and popularity of the conference. A total of 313 delegates from 23 countries were present at the congress, 160 of whom were Cuban.
Luxton, David D
The economic evaluation of telemental health (TMH) is necessary to inform ways to decrease the cost of delivering care, to improve access to care, and to make decisions about the allocation of resources. Previous reviews of telehealth economic analysis studies have concluded that there are significant methodological deficiencies and inconsistencies that limit the ability to make generalized conclusions about the costs and benefits of telehealth programs. Published economic evaluations specific to TMH are also limited. There are unique factors that influence costs in TMH that are necessary for those who are planning and evaluating economic analyses to consider. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main problems and limitations of published economic analyses, to discuss considerations specific to TMH, and to inform and encourage the economic evaluation of TMH in both the public and private sectors. The topics presented here include perspective of costs, direct and indirect costs, and technology, as well as research methodology considerations. The integration of economic analyses into effectiveness trials, the standardization of outcome measurement, and the development of TMH economic evaluation guidelines are recommended.
Suh, Kangho; Gabriel, Susan; Adams, Michelle A; Arcona, Steve
The guidelines for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) fellowship training programs devised by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) and the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) suggest that continuous improvements are made to ensure that postgraduate training through didactic and professional experiences prepare fellows for HEOR research careers. The HEOR Fellowship Program at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation was standardized to enhance the fellows' HEOR research understanding and align professional skill sets with the ACCP-ISPOR Fellowship Program Guidelines. Based on feedback from an internal task force comprised of HEOR employees and current and former fellows, the HEOR Fellowship Program was normatively and qualitatively assessed to evaluate the current curricular program. Fellowship program activities were instituted to ensure that the suggested minimum level requirements established by the guidelines were being met. Research opportunities enabling fellows to work hand-in-hand with other fellows and HEOR professionals were emphasized. Curricular enhancements in research methodology and professional training and development, and materials for a structured journal club focusing on specific methodological and HEOR research topics were developed. A seminar series (e.g., creating SMART Goals, StrengthsFinder 2.0) and professional courses (e.g., ISPOR short courses, statistics.com) were included to enhance the fellows' short- and long-term professional experience. Additional program attributes include an online reference library developed to enrich the current research facilities and a Statistical Analysis Software training program. Continuously assessing and updating HEOR fellowship programs keeps programs up-to-date in the latest HEOR concepts and approaches used to evaluate health care, both professionally and educationally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article presents the reliability and validity data on a checklist used to evaluate health assessment skills. In 1982, the nurse practitioner faculty at a large midwestern university acknowledged that health assessment skills were basic to the preparation of all nurses and made the decision to require these skills for entry into the graduate program. Because of the varying ways in which health assessment skills are acquired, the faculty saw the need to standardize the expected level of performance. An objective, three-page instrument to measure student competence in performing and recording a health history and physical examination for a client of any age is administered prior to beginning the nurse practitioner sequence of courses. The 91 objective items for this instrument are based on the traditional outline for writing up a client history and physical examination. Criteria for the items are located in an accompanying manual. The student achieves a "Yes" rating on an item if all the components of the item are performed and written according to the criteria. Reliability of the tool was assessed by 12 faculty members who participated in a simulated evaluation. The tool has been used to evaluate the skills of 165 nurses. Of these, 149 nurses were enrolled in a continuing education course, and 16 nurses tested out of a health assessment course.
Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael
Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type.  Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.
Monaco, R M; Phelps, J H
Rising health care spending, led by rising prices, has had an enormous impact on the economy, especially on the federal budget. Our work shows that if rapid growth in health care prices continues, under current institutional arrangements, real economic growth and employment will be lower during the next two decades than if health price inflation were somehow reduced. How big the losses are and which sectors bear the brunt of the costs vary depending on how society chooses to fund the federal budget deficit that stems from the rising cost of federal health care programs.
Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH), vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution). Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds. PMID:21572840
Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma
The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.
Murashov, Vladimir; Engel, Stefan; Savolainen, Kai; Fullam, Brian; Lee, Michelle; Kearns, Peter
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization, is playing a critical global role in ensuring that emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, are developed responsibly. This article describes OECD activities around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology and provides state-of-the-science overview resulting from an OECD workshop on exposure assessment and mitigation for nanotechnology workplace.
O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Goeree, Ron; Lokker, Cynthia; McKibbon, K Ann
To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the evidence surrounding the cost-effectiveness of health information technology (HIT) in the medication process. Peer-reviewed electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify studies on HIT used to assist in the medication management process. Articles including an economic component were reviewed for further screening. For this review, full cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses and cost-benefit analyses, as well as cost analyses, were eligible for inclusion and synthesis. The 31 studies included were heterogeneous with respect to the HIT evaluated, setting, and economic methods used. Thus the data could not be synthesized, and a narrative review was conducted. Most studies evaluated computer decision support systems in hospital settings in the USA, and only five of the studied performed full economic evaluations. Most studies merely provided cost data; however, useful economic data involves far more input. A full economic evaluation includes a full enumeration of the costs, synthesized with the outcomes of the intervention. The quality of the economic literature in this area is poor. A few studies found that HIT may offer cost advantages despite their increased acquisition costs. However, given the uncertainty that surrounds the costs and outcomes data, and limited study designs, it is difficult to reach any definitive conclusion as to whether the additional costs and benefits represent value for money. Sophisticated concurrent prospective economic evaluations need to be conducted to address whether HIT interventions in the medication management process are cost-effective.
Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu
Background Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS). During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. Methods We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS) costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. Results Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. Conclusion Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces. PMID:18430218
Malaysia, as a rapidly developing country, has been facing tremendous pressures in its attempts to maximize scarce resources. Despite this problem, Malaysia has made great strides in developing its health services, and has successfully provided good access to the population to healthcare services, reduced the incidence of many communicable diseases, and improved life expectancies and other global indices of health care, some of which are comparable to that of developed countries. The Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Unit was set up in Malaysia in August 1995 in the Ministry of Health Malaysia and has since grown tremendously in size and resources. To date, forty-three in-depth assessments have been carried out, and the recommendations of these assessments were subsequently implemented. In addition, approximately 140 rapid assessment reports were produced in response to requests from policy and decision makers. HTA has been able to provide input into formulation of national and Ministry of Health Malaysia policies, and provide a basis for clinical practice guidelines development, input into purchasing decisions, regulation of drugs, as well as advertisements related to health. A major challenge is sustainability of the program, to be able to have trained personnel competent to take on the demanding tasks of assessments and the sustained efforts that are required. In addition, there need to be constant efforts to create awareness of the utility of HTA so that its services are used and its full potential realized. The scope of services may also need to be expanded to include an early warning system. Malaysia has successfully implemented a health technology program that has had major impact on policy formulation and decision making at various levels. Challenges may be faced in sustaining and developing the program further.
LeFevre, Amnesty E; Shillcutt, Samuel D; Broomhead, Sean; Labrique, Alain B; Jones, Tom
Mobile and wireless technology for health (mHealth) has the potential to improve health outcomes by addressing critical health systems constraints that impede coverage, utilization, and effectiveness of health services. To date, few mHealth programs have been implemented at scale and there remains a paucity of evidence on their effectiveness and value for money. This paper aims to improve understanding among mHealth program managers and key stakeholders of how to select methods for economic evaluation (comparative analysis for determining value for money) and financial evaluation (determination of the cost of implementing an intervention, estimation of costs for sustaining or expanding an intervention, and assessment of its affordability). We outline a 6 stage-based process for selecting and integrating economic and financial evaluation methods into the monitoring and evaluation of mHealth solutions including (1) defining the program strategy and linkages with key outcomes, (2) assessment of effectiveness, (3) full economic evaluation or partial evaluation, (4) sub-group analyses, (5) estimating resource requirements for expansion, (6) affordability assessment and identification of models for financial sustainability. While application of these stages optimally occurs linearly, finite resources, limited technical expertise, and the timing of evaluation initiation may impede this. We recommend that analysts prioritize economic and financial evaluation methods based on programmatic linkages with health outcomes; alignment with an mHealth solution's broader stage of maturity and stage of evaluation; overarching monitoring and evaluation activities; stakeholder evidence needs; time point of initiation; and available resources for evaluations.
Chu, D K
This article describes parallel developments of the Hong Kong economy and its health care system. The purpose is to illustrate how the Hong Kong health system evolved in response to external and internal pressures generated by economic prosperity. The Hong Kong system illustrates the importance of clear policy making in the face of these pressures. In particular, issues of investment, financing and distribution of health services are examined in relation to hospital cost control and service accessibility. In the past, health care costs in Hong Kong have been controlled at the expense of limited accessibility of health services. At present, Hong Kong policy-makers are faced with the challenge of maintaining a sharp focus on cost control as they face pressure to expand and improve health care coverage for the citizens. So far they have responded by emphasizing management efficiency through reorganization. It remains to be seen whether this strategy can be successful without passing increased health care costs to the consumers.
Beginning with a brief historical overview of health policy in the Netherlands from 1945-1960 (a period of restoration of the capitalist economy after World War II) until 1960-1970 (a period of capitalist expansion), this paper discusses the health policy of the Dutch state under the present conditions of economic crisis. The main characteristics of this policy are growing state intervention, reorganization of the decision-making process, deinstitutionalization of health care, a laissez-faire policy with regard to services in the so-called first echelon of the health sector, reprivatization of health costs, and an ideological emphasis on individual responsibility for health and self-care. The paper concludes with a discussion of the various strategies proposed for the health sector by the Left and the connection between prevention and social struggle.
Rose, Sherri; Bergquist, Savannah L; Layton, Timothy J
Health insurers may attempt to design their health plans to attract profitable enrollees while deterring unprofitable ones. Such insurers would not be delivering socially efficient levels of care by providing health plans that maximize societal benefit, but rather intentionally distorting plan benefits to avoid high-cost enrollees, potentially to the detriment of health and efficiency. In this work, we focus on a specific component of health plan design at risk for health insurer distortion in the Health Insurance Marketplaces: the prescription drug formulary. We introduce an ensembled machine learning function to determine whether drug utilization variables are predictive of a new measure of enrollee unprofitability we derive, and thus vulnerable to distortions by insurers. Our implementation also contains a unique application-specific variable selection tool. This study demonstrates that super learning is effective in extracting the relevant signal for this prediction problem, and that a small number of drug variables can be used to identify unprofitable enrollees. The results are both encouraging and concerning. While risk adjustment appears to have been reasonably successful at weakening the relationship between therapeutic-class-specific drug utilization and unprofitability, some classes remain predictive of insurer losses. The vulnerable enrollees whose prescription drug regimens include drugs in these classes may need special protection from regulators in health insurance market design.
Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome.
Miller, Jeffrey D; Foley, Kathleen A; Russell, Mason W
The demand for economic models that evaluate cancer treatments is increasing, as healthcare decision makers struggle for ways to manage their budgets while providing the best care possible to patients with cancer. Yet, after nearly 2 decades of cultivating and refining techniques for modeling the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of cancer therapies, serious methodologic and policy challenges have emerged that question the adequacy of economic modeling as a sound decision-making tool in oncology. We sought to explore some of the contentious issues associated with the development and use of oncology economic models as informative tools in current healthcare decision-making. Our objective was to draw attention to these complex pharmacoeconomic concerns and to promote discussion within the oncology and health economics research communities. Using our combined expertise in health economics research and economic modeling, we structured our inquiry around the following 4 questions: (1) Are economic models adequately addressing questions relevant to oncology decision makers; (2) What are the methodologic limitations of oncology economic models; (3) What guidelines are followed for developing oncology economic models; and (4) Is the evolution of oncology economic modeling keeping pace with treatment innovation? Within the context of each of these questions, we discuss issues related to the technical limitations of oncology modeling, the availability of adequate data for developing models, and the problems with how modeling analyses and results are presented and interpreted. There is general acceptance that economic models are good, essential tools for decision-making, but the practice of oncology and its rapidly evolving technologies present unique challenges that make assessing and demonstrating value especially complex. There is wide latitude for improvement in oncology modeling methodologies and how model results are presented and interpreted. Complex technical and
Miller, Jeffrey D.; Foley, Kathleen A.; Russell, Mason W.
Background The demand for economic models that evaluate cancer treatments is increasing, as healthcare decision makers struggle for ways to manage their budgets while providing the best care possible to patients with cancer. Yet, after nearly 2 decades of cultivating and refining techniques for modeling the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of cancer therapies, serious methodologic and policy challenges have emerged that question the adequacy of economic modeling as a sound decision-making tool in oncology. Objectives We sought to explore some of the contentious issues associated with the development and use of oncology economic models as informative tools in current healthcare decision-making. Our objective was to draw attention to these complex pharmacoeconomic concerns and to promote discussion within the oncology and health economics research communities. Methods Using our combined expertise in health economics research and economic modeling, we structured our inquiry around the following 4 questions: (1) Are economic models adequately addressing questions relevant to oncology decision makers; (2) What are the methodologic limitations of oncology economic models; (3) What guidelines are followed for developing oncology economic models; and (4) Is the evolution of oncology economic modeling keeping pace with treatment innovation? Within the context of each of these questions, we discuss issues related to the technical limitations of oncology modeling, the availability of adequate data for developing models, and the problems with how modeling analyses and results are presented and interpreted. Discussion There is general acceptance that economic models are good, essential tools for decision-making, but the practice of oncology and its rapidly evolving technologies present unique challenges that make assessing and demonstrating value especially complex. There is wide latitude for improvement in oncology modeling methodologies and how model results are presented
Belli, Paolo C.; Bustreo, Flavia; Preker, Alexander
This paper argues that investing in children's health is a sound economic decision for governments to take, even if the moral justifications for such programmes are not considered. The paper also outlines dimensions that are often neglected when public investment decisions are taken. The conclusion that can be drawn from the literature studying the relationship between children's health and the economy is that children's health is a potentially valuable economic investment. The literature shows that making greater investments in children's health results in better educated and more productive adults, sets in motion favourable demographic changes, and shows that safeguarding health during childhood is more important than at any other age because poor health during children's early years is likely to permanently impair them over the course of their life. In addition, the literature confirms that more attention should be paid to poor health as a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Children born into poor families have poorer health as children, receive lower investments in human capital, and have poorer health as adults. As a result, they will earn lower wages as adults, which will affect the next generation of children who will thus be born into poorer families. PMID:16283055
The widespread economic crisis has resulted in a fall in living standards in the western hemisphere of over 9% (1981-83) and in Sub-Saharan Africa they have fallen to the level of 1970. Food production in the African countries most seriously affected by drought dropped by 15% between 1981 and 1983. Living standards also fell in some countries in Europe and in some of the poorest countries of Asia. The high cost of fuel, the heavy burden of interest payments and unfavourable terms of trade in Africa and Latin America led to serious unemployment, devaluation of national currencies and formidable austerity policies. While some countries have succeeded in protecting their health services from cuts in public expenditure, in many others cuts in health budgets have been substantial. The effects of the crisis in some countries have amounted to the virtual disintegration of rural health services. There are limited data available to show what has been happening to levels of expenditure on health, but those presented here demonstrate that levels of health expenditure per head have fallen in many countries. The cumulative effects on health of increased poverty, unemployment, underemployment and famine, and the reduced capacity of health services to respond to health problems can be documented with facts for a number of countries in Latin America and Africa. Malnutrition has increased and improvements in infant mortality have been checked or reversed. The economic crisis has placed at risk the health of the most vulnerable.
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani
There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.
Maynou, Laia; Saez, Marc
The recent economic crisis has been a major shock not only to the economic sector, but also to the rest of society. Our main objective in this paper is to show the impact of the economic crisis on convergence, i.e. the reduction or equalising of disparities, among the EU-27 countries in terms of health. The aim is to observe whether the economic crisis (from 2008 onwards) has in fact had an effect on health inequalities within the EU. We estimate convergence by specifying a dynamic panel model with random-effects (time, regions and countries). We are particularly interested in σ-convergence. As dependent variables, we use life expectancy, total mortality and (cause-specific) mortality in the regions of the EU-27 countries over the period 1995-2011. The results of the analysis show that, in terms of health, there has been a catching-up process among the EU regions. However, we find no reduction, on average, in dispersion levels as the σ-convergence shows. The main finding of this paper has been the sharp increase in disparities in 2010 for all health outcomes (albeit less abrupt for cancer mortality). This increase in disparities in 2010 coincides with the austerity measures implemented in the EU countries. Our main conclusion is that these austerity measures have had an impact on socioeconomic inequalities.
Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Teaching and Learning Div.
Home economics programs are offered to students in grades 6-12 in the Des Moines INdependent Community School District (Iowa). Programs at the middle school level are exploratory, leading to occupational training in family and consumer science, child care, food service, and textile and fashion arts at the high school level. Health education…
Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N
Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife.
Gantner-Bär, Marion; Djanatliev, Anatoli; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Sedlmayr, Martin
Prospective Health Technology Assessment (ProHTA) is a new and innovative approach to analyze and assess new technologies, methods and procedures in health care. Simulation processes are used to model innovations before the cost-intensive design and development phase. Thus effects on patient care, the health care system as well as health economics aspects can be estimated. To generate simulation models a valid information base is necessary and therefore conceptual modeling is most suitable. Project-specifically improved methods and characteristics of simulation modeling are combined in the ProHTA Conceptual Modeling Process and initially implemented for acute ischemic stroke treatment in Germany. Additionally the project aims at simulation of other diseases and health care systems as well. ProHTA is an interdisciplinary research project within the Cluster of Excellence for Medical Technology - Medical Valley European Metropolitan Region Nuremberg (EMN), which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), project grant No. 01EX1013B.
Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Dehuff, Christa; Soloway, Laura E; Vilar, Miguel; Chan, Chim; Wilson, Michelle; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji
Health patterns are changing in developing countries; as diet and activity patterns change with economic development, chronic disease prevalence increases, which is a characteristic of health transition. The islands of Vanuatu (South Pacific) have varying rates of economic development and provide a natural experimental model of health transition. To characterize behavioral changes associated with modernization. We surveyed 425 children and 559 adults on three islands varying in degree of economic development. We assessed diet (24-h dietary recall), physical activity (mode of transport, work activities, and recreation), substance use, and other behavioral patterns. Spending patterns and access to Western foods followed modernization gradients in our sample, whereas occupational patterns and ownership of technological goods were poor markers of modernization. With increasing economic development, participants consumed more animal proteins and simple carbohydrates. Physical activity levels were high; most participants were active in gardening, and sports were popular, especially in urban areas. However, urban participants spent more time in sedentary recreation. Men's use of alcohol and tobacco increased with economic development, but we observed marked differences in substance use patterns between two rural islands-one with and one without tourism. Economic development in Vanuatu is accompanied by nutrition transition and increased sedentary recreation, although physical activity levels remain high. Differences in substance use patterns between rural islands with and without tourism indicate a need for more research in rural areas. These findings might inform research in other communities in the early stages of health transition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Gutknecht, Mandy; Krensel, Magdalene; Augustin, Matthias
In the course of the chronic skin disease psoriasis, where a variety of treatment interventions is available, a strong growth of health economic studies comparing treatment costs and benefits can be noticed. The objective was to identify health economic evaluations of psoriasis treatments that have been published to date. Of particular interest were the mostly used analysis and outcome parameters, the compared treatments, and the question, if available health economic studies may be used to perform a meta-analysis of qualitative findings. A systematic literature search using PubMed Medline, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Library was performed for articles, published and available until mid of January 2016. Among the key words were the terms "psoriasis" and "cost-effectiveness". The search resulted in 318 articles without duplicates. Thereof 60 health economic analyses in psoriasis management were identified. Most of these are cost-effectiveness evaluations (45). The clinical parameter PASI (Psoriasis Area Severity Index) is the most often used cost-effectiveness outcome (33) followed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) (6). In case of cost-utility analyses, QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) were mostly generated with the help of EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) (12), which was partly based on PASI and DLQI values. The majority of health economic studies is focusing on the direct medical and non-medical costs without consideration of productivity losses. Almost 70 % of 60 publications were conducted in Europe. Overall, most considered systemic treatments were the biological agents etanercept (36), adalimumab (27), and infliximab (26) followed by ustekinumab (17) and phototherapy (incl. UV-B, PUVA/psoralen combined with UV-A) (14). Comparisons including only topical treatments mostly focused on vitamin D treatment (14), corticosteroids (13), and coal tar products (6) followed by dithranol (5) and tazarotene (4). Given the setting, compared
Decision-making in healthcare is a priority-setting process. Tools used in health economic evaluation support decision-making by outlining complex interdependences, simulating short- and long-term consequences, and quantifying formal comparisons of health technologies. Key elements in health economic evaluations are patient-relevant outcomes and cost parameters. Costing of healthcare services is demanding and reflects only an approximation to reality, particularly in Germany, as the reimbursement schemes neither fully provide all details nor the different costing perspectives. Hence, in order to obtain uniform and cross-indication applicable cost parameters, a German standard cost dataset is necessary. In addition, patient-relevant and indication-specific sets of outcomes parameters should be agreed upon in order to also enable a reliable clinical product development. Economic aspects could be applied in a two-step decision-making approach, where initially the anticipated indication-specific technical efficiency level in terms of cost per adjusted life years would be assessed from a health system perspective. The second step would employ prioritization based on indication-relevant outcomes and ranking criteria in the individual patient decision situation. Health economic evaluations are relevant tools to support prioritization of health technologies, both on an individual as well as public health level.
Lindström, Martin; Fridh, Maria; Rosvall, Maria
Investigations of mental health in a life course perspective are scarce. The aim is to investigate associations between economic stress in childhood and adulthood, and poor psychological health in adulthood with reference to the accumulation, critical period and social mobility hypotheses in life course epidemiology. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A random sample was invited which yielded 28,198 respondents aged 18-80 (55% participation). Psychological health was assessed with the GHQ12 instrument. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations adjusting for age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, emotional support, instrumental support and trust, and stratifying by sex. The accumulation hypothesis was confirmed because combined childhood and adulthood exposures to economic stress were associated with poor psychological health in a graded manner. The social mobility hypothesis was also confirmed. The critical period hypothesis was not confirmed because both childhood and adulthood economic stress remained significantly associated with poor psychological health in adulthood. Economic stress in childhood is associated with mental health in adulthood.
Quantification and assessment of soil health involves determining how well a soil is performing its biological, chemical, and physical functions relative to its inherent potential. Due to high cost, labor requirements, and soil disturbance, traditional laboratory analyses cannot provide high resolut...
Hahn, Ellen J
Smokefree legislation is a powerful public health intervention. Despite progress in smokefree legislation, over half of U.S. adults remain unprotected by comprehensive smokefree legislation. This paper reviews the scientific literature on health and economic outcome studies of smokefree legislation from the past decade, 2000 to early 2010, using MEDLINE and key search terms: smoking, smoking cessation, smoking/legislation and jurisprudence, smoking cessation/legislation and jurisprudence, and health policy. There is a wealth of research showing the health benefits to entire populations when communities implement comprehensive smokefree laws and/or regulations. These laws improve the health of hospitality workers and the general population by improving indoor air quality, reducing acute myocardial infarctions and asthma exacerbations, and improving infant and birth outcomes. Some studies report reduced smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption and improved cessation outcomes after smokefree legislation. In addition to the health benefits, economic studies confirm that smokefree laws do not adversely affect business revenues or operating costs. While there is an abundance of smokefree policy outcomes research showing both the health and economic impacts of smokefree legislation, these outcomes may have more to do with implementation effectiveness than adoption, especially among subpopulations. An emerging body of literature documents not only that disparities in health protections remain among subpopulations, but that health outcomes of smokefree legislation may vary by gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and age. Further research is needed on implementation effectiveness of smokefree legislation and differential effects on subpopulations. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Janet; Cheng, Davy
Healthcare resources will always be limited, and as a result, difficult decisions must be made about how to allocate limited resources across unlimited demands in order to maximize health gains per resource expended. Governments and hospitals now in severe financial deficits recognize that reengagement of physicians is central to their ability to contain the runaway healthcare costs. Health economic analysis provides tools and techniques to assess which investments in healthcare provide good value for money vs which options should be forgone. Robust decision-making in healthcare requires objective consideration of evidence in order to balance clinical and economic benefits vs risks. Surveys of the literature reveal very few economic analyses related to anesthesia and perioperative medicine despite increasing recognition of the need. Now is an opportune time for anesthesiologists to become familiar with the tools and methodologies of health economics in order to facilitate and lead robust decision-making in quality-based procedures. For most technologies used in anesthesia and perioperative medicine, the responsibility to determine cost-effectiveness falls to those tasked with the governance and stewardship of limited resources for unlimited demands using best evidence plus economics at the local, regional, and national levels. Applicable cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefits in health economics are reviewed in this article with clinical examples in anesthesia. Anesthesiologists can make a difference in the wider governance of healthcare and health economics if we advance our knowledge and skills beyond the technical to address the "other" dimensions of decision-making--most notably, the economic aspects in a value-based healthcare system.
Goodman, Melody S.; Gonzalez, Maria; Gil, Sandra; Si, Xuemei; Pashoukos, Judith L.; Stafford, Jewel D.; Ford, Elsa; Pashoukos, Dennis A.
Background The Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social Change (CARES) is an academic–community research partnership designed to train community members on research methods and develop the infrastructure for community-based participatory research (CBPR) to examine and address racial/ethnic health disparities. The Brentwood Community Health Assessment (BCHA) was developed through a CBPR pilot project grant from CARES. Objectives The purpose of the BCHA is to assess health care utilization and identify existing barriers to health care access among a multi-ethnic community in the Hamlet of Brentwood, New York. Methods Using CBPR approaches, the community–academic research partnership develop the study design and survey instrument. Trained Bilingual (English/Spanish) data collectors verbally administered surveys door-to-door to residents of Brentwood from October 2010 to May 2011. Inclusion criteria required participants to be at least 18 years of age and speak either English or Spanish. Results Overall, 232 residents completed the BCHA; 49% were male, 66% Hispanic, 13% non-Hispanic White, 13% non-Hispanic Black, 29% had less than a high school education, and 33% were born in United States. The assessment results revealed that most residents are able to access health care when needed and the most significant barriers to health care access are insurance and cost. Conclusions We describe the community–academic partnered process used to develop and implement the BCHA and report assessment findings; the community-partnered approach improved data collection and allowed access into one of Suffolk County’s most vulnerable communities. PMID:24859100
Cherniack, Martin; Lahiri, Supriya
To identify insurance related, structural, and workplace cultural barriers to the implementation of effective preventive and upstream clinical interventions in the working age adult population. Analysis of avoided costs from perspective of health economics theory and from empiric observations from large studies; presentation of data from our own cost-plus model on integrating health promotion and ergonomics. We identify key avoided costs issues as a misalignment of interests between employers, insurers, service institutions, and government. Conceptual limitations of neoclassical economics are attributable to work culture and supply-driven nature of health care. Effective valuation of avoided costs is a necessary condition for redirecting allocations and incentives. Key content for valuation models is discussed.
A UN Population Fund report, "Southeast Asian Populations in Crisis," revealed that the economic crisis in Southeastern Asia has had a disproportionately adverse effect on the health of women and girls. This has occurred because the industries employing women have been hardest hit and because governments have reduced spending on health care and female education. Thailand, for example, has reduced its AIDS budget by 25% even as increasing numbers of women are pushed into the sex trade by economic necessity. Reproductive health services for adolescents have been hit just as shrinking family budgets are forcing adolescents to drop out of school. The report's authors are calling for a more detailed look at the situation.
Huter, Kai; Kocot, Ewa; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Rothgang, Heinz
comparability of effects across different age groups. In particular, the limitations of the widely used QALY for older people are discussed and recently developed alternatives are presented. The key conclusion of the article is that a comparison of the effects of different health promotion initiatives between different age groups by means of economic evaluation is not recommendable. Taking into account the complex outcomes of health promotion interventions it has to be accepted that the outcomes of these interventions will often not be comparable with clinical interventions and have to be assessed differently.
Buchanan, James; Wordsworth, Sarah; Schuh, Anna
Aim Genomic interventions could enable improved disease stratification and individually tailored therapies. However, they have had a limited impact on clinical practice to date due to a lack of evidence, particularly economic evidence. This is partly because health economists are yet to reach consensus on whether existing methods are sufficient to evaluate genomic technologies. As different approaches may produce conflicting adoption decisions, clarification is urgently required. This article summarizes the methodological issues associated with conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Materials & methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify references that considered the methodological challenges faced when conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Results Methodological challenges related to the analytical approach included the choice of comparator, perspective and timeframe. Challenges in costing centered around the need to collect a broad range of costs, frequently, in a data-limited environment. Measuring outcomes is problematic as standard measures have limited applicability, however, alternative metrics (e.g., personal utility) are underdeveloped and alternative approaches (e.g., cost–benefit analysis) underused. Effectiveness data quality is weak and challenging to incorporate into standard economic analyses, while little is known about patient and clinician behavior in this context. Comprehensive value of information analyses are likely to be helpful. Conclusion Economic evaluations of genomic technologies present a particular challenge for health economists. New methods may be required to resolve these issues, but the evidence to justify alternative approaches is yet to be produced. This should be the focus of future work in this field. PMID:24236483
McDaid, David; Quaglio, Gianluca; Correia de Campos, António; Dario, Claudio; Van Woensel, Lieve; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Reeves, Aaron
STOA, the European Parliament's technology assessment body, and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies recently organised a workshop on the impacts of the economic crisis on European health systems. Evidence of the impact of the recent financial crisis on health outcomes is only just beginning to emerge. Data suggests that this latest recession has led to more frequent poor health status, rising incidence of some communicable diseases, and higher suicide rates. Further, available data are likely to underestimate the broader mental health crisis linked to increased rates of stress, anxiety, and depression among the economically vulnerable. Not only does recession affect factors that determine health, but it also affects the financial capacity to respond. Many European governments have reduced public expenditure on health services during the financial crisis, while introducing or increasing user charges. The recession has driven structural reforms, and has affected the priority given to public policies that could be used to help protect population health. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions and taking a long-term perspective.
Krauth, C; Hessel, F; Hansmeier, T; Wasem, J; Seitz, R; Schweikert, B
Measurement of health care costs is a crucial task in health economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods in economic evaluation which, however, do not precisely stipulate how to value resource consumption. In this article we present a proposal for the standardisation of the monetary valuation of health care utilisation occurring in the follow up period after the actual intervention to be evaluated. From a societal perspective the primary direct and indirect cost components are considered, such as outpatient medical care, pharmaceuticals, non-physician health services, inpatient care, days of sick leave and early retirement due to sickness. The standard costs are based on administrative charges and rates or on official statistics. They are based on the most current data sources which are mainly from 2002 and 2003. This system of standard costs aims at an average valuation of resource consumption. This makes for the comparability of different health economic studies. Most standard costs are not based on market prices but on administratively specified charges and rates. This implies that institutional changes which are quite common in the health care system, may also affect the valuation rates, for example the introduction of DRGs. This should be taken into account when updating the system of standard costs.
Wangberg, Silje C; Andreassen, Hege K; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Santana, Silvina Maria Vagos; Sørensen, Tove; Chronaki, Catharine E
This study aimed to explore relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health. Participants were from representative samples between 15 and 80 years of age from seven different European countries. Two different survey datasets were used: (i) eHealth trends (eHT; N = 7934) and (ii) the European social survey (ESS2; N = 11248). Internet users who had used the Internet for health purposes were compared with Internet users who had not used it for health purposes. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the relationships between SES, Internet use, social support and subjective health. Use of other media was compared to Internet use in relation to social support and subjective health. Internet use was found to be more closely related to social support and subjective health than use of other media. Internet use was also found to be a plausible mediator between SES and subjective health, especially through interacting with social support.
Benson, Jill; Smith, Mitchell M
This is the first in a series of articles looking at refugee health in Australian general practice. Each year approximately 13,000 refugees settle in Australia, mostly from countries with minimal public and personal health resources. They may present in a very different manner to the rest of the population and are at risk of unfamiliar and complex illnesses. Their health care can be difficult and time consuming and the general practitioners who supply this care need support, guidance and adequate remuneration. The new Medicare Benefits Schedule item numbers 714 and 716 are an acknowledgment by the Australian government of these concerns of community GPs who are seeing refugees for their initial health assessments. This article discusses, in the context of the new item number, some of the broader issues that are important when seeing refugees for the first time.
Bartsch, Sarah M; Hotez, Peter J; Asti, Lindsey; Zapf, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Diemert, David J; Lee, Bruce Y
Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control. We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes). Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages. Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden.
Bartsch, Sarah M.; Hotez, Peter J.; Asti, Lindsey; Zapf, Kristina M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Diemert, David J.; Lee, Bruce Y.
Background Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm’s economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control. Methodology/Principle Findings We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes). Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages. Conclusion Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden. PMID:27607360
One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees
Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam
As resources in health care are scarce, managers and clinicians must make difficult choices about what to fund and what not to fund. At the level of a regional health authority, limited approaches to aid decision makers in shifting resources across major service portfolios exist. A participatory action research project was conducted in the Calgary Health Region. Throughfive phases of action, including observation of senior management meetings, as well as two sets of one-on-one interviews and two focus groups, an approach to priority setting at the macro level within the health region was developed and implemented. The resulting macro level approach builds on the program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA)framework. Using a multi-disciplinary expert panel, about dollar 45M (CAN) was released for the 2002/03 fiscal year and made available for re-allocation to service growth areas and the deficit. Important qualitative themes from the managers and clinicians informed both process development and refinement. The approach developed here not only facilitated re-allocation of resources, but also drew in both clinicians and managers to work together on this challenging task. The approach is pragmatic, transparent and evidence based, and should have application elsewhere.
Radu, Paul; Purcărea, Victor; Popa, Florian
The Romanian health care system is facing a period of deep transformations, having in the last years some clear achievements, but also some acknowledged problems. Once the world's economic crisis appeared and manifested its first effects in Romanian economy, there will be some consequences in the health sector too. Regarding the Romanian social health insurance scheme, it's possible to assist to greater financial constraints in 2009 due to reduced contributions and a weaker economy. There are two possible solutions to face this challenge: diminishing the basic health services covered by the social health insurance system (difficult to be accepted by politicians and population) and better use of available resources based on an improvement of allowance and technical efficiency. The authors have made a critical analysis of the Romanian health care system facing the forecasted effects of the economic crisis and have proposed some interventions and solutions to reduce the effects at the level of the patient. In order to increase allowance efficiency clear measures are necessary to be taken at central and local level: improvement of financing mechanisms, alignment of the incentives used by the payment mechanisms for different type of providers, development of guides and protocols based on available resources, etc. For increased technical efficiency there is a need for adequate incentives within the financing and organization mechanisms in order to make the public providers more active in obtaining greater outputs from the available resources. The economic constraints will lead to the growth of the quality of medical services. This is the reason why the health system needs the development of the accreditation systems for providers. The audit of medical activities and reporting represents a mechanism which needs to be developed. Regarding the new health technologies' use new institutions and mechanisms need to be implemented. They will allow making certain decisions on
Cameron, Michael P.
Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…
Cameron, Michael P.
Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…
Maji, Kamal Jyoti; Dikshit, Anil Kumar; Deshpande, Ashok
Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. Here, we report the attributable number of mortality due to PM10 in Mumbai and Delhi increased to 32,014 and 48,651 in 2015 compared with 19,291 and 19,716 in year 1995. And annual average mortality due to PM2.5 in Mumbai and Delhi was 10,880 and 10,900. Premature cerebrovascular disease (CEV), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes are about 35.3, 33.3, and 22.9% of PM2.5-attributable mortalities. Total DALYs due to PM10 increased from 0.34 million to 0.51 million in Mumbai and 0.34 million to 0.75 million in Delhi from average year 1995 to 2015. Among all health outcomes, mortality and chronic bronchitis shared about 95% of the total DALYs. Due to PM10, the estimated total economic cost at constant price year 2005 US$ increased from 2680.87 million to 4269.60 million for Mumbai City and 2714.10 million to 6394.74 million for Delhi City, from 1995 to 2015, and the total amount accounting about 1.01% of India's gross domestic product (GDP). A crucial presumption is that in 2030, PM10 levels would have to decline by 44% (Mumbai) and 67% (Delhi) absolutely to maintain the same health outcomes in year 2015 levels. The results will help policy makers from pollution control board for further cost-benefit analyses of air pollution management programs in Mumbai and Delhi.
Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS)--explanation and elaboration: a report of the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines Good Reporting Practices Task Force.
Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth
Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting because substantial information must be conveyed to allow scrutiny of study findings. Despite a growth in published reports, existing reporting guidelines are not widely adopted. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user-friendly manner. A checklist is one way to help authors, editors, and peer reviewers use guidelines to improve reporting. The task force's overall goal was to provide recommendations to optimize the reporting of health economic evaluations. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines into one current, useful reporting guidance. The CHEERS Elaboration and Explanation Report of the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluation Publication Guidelines Good Reporting Practices Task Force facilitates the use of the CHEERS statement by providing examples and explanations for each recommendation. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. Previously published checklists or guidance documents related to reporting economic evaluations were identified from a systematic review and subsequent survey of task force members. A list of possible items from these efforts was created. A two-round, modified Delphi Panel with representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, and government, as well as the editorial community, was used to identify a minimum set of items important for reporting from the larger list. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed, with some specific recommendations for single study-based and model-based economic evaluations. The final
Nkonki, L; Tugendhaft, A; Hofman, K
interventions. However, this is largely for small scale and vertical programmes. There is a need for economic evaluations of larger and integrated CHW programmes in order to achieve the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal agenda so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this subset of human resources for health. This is the first systematic review to assess the cost-effectiveness of community health workers in delivering child health interventions.
Ferraz, Marcos Bosi
Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health.
Ferraz, Marcos Bosi
Health care is a highly complex, dynamic, and creative sector of the economy. While health economics has to continue its efforts to improve its methods and tools to better inform decisions, the application needs to be aligned with the insights and models of other social sciences disciplines. Decisions may be guided by four concept models based on ethical and distributive justice: libertarian, communitarian, egalitarian, and utilitarian. The societal agreement on one model or a defined mix of models is critical to avoid inequity and unfair decisions in a public and/or private insurance-based health care system. The excess use of methods and tools without fully defining the basic goals and philosophical principles of the health care system and without evaluating the fitness of these measures to reaching these goals may not contribute to an efficient improvement of population health. PMID:25709481
Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R
Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.
Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299
BACKGROUND: Demands for economic inputs to mental health policy-making, practice decisions and research evaluations have grown considerably in recent years, but the overall supply response has been modest and uneven. AIMS: This paper examines the key historical phases in the development of mental health economics research, and what they imply for the way economics is received and employed. Focusing on the quest for cost-effectiveness, the paper considers challenges for mental health economics. METHODS: An informal review of the growing demand for mental health economics (and how that demand has been expressed), and how economists have responded. RESULTS: Five historical development phases characterize this growth. Initially, the dominant feature is innocence or neglect of scarcity. Cost measures are rarely calculated, cost-effectiveness is not part of the decision-making lexicon and the potential for inefficiency is huge. In the second phase, innocence turns to criticism of attempts to introduce resource rationality, and many clinicians actively reject economics. Health is seen as priceless, and not to be compromised by the pursuit of efficiency. After a period of reluctance there follows impetuosity as the need for economic insights is recognized, but the search for data is desperate and undiscriminating. Poor quality research is conducted, with the risk that decisions are misinformed and perhaps damaging. Once again, resources are inappropriately used. Next follows the constructive development phase: previous mistakes are appreciated and the standards of evaluation improve markedly. Studies are better designed, more likely to be integrated into clinical or policy evaluations, carefully conducted and sensibly interpreted. Inefficiency should be reduced, along with inequity. Finally, there is perhaps a nirvana-like fifth phase in which sophisticated economic studies are widely undertaken, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses help to reveal the wider picture
Aratani, Yumiko; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Skinner, Curtis
Adolescence is a critical period in the human lifecycle, a time of rapid physical and socioemotional growth and a time when individuals establish lifestyle habits and health behaviors that often endure into and have lasting effects in adulthood. Adolescent health promotion programs play a critical role in helping youth establish healthy lifestyles. In this article, we present a socio-ecological model as a framework for identifying effective policy and program areas that have a positive impact on adolescent health behaviors. Our discussion focuses on 4 key areas: reproductive health; obesity prevention; mental health and substance use, including smoking; and injury and violence prevention. We proceed with an overview of the current status of state-led adolescent health promotion policies and programs from a newly created policy database and then examine the evidence on the cost of preventable adolescent health problems and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion programs and policies. We conclude by discussing the threat posed to adolescent health promotion services and state-led policy initiatives by proposed and implemented federal and state-level budget cuts and examine the possible health and economic repercussions of reducing or eliminating these programs.
Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.
Kramer, R. A.; Vincent, J. R.
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological–epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications’. PMID:28438919
Mays, Glen P.; Felix, Holly C.; Tilford, J. Mick; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Preston, Michael A.
Objectives. We estimated the effect of economic constraints on public health delivery systems (PHDS) density and centrality during 3 time periods, 1998, 2006, and 2012. Methods. We obtained data from the 1998, 2006, and 2012 National Longitudinal Study of Public Health Agencies; the 1993, 1997, 2005, and 2010 National Association for County and City Health Officials Profile Study; and the 1997, 2008, and 2011 Area Resource Files. We used multivariate regression models for panel data to estimate the impact of economic constraints on PHDS density and centrality. Results. Findings indicate that economic constraints did not have a significant impact on PHDS density and centrality over time but population is a significant predictor of PHDS density, and the presence of a board of health (BOH) is a significant predictor of PHDS density and centrality. Specifically, a 1% increase in population results in a significant 1.71% increase in PHDS density. The presence of a BOH is associated with a 10.2% increase in PHDS centrality, after controlling for other factors. Conclusions. These findings suggest that other noneconomic factors influence PHDS density centrality. PMID:26180988
We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...
Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...
Lisa K. Crone; Pat Reed; Julie. Schaefers
This is an assessment of the social and economic conditions in the Chugach National Forest area for use as background information for forest planning. Current regional conditions and recent trends are compared and contrasted with state and national conditions and recent trends. Regional employment and income trends in industries that use forest-related resources are...
We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...
Teerawattananon, Yot; Tantivess, Sripen; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Chaisiri, Kakanang
This study aims to review the development of health technology assessment (HTA), including the socioeconomic context, outputs, and policy utilization in the Thai setting. This study was conducted through extensive document reviews including these published in both domestic and international literature. Evidence suggests that contextual elements of the health system, especially the country's economic status and health financing reforms, as well as their effects on government budgeting for medical and public health services, played an important role in the increasing needs and demands for HTA information among policy makers. In the midst of substantial economic growth during the years 1982 to 1996, several studies reported the rapid diffusion and poor distribution of health technologies, and inequitable access to high-cost technology in public and private hospitals. At the same time, economic analysis and its underpinning concept of efficiency were suggested by groups of scholars and health officials to guide national policy on the investment in health technology equipment. Related research and training programs were subsequently launched. However, none of these HTA units could be institutionalized into national bodies. From 1997 to 2005, an economic recession, followed by the introduction of a universal health coverage plan, triggered the demands for effective measures for cost containment and prioritization of health interventions. This made policy makers and researchers at the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) pay increasing attention to economic appraisals, and several HTA programs were established in the Ministry. Despite the rising number of Thai health economic publications, a major problem at that period involved the poor quality of studies. Since 2006, economic recovery and demands from different interests to include expensive technologies in the public health benefit package have been crucial factors promoting the role of HTA in national policy decisions
At the beginning the principle of profitability (sufficient, suitable, economical, necessary) and its effects on medical action are analysed. An explanation is given why the appointed doctors cannot provide medical care satisfactorily in a budgeted system under mere economical criteria. The budget leads to rationing and quality reduction and leaves no scope for medical progress. The instruments for the observance of profitability (profitability examination and guidelines) are dealt with critically. Another instrument, the department budgets, which were introduced by the Social Democrat--Green government, is rejected as a mere economically calculated control mechanism with regard to health care. As a further budget the restrictive medication and curative budgets are presented. They involve the danger of payment exclusions, whereby the high quality care is called into question, if the doctor does not want to suffer a loss of fees. Alternatively, standard values with individual examination are suggested instead of the budgets with collective regress.
Ever since the concept of value for money in health care was introduced into the NHS, economic terms and jargon have become part of our everyday lives--but do we understand what the different types of economic evaluation all mean, particularly those that sound similar to the uninitiated? This article introduces readers to the purpose of economic evaluation, and briefly explains the differences between cost-minimisation analysis (used when the outcomes of the procedures being compared are the same); cost-effectiveness analysis (used when the outcomes may vary, but can be expressed in common natural units, such as mm Hg for treatments of hypertension); cost-utility analysis (used when outcomes do vary--for example, quality of life scales); and cost-benefit analysis (used when a monetary value is being placed on services received). Further articles will deal with each one in more detail.
Chapman, Ralph; Preval, Nicholas; Howden-Chapman, Philippa
An economic analysis of housing's linkages to health can assist policy makers and researchers to make better decisions about which housing interventions and policies are the most cost-beneficial. The challenge is to include cobenefits. The adoption in 2015 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals underscores the importance of understanding how policies interact, and the merit of comprehensively evaluating cobenefits. We explain our approach to the empirical assessment of such cobenefits in the housing and health context, and consider lessons from empirical economic appraisals of the impact of housing on health outcomes. Critical assumptions relating to cobenefits are explicitly examined. A key finding is that when wider policy outcome measures are included, such as mental health impacts and carbon emission reductions, it is important that effects of assumptions on outcomes are considered. Another is that differing values underlie appraisal, for example, the weight given to future generations through the discount rate. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can better facilitate meaningful debate when they are based on explicit assumptions about values. In short, the insights drawn from an economic framework for housing-and-health studies are valuable, but nonetheless contingent. Given that housing interventions typically have both health and other cobenefits, and incorporate social value judgements, it is important to take a broad view but be explicit about how such interventions are assessed.
Kennedy, Christine A
There are many difficulties in applying standard economic evaluation techniques to health care services, and telemedicine services, being relatively new and diverse, pose particular challenges to evaluators. Blanket statements about the "cost-effectiveness" of programs cannot and should not be made. Indeed, the benefit of discussing CEA (cost-effectiveness analysis) ratios is in the comparison between programs and their alternatives. In the last few years attention has focused on the actual resource implications of existing and expanding telemedicine services such as teleradiology and telepsychiatry among others. Several Canadian case studies are available to illustrate various evaluation techniques and assumptions employed. Economic barriers to the diffusion of telemedicine remain; both with capital outlay costs and issues surrounding the reimbursement of physicians for telemedicine services. This paper reviews the main tenets of economic evaluations applied to health care services but uses case studies from telemedicine services to illustrate the possibility and importance of comparative analyses. Other broader policy issues of economic incentives and implications of reimbursement are also explored.
McLean, Robert A
Health economics is an important component of professional education in health services administration, public health, and related fields. This article describes the development of an on-line course in health economics for web-based programs in health services administration and pharmacy. The on-line environment offered solutions for some of the problems often encountered in teaching this subject, but raised a set of new issues. The author explains 13 lessons learned in the process of course development and course revision. The course remains a work-in-progress, with some issues, especially in student assessment and course evaluation, yet to be resolved.
Golbeck, Amanda L.; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Paschal, Angelia M.
Adult basic education (ABE) is an ideal venue for developing health literacy skills. Literacy and numeracy assessments used in ABE were identified and the most common were examined for health components. Only the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) included health. The two most common health literacy assessments used in general…
Golbeck, Amanda L.; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Paschal, Angelia M.
Adult basic education (ABE) is an ideal venue for developing health literacy skills. Literacy and numeracy assessments used in ABE were identified and the most common were examined for health components. Only the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) included health. The two most common health literacy assessments used in general…
Clarke, Ann E.
A cost-effectiveness evaluation of an Arthritis Self-Management Program assessed direct and indirect costs through self-reporting of health services use. Diminished productivity and effectiveness were measured through a visual analog scale and the health status dimensions of the Canadian Medical Outcomes Study short form. (JOW)
Clarke, Ann E.
A cost-effectiveness evaluation of an Arthritis Self-Management Program assessed direct and indirect costs through self-reporting of health services use. Diminished productivity and effectiveness were measured through a visual analog scale and the health status dimensions of the Canadian Medical Outcomes Study short form. (JOW)
Barroso, Clara; Abásolo, Ignacio; Cáceres, José J
An economic crisis can widen health inequalities between individuals. The aim of this paper is to explore differences in the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on Spaniards' self-assessed health status, depending on the Spanish economic situation. Data from the 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 National Health Surveys were used and binary logit and probit models were estimated to approximate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on the likelihood to report good health. The difference between high and low education levels leads to differences in the likelihood to report good health of 16.00-16.25 and 18.15-18.22 percentage points in 2006-07 and 2011-12, respectively. In these two periods, the difference between employees and unemployed is 5.24-5.40 and 4.60-4.90 percentage points, respectively. Additionally, the difference between people who live in households with better socioeconomic conditions and those who are in worse situation reaches 5.37-5.46 and 3.63-3.74 percentage points for the same periods, respectively. The magnitude of the contribution of socioeconomic characteristics to health inequalities changes with the economic cycle; but this effect is different depending on the socioeconomic characteristics indicator that is being measured. In recessive periods, health inequalities due to education level increase, but those linked to individual professional status and household living conditions are attenuated. When the joint effects of individuals' characteristics are considered, the economic crisis brings about a slight increase in the inequalities in the probability of reporting good health between the two extreme profiles of individuals. The design of public policies aimed at preventing any worsening of health inequalities during recession periods should take into account these differential effects of socioeconomic characteristics indicators on health inequalities.
Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.
In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.
Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian
Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.
This article discusses health economic challenges of research and development, registration, pricing and reimbursement of biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars. A literature search was carried out of PubMed, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and EconLit up to March 2009. The development process of biopharmaceuticals is risky, lengthy, complex and expensive. Registration is complicated by the inherent variation between biopharmaceuticals. Also, as biopharmaceuticals are likely to be efficacious in a subgroup of the patient population, there is a need to select the most responsive target population and to identify biomarkers. To inform pricing and reimbursement decisions, the development process needs to collect comparative data to calculate the incremental cost effectiveness and budget impact of biopharmaceuticals. There is a role for innovative mechanisms such as risk-sharing arrangements to reimburse biopharmaceuticals. Given that biosimilars are similar, but not identical to the reference biopharmaceutical, the development process needs to generate clinical trial data in order to gain marketing authorisation. From a health economic perspective, the question arises whether inherent differences between biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars produce differences in safety, effectiveness and costs: to date, this question is unresolved. The early inclusion of health economics in the process of developing biopharmaceuticals and biosimilars is imperative with a view to demonstrating their relative (cost) effectiveness and informing registration, pricing and reimbursement decisions.
Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Sandmann, Frank Gerd; Zhou, Min; Ten Thoren, Corinna; Schwalm, Anja; Weigel, Carolin; Balg, Christiane; Mensch, Alexander; Mostardt, Sarah; Seidl, Astrid; Lhachimi, Stefan K
For many years, the legal situation within the statutory health insurance (SHI) system in Germany has allowed for health economic evaluations. There are various reasons why health economic evaluations have played virtually no role in decision making until now: to begin with, a method for the evaluation of the relation between benefits and costs which needed to be in accordance with the legal requirements had to be developed, the outcome of which was the efficiency frontier approach. Subsequent health care reforms have led to changing objectives and strategies. Currently, price negotiations of newly launched drugs are based on an early benefit assessment of dossiers submitted by pharmaceutical manufacturers. Other reasons might be the presently very comfortable financial situation of the statutory health insurance system as well as a historically grown societal fear and discomfort towards what is perceived to be a rationing of medicinal products. For the time being, it remains open how long the German health care system can afford to continue neglecting the benefits of health economic evaluations for drug and non-drug interventions, and when it will be time to wake this sleeping beauty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Eibner, Christine; Nowak, Sarah A; Liu, Jodi L; White, Chapin
In 2015, Vermont legislators may consider financing plans to implement Act 48, a law that aims to provide universal health care coverage to all Vermont residents starting in 2017. In this analysis, we estimate the economic incidence of payments for health care by Vermont residents and the value of health care benefits received by Vermont residents in 2012 and 2017, without the implementation of Act 48 reforms. The goal of the analysis was to understand how health care is currently paid for in Vermont, and to provide a baseline for understanding the possible effects of Act 48. We use data from the 2012 Vermont Household Health Interview Survey, the Vermont Health Care Uniform Evaluation and Reporting System, and administrative data on taxes to estimate payments in 2012. We then project these estimates forward to 2017, using the RAND COMPARE microsimulation to account for how health care coverage in Vermont will change as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We find that most Vermont residents receive more in health benefits than they pay for directly or through taxes. While lower-income individuals, on average, pay less than higher-income individuals, there is considerable variation across individuals in the level of payment for health care. Much of the current variation stems from the fractured nature of the health system, with some individuals receiving coverage through employers, some through the Exchange (i.e., the health insurance marketplace created by the ACA), and some through other sources. As Vermont considers health care reform, legislators may wish to consider options to reduce the degree of variation in payments made by individuals with similar income levels.
Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such
Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz
In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.
Simpson, R. W.
Traditional air pollution management practices are examined using the human ecological framework adopted by Boyden and others (1981) in their study of Hong Kong—the biohistorical or biosocial approach. The subsequent analysis of current air quality management practices assesses their effectiveness in protecting the overall health of both humans and the natural environment. The uncertainties inherent in air pollution management practices which emerge highlight the need to reduce emissions rather than rely on scientific knowledge to define “clean” air. The assessment also clearly defines roles for research in various areas such as atmospheric models, health effects, and environmental damage. The final recommendations emphasize the need for the introduction of such incentives to reduce emissions as economic instruments and warn against using health information to define clean air. Health and environmental damage information can, however, be used in risk assessment strategies together with atmospheric dispersion models.
Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P
Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing interventions. The objective of this review is to address key considerations and limitations of current methods as they apply to blood safety. Because a voluntary blood supply is an example of a public good, analyses should be conducted from the societal perspective when possible. Two primary study designs are recommended for most blood safety intervention assessments: budget impact analysis (BIA), which measures the cost to implement an intervention both to the blood operator but also in a broader context, and cost-utility analysis (CUA), which measures the ratio between costs and health gain achieved, in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality, by use of an intervention. These analyses often have important limitations because data that reflect specific aspects, for example, blood recipient population characteristics or complication rates, are not available. Sensitivity analyses play an important role. The impact of various uncertain factors can be studied conjointly in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The use of BIA and CUA together provides a comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits from implementing (or not) specific interventions. RBDM is multifaceted and impacts a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gathering and analyzing health economic evidence as part of the RBDM process enhances the quality, completeness, and transparency of decision-making.
The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters. The paper explores the question by looking at the changing role of animals in society and the associated change of the animal health professional's activities. It then questions if the current allocation of scarce resources for animal health are adequately allocated for societies and whether currently available data are sufficient for good allocation. A rapid review of the data on disease impacts - production losses and costs of human reaction - indicate that the data are sparse collected in different times and geographical regions. This limits what can be understood on the productivity of the economic resources used for animal health and this needs to be addressed with more systematic collection of data on disease losses and costs of animal health systems. Ideally such a process should learn lessons from the way that human health has made estimates of the burden of diseases and their capture of data on the costs of human health systems. Once available data on the global burden of animal diseases and the costs of animal health systems would allow assessments of individual disease management processes and the productivity of wider productivity change. This utopia should be aimed at if animal health is to continue to attract and maintain adequate resources.
Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.
The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.
Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar
This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040
Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar
This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.
Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel
This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Husereau, Don; Henshall, Chris; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Thomas, Sarah
Health technology assessment (HTA) has to innovate to best support changing health system environments and to help provide access to valuable innovation under fiscal constraint. Issues associated with changing HTA paradigms were identified through scoping and explored through deliberation at a meeting of industry and HTA leaders. Five broad areas of change (engagement, scientific dialogue, research prioritization, adaptive approaches, and real world data) were identified. The meeting focused on two themes derived from these: re-thinking scientific dialogue and multi-stakeholder engagement, and re-thinking value, affordability, and access. Earlier and ongoing engagement to steer the innovation process and help achieve appropriate use across the technology lifecycle was perceived as important but would be resource intensive and would require priority setting. Patients need to be involved throughout, and particularly at the early stages. Further discussion is needed on the type of body best suited to convening the dialogue required. There was agreement that HTA must continue to assess value, but views differed on the role that HTA should play in assessing affordability and on appropriate responses to challenges around affordability. Enhanced horizon scanning could play an important role in preparing for significant future investments. Early and ongoing multi-stakeholder engagement and revisiting approaches to valuing innovation are required. Questions remain as to the most appropriate role for HTA bodies. Changing HTA paradigms extend HTA's traditional remit of being responsive to decision-makers demands to being more proactive and considering whole system value.
Zahran, Sammy; Peek, Lori; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn
We investigate the relationship between exposure to Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita and mental health resilience by vulnerability status, with particular focus on the mental health outcomes of single mothers versus the general public. We advance a measurable notion of mental health resilience to disaster events. We also calculate the economic costs of poor mental health days added by natural disaster exposure. Negative binomial analyses show that hurricane exposure increases the expected count of poor mental health days for all persons by 18.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.44-31.14%), and by 71.88% (95% CI, 39.48-211.82%) for single females with children. Monthly time-series show that single mothers have lower event resilience, experiencing higher added mental stress. Results also show that the count of poor mental health days is sensitive to hurricane intensity, increasing by a factor of 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02-1.10) for every billion (U.S.$) dollars of damage added for all exposed persons, and by a factor of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14) for single mothers. We estimate that single mothers, as a group, suffered over $130 million in productivity loss from added postdisaster stress and disability. Results illustrate the measurability of mental health resilience as a two-dimensional concept of resistance capacity and recovery time. Overall, we show that natural disasters regressively tax disadvantaged population strata. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.
The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.
Anderson, Ian; Axelson, Henrik; Tan, B-K
The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008/2009 was the largest economic slowdown since the Great Depression. It undermined the growth and development prospects of developing countries. Several recent studies estimate the impact of economic shocks on the poor and vulnerable, especially women and children. Infant and child mortality rates are still likely to continue to decline, but at lower rates than would have been the case in the absence of the GFC. Asia faces special challenges. Despite having been the fastest growing region in the world for decades, and even before the current crisis, this region accounted for nearly 34% of global deaths of children under 5, more than 40% of maternal deaths and 60% of newborn deaths. Global development goals cannot be achieved without much faster and deeper progress in Asia. Current health financing systems in much of Asia are not well placed to respond to the needs of women and their children, or the recent global financial and economic slowdown. Public expenditure is often already too low, and high levels of out-of-pocket health expenditure are an independent cause of inequity and impoverishment for women and their children. The GFC highlights the need for reforms that will improve health outcomes for the poor, protect the vulnerable from financial distress, improve public expenditure patterns and resource allocation decisions, and so strengthen health systems. This paper aims to highlight the most recent assessments of how economic shocks, including the GFC, affect the poor in developing countries, especially vulnerable women and children in Asia. It concludes that conditional cash transfers, increasing taxation on tobacco and increasing the level, and quality, of public expenditure through well-designed investment programmes are particularly relevant in the context of an economic shock. That is because these initiatives simultaneously improve health outcomes for the poor and vulnerable, protect them from further financial
Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve
Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis.
Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Frenk, Julio
The history of health technology assessment (HTA) in Mexico is examined, starting with the efforts to incorporate this topic into the policy agenda and culminating with the recent creation of a specialized public agency. Information was gathered through a bibliographic search and interviews with actors involved in HTA in Mexico. HTA efforts were developed in Mexico since the mid-1980s with the participation both of academics and of policy makers, a relationship that eventually led to the creation of the Center for Technological Excellence within the Ministry of Health. Institutionalization of HTA in resource-constrained settings requires the development of a critical mass of researchers involved in this field, the implementation of information efforts, and the establishment of strong relationships between HTA experts and policy makers.
Lincoln, D W
World population will increase by 1000 million, or by 20%, within 10 years. Ninety-five per cent of this increase will occur in the South, in areas that are already economically, environmentally and politically fragile. Morbidity and mortality associated with reproduction will be greater in the current decade than in any period in human history. Annually, 40-60 million pregnancies will be terminated and 5-10 million children will die within one year of birth. AIDS-related infections, e.g. tuberculosis, will undermine health care in Africa (and elsewhere) and in places AIDS-related deaths will decimate the work-force. The growth in population and associated morbidity will inhibit global economic development and spawn new problems. The key issues are migration, the spread of disease, the supply of water and the degradation of land, and fiscal policies with respect to family planning, pharmaceuticals and Third-World debt. Full education, particularly of women, and more effective family planning in the South have the power to unlock the problem. Failure will see the developed countries, with their 800 million population, swamped by the health, economic and environmental problems of the South, with its projected population of 5400 million people for the year 2000.
Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly demonstrate that interventions are effective and efficient, but more data are needed to measure that efficiency. Initiatives to address microdeficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iodine, zinc, iron and folate. Iodine is often used as a best practice example. Two main institutions lead the efforts to address malnutrition throughout the world: the UN with its UN Millennium Development Goal project, and the Copenhagen Consensus. We consider micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in iodine, corresponding interventions, their effects and health economic data. We discuss how developing public/private partnership could boost the effectiveness of interventions by combining the competencies of both sides: credibility, national and international buy-in, experience of public institutions, commercial competencies, high penetration rate, and product knowledge of private industry. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yuecel, M.K. )
Switching from gasoline to methanol fuels has important economic and health effects. Replacing gasoline with methanol will affect oil markets by lowering the demand for oil and thus lowering oil prices. Increased demand for the natural gas feedstock will increase natural gas prices. Because methanol is more costly than gasoline, fuel prices will also increase. On the other hand, methanol use will reduce ozone pollution and some of the health risks associated with gasoline. Considering all three markets affected by the phasing-out of gasoline, the switch to methanol results in net gains. The health benefits from lower pollution and the lives saved from the switch from gasoline to methanol are in addition to these gains. Overall, the benefits of the policy far outweigh the costs. However, the gains in the oil market, arising from the US monopsony power in the world oil market, can be captured by other, more efficient policies. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Gili, Margalida; García Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel
Studies published before the financial crisis of 2008 suggest that economic difficulties contribute to poorer mental health. The IMPACT study conducted in primary health care centers in Spain found a significant increase in common mental disorders. Between 2006 and 2010, mood disorders increased by 19%, anxiety disorders by 8% and alcohol abuse disorders by 5%. There were also gender differences, with increased alcohol dependence in women during the crisis period. The most important risk factor for this increase was unemployment. In parallel, antidepressant consumption has increased in recent years, although there has not been a significant inrease in the number of suicides. Finally, the study offers some proposals to reduce the impact of the crisis on mental health: increased community services, employment activation measures, and active policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent suicidal behavior, particularly among young people. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chateau, Dan; Metge, Colleen; Prior, Heather; Soodeen, Ruth-Ann
Using data from the Canadian census, researchers at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy sought to create an area-based socio-economic measure (ABSM). The degree of association between the ABSM and health was evaluated. Values on several census variables (including income, education, employment and family structure) were captured at the enumeration-area or dissemination-area level and submitted to a principal components factor analysis to create three ABSMs: an updated version of the Socio-economic Factor Index (SEFI-2) and modified versions of Pampalon's material deprivation and social deprivation indices. Factor scores from these analyses were then compared with several population health measures: Premature Mortality Rate (PMR), Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL), life expectancy, and self-rated health. SEFI-2 scores were strongly related not only to the other ABSMs but also to every measure of health status. The strongest correlations between an ABSM and health measure were for SEFI-2 and PYLL(r=0.85), and SEFI-2 and PMR (r=0.80). The weakest correlations were found with the social deprivation ABSM measure and the self-rated health measure. ABSMs based on measures from the Canadian census are a valuable resource to population health researchers. Importantly, depending on the research question and reason for the inclusion of an ABSM, these composite measures may perform better than a simple measure of income alone. The ability to adjust for socio-economic status when assessing population health status or population health interventions contributes to the validity of conclusions drawn when conducting this type of research, and ABSMs may be able to substitute for area health status where it may not be easily determined.
Lopert, Ruth; Viney, Rosalie
All governments face immense challenges in providing affordable healthcare for their citizens, and the diffusion of novel health technologies is a key driver of growth in expenditure for many. Although important methodological and process variations exist around the world, health economic evaluation is increasingly seen as an important tool to support decision-making around the introduction of new health technologies, interventions and programmes in countries of varying stages of economic development. In Australia, the assessment of the comparative cost-effectiveness of new medicines proposed for subsidy under the country's national drug subsidy programme, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, was introduced in the late 1980s and became mandatory in 1993, making Australia the first country to introduce such a requirement nationally. Since then the use of health economic evaluation has expanded and been applied to support decision-making across a broader range of health technologies, as well as to programmes in public health. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Walzer, S.; Nuijten, M.; Wiesner, C.; Kaier, K.; Johansson, P-O.; Oertel, S.
Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care “convenience” could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. Conclusion: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: “Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings.” Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept. PMID:23423475
Walzer, S; Nuijten, M; Wiesner, C; Kaier, K; Johansson, P-O; Oertel, S
In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care "convenience" could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: "Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings." Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.
Background Economic evaluation is used for effective resource allocation in health sector. Accumulated knowledge about economic evaluation of health programs in Bangladesh is not currently available. While a number of economic evaluation studies have been performed in Bangladesh, no systematic investigation of the studies has been done to our knowledge. The aim of this current study is to systematically review the published articles in peer-reviewed journals on economic evaluation of health and health-related interventions in Bangladesh. Methods Literature searches was carried out during November-December 2008 with a combination of key words, MeSH terms and other free text terms as suitable for the purpose. A comprehensive search strategy was developed to search Medline by the PubMed interface. The first specific interest was mapping the articles considering the areas of exploration by economic evaluation and the second interest was to scrutiny the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality of economic evaluation of all articles has been scrutinized against the checklist developed by Evers Silvia and associates. Result Of 1784 potential articles 12 were accepted for inclusion. Ten studies described the competing alternatives clearly and only two articles stated the perspective of their articles clearly. All studies included direct cost, incurred by the providers. Only one study included the cost of community donated resources and volunteer costs. Two studies calculated the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Six of the studies applied some sort of sensitivity analysis. Two of the studies discussed financial affordability of expected implementers and four studies discussed the issue of generalizability for application in different context. Conclusion Very few economic evaluation studies in Bangladesh are found in different areas of health and health-related interventions, which does not provide a strong basis of knowledge in the area. The
McGhan, William F
The purpose of this paper is to present criteria for evaluating Internet sites and supply a selective sample of sites that may be useful in improving the transfer of information and diffusion of innovation in pharmacoeconomics and health economics. The nine criteria deal with the following: 1) Expertise - Qualified individuals should generate the information. 2) Confidentiality - All patient data should be confidential and protected. 3) Referencing - Information should be supported with proper citations. 4) Justification - Rigorous evidence should support the claims relating to benefits, risks and costs of any intervention or service. 5) Authorship - provided in the clearest manner with contact addresses. 6) Sponsorship - Support for sites should be clearly identified. 7) Advertising & Editorial Policy - Advertising should be distinguishable from other informational content. 8) Study Evaluation - should comply with the standard economic evaluation checklists 9) Generalizability - Sites should define their target countries and audiences and discuss potential generalizability.
Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M
In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health.
Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa
This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) as an analytical framework. While this tool is currently applied to forest and environmental assessment and specific applications to pest management strategies are to be found in agricultural economics, rather few attempts have been made in the field of forest pest management. In order to assess and compare with--without options, a case-study was analysed for the Setúbal Peninsula, south of Lisbon, an area where extensive stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) grow. The exercise has shown that CBA can be a valuable tool for assessing the economic and social profitability of pest management. The results demonstrate that the loss of revenues in the no-management option is not sufficient to make pest management profitable for private forest owners in the short-term. Conversely, a social profit is gained as pest management minimizes health risks for humans and avoids possible recreational losses.
Marinho, Daniel S; Casas, Carmen N P R; Pereira, Claudia C de A; Leite, Iuri C
The main objective of this study was to identify, describe, classify and analyze the scientific health economic evidence of VL-related technologies. A web search of combinations of free text and Mesh terms related to the economic evaluation of visceral leishmaniasis was conducted on scientific publication databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Medline via the Pubmed and Lilacs). A manual search of references lists of articles previously identified by the authors was also included. Articles written in English, Portuguese, Spanish or French were considered suitable for inclusion. Articles that matched the inclusion criteria were screened by at least two researchers, who extracted information regarding the epidemiologic scenario and methodological issues on a standardized form. The initial search retrieved 107 articles, whose abstracts were inspected according to the inclusion criteria leading to a first selection of 49 (46%) articles. After the elimination of duplicates, the list was reduced to 21 (20%) articles. After careful reading and application of exclusion criteria, 14 papers were eligible according to the description, classification and analysis process proposed by the study. When classified by type of economic evaluation, articles were 7 (50%) cost-effectiveness, 5 (36%) cost-minimization, 1(7%) cost-benefit, and 1(7%) budget impact. When classified by methodology, studies were mainly nested to clinical-trials ("piggy back") 8(57%). Discount rates for outcomes and costs were present in 3 (43%) of the cost-effectiveness studies, and according to WHO's recommendations, the discount rate of 3% was used in all studies. This article showed that health economic evaluations on visceral leishmaniasis used a wide range of technologies and methods. Nevertheless it is important to point out the geographic concentration of studies, which makes their transferability uncertain to different epidemiological scenarios, especially those concerning visceral leishmaniasis caused by
The spectrum of the title of this work is wide, but necessarily so, because of the increasing interaction of the three key components--ethics, law and health economy--in all parts of health systems. Although by nature the key components are different, they are still interdependent. Ethics, as the overall term for values, norms and attitudes of democratic societies, is the basic reference for our controlling of our personal lives, our lives with each other, and our lives with society institutions in the broadest sense. Ethics is the cambrium for control with our general behaviour, but is at the same time the cambrium for the control mechanisms of societies, as expressed in national laws. Health economics is often considered a necessary but value-free part of the spectrum, in accordance with money's very material nature. And yet economics and other resource elements (as organs for transplantation or numbers of special experts) have a strong link to ethics via so-called distributional ethics ("we are able to do more than we can afford"). The main theme for this introduction is ethics. In neonatal screening it relates to two different aspects: one linked to the neonate as an individual who can benefit from early diagnosis of treatable diseases, the other to the neonate as a member of a family line, enabling geneticists later to use the results for genetic mapping of a whole family or of large societal groups.
Chen, M S; Chan, A
This study of occupational safety and health (OSH) problems in the footwear industry in China, the world's largest shoemaker, is based on four years of research in China supplemented by research in Taiwan, Australia, and the United States. With the advent of the economic reforms of the early 1980s, the Chinese state is being driven by an economic imperative under which the profit motive overrides other concerns, causing a deterioration in OSH conditions. Footwear workers are being exposed to high levels of benzene, toluene, and other toxic solvents contained in the adhesives used in the shoe-making process. Many workers have been afflicted with aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other health problems. Most of China's current permissible exposure limits to toxins are either outdated or underenforced. As a result, the Chinese state's protection of footwear workers' health is inadequate. The article aims to draw the attention of the international OSH community to the importance of setting specific exposure standards for the footwear industry worldwide.
Lievens, Yolande; Grau, Cai
New evidence based regimens and novel high precision technology have reinforced the important role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer. Current data estimate that more than 50% of all cancer patients would benefit from radiotherapy during the course of their disease. Within recent years, the radiotherapy community has become more than conscious of the ever-increasing necessity to come up with objective data to endorse the crucial role and position of radiation therapy within the rapidly changing global oncology landscape. In an era of ever expanding health care costs, proven safety and effectiveness is not sufficient anymore to obtain funding, objective data about cost and cost-effectiveness are nowadays additionally requested. It is in this context that ESTRO is launching the HERO-project (Health Economics in Radiation Oncology), with the overall aim to develop a knowledge base and a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. To accomplish these objectives, the HERO project will address needs, accessibility, cost and cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy. The results will raise the profile of radiotherapy in the European cancer management context and help countries prioritizing radiotherapy as a highly cost-effective treatment strategy. This article describes the different steps and aims within the HERO-project, starting from evidence on the role of radiotherapy within the global oncology landscape and highlighting weaknesses that may undermine this position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.