Science.gov

Sample records for health effects volume

  1. Health effects of mineral dusts, Volume 28: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Mossman, B.T.

    1993-12-31

    The processes that lead to the development of disease (or pathogenesis) by minerals very likely occur at or near the mineral-fluid interface. Thus the field of ``mineral-induced pathogenesis`` is a prime candidate for interdisciplinary research, involving mineral scientists, health scientists, petrologists, pathologists, geochemists, biochemists, and surface scientists, to name a few. This review volume and the short course upon which it was based are intended to provide some of the necessary tools for the researcher interested in this area of interdisciplinary research. The chapters present several of the important problems, concepts, and approaches from both the geological and biological ends of the spectrum. These two extremes are partially integrated throughout the book by cross-referencing between chapters. Chapter 1 also presents a general introduction into the ways in which these two areas overlap. The final chapter of this book discusses some of the regulatory aspects of minerals. A glossary is included at the end of this book, because the complexity of scientific terms in the two fields can thwart even the most enthusiastic of individuals. Individual reports have been processed separately for the database.

  2. [Health economics of oncology care: financial effect of performance volume limit (PVL)].

    PubMed

    Boncz, Imre; Donkáné Verebes, Eva; Oberfrank, Ferenc; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-03-01

    The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of performance volume limit (PVL) on the performance indicators of acute oncology care, with special respect to the health insurance reimbursement not paid to health care providers. Data were derived from the nationwide administrative dataset of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) covering the period of 2006-2008. We analyzed the effect of PVL according to medical specialities. We calculated the average annual reimbursement rate of DRG cost-weight with and without the application of PVL. The loss due to PVL was calculated both by monetary terms and as the % of annual revenue. The loss of medical specialities measured by monetary units (Hungarian forint, HUF) and as a percent of their revenues was the following in 2008: oncology 1327 million HUF (4.7%), cardiology 791 million HUF (3.0%), gynecology and obstetrics 772 million HUF (3.0%), internal medicine 708 million HUF (3.3%), intensive care 661 million HUF (2.5%), surgery 637 million HUF (3.2%), pediatrics 614 million HUF (3.9%), traumatology 545 million HUF (2.5%), radiotherapy 438 million HUF (3.1%). The application of performance volume limit had significantly different effect on the different medical specialities. Oncology care can be considered as one of the largest losers of the application of performance volume limit.

  3. Adolescent Health. Volume II: Background and the Effectiveness of Selected Prevention and Treatment Services [and] Indexes to Volumes I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This document, the second of three volumes in the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment's "Adolescent Health" series, provides background information on aspects of adolescents' lives and examines the effectiveness of prevention and treatment interventions. Chapter 1, an introduction to this two-part document, provides a summary of the…

  4. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  5. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  6. [Effects of minimum volume regulations on the provision of health care services in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Fürstenberg, T; Heumann, M; Roeder, N

    2005-02-01

    In order to improve the quality of medical care, minimum volumes for services were set. Hospitals are only permitted to continue to provide these services and settle accounts with the health insurance companies if they are able to achieve these minimum annual volumes. This study is based on service data of the year 2002 from 88 neighboring hospitals of the hospital association Cologne, Bonn and region. In the study, the influence of these regulations on the provision of health care services in cardiology were examined. The cases were grouped according to the different examined services, followed by an analysis of the number of cases for each hospital in comparison to four fictitious minimum quantity models. When the hospital's volume remained below the minimum quantity, these cases were assigned to the nearest hospital still able to provide the service. For the services coronary angiography, PTCA, AICD implantation, EPS and ablation, only marginal case redistributions were determined. Depending on the minimum quantity, service concentrations are only expected for pacemaker implantations. Due to the increasing service concentration as a consequence of the DRG-payment system, a bureaucratic regulation of minimum volumes has become superfluous for most cardiological services. Instead of minimum volume regulations, recommendation of minimum volumes should be made in cardiological guidelines.

  7. The effect of DOCLINE on interlibrary loan volume and patterns among health sciences libraries in Michigan: preliminary analysis.

    PubMed Central

    McGaugh, D L

    1990-01-01

    Six years of statistics on interlibrary lending and borrowing among basic unit health sciences libraries in Michigan are examined to determine the effect of the availability of an automated interlibrary loan system, DOCLINE, on interlibrary lending volume and patterns within Michigan. A trend analysis projection of expected volume is made and the predicted value compared with the actual value following the adoption of the DOCLINE system. Interlibrary loan (ILL) volume is tested to see if yearly volume increases are statistically significant. The number of libraries changing from net lender to net borrower or the reverse after the adoption of DOCLINE is tracked. Results fail to support the expectation that DOCLINE would produce major change in ILL volume or pattern. PMID:2328360

  8. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 5: The effects on human health

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this report is to provide a broad framework from the latest available data, mostly since 1990, in an attempt to estimate the specific agents within the air pollution mixture of acid rain that are related to adverse effects on human health. Direct and indirect health effects of sulphur dioxide and its derivatives, sulfate, particulate matter, and acid aerosols are reviewed separately. Information is included on the distribution of sulphur oxides across Canada and on epidemiological, clinical, and toxicological studies related to the direct health effects. In addition, indirect health effects such as changes in visibility and climate, and leaching of metals into water supplies, are also reviewed.

  9. Integrating health status and survival data: the palliative effect of lung volume reduction surgery.

    PubMed

    Benzo, Roberto; Farrell, Max H; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Martinez, Fernando J; Kaplan, Robert; Reilly, John; Criner, Gerard; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Luketich, James; Fishman, Alfred P; Sciurba, Frank C

    2009-08-01

    In studies that address health-related quality of life (QoL) and survival, subjects who die are usually censored from QoL assessments. This practice tends to inflate the apparent benefits of interventions with a high risk of mortality. Assessing a composite QoL-death outcome is a potential solution to this problem. To determine the effect of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on a composite endpoint consisting of the occurrence of death or a clinically meaningful decline in QoL defined as an increase of at least eight points in the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema randomized to receive medical treatment (n = 610) or LVRS (n = 608), we analyzed the survival to the composite endpoint, the hazard functions and constructed prediction models of the slope of QoL decline. The time to the composite endpoint was longer in the LVRS group (2 years) than the medical treatment group (1 year) (P < 0.0001). It was even longer in the subsets of patients undergoing LVRS without a high risk for perioperative death and with upper-lobe-predominant emphysema. The hazard for the composite event significantly favored the LVRS group, although it was most significant in patients with predominantly upper-lobe emphysema. The beneficial impact of LVRS on QoL decline was most significant during the 2 years after LVRS. LVRS has a significant effect on the composite QoL-survival endpoint tested, indicating its meaningful palliative role, particularly in patients with upper-lobe-predominant emphysema.

  10. The Effects of Head Start Health Services: Report of the Head Start Health Evaluation. Volume I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosburg, Linda B.; And Others

    In 1977, a longitudinal study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of health services provided by Head Start. The study provided for 10 domains: pediatric health examinations, health history recordings, dental evaluation, anthropometric assessment, diet and nutrition assessment, and hematology evaluations, as well as for developmental,…

  11. Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents. Volume 3. Current Health Status of Test Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    AD-A163 614 ’Poss-ible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents Volume 3 Final Report Current Health Status of Test ...Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents Vol. 3--Current Health Status of Test Subjects 1.2PRSONAU AUITORS) Committee on Toxicology, Board on Toxicolo y...Effects of Chemical Agents Used in Human Testing --Morbidity Studies" (DAMD17-83-C-3185-- (over) _____________________ CODSS. SUBJECT TERMS (ConteW an en e

  12. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Evidence for a possible association between glucose intolerance, impaired insulin production, and dioxin exposure was revealed, but cause and effect...remain to be established. Also revealed was a significant association between selected peripheral pulses and dioxin exposure , and a significant...patterns within or across clinical areas that were suggestive of health detriment due to dioxin exposure

  13. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  14. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Harper, F.T.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Grupa, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M.; Harper, F.T.; Hora, S.C.

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models.

  17. Public health and high volume hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation.

  18. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 4. Health effects of mercury and mercury compounds. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeny, R.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress summarizes the available information on human health effects and animal data for hazard identification and dose-response assessment for three forms of mercury: elemental mercury, mercury chloride (inorganic mercury), and methylmercury (organic mercury). Effects are summarized by endpoint. The risk assessment evaluates carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, developmental toxicity and general systemic toxicity of these chemical species of mercury. Toxicokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) are described for each of the three mercury species. PBPK models are described, but not applied in risk assessment. Reference doses are calculated for inorganic and methylmercury; a reference concentration for inhaled elemental mercury is provided. A quantitiative analysis of factors contributing to variability and uncertainty in the methylmercury RfD is provided in an appendix. Interations and sensitive populations are described.

  19. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 10.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    examination Methodology, Study Selection and Participation, Quality Control, Statistical Methods, Covariate Associations with Estimates of Dioxin ... Exposure , General Health Assessment, Neoplasia Assessment, Neurological Assessment, Psychological Assessment, Gastrointestinal Assessment, Dermatologic

  20. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Assessment CHAPTER 15 - Endocrine Assessment i CHAPTER 16- Immunologic Assessment VOLUME VII CHAPTER 17 - Pulmonary Assessment CHAPTER 18- Conclusions...Inirial Dlioxin) Tac unadjusted analvsis of thl recenc of Ranch Hands who renoried that : hcv saiore loudly, in all slCe.-insz pOitoflonsho no sia!nif~cant

  1. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    1-1 3AIR FORCE HEALTH STUDY.............................................. 1-1 Questionnaire Methodology...M.D., CDC Questionnaire administration and scheduling: Ellwood Carter, NORC Jan Dyson, NORC Charlene Harris, NORC Cynthia Peters, NORC * Jacques Van...8-148 Questionnaire Variables

  2. 76 FR 2447 - Gulf War and Health, Volume 6, Physiologic, Psychologic, and Psychosocial Effects of Deployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... psychiatric effects, but also depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychosocial effects... disease, injury, or illness for which service connection can be granted (e.g. suicide or marital conflict... effects (e.g. suicide and marital conflict) are not themselves diseases, injuries, or illnesses...

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ashiya; Amitava, Abadan Khan; Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Siddiqui, Ziya; Kumari, Namita; Grover, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cost-effectiveness analysis should continually assess competing health care options especially in high volume environments like cataract surgery. Aims: To compare the cost effectiveness of phacoemulsification (PE) versus manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Settings and Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: A total of 52 consenting patients with age-related cataracts, were prospectively recruited, and block randomized to PE or MSICS group. Preoperative and postoperative LogMAR visual acuity (VA), visual function-14 (VF-14) score and their quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were obtained, and the change in their values calculated. These were divided by the total cost incurred in the surgery to calculate and compare the cost effectiveness and cost utility. Surgery duration was also compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Two group comparison with Student's t-test. Significance set at P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) quoted where appropriate. Results: Both the MSICS and PE groups achieved comparative outcomes in terms of change (difference in mean [95% CI]) in LogMAR VA (0.03 [−0.05−0.11]), VF-14 score (7.92 [−1.03−16.86]) and QALYs (1.14 [−0.89−3.16]). However, with significantly lower costs (INR 3228 [2700–3756]), MSICS was more cost effective, with superior cost utility value. MSICS was also significantly quicker (10.58 min [6.85–14.30]) than PE. Conclusions: MSICS provides comparable visual and QALY improvement, yet takes less time, and is significantly more cost-effective, compared with PE. Greater push and penetration of MSICS, by the government, is justifiably warranted in our country. PMID:26265639

  4. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  5. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  6. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume II. SPAHR introductory guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of responses, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projects are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the user of the SPAHR program the information required to operate the program when it is up and running on the computer. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment. It contains a brief description of all commands and options available in SPAHR, as well as a user-oriented description of the structure and operation of the control system and language processor.

  7. Review of literature on herbicides, including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins. Volume 13: Analysis of recent literature on health effects and Volume 14: Annotated bibliography of recent literature on health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The report consists of a bibliography and critical review of scientific literature that became available during 1988 on the health effects of the herbicides (including impurities) used as defoliants in the Vietnam conflict. An attempt has been made to identify all scientific literature (including unpublished reports) relevant to the potential human health effects of the herbicidal preparation commonly referred to as Agent Orange, the herbicidal active ingredients 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetic acid and their esters, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, henceforth referred to as TCDD, known to be contaminating impurities of some phenoxy herbicide preparations, an the herbicides, picloram and cacodylic acid. The scope of the review does not include literature dealing exclusively with the chemistry, analysis, or environmental fate and effects of these compounds.

  8. The Comprehensive Health Challenge: Promoting Health through Education. Volume One; Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Peter, Ed.; Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.

    The 32 chapters in this book (presented in two volumes) cover a continuum of issues in comprehensive school health education, including a review of the past and a vision of the future. Volume 1 opens with a foreword by Dr. M. Jocelyn Elders (Surgeon General of the United States) and provides the following chapters: (1) "School Health…

  9. The Comprehensive Health Challenge: Promoting Health through Education. Volume One; Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortese, Peter, Ed.; Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.

    The 32 chapters in this book (presented in two volumes) cover a continuum of issues in comprehensive school health education, including a review of the past and a vision of the future. Volume 1 opens with a foreword by Dr. M. Jocelyn Elders (Surgeon General of the United States) and provides the following chapters: (1) "School Health…

  10. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  11. Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure. Volume 1. Summary and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-27

    epidemiologic studies may be identified, differing in venue, design, and nature of noise exposure. They range from case - control studies of acute past episodes...approximate lower bound on reasonable sample sizes is on the order of five hundred people (for case - control studies of strong effects with moderate...exposure, but lack some of the cost saving efficiencies of case - control studies . 4.2 Studies of Surrogate Variables If community-based epidemiologic

  12. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills and Theory for Health Assistant. Volume 2, Units 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This volume consists of three units of a basic core curriculum that is intended for all health workers. Covered in the units are the following topics: (1) the body's need for food, the effect of food on the body, the five food groups, the six nutrients, and therapeutic diets; (2) general principles of asepsis, specific methods of maintaining…

  13. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This manual is the first part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: taking and recording vital signs; job applications and interviews; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers;…

  14. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This manual is the first part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: taking and recording vital signs; job applications and interviews; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers;…

  15. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 1-20) based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (1) the health worker and the law; (2) introduction to ethics in the healing…

  16. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 1-20) based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (1) the health worker and the law; (2) introduction to ethics in the healing…

  17. [Volume and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews].

    PubMed

    Davoli, Marina; Amato, Laura; Minozzi, Silvia; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Vecchi, Simona; Perucci, Carlo A

    2005-01-01

    Improving quality and effectiveness of health care is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume of activity may be a measurable variable with a relevant impact on effectiveness of health care. There are several studies and systematic reviews evaluating the association between volume and outcome of health care. The aim of this review is to identify: areas, clinical conditions or interventions (prevention, diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical or clinical) for which an association between volume and outcome has been investigated; those for which an association between volume and outcome has been proved Overview of systematic reviews and Health Technology Assessment reports; search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Web sites of Health Technology Assessment, other HTA Agencies, National guideline Clearinghouse, National Health Care quality tools (1995-february 2005). For each studied area results are described separately for each review due to the heterogeneity of outcomes, volume thresholds and results reported. No metanalysis has been conducted. Completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews has been evaluated using the QUOROM statement. For each review we evaluated the number of studies included and the proportion of studies with statistically significant results (p < 0,05). As far as in-hospital mortality is concerned, the different areas have been classified in the following groups: Strong evidence ofpositive association: areas with > or =10 studies included in the reviews, and high prevalence (> or =50%) of positive studies (p <0. 05) in the majority of reviews. Weak evidence of association: areas with 5 to 9 studies included in the reviews and high prevalence (> or =50%) of positive studies (p <0.05) in the majority of reviews. Weak evidence of lack of association: areas with 5 to 9 studies included in the reviews and high prevalence (>50%) of not statistically significant studies (p >0.05) in the majority of reviews. No

  18. Health Manpower Literature. Volume 1. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Center for Medical Manpower Studies.

    Intended for researchers in the health manpower field, this booklet contains abstracts of books and journal articles on health manpower published over the past eighteen months and a report of a study of the Center for Medical Manpower Studies. The booklet begins with two pages that list ten health manpower indicators involving costs, patient…

  19. Health Education Teaching Ideas: Elementary. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakala, Jane, Ed.; Buckner, W. P., Jr., Ed.; King, Karen, Ed.

    This guide contains innovative learning activities and teaching ideas to enhance classroom instruction. The 40 papers are divided into 12 areas: "Health Attitudes and Values" (e.g., understanding elementary students' perceptions of health through art, narrative and discussion); "Mental Health" (e.g., building community through…

  20. Health Manpower Literature. Volume 2, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold M.; And Others

    This publication presents abstracts, statistics, and references drawn from health manpower literature. It is divided into seven sections; the first section provides statistics on (1) estimated employment in selected health occupations that are potentially entry-level, (2) hospital indicators, and (3) percent distribution of personal health care…

  1. Investigation of mean platelet volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: a cost-effective tool in primary health care?

    PubMed Central

    Ozder, Aclan; Eker, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mean platelet volume (MPV) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and in non-diabetic controls. A total of 201 adults with T2DM and 201 subjects with IFG from the Family Medicine out-patient clinic as well as 201 healthy controls were included in the study. We measured blood fasting glucose, complete blood count and LDL-cholesterol and compared the results between the groups enrolled. In the patients with diabetes and subjects with IFG, MPV was significantly higher (10.66 ± 0.94 fL and 10.49 ± 0.96 fL, respectively ) as compared to the non-diabetic group (10.04 ± 1.01 fL) (p = 0.000). Among the diabetic subjects, a positive statistical Pearson correlation was seen between MPV and HbA1c levels (r = 0.357; p = 0.000) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (r = 0.306; p = 0.000). The mean MPV in patients having HbA1C < 7.5% was 10.17 ± 0.83 fL and significantly lower than that of patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% (10.80 ± 0.92 fL) (p = 0.001). MPV could be used as a simple and cost-effective tool to monitor the progression and control of T2DM and thereby in preventing vascular events in primary health care. PMID:25232423

  2. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  3. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Volume 2 of the two-volume textbook on nursing skills presents instructional materials (units 21-36) on nursing skills based on 184 activities designated by the Allied Health Professions Projects national survey as those which are accomplished by all levels of nursing. Unit titles are: (21) urine elimination; (22) bowel elimination; (23)…

  4. Health Occupations Education. Units of Instruction. Teacher's Guide. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Catherine

    This manual is the second part of a two-volume teacher's guide to a series of instructional units for use in health occupations education programs in Texas. Covered in the 10 units included in this volume are the following topics: special procedures (administering oxygen to patients; using elastic bandages; assisting with postural drainage; and…

  5. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  6. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  7. Blood volume changes. [weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.; Leblance, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclide volume determinations made for the crewmembers of selected Gemini and Apollo missions showed that orbital spaceflight has an effect on red cell mass. Because the methods and the protocol developed for earlier flights were used for the crews of the three Skylab missions, direct comparisons are possible. After each Skylab mission, decreases were found in crewmembers' red cell masses. The mean red cell mass decrease of 11 percent or 232 milliliters was approximately equal to the 10 percent mean red cell mass decrease of the Apollo 14 to 17 crewmembers. The red cell mass drop was greatest and the postrecovery reticulocyte response least for crewmembers of the 28-day Skylab 2 mission. Analyses of data from the red cell mass determinations indicate that the red cell mass drops occurred in the first 30 days of flight and that a gradual recovery of the red cell mass deficits began approximately 60 days after launch. The beginning of red cell mass regeneration during the Skylab 4 flight may explain the higher postmission reticulocyte counts.

  8. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume III. SPAHR interactive package guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projectons. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, adn thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This manual outlines the use of the interactive capabilities of SPAHR. SPAHR is an integrated system of computer programs designed for simulating numerous health risk scenarios using the techniques of demographic modeling. This system of computer programs has been designed to be very flexible so as to allow the user to simulate a large variety of scenarios. It provides the user with an integrated package for projecting the impacts on human health of exposure to various hazards, particularly those resulting from the effluents related to energy production.

  9. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E

    2014-11-01

    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more

  10. Effect of surgeon and anesthesiologist volume on surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gani, Faiz; Kim, Yuhree; Weiss, Matthew J; Makary, Martin A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Hirose, Kenzo; Cameron, John L; Wasey, Jack O; Frank, Steven M; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known regarding the effects of caseload volume of other relevant members of the "surgical team." The present study sought to report variations in health care utilization and outcomes relative to surgeon and anesthesiologist volume among patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. A total of 969 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery from 2011-2013 were identified at a large, tertiary care center. Multivariable regression analyses explored the effects of provider volume on crystalloid administration, blood transfusions, mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges. A total of 11 surgeons were identified while 100 anesthesiologists were involved in providing care to all patients. Annual case volume for surgeons ranged from 5-101 pancreatic resections per year; each anesthesiologist was involved in a fewer number of cases per year with a maximum of 15 patients treated by the same anesthesiologist. Higher volume surgeons had higher transfusions (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.47; P < 0.001), greater crystalloid administration (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.24-2.12; P < 0.001), and longer length of stay (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.20-2.53; P = 0.003). In contrast, 30-d readmission was lower among higher volume surgeons (low volume versus high volume; 23.1% versus 11.6%; P < 0.001). Variations in patient-related outcomes were not associated with anesthesia provider volume (all P > 0.05). Similarly, total hospital charges and mortality were not associated with provider volumes (both P > 0.05). Although variability exists in health care practices among providers at the surgeon level, less is observed among anesthesiologists. Although a proportion of this variability can be explained by provider volumes, a significant proportion remains unexplained possibly due to nonmodifiable factors such as patient case mix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure. Volume 3. Summary of Literature on Cardiovascular Effects on Noise Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1983. sonic boom, space diseases, hyper- C.; Sutherland, data; Cross- Large sample, averaged for each tension, cerebro - L; Plotkin, sectional data by...and control mean exposure to noise since noise and tical controlling on age, workers. T-test used. of 95 dBA, the sys- health pan - sex, weight

  12. Practical Nursing, Volume III. Health Occupations Education. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jamee Noell

    This document is a comprehensive guide for instructors to use in teaching the final phase of the practical nursing program. This revised volume contains information related to medical-surgical nursing, mental health nursing, and career success. The section on medical-surgical nursing is composed of many units, dealing with the following subjects:…

  13. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan C.; And Others

    The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different…

  14. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan C.; And Others

    The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different…

  15. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills and Theory for Health Assistant. Volume I, Units 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    This volume consists of the first four units of a basic core curriculum that is intended for all health workers. The units deal with the following topics: (1) the health care facility, the long-term care facility, the health team, and the nursing team; (2) verbal and nonverbal communication, written communication, human behavior, ethical behavior,…

  16. The Role of Education in a System of Care: Effectively Serving Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health 1998 Series. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Darren W.; Osher, David; Hoffman, Catherine C.; Gruner, Allison; King, Mark A.; Snow, Stephanie T.; McIntire, Jonathan C.

    This is the third volume in a series of monographs from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Service for Children and Their Families Program, which currently supports 41 comprehensive system of care sites to meet the needs of children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). This volume explores sites that are overcoming obstacles to…

  17. Mental Health Services for the Elderly: Report on a Survey of Community Mental Health Centers. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Arthur S.; And Others

    This is the third volume of a three-volume report on the Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) survey project undertaken to assess the impact of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services (ADMS) block grant program on the delivery of mental health services to older persons. This volume presents results from a 2-year follow-up survey…

  18. Climate Effects on Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapter . Additional information regarding the health effects of climate change and references to supporting literature can be found ... globalchange.gov/engage/activities-products/NCA3/technical-inputs . Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health ...

  19. Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals.

    PubMed

    Schauble, Edwin A

    2013-10-29

    Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from (119)Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.

  20. Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals

    PubMed Central

    Schauble, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac–Hartree–Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor–crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium

  1. Modeling nuclear volume isotope effects in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauble, Edwin A.

    2013-10-01

    Mass-independent isotope fractionations driven by differences in volumes and shapes of nuclei (the field shift effect) are known in several elements and are likely to be found in more. All-electron relativistic electronic structure calculations can predict this effect but at present are computationally intensive and limited to modeling small gas phase molecules and clusters. Density functional theory, using the projector augmented wave method (DFT-PAW), has advantages in greater speed and compatibility with a three-dimensional periodic boundary condition while preserving information about the effects of chemistry on electron densities within nuclei. These electron density variations determine the volume component of the field shift effect. In this study, DFT-PAW calculations are calibrated against all-electron, relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock, and coupled-cluster with single, double (triple) excitation methods for estimating nuclear volume isotope effects. DFT-PAW calculations accurately reproduce changes in electron densities within nuclei in typical molecules, when PAW datasets constructed with finite nuclei are used. Nuclear volume contributions to vapor-crystal isotope fractionation are calculated for elemental cadmium and mercury, showing good agreement with experiments. The nuclear-volume component of mercury and cadmium isotope fractionations between atomic vapor and montroydite (HgO), cinnabar (HgS), calomel (Hg2Cl2), monteponite (CdO), and the CdS polymorphs hawleyite and greenockite are calculated, indicating preferential incorporation of neutron-rich isotopes in more oxidized, ionically bonded phases. Finally, field shift energies are related to Mössbauer isomer shifts, and equilibrium mass-independent fractionations for several tin-bearing crystals are calculated from 119Sn spectra. Isomer shift data should simplify calculations of mass-independent isotope fractionations in other elements with Mössbauer isotopes, such as platinum and uranium.

  2. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  3. Hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi; Hirata, Fumio

    2005-03-01

    The hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume (PMV) are investigated as a PMV change in the transfer of a benzenelike nonpolar solute from the nonpolar solvent to water, using an integral equation theory of liquids. The volume change is divided into two effects. One is the "packing" effect in the transfer from the nonpolar solvent to hypothetical "nonpolar water" without hydrogen bonding networks. The other is the "iceberg" effect in the transfer from nonpolar water to water. The results indicate that the packing effect is negative and a half compensated by the positive iceberg effect. The packing effect is explained by the difference in the solvent compressibility. Further investigation shows that the sign and magnitude of the volume change depend on the solute size and the solvent compressibility. The finding gives a significant implication that the exposure of a hydrophobic residue caused by protein denaturation can either increase or decrease the PMV of protein depending on the size of the residue and the fluctuation of its surroundings.

  4. Hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takashi; Hirata, Fumio

    2005-03-01

    The hydrophobic effects on partial molar volume (PMV) are investigated as a PMV change in the transfer of a benzenelike nonpolar solute from the nonpolar solvent to water, using an integral equation theory of liquids. The volume change is divided into two effects. One is the "packing" effect in the transfer from the nonpolar solvent to hypothetical "nonpolar water" without hydrogen bonding networks. The other is the "iceberg" effect in the transfer from nonpolar water to water. The results indicate that the packing effect is negative and a half compensated by the positive iceberg effect. The packing effect is explained by the difference in the solvent compressibility. Further investigation shows that the sign and magnitude of the volume change depend on the solute size and the solvent compressibility. The finding gives a significant implication that the exposure of a hydrophobic residue caused by protein denaturation can either increase or decrease the PMV of protein depending on the size of the residue and the fluctuation of its surroundings.

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  6. Hydrophobic Volume Effects in Albumin Solutions.

    PubMed

    Schrade, P.; Klein, H.; Egry, I.; Ademovic, Z.; Klee, D.

    2001-02-15

    Density measurements of aqueous albumin solutions as a function of concentration and temperature are reported. The solvents were H(2)O, D(2)O, and a physiological H(2)O-based buffer. An anomaly of the density at very small concentrations of albumin in D(2)O was found. Furthermore, the partial specific volume of albumin is remarkably different in D(2)O and H(2)O. We attribute both effects to structural differences of the solvents. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. The volume effect in irradiated mouse colorectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarchuk, Mark William

    1997-11-01

    Damage of the colorectum is the dose-limiting normal tissue complication following radiotherapy of prostate and cervical cancers. One approach for decreasing complications is to physically reduce the treatment volume. Mathematical models have been previously developed to describe the change in associated toxicity with a change in irradiated volume, i.e. the 'volume effect', for serial-type normal tissues including the colorectum. The first goal of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that there would not be a threshold length in the development of obstruction after irradiation of mouse colorectum, as predicted by the Probability model of the volume effect. The second goal was to examine if there were differences in the threshold and in the incidence of colorectal obstruction after irradiation of two mouse strains, C57B1/6 (C57) and C3Hf/Kam (C3H), previously found to be fibrosis-prone and-resistant, respectively, after lung irradiation due, in part, to genetic differences. The hypothesis examined was that differences in incidence between strains were due to the differential expression of the fibrogenic cytokines TGF/beta and TNF/alpha. Various lengths of C57 and C3H mouse colorectum were irradiated and the incidence of colorectal obstruction was followed up to 15 months. A threshold length was observed for both mouse strains, in contradiction of model predictions. The mechanism of the threshold was epithelial regeneration after irradiation. C57 mice had significantly higher incidence of colorectal obstruction compared to C3H mice, especially at smaller irradiated lengths. Colorectal tissue was obtained at various times after irradiation and prepared for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNase protection assay for measurement of TGF/beta 1, 2, 3 and TNF/alpha mRNA. Distinct strain differences in the histological time of appearance and spatial locations of fibrosis were observed. However, there were no consistent strain difference in mRNA levels or

  8. The Effects of Exercise, Heat, and Microclimate Cooling on Terminal Stroke Volume in Men and Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE, HEAT AND MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON TERMINAL STROKE VOLUME IN MEN AND WOMEN...20372-5300 THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE, HEAT AND MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON TERMINAL STROKE VOLUME IN MEN AND WOMEN Naval Health Research Center...We have previously reported that in lieu of the more common end-of-test criteria such as core temperature < 39°C, and heart rate (HR) < 180 bpm

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  10. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  11. The influence of the volume of dental treatment on change in self-reported oral health.

    PubMed

    Crocombe, Leonard Alfred; Brennan, David Simon; Slade, Gary Douglas

    2013-01-01

    To find an association between self-reported change in oral health and dental treatment volume. Baseline data were obtained from the Tasmanian component of the National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06 and 12-month follow-up data from service use logbooks and mail self-complete questionnaires. The global oral health transition statement indicated change in oral health. Many putative confounders were analyzed and Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to calculate the prevalence ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals for bivariate- and multivariate-adjusted relationships. One-eighth (12.4 percent) of the participants reported that their oral health had improved. Over half visited a dentist (n=176, 52.6 percent), of whom 105 received less than six dental services and 71 received six or more dental services. Baseline oral disease (P=0.01), having a treatment need (P<0.01), usually visiting a dentist for a problem (P<0.05), and having a lot of difficulty paying a $100 dental bill (P=0.01) were significantly associated with the same or worsening oral health. The regression model indicated that having six or more dental services (P<0.01) was significantly associated with improvement in oral health, indicating a threshold effect. Usually visiting a dentist for a check-up was significantly associated with improvement in oral health (P<0.01). Having six or more dental services was significantly associated with a greater self-reported improvement in oral health than having less than six dental services. The greater prevalence ratios with increasing dental service volume suggested a threshold effect. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Volume is not Associated with Outcome within an Academic Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Micheal T.; Barcia, Anthony; Spitzer, Austin L.; Harris, Hobart W.

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis. Smaller and lower-volume hospitals can attain surgical outcomes similar to high-volume centers if they incorporate the expertise and health care pathways of high-volume centers. Setting. The academic tertiary care center, Moffit-Long Hospital (ML); the community-based Mount Zion Hospital (ZION); the San Francisco County General Hospital (SFGH); and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center of San Francisco (VAMC). Patients. 369 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between October 1989 and June 2003 at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) affiliated hospitals. Interventions. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Design. Retrospective chart review. To correct for the potentially confounding effect of small case volumes and event rates, data for SFGH, VAMC, and ZION was combined (Small Volume Hospital Group; SVHG) and compared against data for ML. Main Outcome Measures. Complication rates; three-year and five-year survival rates. Results. The average patient age and health, as determined by ASA score, were similar between ML and the SVHG. The postoperative complication rate did not differ significantly between ML and the SVGH (58.8% versus 63.1%). Patients that experienced a complication averaged 2.5 complications in both groups. The perioperative mortality rate was 4% for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at either ML or the SVGH. Although the 3-year survival rate for patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas was nearly twice as high at ML (31.2% versus 18.3% at SVHG), there was no significant difference in the 5-year survival rates (19% at ML versus 18.3% at SVHG). Conclusions. Low-volume hospitals can achieve similar outcomes to high-volume tertiary care centers provided they import the expertise and care pathways necessary for improved results. PMID:18475317

  13. State Programs Supporting Health Manpower Training: An Inventory. Volume 1. Report and Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Health Manpower.

    A detailed statistical review of state support for health manpower training during 1973, 1974, and 1975 with an inventory of state expenditures for specific health occupations in 32 states are presented in Volume One of this two-volume study conducted for the Health Resources Administration. Objectives of the study included: investigation of the…

  14. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  15. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  16. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  17. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 2. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Guidelines for teaching nursing skills to allied health personnel at different levels (on-the-job training, associate degree in nursing, adult education, or staff development programs) are the focus of the document. It presents general considerations for planning an effective management system for the utilization of Level 1 (entry-level nursing…

  18. Nursing Skills for Allied Health Services. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lucile A., Ed.

    Guidelines for teaching nursing skills to allied health personnel at different levels (on-the-job training, associate degree in nursing, adult education, or staff development programs) are the focus of the document. It presents general considerations for planning an effective management system for the utilization of Level 1 (entry-level nursing…

  19. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 5: Billings Area, 1963-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The fifth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Billings Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) General Description (geography, demography, and transportation facilities…

  20. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 9: Portland Area, 1966-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The ninth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Portland Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context (early history of the Oregon Territory, geography and tribal…

  1. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 1: Overview and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    Constituting an overview of a 10-volume report on the historical development and contemporary activities (1966-1973) of each of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this volume includes: the methods used for data collection (personal interviews with both past and present IHS key officials,…

  2. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 2: Aberdeen Area, 1965-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The second volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Aberdeen Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) Description of the Area (geography of the Area's Western Portion and…

  3. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 8: Phoenix Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The eighth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Phoenix Area Office and the Tucson Sub-Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context: Political and Geographic (the…

  4. Health information exchange policies of 11 diverse health systems and the associated impact on volume of exchange.

    PubMed

    Downing, N Lance; Adler-Milstein, Julia; Palma, Jonathan P; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Matthew; Sharp, Christopher; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2017-01-01

    Provider organizations increasingly have the ability to exchange patient health information electronically. Organizational health information exchange (HIE) policy decisions can impact the extent to which external information is readily available to providers, but this relationship has not been well studied. Our objective was to examine the relationship between electronic exchange of patient health information across organizations and organizational HIE policy decisions. We focused on 2 key decisions: whether to automatically search for information from other organizations and whether to require HIE-specific patient consent. We conducted a retrospective time series analysis of the effect of automatic querying and the patient consent requirement on the monthly volume of clinical summaries exchanged. We could not assess degree of use or usefulness of summaries, organizational decision-making processes, or generalizability to other vendors. Between 2013 and 2015, clinical summary exchange volume increased by 1349% across 11 organizations. Nine of the 11 systems were set up to enable auto-querying, and auto-querying was associated with a significant increase in the monthly rate of exchange (P = .006 for change in trend). Seven of the 11 organizations did not require patient consent specifically for HIE, and these organizations experienced a greater increase in volume of exchange over time compared to organizations that required consent. Automatic querying and limited consent requirements are organizational HIE policy decisions that impact the volume of exchange, and ultimately the information available to providers to support optimal care. Future efforts to ensure effective HIE may need to explicitly address these factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  5. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentzen, Soren M. D.Sc.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Kong, F.-M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Vogelius, Ivan S.; El Naqa, Issam; Hubbs, Jessica L. M.S.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Timmerman, Robert D.; Martel, Mary K.; Jackson, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold 'tolerance dose-volume' levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects.

  6. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  7. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White (E.H.) Co., San Francisco, CA.

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 3 in the Method Series, Health Manpower Planning (CE 024 231), this third of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with health manpower planning for developing countries. The review identifies literature relevant…

  8. Simulating the focal volume effect: a quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Timothy D.; Uiterwaal, Cornelis J. G. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present quantitative simulations of the focal volume effect. Intensity distributions in detection volumes with two- and three-dimensional spatial resolution are calculated. Results include an analysis of translations of these volumes in the focus along the direction of laser propagation as well as discussion of varying sizes of the spatially resolved volumes. We find that detection volumes less than half the 1/e full-width beam waist and less than half the Rayleigh length along the propagation direction offer an optimal compromise of maintaining intensity resolution without sacrificing peak intensity.

  9. Health Manpower Literature, Volume 2, Number 2, December 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Center for Medical Manpower Studies.

    This booklet covering health manpower literature is divided into four sections. First, health manpower indicators are presented, such as estimated employment in selected potentially entry-level health occupations. Next follows a paper entitled "Regionalization of Health Insurance in Italy." The third section consists of five book…

  10. Competition in the Dutch hospital sector: an analysis of health care volume and cost.

    PubMed

    Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Groot, T L C M; Lindeboom, M

    2017-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual implementation of price competition is a 'natural experiment' that provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of market competition on hospital behavior. We have access to a unique database, which contains hospital discharge data of diagnosis treatment combinations (DBCs) of individual patients, including detailed care activities. Difference-in-difference estimates show that the implementation of market-based competition leads to relatively lower total costs, production volume and number of activities overall. Difference-in-difference estimates on treatment level show that the average costs for outpatient DBCs decreased due to a decrease in the number of activities per DBC. The introduction of market competition led to an increase of average costs of inpatient DBCs. Since both volume and number of activities have not changed significantly, we conclude that the cost increase is likely the result of more expensive activities. A possible explanation for our finding is that hospitals look for possible efficiency improvements in predominantly outpatient care products that are relatively straightforward, using easily analyzable technologies. The effects of competition on average cost and the relative shares of inpatient and outpatient treatments on specialty level are significant but contrary for cardiology and orthopedics, suggesting that specialties react differently to competitive incentives.

  11. The effect of hospital volume on patient outcomes in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the relation between hospital volume and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The determination is important because patient outcome may be improved through volume-based selective referral. Methods In this cohort study, we analyzed 22,551 SAP patients in 2,208 hospital-years (between 2000 and 2009) from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay and charges. Hospital SAP volume was measured both as categorical and as continuous variables (per one case increase each hospital-year). The effect was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations accounting for hospital clustering effect. Adjusted covariates included patient and hospital characteristics (model 1), and additional treatment variables (model 2). Results Irrespective of the measurements, increasing hospital volume was associated with reduced risk of hospital mortality after adjusting the patient and hospital characteristics (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.995, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.993-0.998 for per one case increase). The patients treated in the highest volume quartile (≥14 cases per hospital-year) had 42% lower risk of hospital mortality than those in the lowest volume quartile (1 case per hospital-year) after adjusting the patient and hospital characteristics (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83). However, an inverse relation between volume and hospital stay or hospital charges was observed only when the volume was analyzed as a categorical variable. After adjusting the treatment covariates, the volume effect on hospital mortality disappeared regardless of the volume measures. Conclusions These findings support the use of volume-based selective referral for patients with SAP and suggest that differences in levels or processes of care among hospitals may have contributed to the volume effect. PMID:22901053

  12. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume I. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume I contains materials for a three-hour course. A student course syllabus provides this…

  13. Critical Behaviors in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Volume 2: Behavior of Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Angeline Marchese; And Others

    Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mental health nursing personnel as these activities relate to patient care, and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric nurses in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…

  14. Critical Behaviors in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Volume 3: Behavior of Attendants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Angeline Marchese; And Others

    Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mental health nursing personnel as the activities relate to patient care and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric attendants in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…

  15. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  16. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  17. Health effects of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Tetley, T D

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and future bulk manufacture of nanomaterials comes the need to determine, understand and counteract any adverse health effects of these materials that may occur during manufacture, during use, or accidentally. Nanotechnology is expanding rapidly and will affect many aspects of everyday life; there are already hundreds of products that utilize nanoparticles. Paradoxically, the unique properties that are being exploited (e.g. high surface reactivity and ability to cross cell membranes) might have negative health impacts. The rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials is not yet matched by toxicological investigations. Epidemiological studies implicate the ultrafine (nano-sized) fraction of particulate air pollution in the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory disease and increased morbidity. Experimental animal studies suggest that the increased concentration of nanoparticles and higher reactive surface area per unit mass, alongside unique chemistry and functionality, is important in the acute inflammatory and chronic response. Some animal models have shown that nanoparticles which are deposited in one organ (e.g. lung and gut) may access the vasculature and target other organs (e.g. brain and liver). The exact relationship between the physicochemistry of a nanoparticle, its cellular reactivity, and its biological and systemic consequences cannot be predicted. It is important to understand such relationships to enjoy the benefits of nanotechnology without being exposed to the hazards.

  18. Physical activity predicts gray matter volume in late adulthood: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, K I; Raji, C A; Lopez, O L; Becker, J T; Rosano, C; Newman, A B; Gach, H M; Thompson, P M; Ho, A J; Kuller, L H

    2010-10-19

    Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to spare gray matter volume in late adulthood, but longitudinal data testing an association has been lacking. Here we tested whether PA would be associated with greater gray matter volume after a 9-year follow-up, a threshold could be identified for the amount of walking necessary to spare gray matter volume, and greater gray matter volume associated with PA would be associated with a reduced risk for cognitive impairment 13 years after the PA evaluation. In 299 adults (mean age 78 years) from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study, we examined the association between gray matter volume, PA, and cognitive impairment. Physical activity was quantified as the number of blocks walked over 1 week. High-resolution brain scans were acquired 9 years after the PA assessment on cognitively normal adults. White matter hyperintensities, ventricular grade, and other health variables at baseline were used as covariates. Clinical adjudication for cognitive impairment occurred 13 years after baseline. Walking amounts ranged from 0 to 300 blocks (mean 56.3; SD 69.7). Greater PA predicted greater volumes of frontal, occipital, entorhinal, and hippocampal regions 9 years later. Walking 72 blocks was necessary to detect increased gray matter volume but walking more than 72 blocks did not spare additional volume. Greater gray matter volume with PA reduced the risk for cognitive impairment 2-fold. Greater amounts of walking are associated with greater gray matter volume, which is in turn associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment.

  19. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume I of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook. Volume IV: Project Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Kathleen J.; And Others

    This directory is a compendium of 108 outstanding Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1 compensatory education projects selected for recognition by the United States Department of Education in 1987. It is the fourth volume in the "Effective Compensatory Education Sourcebook" series. Volume 1 consists of a review of the…

  1. Critical Behaviors in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing. Volume 1: A Survey of Mental Health Nursing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Angeline Marchese; And Others

    This document describes the methodology followed in obtaining abstracts (see volumes 2 and 3) of more than 8,000 critical behaviors of nurses and attendants in delivering care in 50 psychiatric and mental health facilities throughout the country. The abstracts were derived from reports of actual observations by 1,785 mental health practitioners in…

  2. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  3. Units of Instruction. Health Occupations Education. Volume II. [Teacher's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Ten units on health occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: special procedures; assisting with diagnostic procedures (e.g., collecting specimens); transporting patients; charting; medical laboratory procedures; giving standard first aid treatment; metrics for health occupations; human relations; safety; and…

  4. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  5. An Analysis of Health Manpower Models: Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonder, Seth; And Others

    Objectives of the project were to identify and describe problem areas and policy issues confronting health manpower planning agencies at all levels, compile an inventory of models and evaluate their usefulness, and to evaluate the potential usefulness of two models (developed under contract to the Bureau of Health Resources Development) designed…

  6. Application and Evaluation of Portable Field Instruments for Measuring Forced Expiratory Volume of Children and Adults in Environmental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Robert M.; Kozel, Walter M.; Penley, Robert L.; Ward, George H.; Chapman, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    In support of Health Effects Research Studies, pulmonary function tests are periodically administered to a large number of children. The ventilatory performance of these children is being evaluated by measuring the 0.75-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV0.75) with a waterless mechanical volume spirometer used in conjunction with an electronic timing unit. During a 1-yr testing period, operation with the volume spirometer and the EPA designed electronic timing unit proved to be highly successful. The volume spirometer was found to be more advantageous in conducting tests at remote field stations than the water spirometer and other electronic instruments which measure flow rate with a transducer element. The volume spirometer is lightweight, easy to operate, and has the capability of easy and accurate field calibration when used in conjunction with the electronic timing unit. Presently the volume spirometer and EPA designed electronic timing package are employed in all Community Health and Surveillance System (CHESS) pulmonary function testing studies. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3. PMID:4470917

  7. School Effects on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.

    2004-01-01

    Compared with the volume of research on school effects on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting school, there are very few studies that have investigated the way schools influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…

  8. Methodological Approaches for Determining Health Manpower Supply and Requirements. Volume II. Practical Planning Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Harriet M.; And Others

    This second of a two-volume monograph, which describes and evaluates various methods used to determine present and future health manpower supply and requirements, is intended to contribute to planners' understanding of the state of the art and to the improvement of health manpower planning. The methodologies presented, chosen after a review of the…

  9. National Assessment of Clinical Education of Allied Health Manpower: Volume III, Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The document is the third volume of a four-part report of a study conducted to evaluate and assess the state of allied health manpower clinical education and training. Four monographs focus on important issues related to clinical education as a major factor in the training of allied health manpower. In "A Critical Analysis of Methods of Ensuring…

  10. Effect Of Leg Exercise On Vascular Volumes During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on effects of no-exercise regimen and of two leg-exercise regimens on volumes of plasma, volumes of red blood cells, densities of bodies, and water balances of 19 men (32 to 42 years old) confined to minus 6 degrees-head-down bed rest for 30 days. Purpose of study to determine whether either or both exercise regimens maintain plasma volume and to relate levels of hypovolemia to body fluid balances. Results showed during bed rest, plasma volume maintained in isotomic group but not in other two groups, and no significant differences in body densities, body weights, or water balances among three groups. Concludes isotonic-exercise regimen better than isokinetic-exercise regimen for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to bed rest.

  11. Effects of volume and periodicity on blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Plorde, J J; Carlson, L G

    1994-01-01

    Blood specimens collected for culture by using the high-volume resin-based BACTEC system over an 18-month period at the Seattle Veterans Administration Center were examined in this study. Of 7,783 cultures obtained, 624 were classified as true positives. Patients in this group had between 20 and 60 ml of blood drawn per culture and separated into 10-ml aliquots for incubation. Analysis of the results stratified by cultured volume and time interval between specimen collection accorded yield advantage to culture volume at the maximal amounts tested. No advantage was observed with any particular interval of collection. Increasing cultured volume from 20 to 40 ml increased yield by 19%. Increasing cultured volume from 40 to 60 ml increased yield by an additional 10%. The same effect was seen whether cultures were drawn simultaneously or serially within 24 h. These observations support other reports demonstrating increased yield with increased cultured blood volume. However, they demonstrate increases in yield at volumes much higher than previously considered. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high-volume blood cultures drawn serially or simultaneously return the best yields. PMID:7852579

  12. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.

    This annotated bibliography, spanning a number of relevant disciplines, contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into four major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related…

  13. American Indian Annotated Bibliography of Mental Health, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L., Ed.; Kelso, Dianne R., Ed.

    Presenting 250 abstracted entries and an additional 250 citations, this bibliography on American Indian mental health is derived from: personal collections; other bibliographies; dissertations, government documents; and five computerized bibliographic data banks. Included in this document are: (1) a user's guide to the bibliography; (2) a tribe…

  14. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.

    This annotated bibliography, spanning a number of relevant disciplines, contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into four major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related…

  15. Sensors Applications, Volume 3, Sensors in Medicine and Health Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, P. Åke; Togawa, Tatsuo; Spelman, Francis A.

    2004-08-01

    Taken as a whole, this series covers all major fields of application for commercial sensors, as well as their manufacturing techniques and major types. As such the series does not treat bulk sensors, but rather places strong emphasis on microsensors, microsystems and integrated electronic sensor packages. Each of the individual volumes is tailored to the needs and queries of readers from the relevant branch of industry. A review of applications for point-of-care diagnostics, their integration into portable systems and the comfortable, easy-to-use sensors that allow patients to monitor themselves at home. The book covers such advanced topics as minimal invasive surgery, implantable sensors and prostheses, as well as biocompatible sensing.

  16. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Effect of large volume paracentesis on plasma volume--a cause of hypovolemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, H.W.; Rakov, N.E.; Savage, E.; Reynolds, T.B.

    1985-05-01

    Large volume paracentesis, while effectively relieving symptoms in patients with tense ascites, has been generally avoided due to reports of complications attributed to an acute reduction in intravascular volume. Measurements of plasma volume in these subjects have been by indirect methods and have not uniformly confirmed hypovolemia. We have prospectively evaluated 18 patients (20 paracenteses) with tense ascites and peripheral edema due to chronic liver disease undergoing 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms. Plasma volume pre- and postparacentesis was assessed by a /sup 125/I-labeled human serum albumin dilution technique as well as by the change in hematocrit and postural blood pressure difference. No significant change in serum sodium, urea nitrogen, hematocrit or postural systolic blood pressure difference was noted at 24 or 48 hr after paracentesis. Serum creatinine at 24 hr after paracentesis was unchanged but a small but statistically significant increase in serum creatinine was noted at 48 hr postparacentesis. Plasma volume changed -2.7% (n = 6, not statistically significant) during the first 24 hr and -2.8% (n = 12, not statistically significant) during the 0- to 48-hr period. No complications from paracentesis were noted. These results suggest that 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms is safe in patients with tense ascites and peripheral edema from chronic liver disease.

  18. Tracheal gas insufflation: catheter effectiveness determined by expiratory flush volume.

    PubMed

    Ravenscraft, S A; Shapiro, R S; Nahum, A; Burke, W C; Adams, A B; Nakos, G; Marini, J J

    1996-06-01

    Used adjunctively during mechanical ventilation, tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) improves CO2 elimination, principally by decreasing effective anatomic dead space. Continuing lung deflation at end- expiration raises the end-expiratory C02 concentration within the proximal airway, and could theoretically reduce the efficiency of a given catheter flow. To test this possibility, we designed a series of experiments that examined the influence of TGI delivery patterns on the efficiency of CO2 elimination. Using a gating device, catheter flow was delivered selectively during desired portions of expiration. Paralyzed, ventilated dogs were studied at short and extended inspiratory time fractions (TI/TT) with inspiratory tidal volume and ventilator frequency held constant. The expiratory flush volume, not the pattern of gas delivery, determined the observed decline in PaCO2, provided that the end-expiratory period was included in the catheter flush period. Despite continuing end-expiratory lung deflation (extended TI/TT), catheter effectiveness remained the same at matched expiratory flush volumes. To determine if enhanced distal mixing at the higher catheter flows required during the extended TI/TT (to match expiratory flush volume) masked a decrease in efficiency, we repeated the experiment with a tip-inverted catheter. We again found that matched catheter delivered expiratory volumes were similarly effective. With or without ongoing lung deflation, the volume of gas flushed during the expiratory period determined the effectiveness of TGI, provided that inspired minute ventilation remains unchanged and end-expiration is included in the catheter flush period.

  19. Health and Environmental Research: Summary of Accomplishments. Volume 2

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through "snapshots" - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  20. Health and Environmental Research: summary of accomplishments. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through ''snapshots'' - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  1. Effect of annealing history on free volume in thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of thermoplastic glassy polymers have been investigated for the effects of thermal annealing on their free volumes. It has been observed that free volumes in glassy polymers decrease asymptotically to a steady level after about four thermal anneals lasting for 24 hours at a temperature about 50 C below their glass transition temperatures. These results indicate that composites incorporating properly annealed thermoplastic matrices may not experience any additional internal stresses due to subsequent thermal excursions experienced while in service.

  2. Effects of immersion on visual analysis of volume data.

    PubMed

    Laha, Bireswar; Sensharma, Kriti; Schiffbauer, James D; Bowman, Doug A

    2012-04-01

    Volume visualization has been widely used for decades for analyzing datasets ranging from 3D medical images to seismic data to paleontological data. Many have proposed using immersive virtual reality (VR) systems to view volume visualizations, and there is anecdotal evidence of the benefits of VR for this purpose. However, there has been very little empirical research exploring the effects of higher levels of immersion for volume visualization, and it is not known how various components of immersion influence the effectiveness of visualization in VR. We conducted a controlled experiment in which we studied the independent and combined effects of three components of immersion (head tracking, field of regard, and stereoscopic rendering) on the effectiveness of visualization tasks with two x-ray microscopic computed tomography datasets. We report significant benefits of analyzing volume data in an environment involving those components of immersion. We find that the benefits do not necessarily require all three components simultaneously, and that the components have variable influence on different task categories. The results of our study improve our understanding of the effects of immersion on perceived and actual task performance, and provide guidance on the choice of display systems to designers seeking to maximize the effectiveness of volume visualization applications.

  3. Weapons Effects in Cities. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    fragmentation effects of incoming shells and grenades. Wherever possible, rifles, machine guns and rocket launchers are fired from well within the rooms...fragments)--has now disappeared since current fragmentation grenades (e.g., M26 , M33) with 1 to 2 11-31 grain fragments do not require thrower...Even U.S. troops used captured Panzerfausts when available, due to the low effectiveness of the U.S. 2.36 inch anti-tank rocket . Grenade and rocket

  4. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  5. Health Effects of Wildfires

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1970 as a regulatory agency charged with the evaluation of air pollutants and emissions “as necessary to protect public health and the environment” and to regulate pollutants “which may reasonably be anticip...

  6. Promoting Health and Mental Health in Children, Youth, and Families. Springer Series on Behavior Therapy and Behavioral Medicine, Volume 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S., Ed.; Jason, Leonard A., Ed.

    In the last decade, there has been increased attention paid to the scope of mental and physical health problems that affect individuals at different points over the entire life span. This volume presents many problem areas and the range of their impact on individuals, families, and society at large. The impact of intervention programs is described…

  7. Promoting Health and Mental Health in Children, Youth, and Families. Springer Series on Behavior Therapy and Behavioral Medicine, Volume 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S., Ed.; Jason, Leonard A., Ed.

    In the last decade, there has been increased attention paid to the scope of mental and physical health problems that affect individuals at different points over the entire life span. This volume presents many problem areas and the range of their impact on individuals, families, and society at large. The impact of intervention programs is described…

  8. Forecasting Device Effectiveness: Volume I. Issues. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Andrew M.; And Others

    In this first of three volumes, issues related to the prediction of the potential effectiveness of a simulator training device are reviewed, and the methods used to analyze effectiveness are discussed. The Army, which uses simulator devices for performance based weapons training, has used a process linked to the Life Cycle System Management Model…

  9. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Preliminary Report, Health Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    This document, which reviews the health problems of blacks in New York State, is the first volume of a study of the needs of the two million blacks in New York. The health status of blacks is examined in each of the following phases of the life cycle: (1) maternal; (2) infancy; (3) childhood; (4) adolescence; (5) adulthood; and (6) the elder…

  10. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Executive Summary. Preliminary Report, Health Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    This document summarizes a review of the health problems of blacks in New York. The review comprises the first volume of a study of the needs of the two million blacks in New York. The health status of blacks is examined in each of the following phases of the life cycle: (1) maternal; (2) infancy; (3) childhood; (4) adolescence; (5) adulthood; and…

  11. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Preliminary Report, Health Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    This document, which reviews the health problems of blacks in New York State, is the first volume of a study of the needs of the two million blacks in New York. The health status of blacks is examined in each of the following phases of the life cycle: (1) maternal; (2) infancy; (3) childhood; (4) adolescence; (5) adulthood; and (6) the elder…

  12. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Executive Summary. Preliminary Report, Health Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    This document summarizes a review of the health problems of blacks in New York. The review comprises the first volume of a study of the needs of the two million blacks in New York. The health status of blacks is examined in each of the following phases of the life cycle: (1) maternal; (2) infancy; (3) childhood; (4) adolescence; (5) adulthood; and…

  13. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  14. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  15. Volume Control of Nano-liter Droplet with Thermocapillary Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Suguru; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    Manipulation of micro droplets has attracted a great deal of attention in the field of chemistry, bio and life sciences. Sample size reduction takes advantage of high reaction rate, high throughput and space saving. For these reasons, new techniques are required for liquid handling in a micro scale. We have applied a simple technique using a small rod for nano-liter droplet formation. When a rod is dipped into the liquid and pulled up, a droplet is formed at an end of the rod. It is known that the droplet volume is strongly affected by the rod diameter and its wettability. In the present study, the thermocapillary flow was induced by imposing a temperature difference on the free surface in order to control the droplet volume. The droplet formation and resulted droplet volume were observed through a high-speed camera. Numerical simulation has also been performed to obtain a static meniscus shape and critical height. The experiment showed that the droplet volume decreased linearly with increasing the intensity of the thermocapillary flow. The droplet volume was reproducible with an uncertainty of 1 % under the present experimental condition. The meniscus shape and critical height by the experiment and analysis were in good agreement with each other. It was found that the thermocapillary flow induced slipping of contact line, and thus the dewetting took place on the rod end face. As the result, the meniscus volume was reduced and a smaller droplet was obtained. Therefore, reduction of the droplet volume was caused by the thermocapillary effect. It was concluded that the thermocapillary flow was able to realize volume control of a nano-liter droplet.

  16. Operating High-Volume Air Samplers. Module 3. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating high-volume air samplers. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) disassembling the high-volume…

  17. PITTSBURGH TECHNICAL HEALTH TRAINING INSTITUTE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT. FINAL REPORT, VOLUME II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KISHKUNAS, LOUIS J.

    APPENDIXES TO THE "FINAL REPORT," VOLUME I (VT 005 511), ARE INCLUDED--(1) A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, (2) TECHNICAL BEHAVIOR CHECKLISTS, (3) PERFORMANCE INVENTORY FORMS USED IN ON-THE-JOB OBSERVATIONS, (4) REPORT FORM FOR TYPICAL JOB BEHAVIOR OF EMPLOYEE, (5) COOPERATING AREA HEALTH INSTITUTIONS, (6) TABLES OF Z SCORES…

  18. National Assessment of Clinical Education of Allied Health Manpower: Volume IV: Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The document is the last volume of a four-part report of a study conducted to evaluate and assess the national state of clinical education and training of allied health manpower. It presents a bibliography of all significant clinical education materials, documentary materials and ongoing studies, through August 30, 1973 but after 1965. The…

  19. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    An examination of the health status of blacks in each phase of the life cycle in New York State indicates a significant discrepancy between the health status of black and white New Yorkers, and a clear link between poverty and poor health. The following life stages were examined and key health issues were identified: (1) prenatal/newborn; (2)…

  20. Black Health Issues in New York State: Condition, Prognosis, Prescription. Volume 1, Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    An examination of the health status of blacks in each phase of the life cycle in New York State indicates a significant discrepancy between the health status of black and white New Yorkers, and a clear link between poverty and poor health. The following life stages were examined and key health issues were identified: (1) prenatal/newborn; (2)…

  1. Exercise volume and intensity: a dose-response relationship with health benefits.

    PubMed

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-08-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well established. However, the relationship between exercise volume and intensity and health benefits remains unclear, particularly the benefits of low-volume and intensity exercise. The primary purpose of this investigation was, therefore, to examine the dose-response relationship between exercise volume and intensity with derived health benefits including volumes and intensity of activity well below international recommendations. Generally healthy, active participants (n = 72; age = 44 ± 13 years) were assigned randomly to control (n = 10) or one of five 13-week exercise programs: (1) 10-min brisk walking 1×/week (n = 10), (2) 10-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), (3) 30-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 18), (4) 60-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), and (5) 30-min running 3×/week (n = 14), in addition to their regular physical activity. Health measures evaluated pre- and post-training including blood pressure, body composition, fasting lipids and glucose, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Health improvements were observed among programs at least 30 min in duration, including body composition and VO2max: 30-min walking 28.8-34.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 60-min walking 25.1-28.9 mL kg(-1) min(-1), and 30-min running 32.4-36.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1). The greater intensity running program also demonstrated improvements in triglycerides. In healthy active individuals, a physical activity program of at least 30 min in duration for three sessions/per week is associated with consistent improvements in health status.

  2. Estimating increased electronic laboratory reporting volumes for meaningful use: 
implications for the public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Gibson, P Joseph; Grannis, Shaun J

    2014-01-01

    To provide formulas for estimating notifiable disease reporting volume from 'meaningful use' electronic laboratory reporting (ELR). We analyzed two years of comprehensive ELR reporting data from 15 metropolitan hospitals and laboratories. Report volumes were divided by population counts to derive generalizable estimators. Observed volume of notifiable disease reports in a metropolitan area were more than twice national averages. ELR volumes varied by institution type, bed count, and by the level of effort required of health department staff. Health departments may experience a significant increase in notifiable disease reporting following efforts to fulfill meaningful use requirements, resulting in increases in workload that may further strain public health resources. Volume estimators provide a method for predicting ELR transaction volumes, which may support administrative planning in health departments.

  3. The "Sherman effect": decreased ambulatory care volumes in Atlanta during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Pitts, S R; Kolla, I S

    2000-09-18

    To estimate the effect of the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic Games on visits to local ambulatory healthcare facilities. Comparison of median visit rates by time period, obtained from retrospective review of administrative data. The emergency department of the designated athletes' hospital, the public hospital's adult emergency department and adult walk-in clinics, and the adult and paediatric outpatient facilities of a large health maintenance organisation. All 132,826 visitors to the designated facilities during the study interval. Daily visit frequencies at each facility. Our informal observations had suggested that volumes were not as high as expected. In all but the athletes' designated hospital, there was a decrease in average volumes the week before the opening ceremonies, ranging from zero to 8.4% of baseline. Average daily volumes in these non-venue facilities varied from 3.2% above to 16.1% below baseline during the two weeks of the Games, but all experienced an increase in volumes the week after the closing ceremonies, ranging from 3.0% to 13.7% of baseline. Unlike the venue-related facility, community ambulatory care sites did not encounter a significant rise in volumes until after the closing ceremonies. Although confirmation from other events is needed, our data suggest that, in addition to increased preparedness for sudden volume surges, overtime staffing of local facilities during planned mass gatherings should occur not during, but immediately after, the event.

  4. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  5. Acrolein health effects.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-08-01

    Acrolein is a chemical used as an intermediate reactive aldehyde in chemical industry. It is used for synthesis of many organic substances, methionine production, and methyl chloride refrigerant. The general population is exposed to acrolein via smoking, second-hand smoke, exposure to wood and plastic smoke. Firefighters and population living or working in areas with heavy automotive traffic may expose to higher level of acrolein via inhalation of smoke or automotive exhaust. Degradation of acrolein in all environmental media occurs rapidly, therefore, environmental accumulation is not expected. Acrolein degrade in 6A days when applied to surface water, and it has not been found as a contaminant in municipal drinking water. Acrolein vapor may cause eye, nasal and respiratory tract irritations in low level exposure. A decrease in breathing rate was reported by volunteers acutely exposed to 0.3A ppm of acrolein. At similar level, mild nasal epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, and focal basal cell metaplasia have been observed in rats. The acrolein effects on gastrointestinal mucosa in the animals include epithelial hyperplasia, ulceration, and hemorrhage. The severity of the effects is dose dependent. Acrolein induces the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal irritations by inducing the release of peptides in nerve terminals innervating these systems. Levels of acrolein between 22 and 249 ppm for 10 min induced a dose-related decrease in substance P (a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator).

  6. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 6: Navajo (Window Rock) Area, 1966-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The sixth volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Navajo (Window Rock) Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) The Context (geography and description of the Dine, a tribe and…

  7. Service Networks and Patterns of Utilization: Mental Health Programs, Indian Health Service (IHS). Volume 7: Oklahoma City Area, 1969-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attneave, Carolyn L.; Beiser, Morton

    The seventh volume in a 10-volume report on the historical development (1966-1973) of the 8 administrative Area Offices of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Mental Health Programs, this report presents information on the Oklahoma City Area Office. Included in this document are: (1) General Description: Geography and Demography (population;…

  8. Volume-outcome relationships for head and neck cancer surgery in a universal health care system.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Groome, Patti A; Freeman, Jeremy; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; Hall, Stephen F; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether surgeon and/or institution resection volume predicts long-term overall survival in head and neck cancer in a publicly funded healthcare system. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Head and neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada, who underwent a resection confirmed by both hospital-level and physician-level administrative data between 1993 and 2010, comprised our cohort (N = 5,720). Physician and hospital volumes were calculated based on number of cases performed in the year prior by the physician and at an institution performing each case, respectively. A multilevel hierarchical Cox regression model was used to estimate the effect on overall survival of each 25 increase in procedure volume. A crude model without patient or treatment characteristics demonstrated that both surgeon volume (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.927, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.879-0.978, P = .006) and hospital volume (HR: 0.980, 95% CI: 0.970-0.991, P = .0003) were associated with improved overall survival. After controlling for clustering and patient/treatment covariates, hospital volume (HR: 0.976, 95% CI: 0.955-0.997, P = .02), but not physician volume (HR: 1.042, 95% CI: 0.941-1.155, P = .43), remained a statistically significant predictor of overall survival. This translates into a 2.4% decrease in the HR for every 25 additional cases performed at an institution. Both high-volume surgeons and hospitals are predictors of better overall survival in head and neck cancer patients. However, the effect is largely explained by hospital volume. This benefit, at the institution level, could potentially be explained by important processes of care that contribute to overall survival. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  10. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    anoxia, shock, hypoglycemia, hypotension, physical exercise, psychological stimuli, and drugs in common use, such as caffeine , nicotine , and alcohol...iiii1i’tl 11,11H1 HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION P. Naitoh T. I- Kelly C. Englund Repori No. 89-46 9 - 1 3 92 J20 28 Apmrowd fto P..bII .nO~m dI...mand to IO MMuwM I. AGENCY USE ONLY (Laom b 2 REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATE COVERED 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Health Effects of

  11. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea. PMID:23230465

  12. Health effects of oxygenated fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, M G

    1993-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels is anticipated to increase over the next decades. This paper reviews the toxicological and exposure information for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive, and methanol, a replacement fuel, and discusses the possible health consequences of exposure of the general public to these compounds. For MTBE, the health effects information available is derived almost exclusively from rodent studies, and the exposure data are limited to a few measurements at some service stations. Based on these data, it appears unlikely that the normal population is at high risk of exposure to MTBE vapor. However, in the absence of health and pharmacokinetic data in humans or in nonhuman primates, this conclusion is not strongly supported. Similarly, there are a number of uncertainties to take into consideration in estimating human risk from the use of methanol as a fuel. Although methanol may be toxic to humans at concentrations that overwhelm certain enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, the data available provide little evidence to indicate that exposure to methanol vapors from the use of methanol as a motor vehicle fuel will result in adverse health effects. The uncertainties in this conclusion are based on the lack of information on dose-response relationship at reasonable, projected exposure levels and of studies examining end points of concern in sensitive species. In developing a quantitative risk assessment, more needs to be known about health effects in primates or humans and the range of exposure expected for the general public for both compounds. PMID:8020439

  13. Methylmercury exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-11-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.

  14. Highlighting Health: A Discussion of Health Practices and Accreditation. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Claire

    Research indicates children in group care have increased risk of infectious illnesses compared to those cared for at home. The health practices of child care center staff, children, and parents will influence the incidence of illness. The issues discussed in the book relate to some of the indicators of selected health accreditation principles in…

  15. Highlighting Health: A Discussion of Health Practices and Accreditation. Accreditation and Beyond Series, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Claire

    Research indicates children in group care have increased risk of infectious illnesses compared to those cared for at home. The health practices of child care center staff, children, and parents will influence the incidence of illness. The issues discussed in the book relate to some of the indicators of selected health accreditation principles in…

  16. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    PubMed

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  17. Dependence of thermoelastic effect on volume change by elastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandrlić, Ivan; Rešković, Stoja; Vodopivec, Franc; Lava, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Thermo-graphic investigations were carried out on niobium microalloyed steel. During tensile testing temperature changes of samples, due to elastic and plastic deformation, were measured using infrared camera. The results of temperature measurements indicate that the specimen's temperature is lowered during the elastic deformation. This temperature drop is in other studies associated with so-called thermo-elastic effect which occurs in the metals during elastic deformation. Parallel with the infrared camera, surface of samples was recorded with digital imaging camera. Analysis of recorded images was analyzed using digital image correlation method. This is used to determine the deformation that occurs during stretching. The results show that during elastic deformation of samples the volume of samples is slightly increased. The volume change of samples and temperature drop, due to thermo-elastic effect, are compared for all samples. The analysis of experimental results explains that the thermo-elastic effect is directly related to the change of specimen volume during the elastic deformation of steel.

  18. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  19. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  20. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  1. Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty? How to Reverse the Effect of Glass Elongation on the Volume Poured

    PubMed Central

    Caljouw, Simone R.; van Wijck, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the volume of drinks and the risk of overconsumption, health professionals recommend the use of tall skinny instead of short wide glasses. Yet the results of the present study contradict this health advice. Participants who generously filled up a glass with lemonade served 9% more in tall narrow compared with short wide glasses (p<0.05). In addition, when pouring a small amount (i.e., a shot), participants poured 3% more in a short wide than in a tall narrow glass (p<0.05). Elongation may bias the perceived volume that is poured but also the perceived volume of the free space in the glass. We hypothesised that shifting attention from the bottom to the brim of the glass when filling it close to capacity might reverse the glass elongation effect on the quantity poured. This hypothesis was tested, by investigating two pouring tasks that differed in the required focus of attention. When the instruction was to match a reference volume, participants poured more liquid in the short wide compared with the tall narrow glass (p<0.05). The effect of glass elongation on poured volume was the opposite when the instruction was to leave space in the glasses for the reference volume. It seems likely that task and individual factors affect the pourer's viewing strategy and thus may determine the direction of the glass elongation effect on the volume poured. PMID:25343252

  2. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Robert J.; Porter, Dennis R.

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this third of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with health manpower planning and assessment. It provides a conceptual and…

  3. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  4. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  5. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  6. Effects of health information technology on malpractice insurance premiums.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yeong; Lee, Jinhyung

    2015-04-01

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable.

  7. Effects of Health Information Technology on Malpractice Insurance Premiums

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The widespread adoption of health information technology (IT) will help contain health care costs by decreasing inefficiencies in healthcare delivery. Theoretically, health IT could lower hospitals' malpractice insurance premiums (MIPs) and improve the quality of care by reducing the number and size of malpractice. This study examines the relationship between health IT investment and MIP using California hospital data from 2006 to 2007. Methods To examine the effect of hospital IT on malpractice insurance expense, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was employed. Results It was found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. Health IT was reported to reduce medical error and improve efficiency. Thus, it may reduce malpractice claims from patients, which will reduce malpractice insurance expenses for hospitals. However, health IT adoption could lead to increases in MIPs. For example, we expect increases in MIPs of about 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively, when health IT and labor increase by 10%. Conclusions This study examined the effect of health IT investment on MIPs controlling other hospital and market, and volume characteristics. Against our expectation, we found that health IT investment was not negatively associated with MIP. There may be some possible reasons that the real effect of health IT on MIPs was not observed; barriers including communication problems among health ITs, shorter sample period, lower IT investment, and lack of a quality of care measure as a moderating variable. PMID:25995964

  8. Effects of tongue volume reduction on craniofacial growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Gu, Gaoman; Perkins, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between tongue size/volume and craniofacial skeletal growth is essential for understanding the mechanism of specific types of malocclusion and objectively measuring outcomes of various surgical and/or orthodontic treatments. Currently available information on this interaction is limited. This study was designed to examine how tongue body volume reduction affects craniofacial skeleton and dental arch formation during the rapid growth period in five 12-week-old Yucatan minipig sibling pairs. One of each pair received a standardized reduction glossectomy to reduce tongue volume by 15-17% (reduction group), and the other had the reduction glossectomy incisions without tissue removal (sham group). Before surgery, five stainless steel screws were implanted into standardized craniofacial skeletal locations. A series of cephalograms, lateral and axial, were obtained longitudinally at 1 week preoperative, and 2 and 4 weeks postoperative. These images were traced using superimposition, and linear and angular variables were measured digitally. Upon euthanasia, direct osteometric measurements were obtained from harvested skulls. Five en-bloc bone pieces were further cut for bone mineral examination by dual photon/energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The results indicate that: (1) while daily food consumption and weekly body weight were not significantly affected, tongue volume reduction showed an overall negative effect on the linear expansion of craniofacial skeletons; (2) premaxilla and mandibular symphysis lengths, and anterior dental arch width were significantly less in reduction than sham animals at 2 and/or 4 weeks after the surgery; (3) both premaxilla/maxilla and mandible bone mineral density and content were lower in reduction than sham animals, significantly lower in anterior mandible; (4) craniofacial skeletal and dental arch size were significantly smaller in reduction than sham animals, being most significant in the mandibular anterior length and

  9. Volume Displacement Effects in Bubble-laden Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihonski, Andrew; Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh

    2012-11-01

    When a few bubbles are entrained in a traveling vortex ring, it has been shown that even at extremely low volume loadings, their presence can significantly affect the structure of the vortex core (Sridhar & Katz 1999). A typical Euler-Lagrange point-particle model with two-way coupling for this dilute system, wherein the bubbles are assumed subgrid and momentum point-sources are used to model their effect on the flow, is shown to be unable to accurately capture the experimental trends of bubble settling location and vortex distortion for a range of bubble parameters and vortex strengths. The bubbles experience a significant amount of drag, lift, added mass, pressure, and gravity forces. However, these forces are in balance of each other, as the bubbles reach a mean settling location away from the vortex core. Accounting for fluid volume displacement due to bubble motion, using a model termed as volumetric coupling, experimental trends on vortex distortion and bubble settling location are well captured. The fluid displacement effects are studied by introducing a notion of a volumetric coupling force, the net force on the fluid due to volumetric coupling, which is found to be dominant even at the low volume loadings investigated here.

  10. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  11. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    PubMed

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  12. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  13. Effect of face mask dead volume, respiratory rate, and tidal volume on inhaled albuterol delivery.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Alma; McCracken, Andy; Berlinski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    Pediatric patients often require metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with holding chamber (HC) to overcome lack of coordination when receiving inhaled therapy. In infants and young children unable to use a mouthpiece, it is necessary to use a mask interface. We compared the effect of varying mask static dead volume (SDV), respiratory rate (RR), and tidal volume (VT) on albuterol captured at the mouth opening (ACMO) in an in vitro model. An Aerochamber Max(R) without and with three mask sizes (SDV of 10, 36, 85, and 200 ml, respectively) was connected in series to a filter holder and breathing simulator. ACMO was measured at VTs = 36, 72, 145, and 290 ml and RR of 12 and 24. Each experiment comprised 10 puffs run for six respiratory cycles each. Albuterol was quantified via spectrophotometry at 276 nm. A P-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Increasing VT increased ACMO (all SDVs and RRs). Adding SDV decreased ACMO, except for the small mask at VTs = 145 and 290 ml at RR = 12. Increasing SDV decreased ACMO, except at VT = 36 ml (all masks) and VT = 72 ml (small = medium) at RR = 12 and VT = 36 ml (small = other and medium > large) at RR = 24. Increasing RR increased ACMO for all SDVs at VTs = 36 and 72 ml, but not for VTs = 145 and 290 ml, except for no and large mask at VT = 145 ml. In general, decreasing SDV, increasing VT, and increasing RR increase ACMO. Early transition from face mask to mouthpiece should be considered in children receiving albuterol via MDI with HC.

  14. Health Issues in Aging. The Health Education Monograph Series, Volume 18, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta, Ed.; Doyle, Kathy, Ed.

    This monograph presents a collection of papers related to health issues and aging: "Introduction" (Paul Simon); "Memory, Aging, and Cognition" (Rita E. Arras); "Internet Resources for the Elderly and Their Caregivers" (Kathleen Doyle); "Unintentional Injuries in the Homes of the Elderly: A Look at Current…

  15. Effect of Lung Volume on Voice Onset Time (VOT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Five men repeated a phrase, beginning at total lung capacity and ending at residual volume. Analysis indicated that voice onset time (VOT) was longer at high lung volumes and shorter at low lung volumes. Lung volume should, therefore, be considered when using VOT as an index of laryngeal behavior in healthy and speech-disordered individuals.…

  16. Working with Refugees: A Manual for Paraprofessionals. Volume II: The Life Cycle, Mental Health, and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph Jay; And Others

    This staff training manual, the second volume of a three-volume set of materials for use in training paraprofessional refugee workers, deals with the life cycle, mental health, and mental illness, focusing particularly on the unique challenges and pressures of being a refugee. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: psychological…

  17. Vortex Advisory System. Volume I. Effectiveness for Selected Airports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    0-A086 982 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS CENTER CAMBRIDGE MA F/6 17/7 VORTEX ADVISORY SYSTEM. VOLUME 1. EFFECTIVENESS FOR SELECTED A1--ETC(U) MAY 80 J N... Transportation Systems Center Cambridge MA 02142 ri4 c JUL 21980 MAY 1980 FINAL REPORT C DOCUMENT IS AVAILALE TO THE PIUmLIC THROUGH THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL...Research and Special Programs dministration 11. C.n,oc, ,GrantNo. Transportation Systems Center / Cambridge MA 02142 13. Type of Report end Period Covered 12

  18. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume 4; Health, Performance, and Safety of Space Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietlein, Lawrence F. (Editor); Pestov, Igor D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Volume IV is devoted to examining the medical and associated organizational measures used to maintain the health of space crews and to support their performance before, during, and after space flight. These measures, collectively known as the medical flight support system, are important contributors to the safety and success of space flight. The contributions of space hardware and the spacecraft environment to flight safety and mission success are covered in previous volumes of the Space Biology and Medicine series. In Volume IV, we address means of improving the reliability of people who are required to function in the unfamiliar environment of space flight as well as the importance of those who support the crew. Please note that the extensive collaboration between Russian and American teams for this volume of work resulted in a timeframe of publication longer than originally anticipated. Therefore, new research or insights may have emerged since the authors composed their chapters and references. This volume includes a list of authors' names and addresses should readers seek specifics on new information. At least three groups of factors act to perturb human physiological homeostasis during space flight. All have significant influence on health, psychological, and emotional status, tolerance, and work capacity. The first and most important of these factors is weightlessness, the most specific and radical change in the ambient environment; it causes a variety of functional and structural changes in human physiology. The second group of factors precludes the constraints associated with living in the sealed, confined environment of spacecraft. Although these factors are not unique to space flight, the limitations they entail in terms of an uncomfortable environment can diminish the well-being and performance of crewmembers in space. The third group of factors includes the occupational and social factors associated with the difficult, critical nature of the

  19. Effect of baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficient lesion volume on functional outcome in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Gao, Pei-yi; Hu, Qing-mao; Lin, Yan; Jing, Li-na; Xue, Jing; Chen, Zhi-jun; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Mei-li; Cai, Ye-feng

    2011-06-01

    We explored the relationship between predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbras and predicted final infarct volumes obtained though apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-based method, as well as other clinical variables, and functional outcome. Patients with acute cerebral ischemic stroke were retrospectively recruited. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was evaluated at baseline and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at day 90. Favorable outcome was defined as an mRS score of 0 to 2, and unfavorable outcome as 3 to 6. Multimodal stroke magnetic resonance imaging was carried out at presentation. The volumes of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) were measured using the regions of interest (ROI) method. The volumes of predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbra and predicted final infarct were obtained by an automated image analysis system based on baseline ADC maps. The association between baseline magnetic resonance imaging volumes, baseline clinical variables, and functional outcome was statistically analyzed. The study included 30 males and 20 females (mean±SD age, 56±10 years). Baseline DWI, PWI and PWI-DWI mismatch volumes were not correlated with day-90 mRS (P>0.05). Predicted infarct core, predicted ischemic penumbra and predicted final infarct through ADC-based method were all correlated with day-90 mRS (P<0.05). A better outcome was associated with a smaller predicted volume. Low baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and recanalization also demonstrated a trend toward a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve of predicted final infarct volume and recanalization were higher with statistical significance (P<0.001). Predicted volumes obtained from ADC-based methods, especially predicted final infarct volume, as well as baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and recanalization may have effect on functional

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  1. The Effect of Outpatient Visit Volume on Inpatient Teaching Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Administrative changes causing a planned decrease in outpatient services offered at a teaching hospital resulted in adverse effects on teaching programs and hospital finances. These results emphasize the important of vertical integration of services to the survival of academic health centers. (Author/MSE)

  2. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits.

  3. Associations between physical activity and health-related fitness - volume versus pattern.

    PubMed

    Knaeps, Sara; Bourgois, Jan G; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Lefevre, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 3.2 million people die of non-communicable diseases (NCD) each year due to insufficient physical activity. Physical activity guidelines are possibly perceived as too demanding and might thus pose a barrier. We addressed the question if a more stable physical activity pattern is associated with higher levels of health-related fitness than one with high and low intensities, regardless of the physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity was objectively measured in 296 men and women (53.7 ± 8.94 years) with the SenseWear Pro Armband(®). Using this data, the PAL and a Gini index were calculated to report the physical activity pattern. Health-related fitness was expressed as a fitness index. PAL was weakly correlated to health-related fitness (r = 0.38, P < .0001). The Gini index was also weakly correlated to the fitness index (r = 0.23, P < .0001). Results of the ANCOVA showed that participants in the first quartile of PAL always scored significantly lower for health-related fitness than participants in quartile four, after adjustment for the Gini index. These results suggest that as long as the volume of physical activity is high, health-related fitness will be high as well, independent of the physical activity pattern or variability in intensities throughout the day.

  4. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P < 0.001). Compared with non-scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  5. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  6. Potent health effects of pomegranate.

    PubMed

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  7. [Health effects of ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) occurs from both natural and artificial sources. The main natural source is the sun. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources are widely used in industry and also used in hospitals, laboratories, etc. because of their germicidal properties. They are even used for cosmetic purposes. UVR can be classified into three regions according to its wavelength: as UVA (320-400nm), UVB (320-280nm) and UVC (280-200nm). The UVC has the greatest health effect on humans among the three. The sun radiates a wide range of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation including the UVR, however the radiation below 290 nm in wavelength does not reach the surface of the earth for effective absorption by the stratospheric ozone layer. As a result, UVR from a natural source consists of only UVA and a part of UVB. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources include UVC region and have serious effects on the human body, especially on the skin and eyes. The health effects of UVR on humans can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the amount and form of UVR, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed. It has been acknowledged that a long period of UVR deficiency may have harmful effects on the human body, such as the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children due to a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Appropriate measures to increase the amount of exposure to UVR, especially to UVB radiation by the use of sun bathing, the exposure to artificial UVR sources, etc. have shown to prevent disease states caused by UVR deficiency. The harmful effects of UVR consist of erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancer is commonly produced by UVR. In this review, various states of UV from solar radiation and the degree of exposure to UVR are introduced. The benefits and harmful health effects of

  8. Complementary effect of patient volume and quality of care on hospital cost efficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Park, Imsu; Jung, Ilyoung; Dey, Asoke

    2015-12-04

    This study explores the direct effect of an increase in patient volume in a hospital and the complementary effect of quality of care on the cost efficiency of U.S. hospitals in terms of patient volume. The simultaneous equation model with three-stage least squares is used to measure the direct effect of patient volume and the complementary effect of quality of care and volume. Cost efficiency is measured with a data envelopment analysis method. Patient volume has a U-shaped relationship with hospital cost efficiency and an inverted U-shaped relationship with quality of care. Quality of care functions as a moderator for the relationship between patient volume and efficiency. This paper addresses the economically important question of the relationship of volume with quality of care and hospital cost efficiency. The three-stage least square simultaneous equation model captures the simultaneous effects of patient volume on hospital quality of care and cost efficiency.

  9. Correction for partial volume effects in brain perfusion ECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koole, Michel; Staelens, Steven; Van de Walle, Rik; Lemahieu, Ignace L.

    2003-05-01

    The accurate quantification of brain perfusion for emission computed tomography data (PET-SPECT) is limited by partial volume effects (PVE). This study presents a new approach to estimate accurately the true tissue tracer activity within the grey matter tissue compartment. The methodology is based on the availability of additional anatomical side information and on the assumption that activity concentration within the white matter tissue compartment is constant. Starting from an initial estimate for the white matter grey matter activity, the true tracer activity within the grey matter tissue compartment is estimated by an alternating ML-EM-algorithm. During the updating step the constant activity concentration within the white matter compartment is modelled in the forward projection in order to reconstruct the true activity distribution within the grey matter tissue compartment, hence reducing partial volume averaging. Consequently the estimate for the constant activity in the white matter tissue compartment is updated based on the new estimated activity distribution in the grey matter tissue compartment. We have tested this methodology by means of computer simulations. A T1-weighted MR brainscan of a patient was segmented into white matter, grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid, using the segmentation package of the SPM-software (Statistical Parametric Mapping). The segmented grey and white matter were used to simulate a SPECT acquisition, modelling the noise and the distance dependant detector response. Scatter and attenuation were ignored. Following the above described strategy, simulations have shown it is possible to reconstruct the true activity distribution for the grey matter tissue compartment (activity/tissue volume), assuming constant activity in the white matter tissue compartment.

  10. Waveguides for performing spectroscopy with confined effective observation volumes

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2006-03-14

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  11. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  12. Volume and social context of physical activity in association with mental health, anxiety and depression among youth.

    PubMed

    Doré, Isabelle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Beauchamp, Guy; Martineau, Marc; Fournier, Louise

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in physical activity (PA) to prevent mental disorders in youth. However, few studies examine the association between PA and mental health. Further, how PA volume and context relate to mental health and mental disorders remains unclear, especially among youth in transition to adulthood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations among PA volume and context, mental health, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in post-secondary students. A total of 1527 post-secondary students (97.4% were age 16-24years) recruited in a CEGEP in Quebec, Canada completed a self-report questionnaire during class-time in October 2013. Multivariate linear regression was used to model the associations between PA volume and context and mental health, anxiety and depression controlling for sex, age and perceived socioeconomic status. Volume of moderate-to-vigorous leisure time PA (MVPA) was positively associated with mental health (β (95% CI)=0.072 (0.045, 0.099)) and inversely associated with symptoms of anxiety (-0.011 (-0.020, -0.001)) and depression (-0.010 (-0.017, -0.003)). Volume including all PA intensities was associated with mental health (0.052 (0.028, 0.076)). After controlling for PA volume, active youth involved in team sports had better mental health than those who engaged in PA individually. PA volume and the social context of PA are independently associated with mental health among youth. MVPA is inversely associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  13. Improved Health-Related Quality of Life After Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis by examining the long-term functional consequences and general health status of patients with emphysema who have undergone LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods: Forty-nine subjects with severe emphysema, aged 51 to 84 years old, post-LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation participated in this study. Subjects reported changes in physical and mental domains on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36) over 3 time periods: prior to surgery, 6 months postsurgery, and 18 months postsurgery. The population as a whole was studied and both gender and age were analyzed as subsets. Subjects participated in an intensive 2-week (10 daily sessions) pulmonary rehabilitation program following LVRS. Results: Subjects showed significant improvements in both the physical and mental component summaries at Time 2 (3 months post-LVRS through 6 months post-LVRS) and Time 3 (12 months post-LVRS through 18 months post-LVRS) when compared to Time 1 (pre-LVRS). On the mental component summary scale, subjects younger than 65 years old had significant improvement compared to subjects 65 years and older at Time 3 (P < .05). Women significantly improved more than men at Time 3 on the physical component summary scale (P < .05). Conclusions: Lung volume reduction surgery and 2 weeks (10 daily sessions) of intensive pulmonary rehabilitation appears to improve HRQOL in people with emphysema up to at least 18 months postsurgery. What these data further suggest is that even after declines in health, women can improve HRQOL later in life, and that greater focus should be given to the emotional needs of our older patients. PMID:20467519

  14. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532

  15. E-health: effect on health system efficiency of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Afshan; Rashid, Audil; Kureshi, Nadeem Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    The health system in Pakistan is spraining because of increasing cost and demand gravities. The shortage of skilled health care workers is one of the main factors of health issues. There is a need to move away from the dependency of tools such as pen, paper, and human memory to a milieu where patients and health care providers can reliably access and share health information in real time across geographic and health sector boundaries. The purpose of this research is to observe the effect of e-health on the physician-patient relationship and to analyze the capacity of health professionals by noting information and communication technologies usage as indicators. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from physicians to judge the success and effect of existing e-health policy. Both categorical and Likert scale variables were used. The analysis of data was per.formed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Specialist doctors comprised the major proportion of health care professionals in both male and female categories with good knowledge about Internet usage. E-health-based communication does not seem to be gender specific. Logistic regression revealed that busy doctors whose patients are more than 100 per week believe that e-health would significantly strengthen their communication with patients (OR=3.06; 95% CI=1.05- 8.87). Among other significant impacts of e-health include reduced consultation period and time of diagnosis. E-health technology can play a crucial role in controlling many epidemic diseases through effective surveillance. E-health implementation will result in improving the efficiency, better access of general public to the health care system, and eradication of diseases in Pakistan.

  16. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  17. Calculation of the volume effect at an electron phase transition in pure cerium and praseodymium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, S. A.; Koval', Yu. N.; Ponomarev, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    The experimental values of the volume effect at an electronic phase transition in several rare-earth metals are discussed. Specifically, volume changes at phase transitions in cerium and praseodymium are calculated using a semiphenomenological relationship derived in terms of the Falikov-Ramirez-Kimball model. A number of factors influencing the amount of the volume effect at electronic phase transitions are analyzed.

  18. Effect of Airflows on Repetitive Nanosecond Volume Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Huo, Yuxin; Song, Jian; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharges excited by repetitive nanosecond pulses have attracted significant attention for various applications. In this paper, a plate-plate discharge with airflows is excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse generator. Under different experiment conditions, the applied voltages, discharge currents, and discharge images are recorded. The plasma images presented here indicate that the volume discharge modes vary with airflow speeds, and a diffuse and homogeneous volume discharge occurs at the speed of more than 35 m/s. The role of airflows provides different effects on the 2-stage pulse discharges. The 1st pulse currents nearly maintain consistency for different airflow speeds. However, the 2nd pulse current has a change trend of first decreasing and then rapidly increasing, and the value difference for 2nd pulse currents is about 20 A under different airflows. In addition, the experimental results are discussed according to the electrical parameters and discharge images. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51006027, 51437002, and 51477035)

  19. Effects of MRI scan acceleration on brain volume measurement consistency.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Gunnar; Granziera, Cristina; Jack, Clifford R; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Littmann, Arne; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Kannengiesser, Stephan; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Ward, Chadwick P; Reyes, Denise A; Britson, Paula J; Fischer, Hubertus; Bernstein, Matt A

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiofrequency (RF) coil and parallel imaging technology on brain volume measurement consistency. In all, 103 whole-brain MRI volumes were acquired at a clinical 3T MRI, equipped with a 12- and 32-channel head coil, using the T1-weighted protocol as employed in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study with parallel imaging accelerations ranging from 1 to 5. An experienced reader performed qualitative ratings of the images. For quantitative analysis, differences in composite width (CW, a measure of image similarity) and boundary shift integral (BSI, a measure of whole-brain atrophy) were calculated. Intra- and intersession comparisons of CW and BSI measures from scans with equal acceleration demonstrated excellent scan-rescan accuracy, even at the highest acceleration applied. Pairs-of-scans acquired with different accelerations exhibited poor scan-rescan consistency only when differences in the acceleration factor were maximized. A change in the coil hardware between compared scans was found to bias the BSI measure. The most important findings are that the accelerated acquisitions appear to be compatible with the assessment of high-quality quantitative information and that for highest scan-rescan accuracy in serial scans the acquisition protocol should be kept as consistent as possible over time. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Health effects of acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.A.; Wyzga, R.; Kimber, S.

    1995-12-31

    A considerable amount of recent scientific research has addressed concerns about possible health effects of acidic atmospheric aerosols. The greatest concern--and the bulk of the research--has involved acidic sulfates, which form in the atmosphere as a result of reactions involving sulfur dioxide, emitted when fossil fuels are burned. The strongest evidence of a possible health threat comes from epidemiology studies, but since high levels of acidity in ambient air are inevitably accompanied by high levels of other agents likely to affect pulmonary function, it is impossible to determine whether acidity is the cause of the effects found in those studies. Clinical research involving exposure to acidic sulfate aerosol alone has failed to find convincing reproducible evidence of a response to acid exposures at levels near modern peak ambient levels. Slight, transient decreases in lung function have been noted in asthmatic subjects exposed to acids at levels considerably higher than ambient, and in nonasthmatic subjects exposed at even higher levels. However, the significance of these responses is unclear. Quite recently, some evidence has supported a shift of research emphasis from acidity per se to particulate matter in general.

  1. Health effects of dietary phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Schneider, Michael; Massing, Ulrich

    2012-01-05

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs.From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  2. Does the Prostate Health Index Depend on Tumor Volume?—A Study on 196 Patients after Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Friedersdorff, Frank; Groß, Britt; Maxeiner, Andreas; Jung, Klaus; Miller, Kurt; Stephan, Carsten; Busch, Jonas; Kilic, Ergin

    2017-01-01

    The Prostate Health Index (PHI) has been used increasingly in the context of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics since 2010. Previous studies have shown an association between PHI and a tumor volume of >0.5 cm3. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between PHI and tumor volume as well as the Gleason score. A total of 196 selected patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy at our institution were included in our study. The tumor volume was calculated and preoperative serum parameters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), [−2]proPSA, and PHI were evaluated. The association between the pathological findings such as Gleason score, pathological T-stage (pT stage), and tumor volume were evaluated. We further used logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for assessing the association between tumor volume and PHI and for predicting biochemical recurrence. With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79, PHI is the most accurate predictor of a tumor volumes >0.5 cm3. Moreover, PHI correlates significantly with the tumor volume (r = 0.588), which is significantly different (p = 0.008) from the correlation of the Gleason score with tumor volume (r = 0.385). PHI correlates more strongly with the tumor volume than does the Gleason score. Using PHI improves the prediction of larger tumor volume and subsequently clinically significant cancer. PMID:28245570

  3. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  4. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E.; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-13

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  5. Singularity formation in chemotaxis systems with volume-filling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-An; Winkler, Michael; Wrzosek, Dariusz

    2011-12-01

    A parabolic-elliptic model of chemotaxis which takes into account volume-filling effects is considered under the assumption that there is an a priori threshold for the cell density. For a wide range of nonlinear diffusion operators including singular and degenerate ones it is proved that if the taxis force is strong enough with respect to diffusion and the initial data are chosen properly then there exists a classical solution which reaches the threshold at the maximal time of its existence, no matter whether the latter is finite or infinite. Moreover, we prove that the threshold may even be reached in finite time provided the diffusion of cells is non-degenerate.

  6. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xin; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E.; Smith, Gregory Scott; ...

    2015-01-13

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugatemore » and the microstructure of its constituent components.« less

  7. Low-Cost Rural Health Care and Health Manpower Training. An Annotated Bibliography with Special Emphasis on Developing Countries. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Frances M., Comp.

    This fourth volume in a bibliography series on low-cost rural health care contains 700 entries covering the 1960's-1970's and focusing on developing countries. The bibliography is organized under five major subject headings: reference works, organization and planning, implementation of primary health care, training and utilization of primary…

  8. Low-Cost Rural Health Care and Health Manpower Training. An Annotated Bibliography with Special Emphasis on Developing Countries. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Frances M., Comp.

    This fourth volume in a bibliography series on low-cost rural health care contains 700 entries covering the 1960's-1970's and focusing on developing countries. The bibliography is organized under five major subject headings: reference works, organization and planning, implementation of primary health care, training and utilization of primary…

  9. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  10. Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…

  11. Better Health for Our Children: A National Strategy. The Report of the Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health to the United States Congress and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Volume III: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This third volume of the 1981 Report of the Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health presents a compendium of background data on various aspects of maternal and child health in the United States. The volume is divided into two sections. Section I consists of six chapters of text and Section II consists of 120 tables. The text is designed to…

  12. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There is no current method of measuring human body odor, other than by human panel studies of expert judges of air quality. Human body odors have been quantitated in terms of the "olf" which is the amount of air pollution produced by the average person. Another quantitative unit of odorants is the "decipol," which is the perceived level of pollution produced by the average human ventilated by 10 L/sec of unpolluted air or its equivalent level of dissatisfaction from nonhuman air pollutants. The standard regulatory approach, focusing on individual constituents or chemicals, is not likely to be successful in adequately controlling odorants in indoor air. Besides the current approach of setting minimum ventilation standards to prevent health effects due to indoor air pollution, a standard based on the olf or decipol unit might be more efficacious as well as simpler to measure. PMID:1821378

  13. Health Effects of Shift Work

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    More than 13.5 million American workers, close to 20 percent of the work force, are assigned to evening or night shifts. In some industries such as automobile, petrochemical and textile manufacturing the proportion of shift workers is greater than 50 percent. As the popularity of shift work and other “alternative work schedules” grows, concern is increasing over the disturbance created in the lives of workers and their families by these economically and socially useful innovations. Twenty percent of workers are unable to tolerate shift work. Daily physiologic variations termed circadian rhythms are interactive and require a high degree of phase relationship to produce subjective feelings of wellbeing. Disturbance of these activities, circadian desynchronization, whether from passage over time zones or from shift rotation, results in health effects such as disturbance of the quantity and quality of sleep, disturbance of gastrointestinal and other organ system activities, and aggravation of diseases such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy and thyrotoxicosis. Worker selection can reduce the number of health problems resulting from shift work. The periodic examination of shift workers is recommended. PMID:6962577

  14. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES ON KNEE EXTENSION FATIGUE

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Victor Gonçalves Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Background Foam rolling (FR) is a common intervention utilized for the purpose of acutely increasing range-of-motion without subsequent decreases in performance. FR is characterized as an active technique which subject performs upon themselves. Thus, it is believed that the accumulated fatigue can influence whether the task can be continued. Purpose To analyze the effect of different foam rolling volumes on fatigue of the knee extensors. Methods Twenty-five recreationally active females (age 27.7 ± 3.56 y, height 168.4 ± 7.1 cm, weight 69.1 ± 10.2 kg) were recruited for the study. The experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 repetition maximum load to concentric failure. Then, subjects performed the control (CONT) and foam rolling (FR) conditions. FR conditions consisted of different anterior thigh rolling volumes (60-, 90-, and 120-seconds) which were performed during the inter-set rest period. After that, the fatigue index was calculated and compared between each experimental condition. Fatigue index indicates how much (%) resistance the subjects experienced, calculated by the equation: (thidset/firstset) x 100. Results Fatigue index was statistically significantly greater (greater fatigue resistance) for CONT compared to FR90 (p = 0.001) and FR120 (p = 0.001). Similarly, higher fatigue resistance was observed for FR60 when compared to FR120 (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the other conditions (p > 0.005). Conclusion The finding of foam rolling fatigue index decline (less fatigue resistance) as compared to control conditions may have implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. For the purposes of maximum repetition performance, foam rolling should not be applied to the agonist muscle group between sets of knee extensions. Moreover, it seems that volumes greater than 90-seconds are detrimental to the

  15. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES ON KNEE EXTENSION FATIGUE.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Neto, Victor Gonçalves Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Foam rolling (FR) is a common intervention utilized for the purpose of acutely increasing range-of-motion without subsequent decreases in performance. FR is characterized as an active technique which subject performs upon themselves. Thus, it is believed that the accumulated fatigue can influence whether the task can be continued. To analyze the effect of different foam rolling volumes on fatigue of the knee extensors. Twenty-five recreationally active females (age 27.7 ± 3.56 y, height 168.4 ± 7.1 cm, weight 69.1 ± 10.2 kg) were recruited for the study. The experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 repetition maximum load to concentric failure. Then, subjects performed the control (CONT) and foam rolling (FR) conditions. FR conditions consisted of different anterior thigh rolling volumes (60-, 90-, and 120-seconds) which were performed during the inter-set rest period. After that, the fatigue index was calculated and compared between each experimental condition. Fatigue index indicates how much (%) resistance the subjects experienced, calculated by the equation: (thidset/firstset) x 100. Fatigue index was statistically significantly greater (greater fatigue resistance) for CONT compared to FR90 (p = 0.001) and FR120 (p = 0.001). Similarly, higher fatigue resistance was observed for FR60 when compared to FR120 (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the other conditions (p > 0.005). The finding of foam rolling fatigue index decline (less fatigue resistance) as compared to control conditions may have implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. For the purposes of maximum repetition performance, foam rolling should not be applied to the agonist muscle group between sets of knee extensions. Moreover, it seems that volumes greater than 90-seconds are detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. 2b.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the effect of institutional case volume on complications after surgical clipping of unruptured aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Lorenzo; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Murphy, Meghan E; Shepherd, Daniel L; Maloney, Patrick R; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Mohamad; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE The mechanism by which greater institutional case volume translates into improved outcomes after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is not well established. The authors thus aimed to assess the effect of case volume on the rate of various types of complications after clipping of UIAs. METHODS Using information on the outcomes of inpatient admissions for surgical clipping of UIAs collected within a national database, the relationship of institutional case volume to the incidence of different types of complications after clipping was investigated. Complications were subdivided into different categories, which included all complications, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, medical complications, infectious complications, complications related to anesthesia, and wound complications. The relationship of case volume to different types of complications was assessed using linear regression analysis. The relationships between case volume and overall complication and stroke rates were fit with both linear and quadratic equations. The numerical cutoff for institutional case volume above and below which the authors found the greatest differences in mean overall complication and stroke rate was determined using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. RESULTS Between October 2012 and September 2015, 125 health care institutions reported patient outcomes from a total of 6040 cases of clipping of UIAs. On linear regression analysis, increasing case volume was negatively correlated to both overall complications (r(2) = 0.046, p = 0.0234) and stroke (r(2) = 0.029, p = 0.0557) rate, although the relationship of case volume to the complication (r(2) = 0.092) and stroke (r(2) = 0.067) rate was better fit with a quadratic equation. On CART analysis, the cutoff for the case number that yielded the greatest difference in overall complications and stroke rate between higher- or lower-volume centers was 6 cases/year and 3 cases

  17. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  18. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  19. Small-Volume Effect Enables Robust, Sensitive, and Efficient Information Transfer in the Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masashi; Ohashi, Kaoru; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Hikichi, Minori; Kuroda, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    Why is the spine of a neuron so small that only small numbers of molecules can exist and reactions inevitably become stochastic? Despite such noisy conditions, we previously showed that the spine exhibits robust, sensitive and efficient features of information transfer using probability of Ca$^{2+}$ increase; however, their mechanisms remains unknown. Here we show that the small-volume effect enables robust, sensitive and efficient information transfer in the spine volume, but not in the cell volume. In the spine volume, intrinsic noise in reactions becomes larger than extrinsic noise of input, making robust information transfer against input fluctuation. Stochastic facilitation of Ca$^{2+}$ increase occurs in the spine volume, making higher sensitivity to lower intensity of input. Volume-dependency of information transfer enables efficient information transfer per input in the spine volume. Thus, we propose that the small-volume effect is the functional reasons why the spine has to be so small.

  20. The effect of hospital volume on the in-hospital complication rate in knee replacement patients.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, E C; Garfinkel, S A; McQuay, L J; Heck, D A; Wright, J G; Dittus, R; Lubitz, R M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of hospital volume on in-hospital surgical outcomes for knee replacement using six years of Medicare claims data. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data include inpatient claims for a 100 percent sample of Medicare patients who underwent primary knee replacement during 1985-1990. We supplemented these data with information from HCFA's denominator files, the Area Resource File, and the American Hospital Association survey files. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated the probability that a patient has an in-hospital complication in the initial hospitalization for the first primary knee replacement, using a Logit model, for three definitions of complication. The models controlled for hospital volume, other hospital characteristics, patient demographics, and patient health status. We tested for the endogeneity of hospital volume. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: A panel of two orthopaedic surgeons and two internists reviewed diagnosis codes to determine whether a complication was likely, possible, or due to anemia. After removing the few observations with bad or missing data, the final population has 295,473 observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The probability of a likely in-hospital complication declines rapidly from 53 through 107 operations per year, then levels off. Statistical tests imply that hospital volume is exogenous in this patient-level data. Complication rates increased steadily through the study period. Although obesity appeared to lower the probability of a complication, a counterintuitive result, further investigation revealed this to be an artifact of the claims data limit of listing no more than five diagnoses. Controlling for this restriction reversed the effect of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than uncontrolled expansion of knee surgery to small hospitals, decentralization to regional centers where at least about 50, and preferably about 100, operations per year are assured appears to be the optimal policy to reduce in

  1. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Li, X. Allen; El Naqa, Issam; Hahn, Carol A.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2010-03-01

    We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

  2. RADIATION DOSE–VOLUME EFFECTS IN THE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Li, X. Allen; el Naqa, Issam; Hahn, Carol A.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1–2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100–140) and 150 Gy (range, 140–170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (≥2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers’ reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity–risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of ≥18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT. PMID:20171513

  3. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  4. Potential Sources of Federal Support for School-Based and School-Linked Health Services. Volume III. A Guide to School-Based and School-Linked Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinschneider, Janice

    Volume III of a three-volume guide to school-based and school-linked health centers, this document notes that communities that wish to continue existing school-based health clinics or to start new ones may need to explore federal support for health center operations. This manual identifies federal health, education, and social programs which…

  5. Designing effective written health education materials: considerations for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy; Worrall, Linda

    2004-10-07

    Written health education materials can only be effective if they can be read, understood, and remembered by patients. The purpose of this article was to review the literature about features that should be incorporated into written health education materials to maximize their effectiveness, identify where there is consensus and debate about which features should be incorporated, and develop recommendations that health professionals can use when reviewing their existing materials and designing new materials. Literature review of published research and education articles. There is a large number of features that need to be considered when designing written health education materials so that they are suitable for the target audience and effective. Although there is consensus about the majority of features that should be included, further research is needed to explore the contribution of certain features, such as illustrations, to the effectiveness of written materials and the effect of well-designed written materials on patient outcomes. Health professionals need to provide their patients with written health education materials that are patient-orientated and designed according to the best practice principles in written health education material design.

  6. Effects of cesarean section on mean platelet volume.

    PubMed

    Usluoğullari, Betül; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Simavli, Serap; Eser, Ayla; Inegol Gumus, İknur

    2015-01-01

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a risk factor for cardiovascular complications, cerebrovascular disorders, and low-grade inflammatory conditions prone to arterial and venous thromboses. Cesarean delivery is the most important risk factor for pulmonary embolism, stroke, and intracranial venous thrombosis. The hypothesis is that increase in the prevalence of cesarean section and high MPV may be associated with cardiovascular complications such as stroke along with intracranial complications in addition to known systemic and surgical complications. In this study, platelet counts and MPV for postpartum women who delivered by cesarean section and normal vaginal parturition are compared. The subjects were divided in two groups, one was study group consisting of 118 patients giving birth by cesarean section and the other was the control group consisting 94 patients giving birth by normal vaginal parturition. Peripheral venous blood samples in EDTA tubes were collected from all the subjects 1 week before and after the delivery for their prenatal and postpartum periods, respectively. The values were compared between the groups and also before and after the delivery. In the cesarean group, while the MPV level was 8.60 (1.64) fl in the prenatal period, it increased to 9.10 (2.00) fl in the postnatal period (p < 0.001). Group effect, time effect (independent from group effect), and group*time interaction effect were statistically significant for MPV variable (p = 0.032, p < 0.001, and p = 0.012, respectively). This study concluded that MPV, along with several other factors, may be used as a prognostic, independent, and therapeutic marker in patients who are inclined to thrombotic events after cesarean section.

  7. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals ...

  8. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  9. [Effective access to health services: operationalizing universal health coverage].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The right to health and its operational form, as an organized social response to health: the right to health protection, are the mainstay for the global push towards universal health coverage. The path to achieve this goal is particular to each country and relates to the baseline and specific context in relation to what is feasible. In practical terms, universal coverage involves the correlation between demand and supply of services (promotion, prevention, and care), expressed by the ability for each individual to make use of services when these are required. In those terms universal coverage is then effective access. The objective of the paper is to explore the conceptualization of effective access to health services and propose a definition that allows its operationalization thereof. This definition considers key elements of supply and demand of services, including the availability of resources and adequate provision (quality), as well as barriers to use them.

  10. Pulmonary Health Effects of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Bailey, Kristina L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. Summary In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease amongst workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations. PMID:26761627

  11. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Giovanna; Constine, Louis S.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

  12. Connectivity and Excluded Volume Effects in Polymeric Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles; Radhakrishna, Mithun

    Oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes in salt solutions can undergo phase separation to form complex coacervates. This charge-driven phase behavior is the basis for emerging motifs in self-assembly. Traditional uses for coacervates are in food and personal care products, while applications in technologies for drug delivery and sensory materials are being developed. One of the primary theories driving understanding of complex coacervates is the Voorn-Overbeek (V-O) theory, which is a precursor to more sophisticated field theories. We present both theory and simulation that provides an alternate picture of coacervates, specifically addressing the limitations of V-O. Our theoretical approach is based on PRISM, which is a liquid-state theory that specifically accounts for connectivity. This is compared with Monte Carlo-based simulations, which likewise provide a molecular picture of coacervation. We demonstrate that a combination of connectivity-based correlations and excluded volume has a profound effect on coacervation phase behavior, suggesting that favorable comparison of V-O to experiment benefits from a cancellation of errors. The influence of connectivity on coacervate phase behavior hints at new opportunities for molecular-based design in electrostatically-driven self-assembly.

  13. Partial volume effect as a hidden covariate in DTI analyses.

    PubMed

    Vos, Sjoerd B; Jones, Derek K; Viergever, Max A; Leemans, Alexander

    2011-04-15

    During the last decade, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used extensively to investigate microstructural properties of white matter fiber pathways. In many of these DTI-based studies, fiber tractography has been used to infer relationships between bundle-specific mean DTI metrics and measures-of-interest (e.g., when studying diffusion changes related to age, cognitive performance, etc.) or to assess potential differences between populations (e.g., comparing males vs. females, healthy vs. diseased subjects, etc.). As partial volume effects (PVEs) are known to affect tractography and, subsequently, the estimated DTI measures sampled along these reconstructed tracts in an adverse way, it is important to gain insight into potential confounding factors that may modulate this PVE. For instance, for thicker fiber bundles, the contribution of PVE-contaminated voxels to the mean metric for the entire fiber bundle will be smaller, and vice-versa - which means that the extent of PVE-contamination will vary from bundle to bundle. With the growing popularity of tractography-based methods in both fundamental research and clinical applications, it is of paramount importance to examine the presence of PVE-related covariates, such as thickness, orientation, curvature, and shape of a fiber bundle, and to investigate the extent to which these hidden confounds affect diffusion measures. To test the hypothesis that these PVE-related covariates modulate DTI metrics depending on the shape of a bundle, we performed simulations with synthetic diffusion phantoms and analyzed bundle-specific DTI measures of the cingulum and the corpus callosum in 55 healthy subjects. Our results indicate that the estimated bundle-specific mean values of diffusion metrics, including the frequently used fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, were indeed modulated by fiber bundle thickness, orientation, and curvature. Correlation analyses between gender and diffusion measures yield different results

  14. The effect of landmarks and bone motion on posture-related changes in carpal tunnel volume.

    PubMed

    Mogk, Jeremy P M; Keir, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Deviated wrist postures have been linked to carpal tunnel syndrome development, yet the effect of posture on carpal tunnel volume remains unclear. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate the effect of boundary definitions on tunnel volume estimates in neutral and non-neutral (30 degrees flexion, 30 degrees extension) wrist postures and (ii) to develop a biomechanical wrist simulation to predict posture-related changes in tunnel volume. Two carpal tunnel volume measures were calculated using (i) ulnar bony landmarks and (ii) radial and ulnar bony landmarks identified directly from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A third volume measure combined computerized tunnel reconstructions with modelled bone surfaces to calculate an anatomically landmarked volume. Six individual simulations were then generated to predict volume in the flexed and extended postures based on individual carpal bone motions. Boundary definitions influenced the absolute volume in each posture and the relative changes between postures. Relative to fully reconstructed volumes, radial and ulnar landmarked volumes were 15-25% larger across postures (681 (SD 467) mm(3); P=0.01), while the ulnar-only landmarked volumes were 10-20% smaller (562 (343) mm(3); P<0.01). Simulation predicted volumes were not significantly different from the reconstructed anatomically landmarked volumes, with less inter-individual variability between postures compared to MRI-based volumes. Comparison of volume measures indicated the importance of capturing posture-related changes in the orientation of the proximal and distal tunnel boundaries, and revealed potential sources of error associated with volume reconstruction. Simulations can enable changes in tunnel dimensions to be related to bone movements throughout a range of motion.

  15. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  16. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects of Optic Nerves and Chiasm

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Charles; Martel, Mary K.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Flickinger, John; Nam, Jiho; Kirkpatrick, John

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating radiation toxicity of the optic nerves and chiasm to quantitative dose and dose-volume measures were reviewed. Few studies have adequate data for dose-volume outcome modeling. The risk of toxicity increased markedly at doses >60 Gy at {approx}1.8 Gy/fraction and at >12 Gy for single-fraction radiosurgery. The evidence is strong that radiation tolerance is increased with a reduction in the dose per fraction. Models of threshold tolerance were examined.

  18. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico. PMID:24758691

  19. Effective access to health care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Dolci, Germán Fajardo; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio

    2014-04-23

    Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico.

  20. The Politics of Evidence Use in Health Policy Making in Germany-the Case of Regulating Hospital Minimum Volumes.

    PubMed

    Ettelt, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the role of scientific evidence in informing health policy decisions in Germany, using minimum volumes policy as a case study. It argues that scientific evidence was used strategically at various stages of the policy process both by individual corporatist actors and by the Federal Joint Committee as the regulator. Minimum volumes regulation was inspired by scientific evidence suggesting a positive relationship between service volume and patient outcomes for complex surgical interventions. Federal legislation was introduced in 2002 to delegate the selection of services and the setting of volumes to corporatist decision makers. Yet, despite being represented in the Federal Joint Committee, hospitals affected by its decisions took the Committee to court to seek legal redress and prevent policy implementation. Evidence has been key to support, and challenge, decisions about minimum volumes, including in court. The analysis of the role of scientific evidence in minimum volumes regulation in Germany highlights the dynamic relationship between evidence use and the political and institutional context of health policy making, which in this case is characterized by the legislative nature of policy making, corporatism, and the role of the judiciary in reviewing policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 by Stefanie Ettelt.

  1. Prolonged slow expiration technique in infants: effects on tidal volume, peak expiratory flow, and expiratory reserve volume.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Fernanda C; Wandalsen, Gustavo; Dela Bianca, Ana Caroline; Cruz, Carolina L; Postiaux, Guy; Solé, Dirceu

    2011-12-01

    Prolonged slow expiration (PSE) is a physiotherapy technique often applied in infants to reduce pulmonary obstruction and clear secretions, but there have been few studies of PSE's effects on the respiratory system. To describe PSE's effects on respiratory mechanics in infants. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 18 infants who had histories of recurrent wheezing. The infants were sedated for lung-function testing, which was followed by PSE. The PSE consisted of 3 sequences of prolonged manual thoraco-abdominal compressions during the expiratory phase. We measured peak expiratory flow (PEF), tidal volume (V(T)), and the frequency of sighs during and immediately after PSE. We described the exhaled volume during PSE as a fraction of expiratory reserve volume (%ERV). We quantified ERV with the raised-volume rapid-thoracic-compression technique. The cohort's mean age was 32.2 weeks, and they had an average of 4.8 previous wheezing episodes. During PSE there was significant V(T) reduction (80 ± 17 mL vs 49 ± 11 mL, P < .001), no significant change in PEF (149 ± 32 mL/s vs 150 ± 32 mL/s, P = .54), and more frequent sighs (40% vs 5%, P = .03), compared to immediately after PSE. The exhaled volume increased in each PSE sequence (32 ± 18% of ERV, 41 ± 24% of ERV, and 53 ± 20% of ERV, P = .03). It was possible to confirm and quantify that PSE deflates the lung to ERV. PSE caused no changes in PEF, induced sigh breaths, and decreased V(T), which is probably the main mechanical feature for mucus clearance.

  2. Effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Soares, Rafaela Borges; da Silva, Juliana Severo; Woszezenki, Cristhiele Taís; Zanatta, Letiane Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents. Data source: This is a systematic review, carried out in Pubmed, Lilacs, Scielo and PEDro databases, using the following Keywords: Plethysmography; Whole Body OR Lung Volume Measurements OR Total Lung Capacity OR Functional Residual Capacity OR Residual Volume AND Obesity. Observational studies or clinical trials that assessed the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents (0-18 years) without any other associated disease; in English; Portuguese and Spanish languages were selected. Methodological quality was assessed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Data synthesis: Of the 1,030 articles, only four were included in the review. The studies amounted to 548 participants, predominantly males, with sample size ranging from 45 to 327 individuals. 100% of the studies evaluated nutritional status through BMI (z-score) and 50.0% reported the data on abdominal circumference. All demonstrated that obesity causes negative effects on lung volume and capacity, causing a reduction mainly in functional residual capacity in 75.0% of the studies; in the expiratory reserve volume in 50.0% and in the residual volume in 25.0%. The methodological quality ranged from moderate to high, with 75.0% of the studies classified as having high methodological quality. Conclusions: Obesity causes deleterious effects on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents, mainly by reducing functional residual capacity, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. PMID:27130483

  3. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... coastal ecosystem health could increase the incidence of water contamination with harmful pathogens and chemicals, resulting in increased human exposure. Malnutrition, particularly during the prenatal period ... air, soil, and water quality, distribution of toxicants, and new mixtures of ...

  4. Does Restriction of Public Health Care Dental Benefits Affect the Volume, Severity, or Cost of Dental-Related Hospital Visits?

    PubMed

    Salomon, David; Heidel, R Eric; Kolokythas, Antonia; Miloro, Michael; Schlieve, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    On July 1, 2012, the Illinois legislature passed the Save Medicaid Access and Resources Together (SMART) Act, which restricts adult public dental insurance coverage to emergency-only treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of this restriction on the volume, severity, and treatment costs of odontogenic infections in an urban hospital. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting for odontogenic pain or infection at the University of Illinois Hospital was performed. Data were collected using related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2013 and divided into 2 cohorts over consecutive 18-month periods. Outcome variables included age, gender, insurance status, oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) consultation, imaging, treatment, treatment location, number of hospital admission days, and inpatient care level. Severity was determined by the presence of OMS consultation, incision and drainage, hospital admission, and cost per encounter. Hospital charges were used to compare the cost of care between cohorts. Between-patients statistics were used to compare risk factors and outcomes between cohorts. Of 5,192 encounters identified, 1,405 met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between cohorts for age (P = .28) or gender (P = .43). After passage of the SMART Act, emergency department visits increased 48%, surgical intervention increased 100%, and hospital admission days increased 128%. Patients were more likely to have an OMS consult (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.81), an incision and drainage (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.13-1.94), and a longer hospital admission (P = .04). The average cost per encounter increased by 20% and the total cost of care increased by $1.6 million. After limitation of dental benefits, there was an increase in the volume and severity of odontogenic infections. In addition, there was an escalated

  5. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  6. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  7. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  8. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  9. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  10. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  11. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  12. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  13. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  14. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  15. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  16. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices: 1985 supplement, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, K. E.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.; Dantas, A. R. V.; Price, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data are provided, in graphic format, for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. The document is in two volumes: Volume 1 provides data on diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous semiconductor types, and Volume 2 provides total-dose radiation test data on integrated circuits. Volume 1 of this 1985 Supplement contains new total-dose radiation test data generated since the August 1, 1981 release date of the original Volume 1. Publication of Volume 2 of the 1985 Supplement will follow that of Volume 1 by approximately three months.

  17. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  18. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  19. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack; Nam, Jiho; Gagliardi, Giovanna; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

  20. Training Effectiveness Assessment: Volume I, Current Military Training Evaluation Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; And Others

    A study was conducted to clarify issues and problems involved in the assessment of the effectiveness of military training and to evaluate and recommend objective procedures for determining the effectiveness of Navy training. The study results are reported in two volumes. This volume reviews current military training evaluation programs. Evaluation…

  1. Distinct effects of late adulthood cognitive and physical activities on gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; de Flores, Robin; Gonneaud, Julie; Wirth, Miranka; Ourry, Valentin; Callewaert, William; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; Mézenge, Florence; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Engagement in cognitive activity (CA) and physical activity (PA) during the lifespan may counteract brain atrophy later in life. Here, we investigated engagement in CA and PA during late adulthood in association with gray matter volume (GM) in normal older adults, with special focus on the hippocampus. Forty-five cognitively normal older individuals (mean age: 72) underwent T1-weighted MRI and self-reported CA and PA assessment. Whole brain voxel-wise multiple regression models were carried out to assess the relationships between CA, PA and GM volume adjusted by age and sex. Further adjustment for years of education and risk factors were performed. Voxel-wise analyses were projected on 3D hippocampal surface views. Cognitive activity and PA demonstrated independent regional associations with GM after adjustment for confounders. Cognitive activity was related to greater GM in extended brain areas including frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, while PA was associated with increased GM in the prefrontal, insular and motor cortices. Regression maps projected on the hippocampal surface showed a common association of PA and CA within the anterior part of the hippocampus, although the effect of CA was more subtle and also extended to the posterior part. Engagement in PA and CA in late adulthood were independently related to regional GM volume, notably in aging and AD vulnerable areas. These results support the idea that both PA and CA- based interventions may be suitable to promote brain health in late adulthood. The potential synergistic effects of PA and CA need to be addressed in future studies including larger samples.

  2. Physical activity and inflammation: effects on gray-matter volume and cognitive decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Ferencz, Beata; Mangialasche, Francesca; Mecocci, Patrizia; Cecchetti, Roberta; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity has been positively associated with gray-matter integrity. In contrast, pro-inflammatory cytokines seem to have negative effects on the aging brain and have been related to dementia. It was investigated whether an inactive lifestyle and high levels of inflammation resulted in smaller gray-matter volumes and predicted cognitive decline across 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (n = 414). Self-reported physical activity (fitness-enhancing, health-enhancing, inadequate) was linked to gray-matter volume, such that individuals with inadequate physical activity had the least gray matter. There were no overall associations between different pro-and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, G-CSF, and TNF-α) and gray-matter integrity. However, persons with inadequate activity and high levels of the pro-inflammatory marker IL-12p40 had smaller volumes of lateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and declined more on the Mini-Mental State Examination test over 6 years compared with physically inactive individuals with low levels of IL-12p40 and to more physically active persons, irrespective of their levels of IL-12p40. These patterns of data suggested that inflammation was particularly detrimental in inactive older adults and may exacerbate the negative effects of physical inactivity on brain and cognition in old age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3462-3473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin

    PubMed Central

    Küme, Tuncay; Şişman, Ali Rıza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Çinkooğlu, Burcu; Çoker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    Introductıon: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes. PMID:22838185

  4. Effects of frequency, tidal volume, and lung volume on CO2 elimination in dogs by high frequency (2-30 Hz), low tidal volume ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Slutsky, A S; Kamm, R D; Rossing, T H; Loring, S H; Lehr, J; Shapiro, A H; Ingram, R H; Drazen, J M

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that effective pulmonary ventilation is possible with tidal volumes (VT) less than the anatomic dead-space if the oscillatory frequency (f) is sufficiently large. We systematically studied the effect on pulmonary CO2 elimination (VCO2) of varying f (2-30 Hz) and VT (1-7 ml/kg) as well as lung volume (VL) in 13 anesthetized, paralyzed dogs in order to examine the contribution of those variables that are thought to be important in determining gas exchange by high frequency ventilation. All experiments were performed when the alveolar PCO2 was 40 +/- 1.5 mm Hg. In all studies, VCO2 increased monotonically with f at constant VT. We quantitated the effects of f and VT on VCO2 by using the dimensionless equation VCO2/VOSC = a(VT/VTo)b(f/fo)c where: VOSC = f X VT, VTo = mean VT, fo = mean f and a, b, c, are constants obtained by multiple regression. The mean values of a, b, and c for all dogs were 2.12 X 10(-3), 0.49, and 0.08, respectively. The most important variable in determining VCO2 was VOSC; however, there was considerable variability among dogs in the independent effect of VT and f on VCO2, with a doubling of VT at a constant VOSC causing changes in VCO2 ranging from -13 to +110% (mean = +35%). Increasing VL from functional residual capacity (FRC) to the lung volume at an airway opening minus body surface pressure of 25 cm H2O had no significant effect on VCO2. PMID:6798071

  5. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  6. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  7. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  8. Systematic determination of thyroid volume by ultrasound examination from infancy to adolescence in Japan: the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Ohtsuru, Akira; Abe, Masafumi; Shibata, Yoshisada; Yamashita, Shunichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Although several reports have defined normal thyroid volume depending on either age or body surface, there are no sequential reference values on childhood thyroid volume evaluated by using ultrasonography and epidemiological analysis in Japan. The aim of the present study was to establish updated reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound examination and epidemiological analysis in 0-19 year-old Japanese children. It is based on a cross-sectional study conducted from October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The subjects were 38,063 children who were examined by ultrasonography as the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey in October 9, 2011 to March 31, 2012. The width, thickness, and height of each lobe were measured and the volume of each lobe was calculated by the mean of the elliptical shape volume formula. The values of thyroid volume at the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of age and body surface area for each gender group were obtained from 0-19 year-old children. Positive correlation was observed between thyroid volume and either age or body surface. The right lobe was significantly larger than the left lobe. The thyroid volume in females was larger than that in males after adjusting body surface area. The reference values of childhood thyroid for each age or body surface area were obtained by this extensive survey using ultrasound. These reference values may be used to define the normal size of thyroid gland by echosonography in Japanese children, although thyroid volume may be affected by dimorphic factors such as sex hormones.

  9. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  10. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph; Nam, Jiho; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating esophageal radiation toxicity to clinical variables and to quantitative dose and dose-volume measures derived from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer are reviewed. A variety of clinical and dosimetric parameters have been associated with acute and late toxicity. Suggestions for future studies are presented.

  11. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Larynx and Pharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Rancati, Tiziana; Schwarz, Marco; Allen, Aaron M.; Feng, Felix; Popovtzer, Aron; Mittal, Bharat; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    The dose-volume outcome data for RT-associated laryngeal edema, laryngeal dysfunction, and dysphagia, have only recently been addressed, and are summarized. For late dysphagia, a major issue is accurate definition and uncertainty of the relevant anatomical structures. These and other issues are discussed.

  12. Radiation Dose Volume Effects in the Larynx and Pharynx

    PubMed Central

    Rancati, Tiziana; Schwarz, Marco; Allen, Aaron M.; Feng, Felix; Popovtzer, Aron; Mittal, Bharat; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    The dose-volume-outcome data for RT-associated laryngeal edema, laryngeal dysfunction, and dysphagia, have only recently been addressed, and are summarized. For late dysphagia, a major issue is accurate definition and uncertainty of the relevant anatomical structures. These and other issues are discussed. PMID:20171520

  13. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  14. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2006 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2006 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2005 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 2, 2006, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2005 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.)

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 2, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2004 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 6). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: For completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2004 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2003 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 5, 2004, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2003 data and are not included in Table 4-5 in Volume I.)

  16. Effects of Anti-VEGF on Predicted Antibody Biodistribution: Roles of Vascular Volume, Interstitial Volume, and Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Ferl, Gregory Z.; Mundo, Eduardo E.; Bumbaca, Daniela; Schweiger, Michelle G.; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J.; Khawli, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of clinically meaningful and predictive models of disposition kinetics for cancer therapeutics is an ongoing pursuit in drug development. In particular, the growing interest in preclinical evaluation of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination with other drugs requires a complete understanding of the associated physiological consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings Technescan™ PYP™, a clinically utilized radiopharmaceutical, was used to measure tissue vascular volumes in beige nude mice that were naïve or administered a single intravenous bolus dose of a murine anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody (10 mg/kg) 24 h prior to assay. Anti-VEGF had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the fractional vascular volumes of any tissues studied; these findings were further supported by single photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In addition, apart from a borderline significant increase (p = 0.048) in mean hepatic blood flow, no significant anti-VEGF-induced differences were observed (p>0.05) in two additional physiological parameters, interstitial fluid volume and the organ blood flow rate, measured using indium-111-pentetate and rubidium-86 chloride, respectively. Areas under the concentration-time curves generated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model changed substantially (>25%) in several tissues when model parameters describing compartmental volumes and blood flow rates were switched from literature to our experimentally derived values. However, negligible changes in predicted tissue exposure were observed when comparing simulations based on parameters measured in naïve versus anti-VEGF-administered mice. Conclusions/Significance These observations may foster an enhanced understanding of anti-VEGF effects in murine tissues and, in particular, may be useful in modeling antibody uptake alone or in combination with anti-VEGF. PMID:21436893

  17. Effects of anti-VEGF on predicted antibody biodistribution: roles of vascular volume, interstitial volume, and blood flow.

    PubMed

    Boswell, C Andrew; Ferl, Gregory Z; Mundo, Eduardo E; Bumbaca, Daniela; Schweiger, Michelle G; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J; Khawli, Leslie A

    2011-03-15

    The identification of clinically meaningful and predictive models of disposition kinetics for cancer therapeutics is an ongoing pursuit in drug development. In particular, the growing interest in preclinical evaluation of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination with other drugs requires a complete understanding of the associated physiological consequences. Technescan™ PYP™, a clinically utilized radiopharmaceutical, was used to measure tissue vascular volumes in beige nude mice that were naïve or administered a single intravenous bolus dose of a murine anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody (10 mg/kg) 24 h prior to assay. Anti-VEGF had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the fractional vascular volumes of any tissues studied; these findings were further supported by single photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In addition, apart from a borderline significant increase (p = 0.048) in mean hepatic blood flow, no significant anti-VEGF-induced differences were observed (p>0.05) in two additional physiological parameters, interstitial fluid volume and the organ blood flow rate, measured using indium-111-pentetate and rubidium-86 chloride, respectively. Areas under the concentration-time curves generated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model changed substantially (>25%) in several tissues when model parameters describing compartmental volumes and blood flow rates were switched from literature to our experimentally derived values. However, negligible changes in predicted tissue exposure were observed when comparing simulations based on parameters measured in naïve versus anti-VEGF-administered mice. These observations may foster an enhanced understanding of anti-VEGF effects in murine tissues and, in particular, may be useful in modeling antibody uptake alone or in combination with anti-VEGF.

  18. Statistical modeling of the volume-outcome effect for carotid endarterectomy for 10 years of a statewide database.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Susanna M; Yenokyan, Gayane; Thompson, Richard E; Griswold, Michael E; Chang, David C; Perler, Bruce A

    2008-08-01

    procedure (P = .351), whereas those performing >15 CEAs per year had an odds ratio of 0.997 (P = .485). Hospitals that saw >130 CEAs per year had an odds ratio of death of 0.945 per additional procedure, or 0.055 decrease in the odds of death (P = 0.013), whereas hospitals performing volume-outcome data and have found a volume effect for death after CEA in this 10-year Maryland dataset. Higher volume surgeons had lower estimated odds of death, particularly those performing four to 15 CEAs per year. These data suggest that a patient undergoing CEA by a surgeon performing an average of 16 CEAs annually has a statistically equivalent risk of death compared with one undergoing CEA by a surgeon performing any number higher than this, when controlling for hospital volume, patient comorbidity, and patient age. Hospital volume was not seen to be as significant a predictor of postoperative death in this study, with only high volume hospitals (>/=130 CEAs per year) showing a statistically significant decrease in the odds ratio of death. As studies on volume-outcome relationships can have important implications for health policy and surgical training, such studies should consider non-linear effects in their modeling of procedural volume.

  19. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of health care].

    PubMed

    Strnad, L

    1990-01-01

    health workers and community as a whole. Besides the needful enlargement of sources, these complicated questions are resolvable in observing unity of medical, organizational and economical rationality on all levels of health service management and in all health institutions. This is also the way how to improve the efficiency of health care. The term of efficiency in relation to the health services. In economics, the efficiency is the ratio between the achieved result (effect) and the expenditure of a specified amount of resources. Mathematically, this ratio is expressed as follows: efficiency = end-result/costs Linked to the Health care, the efficiency may be understood also differently from its economic term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  20. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  1. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning

  2. An overview of health effects on noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  3. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    2010-03-01

    Dose-volume data for myelopathy in humans treated with radiotherapy (RT) to the spine is reviewed, along with pertinent preclinical data. Using conventional fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy/fraction to the full-thickness cord, the estimated risk of myelopathy is <1% and <10% at 54 Gy and 61 Gy, respectively, with a calculated strong dependence on dose/fraction (alpha/beta = 0.87 Gy.) Reirradiation data in animals and humans suggest partial repair of RT-induced subclinical damage becoming evident about 6 months post-RT and increasing over the next 2 years. Reports of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions appear rare (<1%) when the maximum spinal cord dose is limited to the equivalent of 13 Gy in a single fraction or 20 Gy in three fractions. However, long-term data are insufficient to calculate a dose-volume relationship for myelopathy when the partial cord is treated with a hypofractionated regimen.

  4. Indicators of Children's Well-Being: Conference Papers. Child Health, Education, and Economic Security. Volume II. Special Report Series. Special Report Number 60b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Inst. for Research on Poverty.

    This volume groups papers discussing indicators of children's well-being into three areas: child health, education, and economic security. Papers concerning child health include: (1) "Prenatal and Infant Health Indicators" (Paula Lantz and Melissa Partin); (2) "Health Indicators for Preschool Children (Ages 1-4)" (Barbara L.…

  5. Effect of supercooling and cell volume on intracellular ice formation.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Richelle C; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2015-04-01

    Intracellular ice formation (IIF) has been linked to death of cells cryopreserved in suspension. It has been assumed that cells can be supercooled by 2 to 10°C before IIF occurs, but measurements of the degree of supercooling that cells can tolerate are often confounded by changing extracellular temperature and solutions of different osmolality (which affect the cell volume). The purpose of this study was to examine how the incidence of IIF in the absence of cryoprotectants is affected by the degree of supercooling and cell volume. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were suspended in isotonic (300 mOsm) and hypertonic (∼600 to 700 mOsm) solutions and exposed to supercooling ranging from 2 to 10°C before extracellular ice was nucleated. The number of cells undergoing IIF was examined in a cryostage (based on the darkening of cells upon intracellular freezing ("flashing")) as a function of the degree of supercooling, and cell survival post-thaw was assessed using a membrane integrity assay. We found that while the incidence of IIF increased with supercooling in both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, it was higher in the isotonic solution at any given degree of supercooling. Since cells in hypertonic solution were shrunken due to water efflux, we hypothesized that the difference in IIF behavior could be attributed to the decreased volume of cells in the hypertonic solution. Our results confirm that cells with a smaller diameter before extracellular ice nucleation have a decreased probability of IIF and suggest that cell volume could play a more significant role in the incidence of IIF than the extracellular ice nucleation temperature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Evaluation of Small Arms Effectiveness Criteria, Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Firing Situations IV-30 Advance and Encounter IV-30 Base of Fire for Assault and Support of Advance IV-32 Assaulting Rifle Squad IV-35 Rifle and...Arrays Used for Base of Fire for Assault and Support[ of Advance Situations IV.32 Volume II D-1 Range Intervals for Detecting Infantry Targets Reported... base of fire against -. assault (rifle and machine gun squads) firing situation IV-33 IV-4 Range layout for support-of-advance firing situations (rifle

  7. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume V, Number 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    cell differentiation An invasive Irradiation system that uses microwaves and/or specialization, synthesis of macromolecules, In the gigahertz range to...INTENSITY red and white blood cell (WBC) count, packed cell ELECTRIC FIELDS. (Eng.) Johnson. J. G. volume, hemoglobin concentration, and differential ...may be critically inter-related duce the high differentiation of the solid bone matrix, with the phased i6 hr) on-ott periods of treatm-nt. To at best

  8. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  9. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  10. Health effects of internal rotation of shifts.

    PubMed

    Learthart, S

    Shirley Learthart examines the potential adverse effects to health of working on rotating shifts. Many studies indicate that shift work can cause health problems, including increased risk of coronary heart disease. Internal rotation is the reason given by many nurses for leaving the profession.

  11. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  12. Health Effects Assessment for Carbon Tetrachloride (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  13. How a patent ductus arteriosus effects the premature lamb's ability to handle additional volume loads.

    PubMed

    Clyman, R I; Roman, C; Heymann, M A; Mauray, F

    1987-11-01

    A model of patent ductus arteriosus in premature lambs was created to examine the lamb's ability to handle the volume load imposed by a patent ductus arteriosus and to determine the lamb's ability to handle any additional volume load. Fifteen preterm lambs [133 +/- 2 (+/- SD) days gestation, term 145 days], whose ductal diameter could be regulated with a mechanical occluder, were studied to determine the independent effects of ductus patency and a saline volume load (50 ml/kg over 3 min) on left ventricular output and its distribution. During a saline infusion, preterm lambs with a closed ductus could only increase their stroke volume by 40% above baseline stroke volume. When challenged with a saline infusion, lambs with an open ductus still were able to increase their stroke volume significantly; the maximal increase in stroke volume during the saline load with the ductus open was 70% above baseline stroke volume. We hypothesize that the associated reduced left ventricular afterload plays a significant role in the preterm lamb's ability to increase its stroke volume when challenged with a patent ductus arteriosus. Even with a patent ductus arteriosus, the lamb still has the ability to handle additional volume loads.

  14. Absence of gender effect on amygdala volume in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivaldo; Lin, Katia; Jackowski, Andrea P; Centeno, Ricardo da Silva; Pinto, Magali L; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza M; Amado, Débora

    2010-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism has already been described in temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). This study evaluated the effect of gender on amygdala volume in patients with TLE-MTS. One hundred twenty-four patients with refractory unilateral or bilateral TLE-MTS who were being considered for epilepsy surgery underwent a comprehensive presurgical evaluation and MRI. Amygdalas of 67 women (27 with right; 32 with left, and 8 with bilateral TLE) and 57 men (22 with right, 30 with left, and 5 with bilateral TLE) were manually segmented. Significant ipsilateral amygdala volume reduction was observed for patients with right and left TLE. No gender effect on amygdala volume was observed. Contralateral amygdalar asymmetry was observed for patients with right and left TLE. Although no gender effect was observed on amygdala volume, ipsilateral amygdala volume reductions in patients with TLE might be related to differential rates of cerebral maturation between hemispheres.

  15. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results : Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion : The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone.

  16. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant‐derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17‐β‐oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to present a state‐of‐the‐art overview of the potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens. Various beneficial health effects have been ascribed to phytoestrogens, such as a lowered risk of menopausal symptoms like hot flushes and osteoporosis, lowered risks of cardiovascular disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, brain function disorders, breast cancer, prostate cancer, bowel cancer and other cancers. In contrast to these beneficial health claims, the (anti)oestrogenic properties of phytoestrogens have also raised concerns since they might act as endocrine disruptors, indicating a potential to cause adverse health effects. The literature overview presented in this paper illustrates that several potential health benefits of phytoestrogens have been reported but that, given the data on potential adverse health effects, the current evidence on these beneficial health effects is not so obvious that they clearly outweigh the possible health risks. Furthermore, the data currently available are not sufficient to support a more refined (semi) quantitative risk–benefit analysis. This implies that a definite conclusion on possible beneficial health effects of phytoestrogens cannot be made. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc PMID:27723080

  17. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume I: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and to analyze the cost of nursing education. Volume 1 is an annotated…

  18. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume III: Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and to analyze the cost of nursing education. Volume three notes that a mild…

  19. Education Laws: A Compilation of Statutes in Effect Today. Fifth Edition. Volume I [and] II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Michele, Ed.

    Informed and effective administrators must familiarize themselves with the federal education statutes that govern their activities and the federal aid they receive. These two volumes were designed to make that task easier. The volumes contain federal laws that govern programs administered by the United States Education Department, fully updated…

  20. The effects of thinning and gypsy moth defoliation on wood volume growth in oaks

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Jim Rentch; Kurt Gottschalk

    2008-01-01

    Stem dissection and dendroecological methods were used to examine the effects of thinning and defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) on wood volume increment in oaks (Quercus rubra L., Q. alba L., Q. prinus L.). A model was developed to evaluate radial volume increment growth at three...

  1. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume II: Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and volume two analyzes the cost of nursing education, examines the future…

  2. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume III: Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and to analyze the cost of nursing education. Volume three notes that a mild…

  3. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  4. Nanoparticles: health effects--pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Vallyathan, Val

    2006-12-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications constantly being explored. The possible toxic health effects of these NPs associated with human exposure are unknown. Many fine particles generally considered "nuisance dusts" are likely to acquire unique surface properties when engineered to nanosize and may exhibit toxic biological effects. Consequently, the nuisance dust may be transported to distant sites and could induce adverse health effects. In addition the beneficial uses of NPs in drug delivery, cancer treatment, and gene therapy may cause unintentional human exposure. Because of our lack of knowledge about the health effects associated with NP exposure, we have an ethical duty to take precautionary measures regarding their use. In this review we highlight the possible toxic human health effects that can result from exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) generated by anthropogenic activities and their cardiopulmonary outcomes. The comparability of engineered NPs to UFPs suggests that the human health effects are likely to be similar. Therefore, it is prudent to elucidate their toxicologic effect to minimize occupational and environmental exposure. Highlighting the human health outcomes caused by UFPs is not intended to give a lesser importance to either the unprecedented technologic and industrial rewards of the nanotechnology or their beneficial human uses.

  5. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-07-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  6. Nonmicrowave health and ecological effects: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts due to the operation and construction of the Satellite Power System are discussed. The nonmicrowave health and ecological effects encompass impacts on the public, the terrestrial worker, the space worker, the ecology, and agriculture.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  8. Association between traffic volume and health care use for asthma among residents at a U.S.-Canadian border crossing point.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson S; Oyana, Tonny; Thenappan, Arun; Ayirookuzhi, Sanjay J

    2004-01-01

    Little information is available about health impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) traffic-related pollution on residents near the major traffic corridors along the U.S.-Canadian border. Here we report on a 10 year (1991-2000) retrospective study of commercial traffic volumes across the Peace Bridge and health care use for asthma in a residential community, which serves as a conduit for traffic crossing between Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada, and Buffalo, New York. We hypothesized that commercial traffic pollution was impacting on residents in close proximity to the trade corridor. Commercial traffic volumes, hospital discharges for asthma, and outpatient visits to area hospitals and clinics were analyzed before and after implementation of NAFTA. Results showed a positive association between increased commercial traffic volume and increased health care use for asthma. Zip codes 14201 and 14213, which surround the Peace Bridge Plaza Complex (PBC), had the highest prevalence rates and health care use rates for asthma. Statistical analysis showed the findings to be significant (p < 0.05) in that residential proximity to the PBC was associated with greater hospital discharge rates for asthma. The findings were strongest (p < 0.000) in the zip codes where the PBC was located (14213) and the major highway I-190 passed through (14201). A yearly excess of 230.2 adult asthma hospital discharges was associated with an increase in traffic volume during the period from 1991 to 1996 in the study area. This is in contrast to an overall decrease in the national rate of hospitalizations for asthma by 7.5% in the same period. The results suggest that NAFTA-related commercial traffic has a negative health impact on asthmatics living in close proximity to the trade corridor. Health and social costs due to traffic pollution need to be included in cost estimates of transport decisions related to the NAFTA corridors. Similar health effects due to NAFTA traffic need to

  9. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  10. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices.

  11. Relationship between dose and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D.

    1984-09-01

    The health effects produced by chemicals depend on the inherent toxicity of the chemical and the dose received by the exposed individual. Health effects are modified by genetic make-up, life style, nutrition, and interaction with other chemicals. In some situations it may be difficult to impossible to determine through epidemiologic studies whether exposure to chemicals (naturally occurring or synthetic) has caused harm. For all practical purposes, the risk associated with minuscule doses of most chemicals is negligible.

  12. Health insurance in California, its effect on public health nursing.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Health insurance coverage and the means by which it is paid have been topics of intense interest in recent years, but in the United States, creation of a uniform system for provision of medical care has been debated for nearly a century. During the Great Depression, before large group insurance plans, workers who formerly had been able to adequately support their families found themselves without employment or in low income jobs that barely put food on the table and a roof over their heads. Medical care was a luxury they could not afford. Health professionals suffered the effects of the economy too. Published in Public Health Nursing in 1936, this paper reflects a time period when the ravages of the Great Depression were manifest. California had received an influx of poor, migrant workers from other states hoping to provide for their families as pickers, canners, and manual laborers. The author, Marion E. Russell, described a 1935 health insurance proposal to cover all state residents. Selected excerpts illustrate differences in philosophy still evident in current considerations of national health care reform, particularly as related to mandated coverage. Russell worked in the State Relief Administration in San Francisco.

  13. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    PubMed

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  15. Public health and pipe breaks in water distribution systems: analysis with internet search volume as a proxy.

    PubMed

    Shortridge, Julie E; Guikema, Seth D

    2014-04-15

    Drinking water distribution infrastructure has been identified as a factor in waterborne disease outbreaks and improved understanding of the public health risks associated with distribution system failures has been identified as a priority area for research. Pipe breaks may pose a risk, as their occurrence and repair can result in low or negative pressure, potentially allowing contamination of drinking water from adjacent soils. However, measuring this phenomenon is challenging because the most likely health impact is mild gastrointestinal (GI) illness, which is unlikely to result in a doctor or hospital visit. Here we present a novel method that uses data mining techniques and internet search volume to assess the relationship between pipe breaks and symptoms of GI illness in two U.S. cities. Weekly search volume for the terms diarrhea and vomiting was used as the response variable with the number of pipe breaks in each city as a covariate as well as additional covariates to control for seasonal patterns, search volume persistence, and other sources of GI illness. The fit and predictive accuracy of multiple regression and data mining techniques were compared, with the best performance obtained using random forest and bagged regression tree models. Pipe breaks were found to be an important and positively correlated predictor of internet search volume in multiple models in both cities, supporting previous investigations that indicated an increased risk of GI illness from distribution system disturbances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fructose and Fructans: Opposite Effects on Health?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Francesca; Van den Ende, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Fructans are fructose-based oligo-and polysaccharides of natural origin. Fructan and fructose species are sometimes confused by the great public, although they clearly have different biochemical and physiological properties. This review discusses aspects of the use of fructose and fructans in foods in the context of human health, with possible differential effects on cellular autophagy in cells of the human body. Although there are uncertainties on the daily levels of ingested fructose to be considered harmful to human health, there is an emerging consensus on the benefits of the use of fructans in functional foods, sustaining health via direct immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects or through indirect, prebiotic mechanisms.

  17. Pressure-volume behaviour of the rat upper airway: effects of tongue muscle activation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, E Fiona; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2003-01-01

    Our hypothesis was that the simultaneous activation of tongue protrudor and retractor muscles (co-activation) would constrict and stiffen the pharyngeal airway more than the independent activation of tongue protrudor muscles. Upper airway stiffness was determined by injecting known volumes of air into the sealed pharyngeal airway of the anaesthetized rat while measuring nasal pressure under control (no-stimulus) and stimulus conditions (volume paired with hypoglossal (XII) nerve stimulation). Stimulation of the whole XII nerves (co-activation) or the medial XII branches (protrudor activation) effected similar increases in total pharyngeal airway stiffness. Importantly, co-activation produced volume compression (airway narrowing) at large airway volumes (P < 0.05), but had no effect on airway dimension at low airway volumes. In comparison, protrudor activation resulted in significant volume expansion (airway dilatation) at low airway volumes and airway narrowing at high airway volumes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both co-activation and independent protrudor muscle activation increase airway stiffness. However, their effects on airway size are complex and depend on the condition of the airway at the time of activation. PMID:12640023

  18. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume relations.

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, B R; Grossman, W; Mann, T; McLaurin, L P

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sodium nitroprusside on the relationship between left ventricular pressure and volume during diastole was studied in 11 patients with congestive heart failure. Nitroprusside was infused to lower mean arterial pressure approximately 20-30 mm Hg. High fidelity left ventricular pressures were recorded in all patients simultaneously with left ventricular cineangiography (biplane in eight and single plane in three patients), allowing precise measurement of pressure and volume throughout the cardiac cycle. Left ventricular diastolic pressure-volume curves were constructed in each patient from data obtained before and during nitroprusside infusion. In 9 of 11 patients there was a substantial downward displacement of the diastolic pressure-volume curve during nitroprusside infusion, with left ventricular pressure being lower for any given volume with nitroprusside. Serial left ventricular cineangiograms performed 15 min apart in six additional subjects who did not receive sodium nitroprusside showed no shift in the diastolic pressure-volume relation, indicating that the shift seen with nitroprusside was not due to the angiographic procedure itself. A possible explanation for the altered diastolic pressure-volume relationships with nitroprusside might be a direct relaxant effect of nitroprusside on ventricular muscle, similar to its known relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle. Alternatively, nitroprusside may affect the diastolic pressure-volume curve by affecting viscous properties or by altering one or more of the extrinsic constraints acting upon the left ventricle. PMID:830666

  19. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  20. Repeated head trauma is associated with smaller thalamic volumes and slower processing speed: the Professional Fighters’ Brain Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah J; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Butler, Sam; Noback, Michael; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cumulative head trauma may alter brain structure and function. We explored the relationship between exposure variables, cognition and MRI brain structural measures in a cohort of professional combatants. Methods 224 fighters (131 mixed martial arts fighters and 93 boxers) participating in the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of licensed professional combatants, were recruited, as were 22 controls. Each participant underwent computerised cognitive testing and volumetric brain MRI. Fighting history including years of fighting and fights per year was obtained from self-report and published records. Statistical analyses of the baseline evaluations were applied cross-sectionally to determine the relationship between fight exposure variables and volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, caudate, putamen. Moreover, the relationship between exposure and brain volumes with cognitive function was assessed. Results Increasing exposure to repetitive head trauma measured by number of professional fights, years of fighting, or a Fight Exposure Score (FES) was associated with lower brain volumes, particularly the thalamus and caudate. In addition, speed of processing decreased with decreased thalamic volumes and with increasing fight exposure. Higher scores on a FES used to reflect exposure to repetitive head trauma were associated with greater likelihood of having cognitive impairment. Conclusions Greater exposure to repetitive head trauma is associated with lower brain volumes and lower processing speed in active professional fighters. PMID:25633832

  1. [Health effects of nanomaterials on next generation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ken; Shinkai, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yanagita, Shinya; Umezawa, Masakazu; Yokota, Satoshi; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Ihara, Tomomi; Sugamata, Masao

    2011-02-01

    In order to discuss the health effects of nanomaterials, we cannot disregard the research on the health effects of airborne particulates. It is said that many of the fine or ultrafine particles in airborne particulates originate from diesel vehicles in metropolitan areas. The results of not only animal experiments but many epidemiologic surveys and volunteer intervention experiments in humans are reported on the health effects of particles. Although the health effects of the particulate matter particle sizes below 10 µm (PM10) were investigated in the initial studies, recently even smaller particles have come to be regarded as questionable and research of the health effects of the minute particulate matter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been done. However, our recent study about maternal exposure to diesel exhaust suggests that health effect study of PM0.1, particles below 0.1 µm (100 nm), namely nanoparticles, is necessary from now on. We are proceeding with the study of the health effects of various types of intentionally produced nanomaterials such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, fullerene and titanium dioxide, examining in particular their influence on next generation. Although there are differences in the sites affected and the seriousness of the damage, basically similar findings to DEPs mentioned above are being discovered in research on nanomaterials. Regardless of dosage and administration method, such as inhalation, endotracheal administration, nasal drip and subcutaneous administration, once nanomaterials enter the bloodstream of a pregnant mother mouse, they move to the offspring and have effects on them. The effects may appear as various symptoms in the process of growth after birth, and can sometimes lead to the onset and aggravation of serious diseases.

  2. Effect of Surgeon Volume on Complications, Length of Stay, and Costs Following Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Basques, Bryce A; Louie, Philip K; Shifflett, Grant D; Fice, Michael P; Mayo, Benjamin C; Massel, Dustin H; Guzman, Javier Z; Bohl, Daniel D; Singh, Kern

    2017-03-15

    Retrospective cohort. To identify the association between surgeon volume and inpatient complications, length of stay, and costs associated with ACF. Increased surgeon volume may be associated with improved outcomes after surgical procedures. However, there is a lack of information on the effect of surgeon volume on short-term outcomes after anterior cervical fusion (ACF). A retrospective cohort study of ACF patients was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2003 to 2009. Surgeon volume was divided into three categories, volume <25th percentile, 25th to 74th percentile, and ≥75th percentile of surgeon volume. Multivariate regression was used to compare the rates of adverse events, hospital length of stay, and total hospital costs between surgeon volume categories. A total of 419,212 ACF patients were identified. The 25th percentile for volume was 5 cases per year, and the 75th percentile for volume was 67 cases per year. Volume <25th percentile was associated with increased rates of any adverse event (odd ratio, OR 3.8, P < 0.001), and multiple individual complications including death (OR 2.5, P=0.014), myocardial infarction (OR4.4, P < 0.001), sepsis (OR 4.1, P < 0.001), and surgical site infection (OR 4.0, P < 0.001). Notably, volume ≥75th percentile was associated with decreased rates of any adverse event (OR 0.7, P < 0.001) and death (OR 0.6, P = 0.028). On multivariate analysis, length of stay was significantly increased by 2.3 days (P < 0.001) for surgeons <25th percentile of volume and was decreased by 0.3 days for surgeons with volume ≥75th percentile. Hospital costs were $4569 more for surgeons with <25th percentile of volume and $1213 less for surgeons with ≥75th percentile volume. In this nationally representative sample, surgeons with volume <25th percentile had significantly increased complications, length of stay, and costs. Conversely, surgeons with ≥75th percentile volume experienced

  3. The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Pangelinan, Melissa M; Bogulski, Cari; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Luk, Gigi; Grady, Cheryl L; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age. The current study investigated structural differences in the brain of lifelong bilingual older adults (n=14, mean age=70.4) compared with older monolinguals (n=14, mean age=70.6). We employed two analytic approaches: 1) we examined global differences in grey and white matter volumes; and, 2) we examined local differences in volume and cortical thickness of specific regions of interest previously implicated in bilingual/monolingual comparisons (temporal pole) or in aging (entorhinal cortex and hippocampus). We expected bilinguals would exhibit greater volume of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (grey and white matter), given the importance of these regions in executive and language functions, respectively. We further hypothesized that regions in the medial temporal lobe, which demonstrate early changes in aging and exhibit neural pathology in dementia, would be more preserved in the bilingual group. As predicted, bilinguals exhibit greater frontal lobe white matter compared with monolinguals. Moreover, increasing age was related to decreasing temporal pole cortical thickness in the monolingual group, but no such relationship was observed for bilinguals. Finally, Stroop task performance was positively correlated with frontal lobe white

  4. Rural Health Resource Guide: A Compilation of Data and Information on Rural Health in New York State. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    This resource guide reflects, largely through statistical information, the status of health care in rural New York State. It is divided into five sections: (1) Demographics, Socioeconomics, and Technology; (2) Client Needs; (3) Provider Needs; (4) Designing an Integrated Rural Health System; and (5) Developing a Rural Health System for New York…

  5. Diet effects on bumblebee health.

    PubMed

    Roger, Nathalie; Michez, Denis; Wattiez, Ruddy; Sheridan, Christopher; Vanderplanck, Maryse

    2017-01-01

    Among physiological processes, the maintenance of immunity is one of the most energetically costly in invertebrates. Disease resistance can be quantified by measuring immunocompetence, which is defined as the ability of an organism to mount an immune response, either in cellular, humoral or behavioural forms. In insects, immune capacity can be affected by a variety of factors including pesticides, genetic diversity or diet. Here we focus on an important species of domesticated pollinator, Bombus terrestris, and the potential impact of a poor pollen diet (low nutritional content and toxic) on its health. We investigate three responses at both colony and individual levels: behavioural, humoral and cellular. Our results show that poor pollen diets decrease larval and pupal masses and increase larval ejection as well as adult constitutive immunity (i.e., prophenoloxidase assays). The susceptibility of bumblebees to disease and infection might therefore be greater after a nutritive stress. These findings raise the importance of available plant hosts, especially floral plant species providing pollen with suitable nutritive quality (i.e., nutrient pollen content) for bumblebees.

  6. Effect of cataract surgery volume constraints on recently graduated ophthalmologists: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert J.; El-Defrawy, Sherif R.; Bell, Chaim M.; Gill, Sudeep S.; Hooper, Philip L.; Whitehead, Marlo; Campbell, Erica de L.P.; Nesdole, Robert; Warder, Daniel; ten Hove, Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Across Canada, graduates from several medical and surgical specialties have recently had difficulty securing practice opportunities, especially in specialties dependent on limited resources such as ophthalmology. We aimed to investigate whether resource constraints in the health care system have a greater impact on the volume of cataract surgery performed by recent graduates than on established physicians. METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Ontario for the period Jan. 1, 1994, to June 30, 2013, to compare health services provided by recent graduates and established ophthalmologists. The primary outcome was volume of cataract surgery, a resource-intensive service for which volume is controlled by the province. RESULTS: When cataract surgery volume in Ontario entered a period of government-mandated zero growth in 2007, the mean number of cataract operations performed by recent graduates dropped significantly (−46.37 operations/quarter, 95% confidence interval [CI] −62.73 to −30.00 operations/quarter), whereas the mean rate for established ophthalmologists remained stable (+5.89 operations/quarter, 95% CI 95% CI −1.47 to +13.24 operations/quarter). Decreases in service provision among recent graduates did not occur for services without volume control. The proportion of recent graduates providing exclusively cataract surgery increased over the study period, and recent graduates in this group were 5.24 times (95% CI 2.15 to 12.76 times) more likely to fall within the lowest quartile for cataract surgical volume during the period of zero growth in provincial cataract volume (2007–2013) than in the preceding period (1996–2006). INTERPRETATION: Recent ophthalmology graduates performed many fewer cataract surgery procedures after volume controls were implemented in Ontario. Integrated initiatives involving multiple stakeholders are needed to address the issues facing recently graduated physicians in Canada. PMID:27920012

  7. Radon-Induced Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, C. R.

    The following sections are included: * Lung Cancer * Studies of miners * Estimates of lifetime risk associated with indoor radon exposure * Factors that may affect risk estimates * Sex and age at exposure * Joint effect of radon and smoking * Exposure rate * Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and indoor radon exposure * Cancers Other Than Lung * Dosimetry * Epidemiological studies * Studies of miners * Indoor radon exposure * Concluding Remarks * References

  8. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Martin, K. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Gauthier, M. K.; Brown, S. F.

    1982-01-01

    Volume 3 of this three-volume set provides a detailed analysis of the data in Volumes 1 and 2, most of which was generated for the Galileo Orbiter Program in support of NASA space programs. Volume 1 includes total ionizing dose radiation test data on diodes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous discrete solid-state devices. Volume 2 includes similar data on integrated circuits and a few large-scale integrated circuits. The data of Volumes 1 and 2 are combined in graphic format in Volume 3 to provide a comparison of radiation sensitivities of devices of a given type and different manufacturer, a comparison of multiple tests for a single data code, a comparison of multiple tests for a single lot, and a comparison of radiation sensitivities vs time (date codes). All data were generated using a steady-state 2.5-MeV electron source (Dynamitron) or a Cobalt-60 gamma ray source. The data that compose Volume 3 represent 26 different device types, 224 tests, and a total of 1040 devices. A comparison of the effects of steady-state electrons and Cobat-60 gamma rays is also presented.

  9. Effect of volume fraction on granular avalanche dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-09-01

    We study the evolution and failure of a granular slope as a function of prepared volume fraction, ϕ(0). We rotated an initially horizontal layer of granular material (0.3-mm-diam glass spheres) to a 45° angle while we monitor the motion of grains from the side and top with high-speed video cameras. The dynamics of grain motion during the tilt process depended sensitively on ϕ(0)∈[0.58-0.63] and differed above or below the granular critical state, ϕ(c), defined as the onset of dilation as a function of increasing volume fraction. For ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)<0, slopes experienced short, rapid, precursor compaction events prior to the onset of a sustained avalanche. Precursor compaction events began at an initial angle θ(0)=7.7±1.4° and occurred intermittently prior to the onset of an avalanche. Avalanches occurred at the maximal slope angle θ(m)=28.5±1.0°. Granular material at ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)>0 did not experience precursor compaction prior to avalanche flow, and instead experienced a single dilational motion at θ(0)=32.1±1.5° prior to the onset of an avalanche at θ(m)=35.9±0.7°. Both θ(0) and θ(m) increased with ϕ(0) and approached the same value in the limit of random close packing. The angle at which avalanching grains came to rest, θ(R)=22±2°, was independent of ϕ(0). From side-view high-speed video, we measured the velocity field of intermittent and avalanching flow. We found that flow direction, depth, and duration were affected by ϕ(0), with ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)<0 precursor flow extending deeper into the granular bed and occurring more rapidly than precursor flow at ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)>0. Our study elucidates how initial conditions-including volume fraction-are important determinants of granular slope stability and the onset of avalanches.

  10. Evaluation of the clinical effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Wu, Wei; Feng, Qi-ming; Sun, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to explore the resuscitative effect of small-volume resuscitation on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency. Methods In this study, the resuscitative effects in 200 trauma patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in emergency were studied. Half of these patients were infused with hypertonic/hyperoncotic fluid (small-volume resuscitation group, n=100), whereas the rest were infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution (conventional fluid resuscitation group, n=100). The changes in hemodynamics, coagulation function, blood biochemistry, blood hematology, and the average infusion volume in both the groups were comparatively studied. Results It was found that the hemodynamics were improved in both the groups after resuscitation. Interestingly, compared with trauma patients infused with Hespan and lactated Ringer’s solution, the growth rate, range, and time duration of the mean arterial pressure of the patients in small-volume resuscitation group increased significantly, and the shock index decreased progressively; in the 60th min after the resuscitation, blood index including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelet declined, whereas prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in both the groups, but these changes were less obvious in the small-volume group. In addition, the average infusion volume of patients in the small-volume group was less than that of patients in conventional fluid resuscitation group. Conclusion Featured with small infusion volume and less influence to coagulation function and homeostasis of human body, small-volume resuscitation possesses a significantly higher resuscitative effect. Therefore, trauma patients may have a better chance to maintain the hemodynamic stability and the survival rate, or recovery speed will be increased when traditional aggressive fluid resuscitation is replaced by small-volume resuscitation

  11. Hippocampal volumes in bipolar disorders: opposing effects of illness burden and lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Tomas; Cullis, Jeffrey; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Blagdon, Ryan; O'Donovan, Claire; Bauer, Michael; Young, L Trevor; Macqueen, Glenda; Alda, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Hippocampal volume decrease associated with illness burden is among the most replicated findings in unipolar depression. The absence of hippocampal volume changes in most studies of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) may reflect neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). We recruited 17 BD patients from specialized Li clinics, with at least two years of regularly monitored Li treatment (Li group), and compared them to 12 BD participants with < 3 months of lifetime Li exposure and no Li treatment within two years prior to the scanning (non-Li group) and 11 healthy controls. All BD patients had at least 10 years of illness and five episodes. We also recruited 13 Li-naïve, young BD participants (15-30 years of age) and 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. We compared hippocampal volumes obtained from 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using optimized voxel-based morphometry with small volume correction. The non-Li group had smaller left hippocampal volumes than controls (corrected p < 0.05), with a trend for lower volumes than the Li group (corrected p < 0.1), which did not differ from controls. Young, Li-naïve BD patients close to the typical age of onset had comparable hippocampal volumes to controls. Whereas patients with limited lifetime Li exposure had significantly lower hippocampal volumes than controls, patients with comparable illness burden, but with over two years of Li treatment, or young Li-naïve BD patients, showed hippocampal volumes comparable to controls. These results provide indirect support for neuroprotective effects of Li and negative effects of illness burden on hippocampal volumes in bipolar disorders. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  12. Hippocampal volumes in bipolar disorders: opposing effects of illness burden and lithium treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Tomas; Cullis, Jeffrey; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Blagdon, Ryan; O’Donovan, Claire; Bauer, Michael; Young, L Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda; Alda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hippocampal volume decrease associated with illness burden is among the most replicated findings in unipolar depression. The absence of hippocampal volume changes in most studies of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) may reflect neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). Methods We recruited 17 BD patients from specialized Li clinics, with at least two years of regularly monitored Li treatment (Li group), and compared them to 12 BD participants with < 3 months of lifetime Li exposure and no Li treatment within two years prior to the scanning (non-Li group) and 11 healthy controls. All BD patients had at least 10 years of illness and five episodes. We also recruited 13 Li-naïve, young BD participants (15–30 years of age) and 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. We compared hippocampal volumes obtained from 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using optimized voxel-based morphometry with small volume correction. Results The non-Li group had smaller left hippocampal volumes than controls (corrected p < 0.05), with a trend for lower volumes than the Li group (corrected p < 0.1), which did not differ from controls. Young, Li-naïve BD patients close to the typical age of onset had comparable hippocampal volumes to controls. Conclusions Whereas patients with limited lifetime Li exposure had significantly lower hippocampal volumes than controls, patients with comparable illness burden, but with over two years of Li treatment, or young Li-naïve BD patients without Li exposure, showed hippocampal volumes comparable to controls. These results provide indirect support for neuroprotective effects of Li and negative effects of illness burden on hippocampal volumes in bipolar disorders. PMID:22548899

  13. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume 4. Safety and health plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Safety and Health Plan recognizes the potential hazards associated with the Project and has been developed specifically to respond to these risks in a positive manner. Prevention, the primary objective of the Plan, starts with building safety controls into the process design and continues through engineering, construction, start-up, and operation of the Project facilities and equipment. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local health and safety laws, regulations, and codes throughout all Project phases is required and assured. The Plan requires that each major Project phase be thoroughly reviewed and analyzed to determine that those provisions required to assure the safety and health of all employees and the public, and to prevent property and equipment losses, have been provided. The Plan requires followup on those items or situations where corrective action needs were identified to assure that the action was taken and is effective. Emphasis is placed on loss prevention. Exhibit 1 provides a breakdown of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.'s (ASFI's) Loss Prevention Program. The Plan recognizes that the varied nature of the work is such as to require the services of skilled, trained, and responsible personnel who are aware of the hazards and know that the work can be done safely, if done correctly. Good operating practice is likewise safe operating practice. Training is provided to familiarize personnel with good operational practice, the general sequence of activities, reporting requirements, and above all, the concept that each step in the operating procedures must be successfully concluded before the following step can be safely initiated. The Plan provides for periodic review and evaluation of all safety and loss prevention activities at the plant and departmental levels.

  15. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  16. Excluded volume effects on the kinetic assembling of a structural motif for RNA catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-09-01

    We establish the role of excluded volume effects on the loss of conformational entropy due to pseudoknot formation in RNA. This pseudoknot appears to be the structural motif responsible for shaping the splicing site of certain noncoding RNA transcriptional products. Focusing on the illustrative example of the YC4 intron, we show that the emergence of this motif is kinetically driven and prevails over competing catalytically inert secondary structure due to excluded volume effects which favor the correlation of interacting intramolecular loops.

  17. The Army’s Local Economic Effects. Appendix B. Volume I: Alabama Through Minnesota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Alabama through Mis- souri. Volume 2 includes Montana through Wyoming. 2 The following terms are used in the tables. 1 Christopher M. Schnaubelt, Craig A...Army’s Local Economic Effects, Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corporation, RR-1119/1-A, 2015a (available at www.rand.org/t/RR1119) 2 Christopher M...Skeels, The Army’s Local Economic Effects: Appen- dix B, Volume II: Mississippi Through Wyoming, Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corporation, RR-1119/ 2 -A, 2015b

  18. Large Eddy Simulations of Volume Restriction Effects on Canopy-Induced Increased-Uplift Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziefstratiou, E.; Bohrer, G.; Velissariou, V.

    2012-12-01

    ABSTRACT Previous modeling and empirical work have shown the development of important areas of increased uplift past forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones past backward-facing steps. Forests edges represent a special kind of step - a semi-porous one. Current models of the effects of forest edges on the flow represent the forest with a prescribed drag term and does not account for the effects of the solid volume in the forest that restrict the airflow. The RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) resolves flows inside and above forested canopies. RAFLES is spatially explicit, and uses the finite volume method to solve a descretized set of Navier-Stokes equations. It accounts for vegetation drag effects on the flow and on the flux exchange between the canopy and the canopy air, proportional to the local leaf density. For a better representation of the vegetation structure in the numerical grid within the canopy sub-domain, the model uses a modified version of the cut cell coordinate system. The hard volume of vegetation elements, in forests, or buildings, in urban environments, within each numerical grid cell is represented via a sub-grid-scale process that shrinks the open apertures between grid cells and reduces the open cell volume. We used RAFLES to simulate the effects of a canopy of varying foliage and stem densities on flow over virtual qube-shaped barriers under neutrally buoyant conditions. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the leaf drag by comparing drag-only simulations, where we prescribed no volume or aperture restriction to the flow, restriction-only simulations, where we prescribed no drag, and control simulations, where both drag and volume plus aperture restriction were included. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to obstacles to flow is important (figure 1) and leads to differences in the

  19. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  20. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  1. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media.

  2. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system. Materials and methods After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11) or normal saline (Saline group, n=11) for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups. Results SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001). LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05). Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01) but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05). Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05), whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L/min, P>0.05). Conclusion Administration of colloid and crystalloid induced similar responses in SVV. A higher plasma-expanding effect of HES compared to normal saline was demonstrated by the significant increase in LVEDV. PMID:26491368

  3. The effect of duty hour regulation on resident surgical case volume in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Stuart H; Miller, Robert H; Weng, Cindy; Gurgel, Richard K

    2014-10-01

    Evaluate the effect of duty hour regulation on graduating otolaryngology resident surgical case volume and analyze trends in surgical case volume for Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) key indicator cases from 1996 to 2011. Time-trend analysis of surgical case volume. Nationwide sample of otolaryngology residency programs. Operative logs from the American Board of Otolaryngology and ACGME for otolaryngology residents graduating in the years 1996 to 2011. Key indicator volumes and grouped domain volumes before and after resident duty hour regulations (2003) were calculated and compared. Independent t test was performed to evaluate overall difference in operative volume. Wilcoxon rank sum test evaluated differences between procedures per time period. Linear regression evaluated trend. The average total number of key indicator cases per graduating resident was 440.8 in 1996-2003 compared to 500.4 cases in 2004-2011, and overall average per number of key indicators was 31.5 and 36.2, respectively (P = .067). Four key indicator cases showed statistically significant (P < .05) increases in volume after duty hour implementation. General/pediatrics was the only grouped domain to show a significant increase. In contrast, the rate of change in operative volume decreased post duty hour for only 2 key indicators (P < .05). The year-by-year trend in average operative volume showed significant increases for 5 key indicator cases (P < .05). Implementation of the 2003 duty hour regulations has not reduced total volume of key indicator cases for graduating otolaryngology residents. The overall trend in operative volume is increasing for several specific key indicators. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  4. Effects of Retained Austenite Stability and Volume Fraction on Deformation Behaviors of TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-02

    In this paper, the separate effects of austenite stability and its volume fraction on the deformation behaviors of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels are investigated based on the microstructure-based finite element modeling method. The effects of austenite stability on the strength, ductility and formability of TRIP steels are first examined based on the microstructure of a commercial TRIP 800 steel. Then, the separate effects of the austenite volume fraction on the overall deformation behaviors of TRIP steels are examined based on the various representative volume elements (RVEs). The computational results suggest that the higher austenite stability is helpful to increase the ductility and formability, but not the UTS. However, the increase of austenite volume fraction alone is not helpful in improving the performance of TRIP steels. This may indicate that various other material factors should also be concurrently adjusted during thermo-mechanical manufacturing process in a way to increase the performance of TRIP steels, which needs further investigation.

  5. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  6. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  7. The effect of structured exercise intervention on intensity and volume of total physical activity.

    PubMed

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1-4 weeks) and during the intervention (1-12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key PointsStructured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity.NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities.The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA.

  8. The effect of hospital volume on mortality in patients admitted with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Shahul, Sajid; Hacker, Michele R; Novack, Victor; Mueller, Ariel; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mahmood, Bilal; Ali, Syed Haider; Talmor, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The association between hospital volume and inpatient mortality for severe sepsis is unclear. To assess the effect of severe sepsis case volume and inpatient mortality. Retrospective cohort study from 646,988 patient discharges with severe sepsis from 3,487 hospitals in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2011. The exposure of interest was the mean yearly sepsis case volume per hospital divided into tertiles. Inpatient mortality. Compared with the highest tertile of severe sepsis volume (>60 cases per year), the odds ratio for inpatient mortality among persons admitted to hospitals in the lowest tertile (≤10 severe sepsis cases per year) was 1.188 (95% CI: 1.074-1.315), while the odds ratio was 1.090 (95% CI: 1.031-1.152) for patients admitted to hospitals in the middle tertile. Similarly, improved survival was seen across the tertiles with an adjusted inpatient mortality incidence of 35.81 (95% CI: 33.64-38.03) for hospitals with the lowest volume of severe sepsis cases and a drop to 32.07 (95% CI: 31.51-32.64) for hospitals with the highest volume. We demonstrate an association between a higher severe sepsis case volume and decreased mortality. The need for a systems-based approach for improved outcomes may require a high volume of severely septic patients.

  9. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  10. Specific volume-hole volume correlations in amorphous carbohydrates: effect of temperature, molecular weight, and water content.

    PubMed

    Townrow, Sam; Roussenova, Mina; Giardiello, Maria-Isabelle; Alam, Ashraf; Ubbink, Job

    2010-02-04

    The specific volume and the nanostructure of the free volume of amorphous blends of maltose with a narrow molecular weight distribution maltopolymer were systematically studied as a function of temperature, water content, pressure, and blend composition. Correlations between the hole free volume and the specific volume were investigated in the glassy and rubbery phases and in solution using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements, with the aim to provide a consolidated mechanistic understanding of the relation between changes in molecular packing and at the molecular level and the behavior of the specific volume at the macrolevel. Both specific volume and hole volume show a linear dependence on the temperature, but with a slope which is higher in the rubbery state than in the glassy state. As a function of temperature, the hole volume and the specific volume are linearly related, with no discontinuity at the glass transition temperature (T(g)). In the glassy state, both the specific volume and the hole volume decrease nonlinearly with the addition of maltose to the maltopolymer matrix, due to a more efficient molecular packing. For variations in carbohydrate composition, a linear dependence between the hole volume and the specific volume was again observed. The role of water was found to be significantly more complex, with increasing water content causing an increase in density in both the glassy and rubbery phases indicating that water exists in a highly dispersed state with a significantly lower specific molar volume than in bulk water. At very low water contents, the hole volume and the specific volume both decrease with increasing water content, which suggests that water acts as both a hole filler and a plasticizer. In the glassy state at slightly higher water contents, the specific volume continues to slowly decrease, but the hole size passes through a minimum before it starts to increase. This

  11. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  12. Plasma Volume Expansion in Rats: Effects on Thermoregulation and Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    754-758, 1980. 9. FRANCESCONI, R., AND M. MAGER. Chronic chlorpromazine ad- rored the dilutional effects of the PEG administration ministration in rats...atropinized heat-stressed rat model: dose response mia: effects on ability to work in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 62- effects and pharmacokinetics

  13. The Outreach Sourcebook, Volume 7: Rural Health Demonstration Projects, 1997 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Rural Health Policy.

    In 1997, the federal Office of Rural Health Policy awarded 3-year outreach demonstration grants to 45 projects to provide direct primary and preventive health care services to rural residents in 28 states. The grant program allows recipients to test innovative ideas against the challenges of rural health care delivery, such as provider shortages,…

  14. Recurring Bibliography--Education in the Allied Health Professions. Volume 11, April 1978 through March 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Index Medicus articles listed between April 1978 and March 1979 that focus on education in the health professions are cited in this eleventh annual recurring bibliography. The articles are indexed under subject and author headings. They cover such topics as health occupations, dietetics, continuing education, health manpower, hospital…

  15. The Outreach Sourcebook, Volume 5: Rural Health Demonstration Projects, 1995 to 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Teri

    In 1995, the federal Office of Rural Health Policy awarded 3-year outreach demonstration grants to 25 projects to provide direct primary and preventive health care services to rural residents in 20 states. The grant program allows recipients to test innovative ideas against persistent problems of rural health care, such as provider shortages,…

  16. An Exploratory Study of Women in the Health Professions Schools. Volume X: Bibliography and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban and Rural Systems Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    The bibliography is part of an extensive study of the barriers to women's success in the schools and practice of eight health professions. It divides resources into 14 segments: one covers the health professions in general; one treats women and careers in general; one is devoted to each of eight health professions (medicine, osteopathic medicine,…

  17. The Outreach Sourcebook, Volume 6: Rural Health Demonstration Projects, 1996 to 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Rural Health Policy.

    In 1996, the federal Office of Rural Health Policy awarded 3-year outreach demonstration grants to 25 projects to provide direct primary and preventive health care services to rural residents in 20 states. The grant program allows recipients to test innovative ideas against the challenges of rural health care delivery, such as provider shortages,…

  18. An Evaluation Report of the Harvard Health Careers Summer Program for Minority Students: Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacklow, Robert S.; And Others

    One of the most important factors in improving health care among minority groups is the training of adequate numbers of minority health care workers. In view of this need, the Harvard Medical School and the Harvard School of Dental Medicine initiated a Health Careers Summer Program designed to attract more minority group students into medicine and…

  19. The Effect of a High Pitch Volume on Musculoskeletal Adaptations in High School Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Malachy P; Tyler, Timothy F; Mullaney, Michael J; Mirabella, Michael R; Nicholas, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    Shoulder range of motion and strength adaptations occur at an early age in baseball pitchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pitch volume on in-season and year-to-year range of motion (ROM) and strength adaptations in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that a high pitch volume will not affect range of motion asymmetries but will impair supraspinatus strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Pre- and postseason ROM and strength measures were performed on pitchers from 3 high schools for 4 consecutive seasons, for a total of 95 player-seasons (mean ± SD participant age, 16 ± 1 years). Preseason measures were repeated the next year on players returning to the teams, for a total of 71 consecutive player-seasons. ROM tests included internal-external rotation and posterior shoulder flexibility. Strength tests (hand-held dynamometer) included internal-external rotation, supraspinatus, and scapular retraction. Pitchers were categorized by pitch count for the season (high, >400; moderate, 180-400; low, <180). ROM and strength changes in the dominant versus nondominant arm were assessed by analysis of variance. Dominant versus nondominant ROM differences did not change from pre- to postseason (P = .36-.99) or from one year to the next (P = .46-.86), with no effect of pitch volume (P = .23-.87). Supraspinatus strength decreased in the dominant arm during the season, with 13% loss in high-volume pitchers (P < .001) and insignificant losses in moderate- (6%) and low-volume pitchers (2%). Strength in other tests was unaffected by pitch volume. Consistent with physical development, strength increased bilaterally from one year to the next (supraspinatus, 12%; external rotation, 15%; internal rotation, 14%; scapular retraction, 23%; P < .001). Supraspinatus strength gain in the dominant arm was affected by prior pitch volume (P = .02): 24% in low-volume pitchers (P < .01), with no significant change in moderate-volume (0%; P = .99) or

  20. Finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M. F. M.; Bavontaweepanya, R.; Kobdaj, C.; Schwarz, K.

    2014-09-01

    We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self-energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-Nc sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Values for all counterterms relevant at N3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of 39-1+2 MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of σsN=84-4+28 MeV. The flavor SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with (802±4) and (1103±6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.

  1. Women and Minorities in Health Fields: A Trend Analysis of College Freshmen. Volume 1. Freshmen Interested in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Engin Inel; And Others

    Just over seven percent of first-time, full-time freshmen in 1966, 1972, and 1974 named a health profession as their long-term career choice. Though the proportion remained fairly stable, the absolute number of aspiring health professionals increased by 37.4 percent over the eight-year period, reflecting the increase in freshmen enrollments. The…

  2. Effect of bolus volume on pharyngeal swallowing assessed by high-resolution manometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tuo; Xu, Guangqing; Dou, Zulin; Lan, Yue; Yu, Fan; Jiang, Lisheng

    2014-04-10

    Solid-state high-resolution manometry (HRM) is fast becoming the gold standard for studying pharyngeal and esophageal motility. However, very few studies have ever evaluated the effect of bolus volume on the physiology of swallowing using HRM. We aimed to determine the effect of bolus volume on pressure, duration and velocity of the hypopharynx as well as the upper esophageal sphincter during pharyngeal swallowing using HRM. Thirty-four healthy subjects completed nine swallows (3 ml, 5 ml and 10 ml of water, thick liquid, and paste, respectively) in the natural sitting position. Pressure and duration measurements were acquired from the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) using HRM. The UES residual pressure, UES relaxation duration, maximum preopening UES pressure, maximum postclosure UES pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure rise rate and hypopharyngeal pressure duration were analyzed across bolus volumes using repeated measures of one-way analysis of variance. A significant increase in UES residual pressure associated with increased bolus volume during water and paste swallowing was observed. Furthermore, UES relaxation duration was significantly increased with increasing in bolus volume for all three material swallows. No significant volume effects were found on the hypopharynx. In summary, bolus volume has a significant effect on the residual pressure and relaxation duration, but no effect on maximum preopening pressure or maximum postclosure pressure of the UES. Maximum hypopharyngeal pressure, maximum hypopharyngeal pressure rise rate and pressure duration were also not affected by bolus volume. Consideration of these variables is paramount in understanding normal and pathological swallowing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-03

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more /sup 137/Cs, /sup 131/I, or /sup 90/Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in milk. Levels of /sup 137/Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations.

  4. Temperature and vascular volume effects on gastric ulcerogenesis after cord transection.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M; Waldrop, Ron D

    2005-11-01

    Gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the critically ill, especially those with CNS injury. We used cervical spinal cord transection (CCT) in the rat to model these ulcers and examined the effect of core body temperature and vascular volume on gastric ulcerogenesis. Hypothermia significantly increased ulcerogenesis compared to euthermia, while maintained euthermia produced ulcer indices not different from sham surgery. Hypovolemia (10% blood volume withdrawal) significantly increased ulcerogenesis compared to hypervolemia (10% of blood volume crystalloid infusion) or sham surgery. These results support crystalloid infusion and maintenance of core body temperature in the clinical setting.

  5. The effect of fiber orientation on volume measurement using conductance catheter techniques.

    PubMed

    Thaijiam, C; Gale, T J

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of parallel conductance using the impedance electrode technique is usually done assuming isotropic conditions. This may not be the best solution since the myocardium is an anisotropic material. This paper exposes the effect of fiber orientation for volume measurement using a conductor model with asymmetrical source electrodes. Simulation results show calculated volumes between surrounding materials with and without myocardial fiber orientation included in the model. We plan to extend these study results to the real heart for developing conductance catheter techniques for use in blood volume measurements in the right ventricle.

  6. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  7. Effects of finite volume on the KL – KS mass difference

    DOE PAGES

    Christ, N.  H.; Feng, X.; Martinelli, G.; ...

    2015-06-24

    Phenomena that involve two or more on-shell particles are particularly sensitive to the effects of finite volume and require special treatment when computed using lattice QCD. In this paper we generalize the results of Lüscher and Lellouch and Lüscher, which determine the leading-order effects of finite volume on the two-particle spectrum and two-particle decay amplitudes to determine the finite-volume effects in the second-order mixing of the K⁰ and K⁰⁻ states. We extend the methods of Kim, Sachrajda, and Sharpe to provide a direct, uniform treatment of these three, related, finite-volume corrections. In particular, the leading, finite-volume corrections to the KLmore » – KS mass difference ΔMK and the CP-violating parameter εK are determined, including the potentially large effects which can arise from the near degeneracy of the kaon mass and the energy of a finite-volume, two-pion state.« less

  8. Effect of volume and surface charges on discharge structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shao-Wei; He, Feng; Wang, Yu; Li, Lulu; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2013-08-01

    The effect of volume and surface charges on the structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated numerically by using two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The local increase of volume or surface charges induces a kind of activation-inhibition effect, which enhances the local volume discharge and inhibits the discharge in neighborhoods, resulting in non-uniform discharge. The activation-inhibition effect due to the non-uniform volume and/or surface charges depends on the non-uniformity itself and the applied voltage. The activation-inhibition of non-uniform charges has different effects on the volume charges and the accumulated surface charges. The distribution of remaining free charges (seed electrons) in volume at the beginning of voltage pulse plays a key role for the glow DBD structure, resulting in a patterned DBD, when the seed electrons are non-uniform at higher frequency and moderate voltage or uniform DBD, when the seed electrons are uniform at lower frequency or high voltage. The distribution of surface charges is not the determining factor but a result of the formed DBD structure.

  9. Optimal transformation for correcting partial volume averaging effects in magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanian-Zadeh, H. Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI ); Windham, J.P. ); Yagle, A.E. )

    1993-08-01

    Segmentation of a feature of interest while correcting for partial volume averaging effects is a major tool for identification of hidden abnormalities, fast and accurate volume calculation, and three-dimensional visualization in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The authors present the optimal transformation for simultaneous segmentation of a desired feature and correction of partial volume averaging effects, while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the desired feature. It is proved that correction of partial volume averaging effects requires the removal of the interfering features from the scene. It is also proved that correction of partial volume averaging effects can be achieved merely by a linear transformation. It is finally shown that the optimal transformation matrix is easily obtained using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure, which is numerically stable. Applications of the technique to MRI simulation, phantom, and brain images are shown. They show that in all cases the desired feature is segmented from the interfering features and partial volume information is visualized in the resulting transformed images.

  10. Plasma Volume Expansion in Rats: Effects on Thermoregulation and Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    induced by chlorpromazine or L- tryptophan: effects on treadmill performance in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol. 47:813-817, 1979. 8. Francesconi, R., and M...Francesconi, R., and M. Mager. Chronic chlorpromazine administration in rats: effects on ability to work in the heat. J. Appi. Physiol. 50:509- 512, 1981...R.W. Hubbard, R. Francesconi, and P.C. Szlyk. An atropinized heat-stressed rat model: dose response effects and pharmacokinetics . Aviat. Space

  11. Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Robinson, Elizabeth; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-03-08

    Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday. In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day. There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

  12. Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration) available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009). Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday. Results In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p < 0.0001). All weather variables significantly influenced hourly and daily cycle volumes (p < 0.0001). The cycle volume increased by 3.2% (hourly) and 2.6% (daily) for 1°C increase in temperature but decreased by 10.6% (hourly) and 1.5% (daily) for 1 mm increase in rainfall and by 1.4% (hourly) and 0.9% (daily) for 1 km/h increase in gust speed. The volume was 26.2% higher in an hour with sunshine compared with no sunshine, and increased by 2.5% for one hour increase in sunshine each day. Conclusions There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland. PMID:22401535

  13. Effect of patient risk on the volume-outcome relationship in obstetric delivery services.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kwak, Jin-Mi

    2014-12-01

    Health care organizations that offer more delivery services are assumed to provide better quality of care, and a higher rate of cesarean section (CS) is generally assumed to be an indicator of poor quality of care. This study analyzed whether the volume-outcome relationship in delivery services, measured by the rate of CS, differed depending on the risk status of delivery patients. Delivery claims were identified in the National Patient Sample (NPS) for 2009. The study hospitals were categorized into low and high delivery-volume groups, and patients were categorized into three risk groups (below average, medium, and high) based on their risk status. Risk factors were included in the adjustment model to identify differences among patients and produce risk-adjusted CS rates. Risk-adjusted CS rates did not differ significantly between patients in low- and high-volume hospitals when the sample was not divided according to risk status. However, when the sample was divided according to patient risk status, significant differences in risk-adjusted CS rates in the below-average- and medium-risk groups were revealed between low- and high-volume hospitals. No such significant difference was observed for the high-risk group. The largest difference in CS rates between low- and high-volume hospitals was observed in the medium-risk group, and the high-risk group showed the smallest difference between the two volume groups. The high-risk group had the highest CS rates, and the below-average-risk group had the lowest CS rates. Although we found the traditional volume-outcome relationship in delivery patients, the data also revealed that patient risk status influenced this relationship. Policies and interventions based on volume-outcome theory should differ according to patient risk status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of needle gauge, needle type, and needle orientation on the volume of a drop.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Geneva K; Good, Kathryn L; Motta, Monica J; Kass, Philip H; Murphy, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine impact of needle gauge, type, and orientation on average volume of drop dispensed. Five needle gauges (22G, 23G, 25G, 27G, and 30G) were examined. For each gauge, volume of drop delivered was determined for standard sharp beveled tip, blunt tip, and after breaking off of the sharp needle from the hub. Vertical and horizontal orientation of the needle was tested for effect on drop volume for 22-G and 30-G sharp beveled needles. Mean drop volume was affected by needle gauge, needle orientation, and whether the needle had been broken off from its hub. Mean drop volume scaled directly with needle diameter with drop volumes of 25.0 μL (±20.2) and 83.9 μL (±16.5) being found for 30-gauge and 22-gauge needles, respectively. Intermediate gauges (27, 25, 23G) yielded intermediate drop volumes. Blunt needles tended to produce larger drop volumes compared to sharp beveled needles, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Breaking off of the needle from the hub produced substantially larger drop volumes with little difference being found between needle gauges. Average volumes of 1 drop from a 22-G vertical, 22-G horizontal, 30-G vertical, and 30-G horizontal sharp beveled needle were 20.2, 9.1, 10.1, and 3.3 μL, respectively. These findings have relevance for controlled delivery of topical ophthalmic medications to patients. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Opposing effects of NaCl restriction and carbohydrate loading on urine volume in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H A; Kwon, T-H; Ring, T; Dimke, H; Lebeck, J; Frøkiaer, J; Collins, P B; Nielsen, S; Frische, S

    2011-05-01

    To test the effects of dietary NaCl and carbohydrate content on urine volume in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were subjected to NaCl restriction using either a NaCl-deficient carbohydrate-rich synthetic diet (Altromin C1036) supplemented to contain 0.16% NaCl (C1036 + lowNaCl) or a modified normal cereal-based diet (Altromin 1320) containing 0.086% NaCl (lowNaCl-1320). Normal diet contained 0.2683% NaCl. Using the C1036 + lowNaCl diet, earlier reported paradoxical increases in water intake and urine volume of diabetic rats were reproduced. However, water intake and urine volume also increased in diabetic rats offered the synthetic C1036 diet supplemented with NaCl to normal levels. Using the lowNaCl-1320 diet, water intake and urine volume were markedly reduced. Highly significant correlations between urine volume and both osmotic output and urinary glucose excretion were found in diabetic rats on normal diet, but these correlations were absent in diabetic rats on synthetic diet, which showed higher urine volumes than expected from the correlations. In contrast, urine volume was significantly correlated with carbohydrate intake in diabetic rats, irrespective of the diet. (i) The synthetic diet dramatically increases the urine volume in STZ-DM rats irrespectively of NaCl content. (ii) Rats with STZ-DM on a normal diet show reduced water intake and urine volume in response to dietary NaCl restriction. (iii) A shift to high carbohydrate diet induces polyuria in STZ-DM rats. (iv) Urine volume in all STZ-DM rats only shows correlation with dietary carbohydrate intake. (v) Glucose-driven osmotic diuresis is unlikely to explain the carbohydrate-induced polyuria. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Preferential effects of low volume versus high volume replacement with crystalloid fluid in a hemorrhagic shock model in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ponschab, Martin; Schöchl, Herbert; Keibl, Claudia; Fischer, Henrik; Redl, Heinz; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2015-10-06

    Fluid resuscitation is a core stone of hemorrhagic shock therapy, and crystalloid fluids seem to be associated with lower mortality compared to colloids. However, as redistribution starts within minutes, it has been suggested to replace blood loss with a minimum of a three-fold amount of crystalloids. The hypothesis was that in comparison to high volume (HV), a lower crystalloid volume (LV) achieves a favorable coagulation profile and exerts sufficient haemodynamics in the acute phase of resuscitation. In 24 anaesthetized pigs, controlled arterial blood loss of 50 % of the estimated blood volume was either (n = 12) replaced with a LV (one-fold) or a HV (three-fold) volume of a balanced, acetated crystalloid solution at room temperature. Hemodynamic parameters, dilution effects and coagulation profile by standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry at baseline and after resuscitation were determined in both groups. LV resuscitation increased MAP significantly less compared to the HV, 61 ± 7 vs. 82 ± 14 mmHg (p < 0.001) respectively, with no difference between lactate and base excess between groups. Haematocrit after fluid replacement was 0.20 vs. 0.16 (LV vs. HV, p < 0.001), suggesting a grade of blood dilution of 32 vs. 42 % (p < 0.001) compared to baseline values. Compared to LV, HV resulted in decreased core temperature (37.5 ± 0.2 vs. 36.0 ± 0.6 °C, p < 0.001), lower platelet count (318 ± 77 vs. 231 ± 53 K/μL, p < 0.01) and lower plasma fibrinogen levels (205 ± 19 vs. 168 ± 24 mg/dL, p < 0.001). Thromboelastometric measurements showed a significant impairment on viscoelastic clot properties following HV group. While prothrombin time index decreased significantly more in the HV group, activated partial thromboplastin time did not differ between both groups. HV did not result in hyperchloraemic acidosis. Coagulation parameters represented by plasma fibrinogen and ROTEM parameters were also less impaired with LV. With regrad to hematocrit, 60 % of LV

  17. Promising Practices in Wraparound for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbance and Their Families. Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health 1998 Series. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Barbara J., Ed.; Goldman, Sybil K., Ed.

    This is the fourth volume in a series of monographs from the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Service for Children and Their Families Program, which currently supports 41 comprehensive system of care sites to meet the needs of children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). This volume identifies the essential elements of wraparound…

  18. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    BLADES , *GUIDE VANES , *REPAIR, TURBOFAN ENGINES , DIFFUSION BONDING, COST EFFECTIVENESS Identifiers: (U) * Turbine vanes , TF-39 engines , Activated...REPAIR TECHNIQUES FOR TURBINE AIRFOILS J. A. WEIN W. R. YOUNG GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP CINCINNATI, OHIO 45215 APRIL 1979...Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OH AIRCRAFT ENGINE BUSINESS GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for

  19. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  20. Health Effects of Unemployment Benefit Program Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. Methods. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Results. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b = 0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio = 2.777; 95% CI = 2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits = −0.124; 95% CI = −0.197, −0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Conclusions. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men. PMID:25521897

  1. Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval training: influences of nutrition and sex.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Interval training refers to the basic concept of alternating periods of relatively intense exercise with periods of lower-intensity effort or complete rest for recovery. Low-volume interval training refers to sessions that involve a relatively small total amount of exercise (i.e. ≤10 min of intense exercise), compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols that are generally reflected in public health guidelines. In an effort to standardize terminology, a classification scheme was recently proposed in which the term 'high-intensity interval training' (HIIT) be used to describe protocols in which the training stimulus is 'near maximal' or the target intensity is between 80 and 100 % of maximal heart rate, and 'sprint interval training' (SIT) be used for protocols that involve 'all out' or 'supramaximal' efforts, in which target intensities correspond to workloads greater than what is required to elicit 100 % of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Both low-volume SIT and HIIT constitute relatively time-efficient training strategies to rapidly enhance the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism and elicit physiological remodeling that resembles changes normally associated with high-volume MICT. Short-term SIT and HIIT protocols have also been shown to improve health-related indices, including cardiorespiratory fitness and markers of glycemic control in both healthy individuals and those at risk for, or afflicted by, cardiometabolic diseases. Recent evidence from a limited number of studies has highlighted potential sex-based differences in the adaptive response to SIT in particular. It has also been suggested that specific nutritional interventions, in particular those that can augment muscle buffering capacity, such as sodium bicarbonate, may enhance the adaptive response to low-volume interval training.

  2. Health Effects of Toxicants: Online Knowledge Support ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research in toxicology generates vast quantities of data which reside on the Web and are subsequently appropriated and utilized to support further research. This data includes a broad spectrum of information about chemical, biological and radiological agents which can affect health, the nature of the effects, treatment, regulatory measures, and more. Online resources are created and housed by a variety of institutions, including libraries and government agencies. This paper focuses on three such institutions and the tools they offer to the public: the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and its Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Reference is also made to other relevant organizations. A review of online public data sources and data resources on health effects of toxicants offered by NLM, EPA and OECD..

  3. Polydextrose: Physiological Function, and Effects on Health

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Mariane Moreira Ramiro; Walker, Julia Clara Leite; Novello, Daiana; Caselato, Valeria Maria; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Hiane, Priscila Aiko; dos Santos, Elisvânia Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential. Dietary intervention with prebiotics has been shown to selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria associated with several physiological benefits on health. Therefore, the objective of this review was a survey of the literature on the effect of supplementation with PDX in health, and to list the benefits for maintaining health and/or reducing the development of diseases. PMID:27618093

  4. THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DECLINE

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Ralph; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Saxton, Katherine; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; LeWinn, Kaja; Anderson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The recent recession and lingering high unemployment will likely lead to a burst of research studying the health effects of economic decline. We aim to inform that work by summarizing empirical research concerned with those effects. We separate the studies into groups defined by questions asked, mechanisms invoked, and outcomes studied. We conclude that although much research shows that undesirable job and financial experiences increase the risk of psychological and behavioral disorder, many other suspected associations remain poorly studied or unsupported. The intuition that mortality increases when the economy declines, for example, appears wrong. We note that the research informs public health programming by identifying risk factors, such as job loss, made more frequent by economic decline. The promise that the research would identify health costs and benefits of economic policy choices, however, remains unfulfilled and will likely remain so without stronger theory and greater methodological agreement. PMID:21054175

  5. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  6. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P < .001). This improved to baseline levels by the late EHR period (46%, P = .28), although POTD in the cataract group remained worse than at baseline (64%, P < .001). There was a worsening in absolute mean documentation time in the early EHR period (16.7 minutes) vs paper baseline (7.5 minutes) (P < .001). This improved in the late EHR period (9.2 minutes) but remained worse than in the paper baseline (P < .001). While cataract procedures required more

  7. Transitioning From Volume to Value: One Academic Medical Center's Approach to Improving Population Health.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Stephanie A C; Tanski, Mary E; Yackel, Thomas R

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. health care system is undergoing a major transformation. Clinical delivery systems are now being paid according to the value of the care they provide, in accordance with the Triple Aim, which incorporates improving the quality and cost of care and the patient experience. Increasingly, financial risk is being transferred from insurers to clinical delivery systems that become responsible for both episode-based clinical care and the longitudinal care of patients. Thus, these delivery systems need to develop strategies to manage the health of populations. Academic medical centers (AMCs) serve a unique role in many markets yet may be ill prepared for this transformation. In 2013, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) partnered with a large health insurer and six other hospitals across the state to form Propel Health, a collaborative partnership designed to deliver the tools, methods, and support necessary for population health management. OHSU also developed new internal structures and transformed its business model to embrace this value-based care model. Each Propel Health partner included the employees and dependents enrolled in its employee medical plan, for approximately 55,000 covered individuals initially. By 2017, Propel Health is expected to cover 110,000 individuals. Other outcomes to measure in the future include the quality and cost of care provided under this partnership. Anticipated challenges to overcome include insufficient primary care networks, conflicting incentives, local competition, and the magnitude of the transformation. Still, the time is right for AMCs to commit to improving the health of populations.

  8. Effects of alterations in endothelial cell volume on transendothelial albumin permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, J.M.; Goderie, S.K.; Brzyski, N.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Malik, A.B.; Kimelberg, H.K.

    1987-11-01

    We examined the effects of alterations in endothelial cell volume on transendothelial albumin permeability. Studies were done using a confluent monolayer of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells grown on gelatinized microporous filters. When endothelial cells were exposed to media made hypertonic with 200 mM mannitol, the intracellular volume (measured with /sup 14/C-urea) decreased twofold and remained decreased over a 30-minute time-span, thus showing no significant regulatory volume increase (RVI) within this time period. When endothelial cells were exposed to hypotonic media, intracellular volume rapidly doubled within 2 minutes, and then decreased to baseline values within 10 minutes in spite of the sustained hypotonic environment, a process known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). We also measured the transendothelial flux of /sup 125/I-albumin with the cells exposed to the same osmotic changes. We observed that only under hypertonic conditions was there a significant change in the /sup 125/I-albumin permeability. These results indicate that the pulmonary artery endothelial cells in culture alter their cell volume when exposed to variations in the osmotic environment, and also show RVD in response to hypotonic conditions but no RVI within 40 minutes after exposure to hypertonic conditions. The transendothelial albumin permeability did not change under hypotonic conditions but increased under hypertonic conditions. Thus, endothelial cells shrinkage may be an important mechanism of increased endothelial macromolecule permeability. These volume changes may occur in endothelial cells in situ and have a role in inducing alterations in the transendothelial permeability to proteins.

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason

    2016-01-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.

  11. Effect of provider volume on the accuracy of hospital report cards: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Reeves, Mathew J

    2014-03-01

    Hospital report cards, in which outcomes after the provision of medical or surgical care are compared across healthcare providers, are being published with increasing frequency. However, the accuracy of such comparisons is controversial, especially when case volumes are small. The objective was to determine the relationship between hospital case volume and the accuracy of hospital report cards. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the influence of hospital case volume on the accuracy of hospital report cards in a setting in which true hospital performance was known with certainty, and perfect risk-adjustment was feasible. The parameters used to generate the simulated data sets were obtained from empirical analyses of data on patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction in Ontario, Canada, in which the overall 30-day mortality rate was 11.1%. We found that provider volume had a strong effect on the accuracy of hospital report cards. However, provider volume had to be >300 before ≥70% of hospitals were correctly classified. Furthermore, hospital volume had to be >1000 before ≥80% of hospitals were correctly classified. Producers and users of hospital report cards need to be aware that, even when perfect risk adjustment is possible, the accuracy of hospital report cards is, at best, modest for small to medium-sized case loads (i.e., 100-300). Hospital report cards displayed high degrees of accuracy only when provider volumes exceeded the typical annual hospital case load for many cardiovascular conditions and procedures.

  12. Formaldehyde - An Assessment of its Health Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    edema of the cornea and conjunctiva and iritis, graded 8 on a scale of 1-10 (Carpenter and Smyth, 1946). Exposure of rabbits and guinea pigs to airborne...Wilmington, Del. Kulle, T.J., and Cooper G.P. 1975. Effects of formaldehyde and ozone on the trigeminal nasal sensory system. Arch. Environ. Health 30

  13. Health Effects of Chronic Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Song, Ki-Hoon; Chung, Jin-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a unique element with distinct physical characteristics and toxicity whose importance in public health is well recognized. The toxicity of arsenic varies across its different forms. While the carcinogenicity of arsenic has been confirmed, the mechanisms behind the diseases occurring after acute or chronic exposure to arsenic are not well understood. Inorganic arsenic has been confirmed as a human carcinogen that can induce skin, lung, and bladder cancer. There are also reports of its significant association to liver, prostate, and bladder cancer. Recent studies have also suggested a relationship with diabetes, neurological effects, cardiac disorders, and reproductive organs, but further studies are required to confirm these associations. The majority of research to date has examined cancer incidence after a high exposure to high concentrations of arsenic. However, numerous studies have reported various health effects caused by chronic exposure to low concentrations of arsenic. An assessment of the health effects to arsenic exposure has never been performed in the South Korean population; thus, objective estimates of exposure levels are needed. Data should be collected on the biological exposure level for the total arsenic concentration, and individual arsenic concentration by species. In South Korea, we believe that biological exposure assessment should be the first step, followed by regular health effect assessments. PMID:25284195

  14. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  15. Effectiveness of the Complete Health Improvement Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Mathew; Melancon, Jim; Sneed, Demarcus; Nunning, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Currently, heart disease and diabetes dominate society as the leading cause of death for Americans. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a lifestyle enhancement program on factors related to the development of heart disease. The Wabash Valley Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP) is a community-based lifestyle change program with…

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  17. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BFRs are a broad class of compounds providing fire safety. Because of high production and usage and recent findings that they are ubiquitous in environmental samples and biota, concerns exist about potential health effects. Some of the major commercial products, such as tetrabr...

  18. Effect of the curing method and composite volume on marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; de Souza-Régis, Marcos Ribeiro; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; de Freitas, Anderson Pinheiro; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of curing methods and composite volumes on the marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives. Two cavities with different volumes (Lower volume: 12.6 mm(3); Higher volume: 24.5 mm(3)) were prepared on the buccal surface of 60 bovine teeth and restored using Filtek Z250 in bulk filling. For each cavity, specimens were randomly assigned into three groups according to the curing method (n=10): 1) continuous light (CL: 27 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); 2) soft-start (SS: 10 seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+24 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); and 3) pulse delay (PD: five seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+three minutes with no light+25 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)). The radiant exposure for all groups was 16 J/cm(2). Marginal adaptation was measured with the dye staining gap procedure, using Caries Detector. Outer margins were stained for five seconds and the gap percentage was determined using digital images on a computer measurement program (Image Tool). Then, specimens were sectioned in slices and stained for five seconds, and the internal gaps were measured using the same method. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (p<0.05). Composite volume had a significant influence on superficial and internal gap formation, depending on the curing method. For CL groups, restorations with higher volume showed higher marginal gap incidence than did the lower volume restorations. Additionally, the effect of the curing method depended on the volume. Regarding marginal adaptation, SS resulted in a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, for higher volume restorations. For lower volume restorations, there was no difference among the curing methods. For internal adaptation, the modulated curing methods SS and PD promoted a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, only for the lower volume restoration. Therefore, in similar conditions of the cavity configuration, the higher the

  19. Effects of Long-Term Treatment on Brain Volume in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hosung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong

    2015-01-01

    We assessed structural brain damage in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) patients (21 males) and the effects of long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment (18.2 ± 12.4 months; 8-44 months) on brain structures and investigated the relationship between severity of OSA and effects of treatment. Using deformation-based morphometry to measure local volume changes, we identified widespread neocortical and cerebellar atrophy in untreated patients compared to controls (59 males; Cohen's D = 0.6; FDR < 0.05). Analysis of longitudinally scanned magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans both before and after treatment showed increased brain volume following treatment (FDR < 0.05). Volume increase was correlated with longer treatment in the cortical areas that largely overlapped with the initial atrophy. The areas overlying the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the cerebellar dentate nucleus displayed a volume increase after treatment. Patients with very severe OSA (AHI > 64) presented with prefrontal atrophy and displayed an additional volume increase in this area following treatment. Higher impairment of working memory in patients prior to treatment correlated with prefrontal volume increase after treatment. The large overlap between the initial brain damage and the extent of recovery after treatment suggests partial recovery of non-permanent structural damage. Volume increases in the dentate gyrus and the dentate nucleus possibly likely indicate compensatory neurogenesis in response to diminishing oxidative stress. Such changes in other brain structures may explain gliosis, dendritic volume increase, or inflammation. This study provides neuroimaging evidence that revealed the positive effects of long-term CPAP treatment in patients with OSA. PMID:26503297

  20. Separation of preferential interaction and excluded volume effects on DNA duplex and hairpin stability

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. B.; LaCroix, Andrew S.; Deines, Nickolas F.; Shkel, Irina; Record, M. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Small solutes affect protein and nucleic acid processes because of favorable or unfavorable chemical interactions of the solute with the biopolymer surface exposed or buried in the process. Large solutes also exclude volume and affect processes where biopolymer molecularity and/or shape changes. Here, we develop an analysis to separate and interpret or predict excluded volume and chemical effects of a flexible coil polymer on a process. We report a study of the concentration-dependent effects of the full series from monomeric to polymeric PEG on intramolecular hairpin and intermolecular duplex formation by 12-nucleotide DNA strands. We find that chemical effects of PEG on these processes increase in proportion to the product of the amount of DNA surface exposed on melting and the amount of PEG surface that is accessible to this DNA, and these effects are completely described by two interaction terms that quantify the interactions between this DNA surface and PEG end and interior groups. We find that excluded volume effects, once separated from these chemical effects, are quantitatively described by the analytical theory of Hermans, which predicts the excluded volume between a flexible polymer and a rigid molecule. From this analysis, we show that at constant concentration of PEG monomer, increasing PEG size increases the excluded volume effect but decreases the chemical interaction effect, because in a large PEG coil a smaller fraction of the monomers are accessible to the DNA. Volume exclusion by PEG has a much larger effect on intermolecular duplex formation than on intramolecular hairpin formation. PMID:21742980

  1. Racism, other discriminations and effects on health.

    PubMed

    Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Miralles, Juanjo; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated the health problems attributable to racism through the population attributable proportion (PAP). Immigrants perceived more racism than Spaniards in workplace (ORM = 48.1; 95% CI 28.2-82.2), and receiving health care (ORW = 48.3; 95% CI 24.7-94.4). Racism and other forms of discrimination were associated with poor mental health (ORM = 5.6; 95% CI 3.9-8.2; ORW = 7.3; 95% CI 4.1-13.0) and injury (ORW = 30.6; 95% CI 13.6-68.7). It is attributed to perceived racism the 80.1% of consumption of psychotropics (M), and to racism with other forms of discrimination the 52.3% of cases of injury (W). Racism plays a role as a health determinant.

  2. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  3. 1997 Canadian acid rain assessment. Volume 3: Aquatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, D.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report is an assessment of information on the aquatic effects of acid rain, produced to act as technical support for development of an acid rain strategy. It first reviews the previous aquatic effects assessment of 1990 and aquatic effects monitoring and research conducted post-1990. It then presents and discusses results of research that proceeds from the knowledge base and status presented in the 1990 assessment. First, the chemical and biological changes observed in aquatic ecosystems since the early 1980s are assessed, including an analysis of the factors (such as declining acidic deposition) that influence the changes. Regional differences and hysteresis between acidification and recovery responses are also discussed. Second, interactions between the acidity stressor and other atmospherically based stressors such as climate change and contaminant deposition are considered. Third, the effectiveness of existing critical and target loads in protecting aquatic ecosystems is re-evaluated. Finally, the likely effect of full implementation of the planned sulphur dioxide controls in Canada and the United States on aquatic chemistry and biology is predicted using up-to-date modelling tools. Knowledge gaps are identified along with recommended actions to be implemented.

  4. Structural Effects of Biodiesel on Soot Volume Fraction in a Laminar Co-Flow Diffusion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, Jason

    An experimental study was performed to determine the structural effects of biodiesel on soot volume fraction in a laminar co-flow diffusion flame. These include the effects of the ester function group, the inclusion of a double bond, and its positional effect. The soot volume fraction and temperature profiles of a biodiesel surrogate, n-Decane, 1-Decene, and 5-Decene fuels were measured. Improvements were made to existing laser extinction and rapid thermocouple insertion apparatus and were used to measure soot volume fraction and temperature profiles respectively. Flow rates of each fuel were determined in order to keep the temperature effects on soot negligible. Using n-Decane as a baseline, the double bond increased soot production and was further increased with a more centrally located double bond. The ester function group containing oxygen decreased soot production. The order of most to least sooting fuels were as follows 5-Decene > 1-Decene > n-Decane > Biodiesel Surrogate.

  5. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  6. Aerial T1 EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) Effects Assessment. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-15

    ectromagnetic Pulse (EL’]P) High-altitude EMP ( HEMP ) I. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The Office of the Manager...network-level model to assess the effects of high-altitude EM]P (HEP). In addition, tih OMNOS has sponsored various efforts to collect the system-level HEMP ...high-altitude EMP ( HEMP ). In addition, the OMNlCS has sponsored various efforts to collect the system-level HEMP effects data required to support the

  7. Report on health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The National Energy Plan announced by President Carter on April 29, 1977 proposed a significant increase in the utilization of the vast domestic deposits of coal to replace the dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas, and increasingly expensive oil from foreign sources, to meet national energy needs. At the same time, in recognition of possible adverse health and ecological consequences of increased coal production and use, the President announced that a special committee would be formed to study this aspect of the National Energy Plan. The Committee held a series of public meetings during November and December 1977 to review a number of special papers on particular problems associated with increased coal utilization. These papers, which were prepared by scientists of the US Environmental Protection Agency; the Department of Energy; the HEW National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; New York University; and Vanderbilt University; provided essential background information for the deliberations of the Committee and were published in EHP Vol. 33, pp. 127–314, 1979. One paper by A. P. Altschuler et al. is published in this volume of EHP. The Committee's basic finding was that it is safe to proceed with plans to increase the utilization of coal if the following environmental and safety policies are adhered to: • Compliance with Federal and State air, water, and solid waste regulations • Universal adoption and successful operation of best available control technology on new facilities • Compliance with reclamation standards • Compliance with mine health and safety standards • Judicious siting of coal-fired facilities The Committee concluded that, even with the best mitigation policies, there will be some adverse health and environmental effects from the dramatic increase in coal use. However, these will not impact all regions and individuals uniformly. The Committee identified six

  8. Health Aide Education and Utilization: A Task Identification Study. Final Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilligan, Thomas J.; Sherman, V. Clayton

    A study of the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), Nurse Aide (NA), and Homemaker-Home Health Aide (H-HHA) occupations was conducted during 1972-73 in Metropolitan Washington, D.C. Questionnaires were administered to 600 LPNs, NAs, and H-HHAs in 30 health facilities who rated the frequency and importance of 346 tasks. Usable questionnaires numbered…

  9. Interim response action, basin F liquid incineration project. Draft final human health assessment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-02

    The multipathway human health risk assessment based on the SQ1 emission rates measured during the trial burn of basin F liquid indicates that the maximum level of human health risk associated with operation of this incinerator will not exceed the benchmark risk levels defined in the final decision document (Woodward-Clyde, 1990).

  10. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower, Washington, DC.

    In 1966, the President established the National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower to "develop appropriate recommendations for action by government or by private institutions, organizations, or individuals for improving the availability and utilization of health manpower." Recommendations include: (1) federal funds to encourage…

  11. Health effects of hot weather: from awareness of risk factors to effective health protection.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Shakoor; O'Connor, Madeline; Kosatsky, Tom

    2010-03-06

    Because of the increasing concerns about climate change and deadly heatwaves in the past, the health effects of hot weather are fast becoming a global public health challenge for the 21st century. Some cities across the world have introduced public health protection measures, with the timely provision of appropriate home-based prevention advice to the general public being the most crucial point of intervention. In this Review, we report current epidemiological and physiological evidence about the range of health effects associated with hot weather, and draw attention to the interplay between climate factors, human susceptibility, and adaptation measures that contribute to heat burdens. We focus on the evidence base for the most commonly provided heat-protection advice, and make recommendations about the optimum clinical and public health practice that are expected to reduce health problems associated with current and future hot weather. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Forecasting Device Effectiveness: Volume II. Procedures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Andrew M.; And Others

    This report describes an analytic training Device Effectiveness Forecasting Technique known as DEFT. DEFT accounts for device effectivness in terms of several different criteria and classes of independent predictor variables. In its present form, DEFT is a series of interactive, menu-driven computer programs that provide for three levels of device…

  13. Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine Airfoils. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    Turbine blades and vanes in current engines are subjected to the most hostile environment...payoff potential in turbine vanes / blades . The criteria used included: • Incidence of damage - Scrapped or damaged turbine airfoils at the ALC centers...Corporate Author: GENERAL ELECTRIC CO CINCINNATI OHIO AIRCRAFT ENGINE GROUP Unclassified Title: (U) Cost Effective Repair Techniques for Turbine

  14. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  15. 3D ultrasound estimation of the effective volume for popliteal block at the level of division.

    PubMed

    Sala-Blanch, X; Franco, J; Bergé, R; Marín, R; López, A M; Agustí, M

    2017-03-01

    Local anaesthetic injection between the tibial and commmon peroneal nerves within connective tissue sheath results in a predictable diffusion and allows for a reduction in the volume needed to achieve a consistent sciatic popliteal block. Using 3D ultrasound volumetric acquisition, we quantified the visible volume in contact with the nerve along a 5cm segment. We included 20 consecutive patients scheduled for bunion surgery. Ultrasound guided popliteal block was performed using a posterior, out of plane approach at the level of división of the sciatic nerve. Thirty ml of mepivacaine 1.5% and levobupivacaine 0.5% were slowly injected while assessing the injection pressure and the diffusion of the local anaesthetic. Volumetric acquisition was performed before and after the block to quantify the the volume of the sciatic nerve and the volume of the surrounding hypoechoic halo contained inside the connective tissue in a 5cm segment. All blocks were successful within 20min after the injection. The total estimated volume contained inside the common connective tissue sheath was 6.8±2.6cm(3). Of this, the volume of the halo sorrounding the nerve was 4.4±1.7cm(3) and the volume inside the sciatic nerve was 2.4±1.7cm(3). The volume of local anaesthetic in close contact with the sciatic nerve can be estimated by volumetric acquisition. Our results suggest that the effective volume of local anaesthetic needed for a successful sciatic popliteal block could be reduced to less than 7ml. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effects of irrigation volume on growth and quality of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-chun; Zhang, Jia-bao; Jiang, Qi-ao; Zhou, Ling-yun; Xu, Lin-guo

    2006-04-01

    To study the effects of irrigation volume on the growth and quality of Lonicera japonica. Different volume of irrigation water was applied to the potted L. japonica before the first florescence of honeysuckle in order to keep the relative moisture content of the soil as 100%, 80%, 50%, 30%, and observe the growth and development of shoot and leaves, yield and quality of honeysuckle. As the of irrigation volume was reduced, the internodal elongation of shoot and the increase of the knot were restrained, and the yield of honeysuckle dropped. But the content of chlorogen acid in the buds treated by 80% irrigation volume was not affected, while that of the other treatment all decreased. The moisture contents of the leaves treated by 30% irrigation volume was significantly lower than that of the CK, while the specific leaf weight (SLW) increased significantly comparing to the CK. The content of chlorophyl in the leaves of 50% and 30% increased, while the ratio of chlorophyl A and B fell significantly. The content of dissoluble suger in the leaves of 80% and 50% irrigation volume was much higher than that in the CK. The results also showed that, the content of dissoluble protein in the leaves of 30% irrigation volume increased comparing with that in 50%, and the content of proline in leaveas of 30% irrigation volume increased significantly. Using less irrigation volume (keeping 80% of relative moisture content of the soil) does not affect the quality of honeysuckle, but decreased dry weight of honeysuckle. It is necessary to take irrigation management during cultivation of honeysuckle.

  17. Effect of Thyroid Remnant Volume on the Risk of Hypothyroidism After Hemithyroidectomy: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Wong, Carlos K H; Wong, Kai Pun; Chu, Kelvin Ka-Wan; Shek, Tony W H

    2017-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common sequel after a hemithyroidectomy. Although various risk factors leading to hypothyroidism have been reported, the effect of the contralateral lobe's volume has been understudied. This study aimed to examine the association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism. During a 2-year period, 150 eligible patients undergoing a hemithyroidectomy were evaluated. The volume of the contralateral nonexcised lobe was estimated preoperatively by independent assessors on ultrasonography using the following formula: width (in cm) × depth (in cm) × length (in cm) × (π/6), adjusted for the body surface area (BSA). Postoperative hypothyroidism was defined as serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) exceeding 4.78 mIU/L. Any significant characteristics in the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate analysis to determine independent factors. After a mean follow-up period of 53.5 ± 9.4 months, 44 patients (29.3 %) experienced postoperative hypothyroidism, and 10 of these patients required thyroxine replacement. Hypothyroidism was associated with a higher preoperative TSH level (p < 0.001), a smaller BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001), fewer ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.037), and the presence of thyroiditis (p = 0.050). After adjustment for thyroiditis, preoperative TSH (p < 0.001), number of ipsilateral nodules (p = 0.048), and BSA-adjusted volume (p < 0.001) were independent factors for hypothyroidism. Patients with a BSA-adjusted volume smaller than 3.2 ml had a threefold greater hypothyroidism risk than those with a BSA-adjusted volume of 3.2 ml or more (p < 0.001). A significant inverse association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and hypothyroidism risk was observed after hemithyroidectomy. Together with a higher preoperative TSH level and fewer ipsilateral nodules, a smaller BSA-adjusted volume measured by preoperative ultrasonography independently predicted

  18. A multilevel model of organizational health culture and the effectiveness of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen

    2014-01-01

    Organizational health culture is a health-oriented core characteristic of the organization that is shared by all members. It is effective in regulating health-related behavior for employees and could therefore influence the effectiveness of health promotion efforts among organizations and employees. This study applied a multilevel analysis to verify the effects of organizational health culture on the organizational and individual effectiveness of health promotion. At the organizational level, we investigated the effect of organizational health culture on the organizational effectiveness of health promotion. At the individual level, we adopted a cross-level analysis to determine if organizational health culture affects employee effectiveness through the mediating effect of employee health behavior. The study setting consisted of the workplaces of various enterprises. We selected 54 enterprises in Taiwan and surveyed 20 full-time employees from each organization, for a total sample of 1011 employees. We developed the Organizational Health Culture Scale to measure employee perceptions and aggregated the individual data to formulate organization-level data. Organizational effectiveness of health promotion included four dimensions: planning effectiveness, production, outcome, and quality, which were measured by scale or objective indicators. The Health Promotion Lifestyle Scale was adopted for the measurement of health behavior. Employee effectiveness was measured subjectively in three dimensions: self-evaluated performance, altruism, and happiness. Following the calculation of descriptive statistics, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to test the multilevel hypotheses. Organizational health culture had a significant effect on the planning effectiveness (β = .356, p < .05) and production (β = .359, p < .05) of health promotion. In addition, results of cross-level moderating effect analysis by HLM demonstrated that the effects of organizational health culture

  19. Effect of optimizing supply water temperature and air volume on a VAV system

    SciTech Connect

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Ito, Koichi; Yokoyama, Ryohei

    1999-07-01

    An optimal planning method is proposed for an air conditioning system composed of heat pump chillers and variable air volume (VAV) units. Supply water temperature, supply air volume, and thickness of heat insulation material are determined optimally so as to minimize the annual total cost of the system in consideration of equipment capacities and annual operation for the cooling load varying through a year. Through a numerical study on the system planned for an office building, influences of supply water/air temperatures and air volume on the system are investigated from the viewpoint of long-term economics. As a result, it is shown that the annual energy charge of the optimal VAV system can be reduced considerably in comparison with that of the optimal constant air volume (CAV) system, and that the effect of the energy conservation of the former system is large enough.

  20. [The effect of glass fiber volume content on the flexural property of fiber-reinforced composite].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xie, Hai-feng; Song, Xin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Fei-min

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of glass fiber volume content on the flexural property of fiber-reinforced composite. METHODS: The specimens of composite were fabricated with 4 different glass fiber volume contents by changing roving winded number of strands dipped in resin matrix, and the mechanical properties were tested by 3-point flexural test in order to determine the optimal fiber volume content. The data was analyzed statistically with SPSS20.0 software package. Self-made fiber-reinforced composites with the glass fiber volume content percentage of 60.4% achieved the maximal flexural strength and the maximal elastic modulus. As the glass fiber content in matrix of composite material is increased in certain range, the flexural strength and the elastic modulus can be improved,then reaches the peak. However, the flexural property decreases rather than rises when the fiber content is more than 60.4%.

  1. Effects of nicardipine on cardiac volume at rest and during exercise-induced angina

    PubMed Central

    Silke, B.; Verma, S. P.; Frais, M. A.; Hafizullah, M.; Taylor, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    1 The action of nicardipine on cardiac volume, both at rest and during exercise-induced angina, was evaluated in 12 patients with angiographically-proven coronary artery disease. 2 Nicardipine given to patients at rest reduced systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure and increased heart rate and cardiac index. The left ventricular filling pressure, ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were unchanged. 3 During supine bicycle exercise, the reduction in systemic arterial blood pressure following nicardipine increased cardiac and stroke index and attenuated the rise in left ventricular filling pressure observed in the control exercise. 4 The effects of nicardipine on EF, end-diastolic and end-systolic cardiac volumes were dependent on the baseline cardiac reserve. In patients with EF < 50%, nicardipine improved EF and left ventricular exercise volumes. PMID:2862901

  2. Effects of anti-obsessional treatment on pituitary volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad; Yildirim, Hanefi; Mermi, Osman; Gurok, M Gurkan

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to examine the effct of anti-obsessional drugs on pituitary gland volumes in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A group of patients with OCD and of healthy controls were evaluated by using pituitary gland magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after twelve weeks of treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or clomipramine. Pituitary gland volumes were found to be statistically significantly smaller in the patients with OCD compared to healthy control subjects at the beginning of the study. We found that pituitary volumes significantly increased throughout twelve weeks of treatment. This study provides an evidence of the effect of anti-obsessional treatment on the volumes of pituitary gland in OCD patients.

  3. Partial volume effect modeling for segmentation and tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images: A review.

    PubMed

    Tohka, Jussi

    2014-11-28

    Quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images are facilitated by the development of automated segmentation algorithms. A single image voxel may contain of several types of tissues due to the finite spatial resolution of the imaging device. This phenomenon, termed partial volume effect (PVE), complicates the segmentation process, and, due to the complexity of human brain anatomy, the PVE is an important factor for accurate brain structure quantification. Partial volume estimation refers to a generalized segmentation task where the amount of each tissue type within each voxel is solved. This review aims to provide a systematic, tutorial-like overview and categorization of methods for partial volume estimation in brain MRI. The review concentrates on the statistically based approaches for partial volume estimation and also explains differences to other, similar image segmentation approaches.

  4. Injured children are resistant to the adverse effects of early high volume crystalloid resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Acker, Shannon N; Ross, James T; Partrick, David A; DeWitt, Peter; Bensard, Denis D

    2014-12-01

    Excessive crystalloid resuscitation of blunt injured adults is deleterious. We hypothesize that children, unlike adults, are resistant to the adverse effects of high volume resuscitation. We reviewed the trauma databases at two level-one trauma centers, including all children age 4-16years admitted following blunt trauma with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥15 to determine the relationship between crystalloid volume received and clinical outcomes. A total of 384 children were included. After controlling for age, sex, AIS head, ISS, GCS on presentation, hemoglobin, blood transfusion, and surgical procedures in the first 24hours, crystalloid volume greater than 60ml/kg in the first 24hours was associated with increased length of stay (LOS) and need for mechanical ventilation. On univariate analysis, initial crystalloid volume of >60ml/kg was associated with anemia and thrombocytopenia. Volume of resuscitation was not associated with ARDS, ACS, MOF, urinary tract infection, or blood stream infection. However, these complications were exceedingly rare, with no children developing MOF. Excessive crystalloid resuscitation was associated with increased hospital LOS and need for mechanical ventilation. Increased rates of other complications including ARDS, ACS, and MOF were not observed. Injured children appear relatively resistant to some of the adverse effects of early high volume fluid resuscitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rong; Popescu, Elena-Anda; Drake, William B; Jackson, David N; Popescu, Mihai

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies based on fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) recordings used simplified volume conductor models to estimate the fetal cardiac vector as an unequivocal measure of the cardiac source strength. However, the effect of simplified volume conductor modeling on the accuracy of the fMCG inverse solution remains largely unknown. Aiming to determine the sensitivity of the source estimators to the details of the volume conductor model, we performed simulations using fetal-maternal anatomical information from ultrasound images obtained in 20 pregnant women in various stages of pregnancy. The magnetic field produced by a cardiac source model was computed using the boundary-element method for a piecewise homogeneous volume conductor with three nested compartments (fetal body, amniotic fluid and maternal abdomen) of different electrical conductivities. For late gestation, we also considered the case of a fourth highly insulating layer of vernix caseosa covering the fetus. The errors introduced for simplified volume conductors were assessed by comparing the reconstruction results obtained with realistic versus spherically symmetric models. Our study demonstrates the significant effect of simplified volume conductor modeling, resulting mainly in an underestimation of the cardiac vector magnitude and low goodness-of-fit. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of real fMCG data recorded in mid-gestation.

  6. Macroscopic investigation of water volume effects on interfacial dynamic behaviors between clathrate hydrate and water.

    PubMed

    Cha, Minjun; Couzis, Alexander; Lee, Jae W

    2013-05-14

    This study investigated the effects of the water volume on the interfacial dynamics between cyclopentane (CP) hydrate and water droplet in a CP/n-decane oil mixture. The adhesion force between CP hydrate and various water droplets was determined using the z-directional microbalance. Through repetition of precise measurements over several cycles from contact to detachment, we observed abnormal wetting behaviors in the capillary bridge during the retraction process when the water drop volume is larger than 100 μL. With the increase in water droplet volumes, the contact force between CP hydrate and water also increases up to 300 μL. However, there is a dramatic reduction of increasing rate in the contact forces over 300 μL of water droplet. With the addition of the surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) to the water droplet, the contact force between CP hydrate and solution droplet exhibits a lower value and a transition volume of the contact force comes with a smaller solution volume of 200 μL. The water volume effects on the liquid wetting of the probe and the size of capillary bridges provide important insight into hydrate growth and aggregation/agglomeration in the presence of free water phase inside gas/oil pipelines.

  7. Combined Effects of Marijuana and Nicotine on Memory Performance and Hippocampal Volume

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M.; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. PMID:26187691

  8. The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Popescu, Elena-Anda; Drake, William B.; Jackson, David N.; Popescu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies based on fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) recordings used simplified volume conductor models to estimate the fetal cardiac vector as an unequivocal measure of the cardiac source strength. However, the effect of simplified volume conductor modeling on the accuracy of the fMCG inverse solution remains largely unknown. Aiming to determine the sensitivity of the source estimators to the details of the volume conductor model, we performed simulations using fetal-maternal anatomical information from ultrasound images obtained in 20 pregnant women in various stages of pregnancy. The magnetic field produced by a cardiac source model was computed using the boundary element method for a piecewise homogeneous volume conductor with three nested compartments (fetal body, amniotic fluid and maternal abdomen) of different electrical conductivities. For late gestation, we also considered the case of a fourth highly insulating layer of vernix caseosa covering the fetus. The errors introduced for simplified volume conductors were assessed by comparing the reconstruction results obtained with realistic versus spherically symmetric models. Our study demonstrates a significant effect of simplified volume conductor modeling, resulting mainly in an underestimation of the cardiac vector magnitude and low goodness-of-fit. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of real fMCG data recorded in mid-gestation. PMID:22442179

  9. The effect of health information technology implementation in Veterans Health Administration hospitals on patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Burgess, James F; Phibbs, Ciaran S

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health information technology (HIT) in hospitals is dependent in large part on how it is used by nurses. This study examines the impact of HIT on the quality of care in hospitals in the Veterans Health Administration (VA), focusing on nurse-sensitive outcomes from 1995 to 2005. Data were obtained from VA databases and original data collection. Fixed-effects Poisson regression was used, with the dependent variables measured using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Inpatient Quality Indicators and Patient Safety Indicators software. Dummy variables indicated when each facility began and completed implementation of each type of HIT. Other explanatory variables included hospital volume, patient characteristics, nurse characteristics, and a quadratic time trend. The start of computerized patient record implementation was associated with significantly lower mortality for two diagnoses but significantly higher pressure ulcer rates, and full implementation was associated with significantly more hospital-acquired infections. The start of bar-code medication administration implementation was linked to significantly lower mortality for one diagnosis, but full implementation was not linked to any change in patient outcomes. The commencement of HIT implementation had mixed effects on patient outcomes, and the completion of implementation had little or no effect on outcomes. This longitudinal study provides little support for the perception of VA staff and leaders that HIT has improved mortality rates or nurse-sensitive patient outcomes. Future research should examine patient outcomes associated with specific care processes affected by HIT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health Services: Available Research Shows That Capacity is Only Weakly Related to Volume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    NTIC TAB E) Unlnnoonc.ea Program Evaluation and Justficoaton Methodology Division B3-242439 ByDistribution I January 31, 1991 Availability Codes The...or whether it merely augments the volume of ser- vices without showing measurable improvements. Methodology Objectives You asked us to determine if...collected later than 1983. We chose meta-analysis because it is the most appropriate method for synthesizing the results of quantitative studies

  11. Deposition from Ultra-low Volume Application of Public Health Insecticides in a Hot Desert Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer. Malathion (Fyfanon ULV, 96% active ingredient [ AI ]), resmethrin (Scourge 4 + 12, 4% AI ), pyrethrins (ULD BP-300, 3% AI ...of sand flies in Kenya after application of malathion (FyfanonH, Cheminova Inc., Wayne, NJ; 96.5% active ingredient [ AI ]) and a pyrethroid (DuetH...Clarke Mosquito Control Products, Roselle, IL; containing prallethrin 1.0% AI + sumithrinH 5.0% AI + 5.0% pieronyl butoxide [PBO]) using ULV sprayers

  12. Cost-volume-profit and net present value analysis of health information systems.

    PubMed

    McLean, R A

    1998-08-01

    The adoption of any information system should be justified by an economic analysis demonstrating that its projected benefits outweigh its projected costs. Analysis differ, however, on which methods to employ for such a justification. Accountants prefer cost-volume-profit analysis, and economists prefer net present value analysis. The article explains the strengths and weaknesses of each method and shows how they can be used together so that well-informed investments in information systems can be made.

  13. Ethnocentrism: a barrier to effective health care.

    PubMed

    Thiederman, S B

    1986-08-01

    The effective delivery of health care to growing ethnic populations within the United States is a challenge for nurse practitioners. A breakdown in cross-cultural communication and understanding, which stems from the tendency of health care professionals to project their own culturally specific values and behaviors onto the foreign-born patient, has contributed significantly to non-compliance in this patient population. In order to remedy this situation, it is important for nurse practitioners to separate the values of their own cultural background from the cultural background and values of the patients for whom they provide care.

  14. Safety and effectiveness of large-volume enema solutions.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Marilee; Schiller, Lawrence R; Meyer, Richard; Rugari, Susan M; Case, Patti

    2004-11-01

    The effectiveness and side effects of three types of enema solutions were compared in healthy subjects. Using a repeated-measures, double-blind design, the three different enemas (soapsuds, tap water, and polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution) were given at 1-week intervals to 24 healthy volunteers. Soapsuds and tap water enemas produced significantly greater returns than polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) and were also more uncomfortable. Rectal biopsies showed surface epithelium loss after soapsuds and tap water but not after PEG-ES enemas. Before recommending changes in nursing practice, further research is needed to determine the mechanism for the surface epithelium damage and to determine if this damage produces a stronger defecation stimulus and discomfort.

  15. Planning for Creative Change in Mental Health Services: A Distillation of Principles on Research Utilization...Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This is a series of publications on mental health services research and development. The purpose of the series is to offer assistance to persons working toward continually increased effectiveness of delivering mental health contributions to people in need. Reflected in all publications in the series is a three-phase process of services improvement…

  16. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  17. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    vertically and ± 0.05 C horizontally. Thus, heating through a triple -stub tuner to coaxial Transco uniformity to within 0.1 C may be achieved when...significant discomfort. The use of decimeter-wave therapy in combination The antitumor effects of a triple combination of with radiation therapy is currently...applied with cancer. an inductive Eddy current applicator (3.8-cm di- ameter) at 461 MHz with a Siemens generator. Mice receiving the triple combination

  18. Effect of environment on insulation materials, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.; Smith, F. J.; Glassford, A. P.; Coleman, J.; Stevenson, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty candidate multilayer insulation and insulation related materials were subjected to eight conditions that represent possible operational environments. These exposures include ground contaminants, various operational temperatures, space vacuum, space-vented propellants, and tank leakage. The objective of this program was to obtain and evaluate the data from these exposures to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the degradation to certain physical and thermal properties, and from this, to obtain a better understanding of the environmental effects on the insulation performance.

  19. Opposite effects of suicidality and lithium on gray matter volumes in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Radaelli, Daniele; Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    Mood disorders are associated with the highest increase of attempted and completed suicide. Suicidality in major depressive disorder and in schizophrenia has been associated with reduced gray matter volumes in orbitofrontal cortex. Lithium reduces the suicide risk of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to the same levels of the general population, and can increase GM volumes. We studied the effect of a positive history of attempted suicide and ongoing lithium treatment on regional GM volumes of patients affected by bipolar depression. With a correlational design, we studied 57 currently depressed inpatients with bipolar disorder: 19 with and 38 without a positive history of suicide attempts, 39 unmedicated and 18 with ongoing lithium treatment. Total and regional gray matter volumes were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Total GM volume is inversely correlated with depression severity. A positive history of suicide attempts was associated with higher stress in early life. Suicide attempters showed reduced GM volumes in several brain areas including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, superior temporal cortex, parieto-occipital cortex, and basal ganglia. Long term lithium treatment was associated with increased GM volumes in the same areas where suicide was associated with decreased GM. Reduced GM volumes in critical cortical areas of suicidal patients could be a biological correlate of an impaired ability to associate choices and outcomes and to plan goal-directed behaviors based on a lifetime historical perspective, which, coupled with mood-congruent depressive cognitive distortions, could lead to more hopelessness and suicide. Lithium could exert its specific therapeutic effect on suicide by acting in the same areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of low- and high-volume stretching on bench press performance in collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Molacek, Zachary D; Conley, Donovan S; Evetovich, Tammy K; Hinnerichs, Kristi R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute low- and high-volume static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. Fifteen healthy male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players (age: 19.9 +/- 1.1 years; weight: 98.89 +/- 13.39 kg; height: 184.2 +/- 5.7 cm; body composition: 14.6 +/- 7.4%; and 1RM bench press: 129.7 +/- 3.3 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects completed 5 different stretching protocols integrated with a 1RM dynamic warm-up routine followed by 1RM testing in randomly assigned order. The protocols included (a) nonstretching (NS), (b) low-volume PNF stretching (LVPNFS), (c) high-volume PNF stretching (HVPNFS), (d) low-volume static stretching (LVSS), and (d) high-volume static stretching (HVSS). Two and 5 sets of stretching were completed for the low- and high-volume protocols, respectively. The stretching protocols targeted triceps and chest/shoulder muscle groups using 2 separate exercises. There were no significant differences in 1RM bench press performance (p > 0.05) among any of the stretching protocols NS (129.7 +/- 3.3 kg), LVPNFS (128.9 +/- 3.8 kg), HVPNFS (128.3 +/- 3.7 kg), LVSS (129.7 +/- 3.7 kg), and HVSS (128.2 +/- 3.7 kg). We conclude that low- and high-volume PNF and static stretching have no significant acute effect on 1RM bench press in resistance-trained collegiate football players. This suggests that resistance-trained athletes can include either (a) a dynamic warm-up with no stretching or (b) a dynamic warm-up in concert with low- or high-volume static or PNF flexibility exercises before maximal upper body isotonic resistance-training lifts, if adequate rest is allowed before performance.

  1. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  2. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    Electromagnetic Radiation # - A digest of current erature and a forum of communication 1~ ~~~~~~;:~~~~~~Iein:ejnI(T t...unclassified ~ .~~~I4 I~~I~O Security CIas,iac.tioft A - 1140S BiOLOGiCA L. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION A Digest of Current Lite rature and a...Forum of Com munication Preparation of This Digest Supported by.~U.S. Army Research Office — Durham ~/ D D C Under Grant No. DAHCO4-74-G-0132 L

  3. Electrostatic propulsion beam divergence effects on spacecraft surfaces, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The third phase of a program to develop understanding of and tolerance-level criteria for the deleterious effects of electrostatic rocket exhaust (Cs, Cs(+), Hg, Hg(+)) and materials of rocket construction impinging on typical classes of spacecraft (S/C) surfaces was completed. Models of ion engine effluents and models describing the degradation of S/C surfaces by these effluents are presented. Experimental data from previous phases are summarized and Phase 2 data and analysis are presented in detail. The spacecraft design implications of ion engine contaminants are discussed.

  4. Effects of damping on mode shapes, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Displacement, velocity, and acceleration admittances were calculated for a realistic NASTRAN structural model of space shuttle for three conditions: liftoff, maximum dynamic pressure and end of solid rocket booster burn. The realistic model of the orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket motors included the representation of structural joint transmissibilities by finite stiffness and damping elements. Methods developed to incorporate structural joints and their damping characteristics into a finite element model of the space shuttle, to determine the point damping parameters required to produce realistic damping in the primary modes, and to calculate the effect of distributed damping on structural resonances through the calculation of admittances.

  5. Experimental Evidence of Weak Excluded Volume Effects for Nanochannel Confined DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Damini; Miller, Jeremy J.; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Mahshid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    In the classical de Gennes picture of weak polymer nanochannel confinement, the polymer contour is envisioned as divided into a series of isometric blobs. Strong excluded volume interactions are present both within a blob and between blobs. In contrast, for semiflexible polymers like DNA, excluded volume interactions are of borderline strength within a blob but appreciable between blobs, giving rise to a chain description consisting of a string of anisometric blobs. We present experimental validation of this subtle effect of excluded volume for DNA nanochannel confinement by performing measurements of variance in chain extension of T4 DNA molecules as a function of effective nanochannel size (305-453 nm). Additionally, we show an approach to systematically reduce the effect of molecular weight dispersity of DNA samples, a typical experimental artifact, by combining confinement spectroscopy with simulations.

  6. Retrospective processing of DTI tractography to compensate for partial volume effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Darryl; Shetty, Aarti; Rajagopalan, Amrita; Singh, Manbir

    2007-03-01

    Partial volume effects are one of the most common sources of error in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. For example, in data from older subjects or Alzheimer's disease probable subjects, the situation is especially exacerbated around the dilated ventricle, which causes erroneous merging of tracts. Rescanning the subject at higher resolution is the best solution, but often times unattainable. We offer a retrospective filtering algorithm, which is purely subtractive, based on a region of interest (ROI) filtering methodology that filters tracts by their shape and seed points. The ROIs are defined using both anatomic images and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in normalized space allowing for consistency across all subjects. Our algorithm helps correct the partial volume effects by reducing the overestimation of tract length, giving a more accurate regional tract count. The objective of our retrospective algorithm is reclamation of data sets from partial volume effects.

  7. [Dependent relative: Effects on family health].

    PubMed

    Estrada Fernández, M Eugenia; Gil Lacruz, Ana I; Gil Lacruz, Marta; Viñas López, Antonio

    2017-04-18

    The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The study included 19,351 participants aged over 25 years who completed the 2011-2012 Spanish National Health Survey. This research is based on demographic information obtained from a Spanish National Health Survey (2011/12). Using an empirical framework, the Logit model was select and the data reported as odds ratio. The estimations were repeated independently by sub-groups of age and gender. The study showed that the health of people who share their lives with a dependent person is worse than those who do not have any dependent person at home (they are 5 times at higher risk of developing health problems). The study found that being a woman, advance age, low educational level and does not work, also has an influence. Being a caregiver reduces the likelihood of maintaining a healthy lifestyle through physical exercise, relaxation, or eating a balanced diet. Living with a dependent person reduces the likelihood of maintaining healthy lifestyles and worsens the state of health of family members. Significant differences in gender and age were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  9. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  10. Dedicated Perioperative Hip Fracture Comanagement Programs are Cost-effective in High-volume Centers: An Economic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Swart, Eric; Vasudeva, Eshan; Makhni, Eric C; Macaulay, William; Bozic, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic hip fractures are common injuries typically occurring in patients who are older and medically frail. Studies have suggested that creation of a multidisciplinary team including orthopaedic surgeons, internal medicine physicians, social workers, and specialized physical therapists, to comanage these patients can decrease complication rates, improve time to surgery, and reduce hospital length of stay; however, they have yet to achieve widespread implementation, partly owing to concerns regarding resource requirements necessary for a comanagement program. We performed an economic analysis to determine whether implementation of a comanagement model of care for geriatric patients with osteoporotic hip fractures would be a cost-effective intervention at hospitals with moderate volume. We also calculated what annual volume of cases would be needed for a comanagement program to "break even", and finally we evaluated whether universal or risk-stratified comanagement was more cost effective. Decision analysis techniques were used to model the effect of implementing a systems-based strategy to improve inpatient perioperative care. Costs were obtained from best-available literature and included salary to support personnel and resources to expedite time to the operating room. The major economic benefit was decreased initial hospital length of stay, which was determined via literature review and meta-analysis, and a health benefit was improvement in perioperative mortality owing to expedited preoperative evaluation based on previously conducted meta-analyses. A break-even analysis was conducted to determine the annual case volume necessary for comanagement to be either (1) cost effective (improve health-related quality of life enough to be worth additional expenses) or (2) result in cost savings (actually result in decreased total expenses). This calculation assumed the scenario in which a hospital could hire only one hospitalist (and therapist and social worker) on

  11. High volume acupuncture clinic (HVAC) for chronic knee pain--audit of a possible model for delivery of acupuncture in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, Saul; Cummings, Mike; Perrin, Chris; Ito, Rieko

    2008-03-01

    Recent research has established the efficacy, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of acupuncture for some forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, there are practical problems with delivery which currently prevent its large scale implementation in the National Health Service. We have developed a delivery model at our hospital, a 'high volume' acupuncture clinic (HVAC) in which patients are treated in a group setting for single conditions using standardised or semi-standardised electroacupuncture protocols by practitioners with basic training. We discuss our experiences using this model for chronic knee pain and present an outcome audit for the first 77 patients, demonstrating satisfactory initial (eight week) clinical results. Longer term (one year) data are currently being collected and the model should next be tested in primary care to confirm its feasibility.

  12. The volume effect of lidocaine on thoracic epidural anesthesia in conscious Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Son, Won-gyun; Jang, Min; Jo, Sang-min; Yoon, Junghee; Lee, Inhyung

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the volume effect of local anesthetic solution on thoracic epidural analgesia in dogs. Prospective, experimental trial. Five healthy adult Beagle dogs weighing 9.7 ± 1.3 kg. A catheter was inserted into the seventh thoracic epidural space using a lumbosacral approach, and secured with suture under total intravenous (IV) anesthesia with propofol. Each dog was administered four volume treatments (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mL kg(-1)) of 2% lidocaine via the catheter at 12 hour intervals. In every treatment, dogs were re-anesthetized with propofol (6 mg kg(-1), IV) and isoflurane, and received iohexol at each volume to visualize the epidural distribution (ED) through computed tomography. Three hours after epidurography, when dogs had recovered from anesthesia, the appropriate volume of lidocaine was injected through the catheter, and sensory blockade (SB) in dermatomes was evaluated by pinching with a mosquito forceps. Results were presented as median (range), and the volume effect on ED and SB was analyzed with one-way Kruskal-Wallis anova. In proportion to volumes (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mL kg(-1)), there were significant increases in the extent of ED from 7.4 (5.5-9.0) to 10.4 (8.0-12.0), 13.2 (12.5-13.0), and 15.2 (13.0-18.0) vertebrae, respectively, p < 0.001, and in SB from 2.7 (1.0-5.0) to 6.8 (4.5-10.5), 9.9 (6.5-13.0), and 13.1 (11.0-15.0) dermatomes, respectively, p < 0.001. Unilateral ED and SB were observed in all treatments with various grades, and this distribution was more frequent in the low volume treatments. In the high volume treatments, temporary complications including Horner's syndrome, ataxia, paraplegia, depression, stupor, and intermittent cough occurred often. The increase in volume of local anesthetic solution improved SB by resulting in more consistent bilateral dermatome blockade as well as an extended blockade. However, caution should be exerted, as higher volume injections of lidocaine caused side effects in all dogs.

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of health care teams.

    PubMed

    Mickan, Sharon M

    2005-05-01

    While it is recognised that effective health care teams are associated with quality patient care, the literature is comparatively sparse in defining the outcomes of effective teamwork. This literature review of the range of organisational, team and individual benefits of teamwork complements an earlier article which summarised the antecedent conditions for (input) and team processes (throughput) of effective teams. This article summarises the evidence for a range of outcome measures of effective teams. Organisational benefits of teamwork include reduced hospitalisation time and costs, reduced unanticipated admissions, better accessibility for patients, and improved coordination of care. Team benefits include efficient use of health care services, enhanced communication and professional diversity. Patients report benefits of enhanced satisfaction, acceptance of treatment and improved health outcomes. Finally, team members report enhanced job satisfaction, greater role clarity and enhanced well-being. Due to the inherent complexity of teamwork, a constituency model of team evaluation is supported where key stakeholders identify and measure the intended benefits of a team.

  14. Can Telehealth Ontario respiratory call volume be used as a proxy for emergency department respiratory visit surveillance by public health?

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Adam; McGuinness, Don; Rolland, Elizabeth; Moore, Kieran M

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding the usefulness of non-traditional data streams for real-time syndromic surveillance systems. The objective of this paper is to examine the temporal relation between Ontario's emergency department (ED) visits and telephone health line (Telehealth) call volume for respiratory illnesses to test the feasibility of using Ontario's Telehealth system for real-time surveillance. Retrospective time-series data from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) and the Telehealth Ontario program from June 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006, were analyzed. The added value of Telehealth Ontario data was determined by comparing it temporally with NACRS data, which uses the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10-Canadian Enhancement coding system for discharge diagnoses. Telehealth Ontario had 216,105 calls for respiratory complaints, while 819,832 ICD-coded complaints from NACRS were identified with a comparable diagnosis of respiratory illness. Telehealth Ontario call volume was heavily weighted for the 0-4 years age group (49%), while the NACRS visits were mainly from those 18-64 years old (44%). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.97, with the time-series analysis also resulting in significant correlations at lags (semi-monthly) 0 and 1, indicating that increases in Telehealth Ontario call volume correlate with increases in NACRS discharge diagnosis data for respiratory illnesses. Telehealth Ontario call volume fluctuation reflects directly on ED respiratory visit data on a provincial basis. These call complaints are a timely, useful and representative data stream that shows promise for integration into a real-time syndromic surveillance system.

  15. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  16. The Effect of Glucose on Urinary Cation Excretion during Chronic Extracellular Volume Expansion in Normal Man

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Edward J.; Lemann, J.; Piering, W. F.; Larson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Both glucose administration and extracellular volume expansion augment urinary calcium and magnesium excretion. While volume expansion also augments sodium excretion, glucose induces an antinatriuresis. To examine the interrelationships of volume expansion and of glucose administration on sodium, calcium, and magnesium excretion, the effects of glucose were evaluated during clearance studies in the same subjects before and after chronic extracellular volume expansion produced by desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and a normal dietary sodium intake. The augmentation of UCaV and UMgV by glucose was simply additive to the increments in divalent cation excretion caused by “escape” from the sodium-retaining effects of DOCA. Glucose administration reduced UNaV, an effect exaggerated after DOCA escape and associated with reductions in volume/glomerular filtration rate (V/GFR) and CNa + CH2O/GFR, suggesting augmented proximal tubular reabsorption. Before glucose, UNa was inversely correlated with UG, and after glucose administration CNa/GFR was inversely correlated with TG/GFR. We propose that the availability of glucose in the proximal tubule stimulates Na reabsorption while delaying development of a chloride diffusion potential, thereby inhibiting tubular reabsorption of Ca and Mg. PMID:4825233

  17. Effects of VR system fidelity on analyzing isosurface visualization of volume datasets.

    PubMed

    Laha, Bireswar; Bowman, Doug A; Socha, John J

    2014-04-01

    Volume visualization is an important technique for analyzing datasets from a variety of different scientific domains. Volume data analysis is inherently difficult because volumes are three-dimensional, dense, and unfamiliar, requiring scientists to precisely control the viewpoint and to make precise spatial judgments. Researchers have proposed that more immersive (higher fidelity) VR systems might improve task performance with volume datasets, and significant results tied to different components of display fidelity have been reported. However, more information is needed to generalize these results to different task types, domains, and rendering styles. We visualized isosurfaces extracted from synchrotron microscopic computed tomography (SR-μCT) scans of beetles, in a CAVE-like display. We ran a controlled experiment evaluating the effects of three components of system fidelity (field of regard, stereoscopy, and head tracking) on a variety of abstract task categories that are applicable to various scientific domains, and also compared our results with those from our prior experiment using 3D texture-based rendering. We report many significant findings. For example, for search and spatial judgment tasks with isosurface visualization, a stereoscopic display provides better performance, but for tasks with 3D texture-based rendering, displays with higher field of regard were more effective, independent of the levels of the other display components. We also found that systems with high field of regard and head tracking improve performance in spatial judgment tasks. Our results extend existing knowledge and produce new guidelines for designing VR systems to improve the effectiveness of volume data analysis.

  18. Antidepressant effects of sertraline associated with volume increases in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan; Chen, Kewei; Baxter, Leslie; Fort, Carolyn; Lane, Richard D

    2013-04-25

    Structural brain imaging has revealed differences in gray matter volume between depressed individuals and control subjects in key structures related to emotion. The aim of the present study was to assess within subjects whether regional changes in gray matter volume were observed over time in depressed patients treated with sertraline. Thirteen depressed patients were assigned to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment with sertraline. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at four time points over 12 weeks of treatment. Depressed individuals were compared to a control group of 10 subjects scanned at the same time points using voxel based morphometry and a statistical growth modeling technique. SSRI-treated patients showed a region of significantly increasing gray matter volume over time within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that specifically correlated with decreases in self-reported depression levels. No statistically significant changes were observed related to time in controls. This study included a small sample size and the method of analysis was capable of detecting only linear changes in volume. Effective antidepressant treatment with sertraline is associated with left DLPFC volume increases. These volume increases may reflect cortical architectural changes associated with top-down neuronal modulation of emotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of tidal volume and respiratory rate on the power of breathing calculation.

    PubMed

    Natalini, G; Marchesini, M; Tessadrelli, A; Rosano, A; Candiani, A; Bernardini, A

    2005-05-01

    The power of breathing (PoB) is used to estimate the mechanical workload of the respiratory system. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations on the PoB when the elastic load is constant. In order to assure strict control of the experimental conditions, the PoB was calculated on an airway pressure-volume curve in mechanically ventilated patients. Ten patients received three different tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations while minute ventilation was constant. Respiratory mechanics, PoB and its elastic and resistive components were calculated. Alternative methods to estimate the elastic workload were assessed: elastic work of breathing per litre per minute, elastic workload index (the square root of elastic work of breathing multiplied by respiratory rate) and elastic double product of the respiratory system (the elastic pressure multiplied by respiratory rate). Despite constant elastance and minute ventilation, the elastic PoB showed an increment greater than 200% from the lower to the greater tidal volume, accounting for approximately 80% of the whole PoB increment. On the contrary, elastic work of breathing per litre per minute, elastic workload index and elastic double product did not change. Changes in breathing pattern markedly affect the PoB despite constant mechanical load. Other indexes could assess the elastic workload without tidal volume dependence. Power of breathing use should be avoided to compare different mechanical loads or efficiencies of the respiratory muscles when tidal volume is variable.

  20. Effect of postoperative radiotherapy on autologous deep inferior epigastric perforator flap volume after immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, J S; Lee, A; Anderson, W; Baker, L; Stevenson, J H; Dewar, J A; Thompson, A M

    2009-10-01

    The effect of postoperative radiotherapy following autologous flap breast reconstruction is controversial. The aim of this study was to measure whether adjuvant radiotherapy following immediate deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap breast reconstruction affected flap volume. Sixty-eight women underwent immediate autologous DIEP flap reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer. Twenty-two of the 68 received postoperative radiotherapy (45Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks). Intraoperative flap volume data were collected prospectively. Volumetric assessment was carried out a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Patients who had volume adjustment surgery after initial reconstruction were analysed separately. The mean age of the women was 52 (range 37-69) years and median follow-up was 3.5 (range 1-10) years. There was no statistically significant difference in volume change between patients who had and those who did not have postreconstruction radiotherapy for the whole cohort (median reduction 65 versus 0 ml) or when women who had undergone further volume adjustment surgery were excluded. In this study postoperative radiotherapy did not significantly affect breast volume after DIEP flap reconstruction. The potential need for postoperative radiotherapy should not deter women from undergoing immediate DIEP flap breast reconstruction.

  1. Health Effects of Climate Change | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Kathy Sykes provided a general overview of the health effects and the Clean Power Plan expected health benefits while Wayne Cascio discussed the health effects of wildland fires. The Surgeon General requested that the National Prevention representatives from EPA, Kathy Sykes and Wayne Cascio, provide a presentation on the health effects of climate change.

  2. 'Orbital volume restoration rate after orbital fracture'; a CT-based orbital volume measurement for evaluation of orbital wall reconstructive effect.

    PubMed

    Wi, J M; Sung, K H; Chi, M

    2017-01-13

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of orbital reconstruction and factors related to the effect of orbital reconstruction by assessing of orbital volume using orbital computed tomography (CT) in cases of orbital wall fracture.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 68 patients with isolated blowout fractures were evaluated. The volumes of orbits and herniated orbital tissues were determined by CT scans using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique (the Eclipse Treatment Planning System). Orbital CT was performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at final follow ups (minimum of 6 months). We evaluated the reconstructive effect of surgery making a new formula, 'orbital volume reconstruction rate' from orbital volume differences between fractured and contralateral orbits before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow up.ResultsMean volume of fractured orbits before surgery was 23.01±2.60 cm(3) and that of contralateral orbits was 21.31±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.005). Mean volume of the fractured orbits immediately after surgery was 21.29±2.42 cm(3), and that of the contralateral orbits was 21.33±2.52 cm(3) (P=0.921). Mean volume of fractured orbits at final follow up was 21.50±2.44 cm(3), and that of contralateral orbits was 21.32±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.668). The mean orbital volume reconstruction rate was 100.47% immediately after surgery and 99.17% at final follow up. No significant difference in orbital volume reconstruction rate was observed with respect to fracture site or orbital implant type. Patients that underwent operation within 14 days of trauma had a better reconstruction rate at final follow up than patients who underwent operation over 14 days after trauma (P=0.039).ConclusionComputer-based measurements of orbital fracture volume can be used to evaluate the reconstructive effect of orbital implants and provide useful quantitative information. Significant reduction of orbital volume is observed immediately after orbital wall

  3. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2016-09-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  4. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C G; Wilson, T E; Marving, J; Vogelsang, T W; Kjaer, A; Hesse, B; Secher, N H

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P < 0.05). The heat stress reduced the blood volume of the heart (18 +/- 2%), heart plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P volume, while ventricular end-systolic volume was reduced by 24 +/- 6% of pre-heat stress levels (P < 0.001 relative to time control subjects). Thus, heat stress increased left ventricular ejection fraction from 60 +/- 1% to 68 +/- 2% (P = 0.02). We conclude that heat stress shifts blood volume from thoracic and splanchnic regions presumably to aid in heat dissipation, while simultaneously increasing heart rate and ejection fraction.

  5. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different volume and training surfaces during a short-term plyometric training program on neuromuscular performance. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control group (CG, n = 5), moderate volume group (MVG, n = 9, 780 jumps), moderate volume hard surface group (MVGHS, n = 8, 780 jumps), and high volume group (HVG, n = 7, 1,560 jumps). A series of tests were performed by the subjects before and after 7 weeks of plyometric training. These tests were measurement of maximum strength (5 maximum repetitions [5RMs]), drop jumps (DJs) of varying heights (20, 40, and 60 cm), squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ, respectively), timed 20-m sprint, agility, body weight, and height. The results of the present study suggest that high training volume leads to a significant increase in explosive performance that requires fast stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) actions (such as DJ and sprint) in comparison to what is observed after a moderate training volume regimen. Second, when plyometric training is performed on a hard training surface (high-impact reaction force), a moderate training volume induces optimal stimulus to increase explosive performance requiring fast SSC actions (e.g., DJ), maximal dynamic strength enhancement, and higher training efficiency. Thus, a finding of interest in the study was that after 7 weeks of plyometric training, performance enhancement in maximal strength and in actions requiring fast SSC (such as DJ and sprint) were dependent on the volume of training and the surface on which it was performed. This must be taken into account when using plyometric training on different surfaces.

  6. Effect of Hospital Volume on Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Badheka, Apurva O; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Patel, Samir V; Jhamnani, Sunny; Singh, Vikas; Pant, Sadip; Patel, Nish; Patel, Nilay; Arora, Shilpkumar; Thakkar, Badal; Manvar, Sohilkumar; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Patel, Achint; Savani, Chirag; Patel, Jay; Chothani, Ankit; Savani, Ghanshyambhai T; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Grines, Cindy L; Curtis, Jeptha; Mangi, Abeel A; Cleman, Michael; Forrest, John K

    2015-08-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with a significant learning curve. There is paucity of data regarding the effect of hospital volume on outcomes after TAVI. This is a cross-sectional study based on Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample database of 2012. Subjects were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes, 35.05 (Trans-femoral/Trans-aortic Replacement of Aortic Valve) and 35.06 (Trans-apical Replacement of Aortic Valve). Annual hospital TAVI volumes were calculated using unique identification numbers and then divided into quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression models were created. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality; secondary outcome was a composite of inhospital mortality and periprocedural complications. Length of stay (LOS) and cost of hospitalization were assessed. The study included 1,481 TAVIs (weighted n = 7,405). Overall inhospital mortality rate was 5.1%, postprocedural complication rate was 43.4%, median LOS was 6 days, and median cost of hospitalization was $51,975. Inhospital mortality rates decreased with increasing hospital TAVI volume with a rate of 6.4% for lowest volume hospitals (first quartile), 5.9% (second quartile), 5.2% (third quartile), and 2.8% for the highest volume TAVI hospitals (fourth quartile). Complication rates were significantly higher in hospitals with the lowest volume quartile (48.5%) compared to hospitals in the second (44.2%), third (39.7%), and fourth (41.5%) quartiles (p <0.001). Increasing hospital volume was independently predictive of shorter LOS and lower hospitalization costs. In conclusion, higher annual hospital volumes are significantly predictive of reduced postprocedural mortality, complications, shorter LOS, and lower hospitalization costs after TAVI.

  7. Effects of Lugol's iodine solution and formalin on cell volume of three bloom-forming dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Yongfang

    2017-07-01

    Fixatives are traditionally used in marine ecosystem research. The bias introduced by fixatives on the dimensions of plankton cells may lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the carbon biomass. To determine the impact of traditional fixatives on dinoflagellates during short- and long-term fixation, we analyzed the degree of change in three bloom-forming dinoflagellates ( Prorocentrum micans, Scrippsiella trochoidea and Noctiluca scintillans) brought about by Lugol's iodine solution (hereafter Lugol's) and formalin. The fixation effects were species-specific. P. micans cell volume showed no significant change following long-term preservation, and S. trochoidea swelled by approximately 8.06% in Lugol's and by 20.97% in formalin as a percentage of the live cell volume, respectively. N. scintillans shrank significantly in both fixatives. The volume change due to formalin in N. scintillans was not concentration-dependent, whereas the volume shrinkage of N. scintillans cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 2% was nearly six-fold that in cells fixed with Lugol's at a concentration of 0.6%-0.8%. To better estimate the volume of N. scintillans fixed in formalin at a concentration of 5%, we suggest that the conversion relationship was as follows: volume of live cell=volume of intact fixed cell/0.61. Apart from size change, damage induced by fixatives on N. scintillans was obvious. Lugol's is not a suitable fixative for N. scintillans due to high frequency of broken cells. Accurate carbon biomass estimate of N. scintillans should be performed on live samples. These findings help to improve the estimate of phytoplankton cell volume and carbon biomass in marine ecosystem.

  8. Does diet mediate associations of volume and bouts of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health indicators in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Methods Adolescents (12‐19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z‐scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip‐worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐hour dietary recalls. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine five dietary mediators [total energy intake, discretionary foods, sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables, and dietary quality] of the relationship between total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI and MetS. Results Total sedentary time was inversely associated with zBMI (β = −1.33; 95% CI −2.53 to −0.13) but attenuated after adjusting for moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity. No significant associations were observed between usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI or either sedentary measure with MetS. None of the five dietary variables mediated any of the relationships examined. Conclusions Further studies are needed to explore associations of specific time periods (e.g., after school) and bout durations with both cardiometabolic health indicators and dietary behaviors. PMID:28120527

  9. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  10. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  11. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns.

  12. Measuring the health effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Phillips, S P

    2008-04-01

    The health effects of gender are mediated via group-level constraints of sex roles and norms, discrimination and marginalisation of individuals, and internalisation of the stresses of role discordance. Although gender is frequently a lens through which data are interpreted there are few composite measures that insert gender as an independent variable into research design. Instead, sex disaggregation of data is often conflated with gender, identifying statistically significant but sometimes clinically insignificant sex differences. To directly assess the impact of gender on wellbeing requires development of group and individual-level derived variables. At the ecological level such a summative variable could be composed of a selection of group-level measures of equality between sexes. This gender index could be used in ecological and individual-level studies of health outcomes. A quantitative indicator of gender role acceptance and of the personal effects of gender inequities could insert the often hidden variable of gender into individual-level clinical research.

  13. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  14. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  15. [The dose-volume factor in radiotherapy. Significance of the focal or tumor volume for the evaluation of radiotherapeutic effect].

    PubMed

    Busch, M; Popp, F A

    1975-01-01

    The absorbed energy dose, in dependence on the irradiated tissue volume or tumor volume (dose-volume-relations) has great significance for the valuation of radiation injuries and of the prognosis of the disease. The present paper includes an analysis, formal demonstrations and interpretation of these relations. Clinical observations and radiobiological experiments in literature were the basis of the present investigation. The assessment is kept simple, the models derived from it interprete well the clinical findings. Through these models, radiobiological findings and clinical experimental principles are connected. This results in a clear conception of the future development of irradiation planning, and the application technique of radiation. The range of validity of the cited models includes the treated volumes usual in radiotherapy. An extrapolation to the cellulary area or to the whole body may only be made with great reservations.

  16. Potential effects of fat on magnetic resonance signal intensity and derived brain tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity/overweight is reported to affect MR-measured brain tissue volume and white matter (WM) signal intensity. This study investigated possible effects of fat on these measures, using pig fat on three participants at a 4 Tesla magnet. Gray matter volumes in the presence of fat were lower than baseline measures. Total WM volumes in the presence of fat were higher than baseline measures. WM hypo-intensities on T1-weighted images were higher in the presence of fat than baseline measures. Therefore physical effects of head fat of obese/overweight individual may at least, partly contribute to the association of obesity/overweight with MR structural measures. PMID:26259685

  17. The effect of hysterectomy on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M; Sadhukhan, M; Tom, B; Al-Taher, H

    2002-09-01

    This was a prospective, clinical study to evaluate the effect of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy for benign indications on urinary symptoms and residual bladder volume. One hundred and seven women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions were included in the study that took place in a district general hospital between April 1998 and January 2000. Urinary symptoms such as stress incontinence of urine, urgency, frequency, nocturia, sensation of incomplete voiding and voiding difficulties were considered. A questionnaire was filled out and the residual bladder volume measured with a 'Bard' bladder scanner on three occasions-before the operation, postoperative days 3 or 4 and at the 6-week postoperative visit. Statistical analysis involved using a generalised estimating equation and significance assessed at the 5% level. Each woman acted as her own control. There was no evidence of changes in nocturia and voiding difficulties after surgery. All other symptoms and residual bladder volumes decreased significantly postoperatively. The type of hysterectomy did not have an effect.

  18. Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.

  19. Thyroid toxicants: assessing reproductive health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Gloria D; Choksi, Neepa Y; Moore, John A; Shelby, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    A thyroid toxicant workshop sponsored by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction convened on 28-29 April 2003 in Alexandria, Virginia. The purpose of this workshop was to examine and discuss chemical-induced thyroid dysfunction in experimental animals and the relevance of reproductive and developmental effects observed for prediction of adverse effects in humans. Presentations highlighted and compared reproductive and developmental effects of thyroid hormones in humans and rodents. Rodent models of thyroid system dysfunction were presented. Animal testing protocols were reviewed, taking into account protocol designs that allow extrapolation to possible human health effects. Potential screening methods to assess toxicant-induced thyroid dysfunction were outlined, and postnatal bioassays of thyroid-related effects were discussed. PMID:14998754

  20. Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of ten individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection. Recent findings A total of 53 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, COPD, lung cancer and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated due to exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects due to particulate matter (PM), ozone and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Summary Continued vigilence will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multi-national level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national and global level. PMID:26761628

  1. Pulmonary health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infection. A total of 52 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly, and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated because of exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects because of particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Continued vigilance will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multinational level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises, and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national, and global level.

  2. Effectiveness of bromochlorophene on gingival health.

    PubMed

    Bercy, P; Flamand, Y; Defleur, P

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a commercial toothpaste containing 0.2% bromochlorophene (BCP) on established plaque and gingivitis was compared with placebo. The two toothpastes were similar in packaging, taste, consistency, and color. Thirty-two patients with chronic gingivitis were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind comparison and were asked to brush twice a day with the given toothpaste without changing their oral hygiene habits. Plaque index, gingival index, gingival crevicular fluid, and papillary bleeding index were recorded at baseline and after 3 weeks. Significant decreases in gingival and papillary bleeding indices were noted in the BCP group, as compared with the placebo group. Plaque index significantly decreased in both groups. No significant change was noted in the volume of gingival crevicular fluid.

  3. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. V. Xylenes: health effects, toxicokinetics, human exposure, and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Fay, M; Eisenmann, C; Diwan, S; de Rosa, C

    1998-01-01

    Xylenes, or dimethylbenzenes, are among the highest-volume chemicals in production. Common uses are for gasoline blending, as a solvent or component in a wide variety of products from paints to printing ink, and in the production of phthalates and polyester. They are often encountered as a mixture of the three dimethyl isomers, together with ethylbenzene. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that are of greatest concern for public health purposes. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of the bulk of this profile (ATSDR, 1995) into the mainstream scientific literature. An extensive listing of known human and animal health effects, organized by route, duration, and end point, is presented. Toxicological information on toxicokinetics, biomarkers, interactions, sensitive subpopulations, reducing toxicity after exposure, and relevance to public health is also included. Environmental information encompasses physical properties, production and use, environmental fate, levels seen in the environment, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations. ATSDR, as mandated by CERCLA (or Superfund), prepares these profiles to inform and assist the public.

  4. The effect of carbon dioxide, respiratory rate and tidal volume on human heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Pöyhönen, M; Syväoja, S; Hartikainen, J; Ruokonen, E; Takala, J

    2004-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used for assessment of depth of anesthesia. Alterations in respiratory rate and tidal volume modulate the sympatovagal neural drive to the heart. The changes in PaCO2 that accompany changes in breathing pattern may, through chemoreceptors in the brainstem, independently influence the autonomic control of the heart and modulate HRV. We measured the effects of PaCO2, tidal volume and respiratory rate on HRV during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation in 22 healthy volunteers and in 25 mechanically ventilated anesthetized patients. Adding CO2 to the inspiratory gas increased high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV in awake volunteers both during spontaneous and mechanical ventilation, while this effect of CO2 was abolished in patients during anesthesia. Increase of tidal volume increased HF component of HRV only in volunteers during spontaneous ventilation. On the other hand, when respiratory rate was reduced, the balance of HF and LF power moved toward LF power in all study groups. Breathing frequency altered HRV independent on PaCO2, tidal volume and the level of consciousness. In contrast, the effect of PaCO2 appeared to be related to normal level of consciousness, suggesting that a cortical modulation of the autonomic nervous activity contributes to the effects of PaCO2 on HRV. PaCO2, tidal volume and respiratory rate should be controlled when HRV power spectrum is measured in conscious patients or volunteers, while in anesthetized patients small changes in end-tidal CO2 or tidal volume do not modulate HRV if respiratory rate remains unchanged.

  5. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred; Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael; Prooijen, Monique van; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Laperriere, Norm; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  6. Effects of international football matches on ambulance call profiles and volumes during the 2006 World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Deakin, Charles D; Thompson, Fizz; Gibson, Caroline; Green, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Prompt ambulance attendance is aimed at improving patient care. With finite resources struggling to meet performance targets, unforeseen demand precludes the ability to tailor resources to cope with increased call volumes, and can have a marked detrimental effect on performance and hence patient care. The effects of the 2006 World Cup football matches on call volumes and profiles were analysed to understand how public events can influence demands on the ambulance service. Methods All emergency calls to the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust (currently the Hampshire Division of South Central Ambulance Service, Winchester, UK) during the first weekend of the 2006 World Cup football matches were analysed by call volume and classification of call (call type). Results On the day of the first football match, call volume was over 50% higher than that on a typical Saturday, with distinct peaks before and after the inaugural match. Call profile analysis showed increases in alcohol‐related emergencies, including collapse, unconsciousness, assault and road traffic accidents. The increase in assaults was particularly marked at the end of each match and increased again into the late evening. Conclusion A detailed mapping of call volumes and profiles during the World Cup football shows a significant increase in overall emergency calls, mostly alcohol related. Mapping of limited resources to these patterns will allow improved responses to emergency calls. PMID:17513536

  7. Effect of transformation volume contraction on the toughness of superelastic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenyi; Wang, Chun Hui; Zhang, Xin Ping; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2002-12-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit two very important properties: shape memory phenomenon and superelastic deformation due to intrinsic thermoelastic martensitic transformation. To fully exploit the potential of SMAs in developing functional structures or smart structures in mechanical and biomechanical engineering, it is important to understand and quantify the failure mechanisms of SMAs. This paper presents a theoretical study of the effect of phase-transformation-induced volume contraction on the fracture properties of superelastic SMAs. A simple model is employed to account for the forward and reverse phase transformation with pure volume change, which is then applied to numerically study the transformation field near the tip of a tensile crack. The results reveal that during steady-state crack propagation, the transformation zone extends ahead of the crack tip due to forward transformation while partial reverse transformation occurs in the wake. Furthermore, as a result of the volume contraction associated with the austenite-to-martensite transformation, the induced stress-intensity factor is positive. This is in stark contrast with the negative stress-intensity factor achieved in zirconia ceramics, which undergoes volume expansion during phase transformation. The reverse transformation has been found to have a negligible effect on the induced stress-intensity factor. An important implication of the present results is that the phase transformation with volume contraction in SMAs tends to reduce their fracture resistance and increase the brittleness.

  8. Effect of isosmotic removal of extracellular Na+ on cell volume and membrane potential in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rasgado, C; Summers, J C; McGruder, K D; DeSantiago, J; Rasgado-Flores, H

    1994-09-01

    Isosmotic removal of extracellular Na+ (Nao) is a frequently performed manipulation. With the use of isolated voltage-clamped barnacle muscle cells, the effect of this manipulation on isosmotic cell volume was studied. Replacement of Nao by tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane produced membrane depolarization (approximately 20 mV) and cell volume loss (approximately 14%). The membrane depolarization was verapamil insensitive but depended on extracellular Ca2+ (Cao) and was probably due to activation of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai)-dependent nonselective cation channels. The cell volume loss did not require membrane depolarization but depended on Cao. This was probably due to an increase in Cai, mediated by activation of Ca2+ influx via Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Nao replacement by Li+ also promoted membrane depolarization (approximately 20 mV) and cell volume loss (20%). Both effects were reduced (approximately 73%) but were not abolished by Cao removal. Under this condition, the remaining membrane depolarization was probably due to a higher membrane permeability of Li+ over Na+. The remaining cell volume loss was due to membrane depolarization, which probably induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores.

  9. Effects of the volume conductor on the apparent orientation of a known cardiac dipole.

    PubMed

    Salu, Y; Laughlin, D; Rogers, J; Marcus, M

    1978-04-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (EKG) is dependent on two major factors: the cardiac generator and the volume conductor. This investigation assessed the effects of the volume conductor in man on the apparent orientation of a simulated cardiac dipole. The apparent orientation of the dipole was calculated from measured surface potentials from about 60 locations on the body of five patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. The real orientation of the dipole (an implanted pacemaker) was determined radiographically. The effects of both inhomogeneity and boundary characteristics of the volume conductor on the apparent orientation of the dipole were assessed using a new inverse algorithm. The difference between the orientation of the real and the calculated dipoles averaged 30 degrees (range 15 degrees--40 degrees) when the torso was assumed to be an infinite-homogeneous volume conductor. When the configuration of the torso was accounted for, however, the difference between the orientation of the real and calculated dipoles was reduced to 9 degrees (range 5 degrees--13 degrees). Thus, by taking into account the geometry of the torso and neglecting the inhomogeneities in the volume conductor, it is possible to calculate the orientation of a dipole in the cardiac region with an accuracy of about 9 degrees. It is reasonable to assume that the orientation of real activation wave fronts from localized areas of the heart could be calculated with a similar degree of accuracy.

  10. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  11. Health-promoting effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yasuo; MIYOSHI, Noriyuki; ISEMURA, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings. PMID:22450537

  12. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  13. Human health effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Modification of the stratosphere, such as a reduction in its equilibrium ozone content, could produce direct and indirect effects on human health. The direct hazard to humans would be caused by an increase in the cumulative amount of UV radiation reaching the earth's surface in the range of 285 to 340 nm, encompassing the UV-B or erythemal wavelength region of 280 to 320 nm. Exposing the susceptible human population to an increased total UV dosage of shorter wavelengths could increase skin cancer incidence. Although effects would be delayed by decades, for each 1% decrease in ozone the expected increase in skin cancer incidence would be on the order of 2%.

  14. Health effects of probiotics on the skin.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, M Rahmati; Karimi, R; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial, and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly that can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, and allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection, and as a cosmetic product. The current paper comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

  15. Summary review of the health effects associated with phenol.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R M; Santodonato, J; Neal, M W

    1987-12-01

    Phenol, a monohydroxy derivative of benzene, occurs naturally in animal waste and by decomposition of organic wastes. It is also produced by man, originally by fractional distillation of coal tar, but more recently by cumene hydroperoxidation and toluene oxidation. As a result of large production volume and natural sources, occupational and environmental exposure to phenol is likely. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, vapor inhalation, or ingestion, and, regardless of route of exposure, can result in detrimental health effects. Acute toxicity has been observed in man and experimental animals, resulting in muscle weakness, convulsions, and coma. In addition, studies have shown that although teratogenic effects have not been associated with exposure to phenol by either inhalation or oral route, high doses of phenol are fetotoxic. This paper addresses these studies and others in an attempt to determine if human health is at risk to those levels of phenol present in the environment and workplace. However, because data are limited, further research is necessary to analyze the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of this chemical.

  16. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  17. Neurophysiologic Analysis of the Effects of Interactive Tailored Health Videos on Attention to Health Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung A.

    2011-01-01

    Web-based tailored approaches hold much promise as effective means for delivering health education and improving public health. This study examines the effects of interactive tailored health videos on attention to health messages using neurophysiological changes measured by Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (EKG). Sixty-eight…

  18. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  19. Student Assessment System. Domain Referenced Tests. Allied Health Occupations/Practical Nursing. Volume II: Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Gene, Comp.; Simpson, Bruce, Comp.

    These written domain referenced tests (DRTs) for the area of allied health occupations/practical nursing test cognitive abilities or knowledge of theory. Introductory materials describe domain referenced testing and test development. Each multiple choice test includes a domain statement, describing the behavior and content of the domain, and a…

  20. Completed Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. Volume 31, 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberland, Craig, Ed.; Moffatt, Robert J., Ed.

    This compilation lists research completed during 1988 in the areas of health, physical education, recreation, dance, and allied areas. The compilation includes 513 entries, most with substantive abstracts, of master's theses and doctoral dissertations from institutions offering graduate programs in those areas. A 1,225-item bibliography of…