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Sample records for health emotional response

  1. Health Literacy and Emotional Responses Related to Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kristina; Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose was to begin to examine continence literacy of individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) by describing terms by which these individuals referred to FI and to explore their emotional responses to FI. A secondary aim was to compare differences in these results between male versus female and younger (< 65 yrs) versus older persons with FI. Design Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a clinical trial of fiber supplementation for FI. Methods Content analysis of participants’ statements reported in field notes of data collectors and their responses to data forms and questions. Results Six thematic categories of terms for FI emerged. Only one person used the term “fecal incontinence.” Alternate terms described stool characteristics, named other gastrointestinal problems, or referred to FI using a term that seemed to depersonalize the problems. Emotional responses to FI focused on the influence of bothersome symptoms of FI, interference with social activities, and need for control. Others showed use of humor for coping and emotional benefits gained from being in a study. Women were impacted by the social limitations of having FI more than men. Younger people expressed feelings of emotional upset. Conclusion There is need to increase health literacy about fecal incontinence. Continence nurse specialists are well qualified to educate patients about FI and to evaluate if higher continence literacy increases reporting of FI. Understanding the various emotional responses to FI may guide the optimal support that nurses can provide and facilitate better management of FI. PMID:20075695

  2. Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Bioterrorism: Planning a Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Bradley D; Tanielian, Terri L; Eisenman, David P; Keyser, Donna J; Burnam, M Audrey; Pincus, Harold A

    2004-01-01

    Millions of dollars have been spent improving the public health system's bioterrorism response capabilities. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to precisely how the public will respond to bioterrorism and how emotional and behavioral responses might complicate an otherwise successful response. This article synthesizes the available evidence about the likely emotional and behavioral consequences of bioterrorism to suggest what decision makers can do now to improve that response. It examines the emotional and behavioral impact of previous “bioterrorism-like” events and summarizes interviews with experts who have responded to such events or conducted research on the effects of communitywide disasters. The article concludes by reflecting on the evidence and experts’ perspectives to suggest actions to be taken now and future policy and research priorities. PMID:15330972

  3. Impact of health claims in prebiotic-enriched breads on purchase intent, emotional response and product liking.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Katie L; Miah, Emma M; Morris, Gordon A; Morris, Cecile

    2014-03-01

    The impact of health claims on purchase intent, emotional response and liking has never been previously reported. In this study, prebiotic-enriched bread was used as a model functional food. Purchase intent, emotional response and liking were investigated in three phases: (1) focus groups were used to gauge consumer perception of health claims and functional foods, (2) the impact of health claims on purchase intent and emotional responses were measured using an online survey (n = 122) and (3) hedonic ratings on bread rolls presented with or without any associated claims were obtained (n = 100). A cluster analysis of the purchase intent data identified two clusters of consumers who were either receptive or non-receptive to health claims. Receptive and non-receptive consumers significantly differed in the emotions they reported with respect to the claims. The hedonic ratings did not significantly differ between the breads tasted with or without health claims.

  4. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that…

  5. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that…

  6. [Promotion of Mental Health - Technologies for Care: emotional involvement, rteception, co-responsibility and autonomy].

    PubMed

    Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Pinto, Diego Muniz; Quinderé, Paulo Henrique Dias; Pinto, Antonio Germane Alves; Sousa, Fernando Sérgio Pereira de; Cavalcante, Cinthia Mendonça

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare relations serve as efficient devices for the promotion of mental health and the development of comprehensive practices. This study seeks to analyze the measures that make mental healthcare possible in the daily operations of a Psychosocial Healthcare Center (CAPS). It is qualitative research adopting a critical and reflexive approach conducted in CAPS in the municipality of Sobral in the State of Ceará. Complying with regulations, the study was submitted for analysis by the Committee for Ethics in Research adhering to norms for research involving human beings. For data gathering, conducted between May and July 2008, semi-structured and systematic observation interview techniques were used. The research subjects involved 20 people, distributed into three groups: group I (mental health workers-8); group II (users-7) and group III (relatives of users-5). The material was organized and analyzed using principles of critical hermeneutics. According to the results, in the daily operations of CAPS, the relations of care and its devices (reception, emotional involvement, co-responsibility and autonomy) make the transversal adaptation of psychosocial practices possible. The dialogues were derived from meetings of mental health workers, users and relatives in their quest for healthcare solutions.

  7. Airway response to emotion- and disease-specific films in asthma, blood phobia, and health.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Wilhelm, Frank H; Meuret, Alicia E; Gerlach, Alexander L; Roth, Walton T

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research found autonomic and airway reactivity in asthma patients when they were exposed to blood-injection-injury (BII) stimuli. We studied oscillatory resistance (R(os)) in asthma and BII phobia during emotional and disease-relevant films and examined whether muscle tension counteracts emotion-induced airway constriction. Fifteen asthma patients, 12 BII phobia patients, and 14 healthy controls viewed one set of negative, positive, neutral, BII-related, and asthma-related films with leg muscle tension and a second set without. R(os), ventilation, cardiovascular activity, and skin conductance were measured continuously. R(os) was higher during emotional compared to neutral films, particularly during BII material, and responses increased from healthy over asthmatic to BII phobia participants. Leg muscle tension did not abolish R(os) increases. Thus, the airways are particularly responsive to BII-relevant stimuli, which could become risk factors for asthma patients. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Sensitivity to emotional ill health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    The services of mental specialists, such as psychologists, psychiatrists, or psychiatric social workers are required to assure maximum human performance in Government facilities. Contemporary mental health programming covers emotionally generated problems at operational sites to complete disclaiming of the existence of such difficulties among workers. Frequent taking of sick leave or annual leave when work seems demanding or when a promotion does not materialize, chronic or repeated tardiness, requests for frequent transfers, work over-loading, accidental injuries, and alcoholism are all forms of stress responses and indicate a need for emotional counselling.

  9. Emotional intelligence of mental health nurses.

    PubMed

    van Dusseldorp, Loes R L C; van Meijel, Berno K G; Derksen, Jan J L

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the level of emotional intelligence of mental health nurses in the Netherlands. The focus in research on emotional intelligence to date has been on a variety of professionals. However, little is known about emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. The emotional intelligence of 98 Dutch nurses caring for psychiatric patients is reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory within a cross-sectional research design. The mean level of emotional intelligence of this sample of professionals is statistically significant higher than the emotional intelligence of the general population. Female nurses score significantly higher than men on the subscales Empathy, Social Responsibility, Interpersonal Relationship, Emotional Self-awareness, Self-Actualisation and Assertiveness. No correlations are found between years of experience and age on the one hand and emotional intelligence on the other hand. The results of this study show that nurses in psychiatric care indeed score above average in the emotional intelligence required to cope with the amount of emotional labour involved in daily mental health practice. The ascertained large range in emotional intelligence scores among the mental health nurses challenges us to investigate possible implications which higher or lower emotional intelligence levels may have on the quality of care. For instance, a possible relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the quality of the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship or the relation between the level of emotional intelligence and the manner of coping with situations characterised by a great amount of emotional labour (such as caring for patients who self-harm or are suicidal). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional health can still have emotional problems or mental illness. Mental illness often has a physical cause. This could be ... problems with family, work, or school can trigger mental illness or make it worse.Counseling, support groups, and ...

  11. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  12. Emotional states and physical health.

    PubMed

    Salovey, P; Rothman, A J; Detweiler, J B; Steward, W T

    2000-01-01

    Positive emotional states may promote healthy perceptions, beliefs, and physical well-being itself. To explore potential mechanisms linking pleasant feelings and good health, the authors consider several lines of research, including (a) direct effects of positive affect on physiology, especially the immune system, (b) the information value of emotional experiences, (c) the psychological resources engendered by positive feeling states, (d) the ways in which mood can motivate health-relevant behaviors, and (e) the elicitation of social support. As anticipated by the Greek physician Hippocrates, positive emotions and healthy outcomes may be linked through multiple pathways.

  13. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection. PMID:26869844

  14. Emotional responses to interpersonal rejection.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of human emotion arises in response to real, anticipated, remembered, or imagined rejection by other people. Because acceptance by other people improved evolutionary fitness, human beings developed biopsychological mechanisms to apprise them of threats to acceptance and belonging, along with emotional systems to deal with threats to acceptance. This article examines seven emotions that often arise when people perceive that their relational value to other people is low or in potential jeopardy, including hurt feelings, jealousy, loneliness, shame, guilt, social anxiety, and embarrassment. Other emotions, such as sadness and anger, may occur during rejection episodes, but are reactions to features of the situation other than low relational value. The article discusses the evolutionary functions of rejection-related emotions, neuroscience evidence regarding the brain regions that mediate reactions to rejection, and behavioral research from social, developmental, and clinical psychology regarding psychological and behavioral concomitants of interpersonal rejection.

  15. Long life to emotions: emotional response categorisation across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Luigi; Lanza, Francesca

    2011-12-01

    People perceive and organise their social world on the basis of their previous semantic knowledge as well as on the basis of their emotional responses. We tested the hypothesis that emotional response categorisation, namely the tendency to group stimuli on the basis of the emotion they evoke, increases across the lifespan. Young and older adults were asked to categorise target words and either conceptual or emotional response similarity could be used to perform the task. Results showed that older adults were more likely than younger adults to rely on emotional equivalence to categorise stimuli. In addition, current affective state was significantly related to emotional response categorisation. These findings are discussed in relation to recent models that propose a prominent role for emotions in the social life of older adults.

  16. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  17. Development of the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences to code health providers' responses (VR-CoDES-P) to patient cues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Del Piccolo, Lidia; de Haes, Hanneke; Heaven, Cathy; Jansen, Jesse; Verheul, William; Bensing, Jozien; Bergvik, Svein; Deveugele, Myriam; Eide, Hilde; Fletcher, Ian; Goss, Claudia; Humphris, Gerry; Kim, Young-Mi; Langewitz, Wolf; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Mjaaland, Trond; Moretti, Francesca; Nübling, Matthias; Rimondini, Michela; Salmon, Peter; Sibbern, Tonje; Skre, Ingunn; van Dulmen, Sandra; Wissow, Larry; Young, Bridget; Zandbelt, Linda; Zimmermann, Christa; Finset, Arnstein

    2011-02-01

    To present a method to classify health provider responses to patient cues and concerns according to the VR-CoDES-CC (Del Piccolo et al. (2009) [2] and Zimmermann et al. (submitted for publication) [3]). The system permits sequence analysis and a detailed description of how providers handle patient's expressions of emotion. The Verona-CoDES-P system has been developed based on consensus views within the "Verona Network of Sequence Analysis". The different phases of the creation process are described in detail. A reliability study has been conducted on 20 interviews from a convenience sample of 104 psychiatric consultations. The VR-CoDES-P has two main classes of provider responses, corresponding to the degree of explicitness (yes/no) and space (yes/no) that is given by the health provider to each cue/concern expressed by the patient. The system can be further subdivided into 17 individual categories. Statistical analyses showed that the VR-CoDES-P is reliable (agreement 92.86%, Cohen's kappa 0.90 (±0.04) p<0.0001). Once validity and reliability are tested in different settings, the system should be applied to investigate the relationship between provider responses to patients' expression of emotions and outcome variables. Research employing the VR-CoDES-P should be applied to develop research-based approaches to maximize appropriate responses to patients' indirect and overt expressions of emotional needs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Personal experiences and emotionality in health-related knowledge exchange in Internet forums: a randomized controlled field experiment comparing responses to facts vs personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Bientzle, Martina; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-12-04

    On the Internet, people share personal experiences as well as facts and objective information. This also holds true for the exchange of health-related information in a variety of Internet forums. In online discussions about health topics, both fact-oriented and strongly personal contributions occur on a regular basis. In this field experiment, we examined in what way the particular type of contribution (ie, factual information vs personal experiences) has an impact on the subsequent communication in health-related Internet forums. For this purpose, we posted parallelized queries to 28 comparable Internet forums; queries were identical with regard to the information contained but included either fact-oriented descriptions or personal experiences related to measles vaccination. In the factual information condition, we posted queries to the forums that contained the neutral summary of a scientific article. In the personal experiences condition, we posted queries to the forums that contained the same information as in the first condition, but were framed as personal experiences We found no evidence that personal experiences evoked more responses (mean 3.79, SD 3.91) from other members of the Internet forums than fact-oriented contributions (mean 2.14, SD 2.93, t26=0.126, P=.219). But personal experiences elicited emotional replies (mean 3.17, SD 1.29) from other users to a greater extent than fact-oriented contributions (mean 2.13, SD 1.29, t81=3.659, P<.001). We suggest that personal experiences elicited more emotional replies due to the process of emotional anchoring of people's own style of communication. We recommend future studies should aim at testing the hypotheses with more general and with less emotionally charged topics, constructing different fact-oriented posts, and examining additional potential factors of influence such as personality factors or particular communication situations.

  19. Flexible emotional responsiveness in trait resilience.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Christian E; Thompson, Renee J; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-10-01

    Field studies and laboratory experiments have documented that a key component of resilience is emotional flexibility--the ability to respond flexibly to changing emotional circumstances. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that resilient people exhibit emotional flexibility: (a) in response to frequently changing emotional stimuli and (b) across multiple modalities of emotional responding. As participants viewed a series of emotional pictures, we assessed their self-reported affect, facial muscle activity, and startle reflexes. Higher trait resilience predicted more divergent affective and facial responses (corrugator and zygomatic) to positive versus negative pictures. Thus, compared with their low-resilient counterparts, resilient people appear to be able to more flexibly match their emotional responses to the frequently changing emotional stimuli. Moreover, whereas high-trait-resilient participants exhibited divergent startle responses to positive versus negative pictures regardless of the valence of the preceding trial, low-trait-resilient participants did not exhibit divergent startle responses when the preceding picture was negative. High-trait-resilient individuals, therefore, appear to be better able than are their low-resilient counterparts to either switch or maintain their emotional responses depending on whether the emotional context changes. The present findings broaden our understanding of the mechanisms underlying resilience by demonstrating that resilient people are able to flexibly change their affective and physiological responses to match the demands of frequently changing environmental circumstances.

  20. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  1. [Emotional intelligence and oscillatory responses on the emotional facial expressions].

    PubMed

    Kniazev, G G; Mitrofanova, L G; Bocharov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence-related differences in oscillatory responses to emotional facial expressions were investigated in 48 subjects (26 men and 22 women) in age 18-30 years. Participants were instructed to evaluate emotional expression (angry, happy and neutral) of each presented face on an analog scale ranging from -100 (very hostile) to + 100 (very friendly). High emotional intelligence (EI) participants were found to be more sensitive to the emotional content of the stimuli. It showed up both in their subjective evaluation of the stimuli and in a stronger EEG theta synchronization at an earlier (between 100 and 500 ms after face presentation) processing stage. Source localization using sLORETA showed that this effect was localized in the fusiform gyrus upon the presentation of angry faces and in the posterior cingulate gyrus upon the presentation of happy faces. At a later processing stage (500-870 ms) event-related theta synchronization in high emotional intelligence subject was higher in the left prefrontal cortex upon the presentation of happy faces, but it was lower in the anterior cingulate cortex upon presentation of angry faces. This suggests the existence of a mechanism that can be selectively increase the positive emotions and reduce negative emotions.

  2. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  3. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  4. Emotion regulation in adolescents with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; Castellini, Julieta; Moses, Ernestina; Scott, James G

    2016-01-01

    Current literature points to a clear and consistent association between poor emotion control and psychopathology in adolescence, a critical developmental period during which most adult mental health problems emerge. However, nearly all of the studies in this literature have assessed emotion regulation in nonclinical cohorts, or indexed this construct using only self-report methodology. The present study compared adolescents with a mental illness (n = 41) to demographically matched controls (n = 45) on an experimental task that required them to either suppress or amplify their emotion expressive behavior in response to images that were either negative or positive in affective valence. Clinical participants (like controls) showed evidence of being able to regulate their behavioral expression of emotion, indicating that the presence of mental health problems in adolescence does not prevent a basic level of control being exercised over the emotions that are expressed to others. However, the capacity to amplify expressive behavior was reduced, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, poorer emotion regulation in the clinical group was associated with reduced quality of life. These data indicate that specific aspects of emotion expressive behavior are disrupted in adolescents with mental illness and are discussed in the context of theoretical models that regard emotion dysregulation as a core, transdiagnostic feature of mental illness.

  5. [Gender and emotional response induced by imagery].

    PubMed

    Lasa Aristu, Amaia; Vallejo Pareja, M A; Domínguez Sánchez, Javier

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore gender differences in emotional expression: Do men benefit from their stereotyped response pattern to some negative affects such as sadness? Do women benefit less than men from positive affect? We studied sadness and happiness in the laboratory, using imagery induction with some temporal proximity, and registering physiological, facial, and cognitive responses. The results show a complex panorama in which the differences depend on the emotional content and presentation order. The results are in accordance with the educational theories that postulate prototypical emotional education, and indicate a way to reduce the problems related to women's sensitization to sadness, using the beneficial effects of positive experiences.

  6. LSD enhances the emotional response to music.

    PubMed

    Kaelen, M; Barrett, F S; Roseman, L; Lorenz, R; Family, N; Bolstridge, M; Curran, H V; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2015-10-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, the hypothesis that psychedelics enhance the emotional response to music has yet to be investigated in a modern placebo-controlled study. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that music-evoked emotions are enhanced under LSD. Ten healthy volunteers listened to five different tracks of instrumental music during each of two study days, a placebo day followed by an LSD day, separated by 5-7 days. Subjective ratings were completed after each music track and included a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the nine-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-9). Results demonstrated that the emotional response to music is enhanced by LSD, especially the emotions "wonder", "transcendence", "power" and "tenderness". These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Further research is required to test this link directly.

  7. Emotional responses to recreation environments

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. More

    1980-01-01

    Recreation visits to natural areas are often supposed to result in a variety of unique emotional benefits for urban people. To test this, data on the moods of visitors to state parks, golf courses and museums were compared. The results indicated that (1) visitors arrived at all of the areas with moderate levels of positive moods and low levels of negative moods; (2)...

  8. Modeling listeners' emotional response to music.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas

    2012-10-01

    An overview of the computational prediction of emotional responses to music is presented. Communication of emotions by music has received a great deal of attention during the last years and a large number of empirical studies have described the role of individual features (tempo, mode, articulation, timbre) in predicting the emotions suggested or invoked by the music. However, unlike the present work, relatively few studies have attempted to model continua of expressed emotions using a variety of musical features from audio-based representations in a correlation design. The construction of the computational model is divided into four separate phases, with a different focus for evaluation. These phases include the theoretical selection of relevant features, empirical assessment of feature validity, actual feature selection, and overall evaluation of the model. Existing research on music and emotions and extraction of musical features is reviewed in terms of these criteria. Examples drawn from recent studies of emotions within the context of film soundtracks are used to demonstrate each phase in the construction of the model. These models are able to explain the dominant part of the listeners' self-reports of the emotions expressed by music and the models show potential to generalize over different genres within Western music. Possible applications of the computational models of emotions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Personality traits modulate emotional and physiological responses to stress

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Emma; White, Tara L.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    An individual’s susceptibility to psychological and physical disorders associated with chronic stress exposure e.g., cardiovascular and infectious disease, may also be predicted by their reactivity to acute stress. One factor associated with both stress resilience and health outcomes is personality. An understanding of how personality influences responses to acute stress may shed light upon individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress-linked disease. This study examined relationships between personality and acute responses to stress in 125 healthy adults, using hierarchical linear regression. We assessed personality traits using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BF), and responses to acute stress (cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure, mood) using a standardised laboratory psychosocial stress task, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Individuals with high Negative Emotionality exhibited greater emotional distress and lower blood pressure responses to the TSST. Individuals with high Agentic Positive Emotionality exhibited prolonged heart rate responses to stress, whereas those with high Communal Positive Emotionality exhibited smaller cortisol and blood pressure responses. Separate personality traits differentially predicted emotional, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor in healthy volunteers. Future research investigating the association of personality with chronic stress-related disease may provide further clues to the relationship between acute stress reactivity and susceptibility to disease. PMID:25036730

  10. Understanding Your Teen's Emotional Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ... Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ...

  11. Enhanced emotional responses during social coordination with a virtual partner

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Guillaume; Kelso, J.A. Scott; Tognoli, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and motion, though seldom studied in tandem, are complementary aspects of social experience. This study investigates variations in emotional responses during movement coordination between a human and a Virtual Partner (VP), an agent whose virtual finger movements are driven by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) equations of Coordination Dynamics. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to coordinate finger movements with the VP in either inphase or antiphase patterns. By adjusting model parameters, we manipulated the ‘intention’ of VP as cooperative or competitive with the human's instructed goal. Skin potential responses (SPR) were recorded to quantify the intensity of emotional response. At the end of each trial, subjects rated the VP's intention and whether they thought their partner was another human being or a machine. We found greater emotional responses when subjects reported that their partner was human and when coordination was stable. That emotional responses are strongly influenced by dynamic features of the VP's behavior, has implications for mental health, brain disorders and the design of socially cooperative machines. PMID:27094374

  12. Product design, semantics and emotional response.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Oya; Sener, Bahar

    This paper explores theoretical issues in ergonomics related to semantics and the emotional content of design. The aim is to find answers to the following questions: how to design products triggering "happiness" in one's mind; which product attributes help in the communication of positive emotions; and finally, how to evoke such emotions through a product. In other words, this is an investigation of the "meaning" that could be designed into a product in order to "communicate" with the user at an emotional level. A literature survey of recent design trends, based on selected examples of product designs and semantic applications to design, including the results of recent design awards, was carried out in order to determine the common attributes of their design language. A review of Good Design Award winning products that are said to convey and/or evoke emotions in the users has been done in order to define good design criteria. These criteria have been discussed in relation to user emotional responses and a selection of these has been given as examples.

  13. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  14. Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression, and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Carlsson, Fredrik; Hilmersson, Per; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial issue in research on music and emotion is whether music evokes genuine emotional responses in listeners (the emotivist position) or whether listeners merely perceive emotions expressed by the music (the cognitivist position). To investigate this issue, we measured self-reported emotion, facial muscle activity, and autonomic activity in…

  15. Embodied emotion: the influence of manipulated facial and bodily states on emotive responses.

    PubMed

    Price, Tom F; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that certain facial expressions and postures are associated with emotional and motivational responses. This review discusses behavioral, neuroscientific, and cognitive research connecting these bodily movements with emotive responses. General bodily feedback theories of emotion have suggested that manipulated facial expressions and postures influence emotive reactions to stimuli as well as physiological responses such as heart rate, skin conductance, and the temperature of blood entering the brain. More recent evidence suggests that manipulated bodily states influence prefrontal cortical activation and amygdala activation. Even further evidence has suggested that manipulated bodily states influence cognitive processes, such as the speed at which individuals read emotional content, the speed at which they classify information as emotional, and the extent to which they determine emotional information as threatening. Bodily feedback theories may also suggest clinical applications. Bodily feedback theories of emotion therefore have generated research showing that bodily expressions play a pivotal role in our emotive experiences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Emotional Content Modulates Perceptual and Response Inhibition Processing

    PubMed Central

    YANG, SUYONG; LUO, WENBO; ZHU, XIANGRU; BROSTER, LUCAS S.; CHEN, TAOLIN; LI, JINZHEN; LUO, YUEJIA

    2015-01-01

    In this study, event-related potentials were used to investigate the effect of emotion on response inhibition. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task that required responses to human faces associated with a “go” valence (i.e., emotional, neutral) and response inhibition to human faces associated with a “no-go” valence. Emotional content impaired response inhibition, as evidenced by decreased response accuracy and N2 amplitudes in no-go trials. More importantly, emotional expressions elicited larger N170 amplitudes than neutral expressions, and this effect was larger in no-go than in go trials, indicating that the perceptual processing of emotional expression had priority in inhibitory trials. In no-go trials, correlation analysis showed that increased N170 amplitudes were associated with decreased N2 amplitudes. Taken together, our findings suggest that that emotional content impairs response inhibition due to the prioritization of emotional content processing. PMID:24942597

  17. Emotional intelligence in mental health nurses talking about practice.

    PubMed

    Akerjordet, Kristin; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore mental health nurses' experiences of emotional intelligence (EI) in their nursing practice by means of qualitative interviews. The interview questions where developed from the literature on EI. This study used a hermeneutic analysis. Four main themes emerged: relationship with the patient; the substance of supervision; motivation; and responsibility. It was concluded that EI stimulates the search for a deeper understanding of a professional mental health nursing identity. Emotional learning and maturation processes are central to professional competence, that is, personal growth and development. In addition, the moral character of the mental health nurse in relation to clinical practice is of importance. The findings imply multiple types of intelligence related to nursing science as well as further research possibilities within the area of EI.

  18. Emotional labour in mental health nursing: An integrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    2017-06-01

    Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization.

  20. The Mind-Body Connection - Emotions and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Emotions and Health Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... Today, we accept that there is a powerful mind-body connection through which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and ...

  1. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    PubMed

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  2. Facial EMG Responses to Emotional Expressions Are Related to Emotion Perception Ability

    PubMed Central

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a “reactivation” of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG) - in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective. PMID:24489647

  3. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being.

  4. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages☆

    PubMed Central

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work—defined as intentional activities done to promote another’s emotional well-being—are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid-to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife’s primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being. PMID:25661852

  5. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21(st) century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  7. Ethnic variation in the impact of emotion and emotion regulation on health: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Horton, David

    2005-07-01

    Although emotions and patterns of emotion regulation are central to models linking personality and health, the generalizability of these models to diverse populations of older adults remains untested. In this study, 1,364 community-dwelling women (aged 50-70 years) from six ethnic groups completed self-report measures of trait anger, inhibition, defensiveness, and health. As expected, reports of trait anger and emotion inhibition predicted poorer health (and defensiveness better health), even when demographics and health behaviors were controlled. However, these characteristics related to outcome differently across ethnic groups; greater anger was related to better health in all groups other than U.S-born European Americans, and increased emotion inhibition was associated with better health among immigrant Eastern European women. Results are discussed within a contextualistic model of emotions and health, and directions for future research are given.

  8. Healthy Architecture! Can environments evoke emotional responses?

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2012-01-01

    We find environmental psychology at the intersection between architecture and psychology. This article discusses the ways in which individuals are affected by architecture, departing from an early source on the psychology of architecture and taking three architectural examples as illustrations: a public place in Berlin, a health environment in Sweden, and a fitness centre in Denmark. Each of these architectural examples creates what might be called its own psychological emotions, and these are analysed and discussed using a psychodynamic and existential attempt to understand the interrelationship between individuals and spatial reality. A health oriented existential approach is used as a methodological basis to conceptualise the psychological effects of various forms of architecture. PMID:22980345

  9. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  10. Emotion-related visual mismatch responses in schizophrenia: impairments and correlations with emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250-360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition.

  11. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents' Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Brett, Bonnie E; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, Carl W; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents' supportive and unsupportive responses to children's negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children's emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers' attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents' negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents' negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents' negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting.

  12. Emotion regulation in patients with rheumatic diseases: validity and responsiveness of the Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC)

    PubMed Central

    Zangi, Heidi A; Garratt, Andrew; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Stanton, Annette L; Mowinckel, Petter; Finset, Arnstein

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic rheumatic diseases are painful conditions which are not entirely controllable and can place high emotional demands on individuals. Increasing evidence has shown that emotion regulation in terms of actively processing and expressing disease-related emotions are likely to promote positive adjustment in patients with chronic diseases. The Emotional Approach Coping Scale (EAC) measures active attempts to acknowledge, understand, and express emotions. Although tested in other clinical samples, the EAC has not been validated for patients with rheumatic diseases. This study evaluated the data quality, internal consistency reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the EAC for this group of patients. Methods 220 patients with different rheumatic diseases were included in a cross-sectional study in which data quality and internal consistency were assessed. Construct validity was assessed through comparisons with the Brief Approach/Avoidance Coping Questionnaire (BACQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20). Responsiveness was tested in a longitudinal pretest-posttest study of two different coping interventions, the Vitality Training Program (VTP) and a Self-Management Program (SMP). Results The EAC had low levels of missing data. Results from principal component analysis supported two subscales, Emotional Expression and Emotional Processing, which had high Cronbach's alphas of 0.90 and 0.92, respectively. The EAC had correlations with approach-oriented items in the BACQ in the range 0.17-0.50. The EAC Expression scale had a significant negative correlation with the GHQ-20 of -0.13. As hypothesized, participation in the VTP significantly improved EAC scores, indicating responsiveness to change. Conclusion The EAC is an acceptable and valid instrument for measuring emotional processing and expression in patients with rheumatic diseases. The EAC scales were responsive to change in an intervention designed to promote emotion

  13. Regulating emotion to improve physical health through the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Song, Yiying; Lu, Huanhua; Hu, Siyuan; Xu, Miao; Li, Xueting; Liu, Jia

    2015-04-01

    The opinion of mind-body interaction has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years, as exemplified by accumulating evidence indicating that physical health (body) is associated with emotion and emotion regulation (mind). Yet, the neural basis linking emotion regulation with physical health remains largely uninvestigated. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of this pathway in a large population of healthy young adults. With a systematic study revealing the association of self-reported physical health and emotion traits of personality and general affective experiences, we further demonstrated that, for better physical health, individuals needed to regulate their emotion more effectively. Importantly, individuals who had larger gray matter (GM) volume in the amygdala reported not only a higher ability of emotion regulation but also better physical health. Further, GM volume in the amygdala mediated the correlation between emotion regulation ability and physical health. Our findings suggest that the amygdala plays a critical role in the neural circuit through which emotion regulation may influence physical health. Therefore, our study takes the first step toward exploring the neuroanatomical basis for body-mind interaction and may inform interventions aimed at promoting physical health by augmenting skills of emotion regulation. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The role of emotions in health professional ethics teaching.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Lynn; Delany, Clare; Guillemin, Marilys; Warmington, Sally

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we put forward the view that emotions have a legitimate and important role in health professional ethics education. This paper draws upon our experience of running a narrative ethics education programme for ethics educators from a range of healthcare disciplines. It describes the way in which emotions may be elicited in narrative ethics teaching and considers the appropriate role of emotions in ethics education for health professionals. We argue there is a need for a pedagogical framework to productively incorporate the role of emotions in health professional ethics teaching. We suggest a theoretical basis for an ethics pedagogy that integrates health professional emotions in both the experience and the analysis of ethical practice, and identify a range of strategies to support the educator to incorporate emotion within their ethics teaching.

  15. The unconscious pursuit of emotion regulation: Implications for psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Henrik; Troy, Allison S.; Mauss, Iris B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the central involvement of emotion regulation in psychological health and the role that implicit (largely unconscious) processes appear to play in emotion regulation, implicit emotion-regulatory processes should play a vital role in psychological health. We hypothesised that implicitly valuing emotion regulation translates into better psychological health in individuals who use adaptive emotion-regulation strategies. A community sample of 222 individuals (56% women) who had recently experienced a stressful life event completed an implicit measure of emotion regulation valuing (ER-IAT) and reported on their habitual use of an important adaptive emotion-regulation strategy: cognitive reappraisal. We measured three domains of psychological health: well-being, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment. As hypothesised, individuals who implicitly valued emotion regulation exhibited greater levels of psychological health, but only when they were high in cognitive reappraisal use. These findings suggest that salutary effects of unconscious emotion-regulation processes depend on its interplay with conscious emotion-regulation processes. PMID:21432692

  16. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: depression, emotional health, feelings, mental health, patient education, patient ...

  17. Emotional Responses to Service Learning: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priesmeyer, H. Richard; Mudge, Suzanne D.; Ward, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the emotional responses of students to common service learning activities. Two hypotheses focused on (1) expected changes in the mean emotion scores and (2) expected differences in individual responses. Results showed significant increases in Surprise, Anxiety and Distress and individual differences in Contempt, Disgust and…

  18. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women.

  19. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  20. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear.

  1. Emotional scenes and facial expressions elicit different psychophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Georg W; Adolph, Dirk; Pauli, Paul

    2011-06-01

    We examined if emotional faces elicit physiological responses similar to pictures of emotional scenes. Forty one students viewed emotional scenes (negative, neutral, and positive) and emotional faces (angry, neutral, and happy). Heart rate, orbicularis oculi and electrodermal activity were measured continuously, and the startle reflex was elicited. Although the patterns of valence and arousal ratings were comparable, physiological response patterns differed. For scenes we replicated the valence-specific modulation of the startle response, heart rate deceleration, and the arousal-related modulation of the electrodermal response. In contrast, for faces we found valence-specific modulation only for the electrodermal response, but the startle and heart rate deceleration were modulated by arousal. Although arousal differences may account for some differences in physiological responding this shows that not all emotional material that is decoded similarly leads to the same psychophysiological output. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Jennifer R.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Social functioning deficits have long been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion responsivity influences functional outcome in this disorder. The goal of the current study was to begin to elucidate the relationships between emotion responsivity, social cognition, and functional outcome in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40 controls. Each participant was administered measures of emotion responsivity, social cognition (both emotion and social perception), and functional outcome. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated somewhat reduced emotion responsivity for positive and negative stimuli, as well as deficits in both social cognition and functional outcome compared to controls. Additionally, results indicated that both social perception and emotional responsivity were positively correlated with functional outcome. Importantly, the relationship of emotion responsivity to functional outcome was not mediated by social perception, and showed a significant relationship to functional outcome independent of social cognition. This finding suggests that emotion responsivity is an important factor in understanding functional outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:20141242

  3. Neural correlates of emotional responses to music: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Kirke, Alexis; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-06-24

    This paper presents an EEG study into the neural correlates of music-induced emotions. We presented participants with a large dataset containing musical pieces in different styles, and asked them to report on their induced emotional responses. We found neural correlates of music-induced emotion in a number of frequencies over the pre-frontal cortex. Additionally, we found a set of patterns of functional connectivity, defined by inter-channel coherence measures, to be significantly different between groups of music-induced emotional responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional Responsiveness and Emotional Stability in Three Religious Communities of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Jai; Shukla, Anand Prakash

    The present study investigated personality dispositions such as emotional responsiveness and emotional stability in religious communities of India. The religious ideology and particular system of religious practices of each individual may influence his personality structure. A review of the literature shows that studies available in this area have…

  5. Emotional Responsiveness and Emotional Stability in Three Religious Communities of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Jai; Shukla, Anand Prakash

    The present study investigated personality dispositions such as emotional responsiveness and emotional stability in religious communities of India. The religious ideology and particular system of religious practices of each individual may influence his personality structure. A review of the literature shows that studies available in this area have…

  6. Emotion-Related Visual Mismatch Responses in Schizophrenia: Impairments and Correlations with Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. Experimental Design The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Principal Observations Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250–360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Conclusions Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition. PMID:24116046

  7. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  8. Salivary oxytocin mediates the association between emotional maltreatment and responses to emotional infant faces.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ritu; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van der Veen, Rixt; Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Grewen, Karen M; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-05-28

    Childhood emotional maltreatment has been associated with a higher risk for maltreating one's own offspring. In the current study, we explored a possible role of oxytocin in mediating the association between childhood emotional maltreatment and participants' interpretation of infant facial expressions. Oxytocin levels were measured in 102 female participants using saliva samples. They rated the mood of thirteen infants with happy, sad and neutral facial expressions. Emotional maltreatment indirectly influenced responses to happy infant faces by modulating oxytocin levels: higher self-reported emotional maltreatment was related to higher levels of salivary oxytocin which were in turn related to a more positive evaluation of happy infant expressions, but not to the evaluation of sad infant expressions. Oxytocin receptor polymorphism rs53576 did not moderate the relation between maltreatment experiences and salivary oxytocin levels. Early emotional maltreatment might indirectly affect emotional information processing by altering the oxytonergic system.

  9. Neuroticism influences pupillary responses during an emotional interference task.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; Blasek, Katharina; Lapschies, Katharina; Mews, Isabella; van der Meer, Elke

    2008-10-01

    We used behavioral and pupillary measures during an analogical reasoning task to investigate the processing of conceptual and emotional relations as well as their interaction. In particular, we examined how mental resource consumption is modulated by individual differences in neuroticism in healthy participants during conditions with emotional interference. Two word pairs were presented simultaneously, each with a conceptual and an emotional relation. In one experimental block, participants had to decide whether conceptual relations between the two word pairs were corresponding (conceptual task). In the other block, participants had to decide whether emotional relations were corresponding (emotional task). When participants had to focus on the correspondence of emotional relations, they were faster, more accurate, and showed greater pupillary responses than during the conceptual task. Moreover, participants with comparably higher neuroticism scores showed increased pupillary responses during conditions with emotional interference (i.e., during the conceptual task when they had to ignore incongruent information on the correspondence provided by the task-irrelevant emotional relations). These results demonstrate that affective aspects of stimuli (here: emotional relations) are preferentially selected for information processing. Moreover, increased mental resource consumption due to emotional interference in participants with comparably higher neuroticism scores might reflect a possible mechanism making these individuals more vulnerable to mood or anxiety disorders.

  10. Dynamical patterns of human postural responses to emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    PERAKAKIS, PANDELIS E.; IDRISSI, SOFIA; VILA, JAIME; IVANOV, PLAMEN CH.

    2012-01-01

    Postural displacements in response to emotional activation have recently been proposed as a direct and objective index of approach–avoidance behavior in humans. Here, we present the results of an experiment designed to assess spontaneous postural responses to discrete affective pictures, briefly presented in random order of valence. Our findings question the interpretation of phasic postural responses to emotional stimuli as approach–avoidance behavior. Further, we identify a robust dynamical pattern, characterized by specific features indicating that attentional processes may play a role in human postural responses to emotional stimuli. PMID:22758597

  11. Children's empathy responses and their understanding of mother's emotions.

    PubMed

    Tully, Erin C; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated children's empathic responses to their mother's distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialisation of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N = 82) observed their mother's sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children's facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother's emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother's negative emotions and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV was associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother's distress facilitate understanding of mother's emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother's emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism.

  12. Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: a cross-sectional survey study among health care workers.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke

    2008-10-01

    Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.

  13. Physicians' responses to patients' expressions of negative emotions in hospital consultations: a video-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Mjaaland, Trond A; Finset, Arnstein; Jensen, Bård Fossli; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    Patients express their negative emotions in medical consultations either implicitly as cue to an underlying unpleasant emotion or explicitly as a clear, unambiguous concern. The health provider's response to such cues and concerns is important for the outcome of consultations. Yet, physicians often neglect patient's negative emotions. Most studies of this subject are from primary health care. We aimed to describe how physicians in a hospital respond to negative emotions in an outpatient setting. Ninety six consultations were videotaped in a general teaching hospital. The Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences was used to identify patients' expression of negative emotions in terms of cue and concern and to code physicians' subsequent responses. Cohen's kappa was used as interrater reliability measure. Acceptable kappa level was set to .60. We observed 163 expressions of negative emotions. In general, the physician responses to patients' cues and concerns did not include follow up or exploration. Concerns more often than cues led to lack of emotional exploration. When patients expressed negative emotions or cues to such, hospital physicians tended to move away from emotional communication, particularly if the emotion was expressed as an explicit concern. Medical training should enable physicians' to explore the patients' emotions in situations where it will improve the medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How social context moderates the self-evaluative emotions experienced due to health risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grob, Judith D M; Dijkstra, Arie; de Groot, Carla

    2011-10-01

    When people are confronted with the potential negative physical outcomes of their own health risk behaviour, they experience a self-threat. This threat is felt as negative self-evaluative emotions. We hypothesise that the threat will lead to more private self-evaluative emotions (e.g. regret) in a private social context, whereas more public self-evaluative emotions (e.g. embarrassment) will be felt in a public social context with negative norms. Consistent with our hypotheses, we show that participants anticipate feeling more private self-evaluative emotions when confronted with the negative consequences of their unhealthy behaviour when alone, and more public self-evaluative emotions when in a group (Study 1). They further anticipate more public self-evaluative emotions in response to a health self-threat when the group norm is negative, and more private self-evaluative emotions when the group norm is lenient (Study 2). Finally, in a cross-sectional study amongst smokers, we show that private but not public negative self-evaluative emotions concerning their own smoking habits are positively correlated with the intent to quit smoking (Study 3). These studies show that a distinction needs to be made between public and private self-evaluative emotions, in terms of their antecedents and effects. Theoretical implications and further lines of research are discussed.

  15. Developing a Tiered Response Model for Social-Emotional Learning through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Lewis, Christie; Thornburg, Kathy; Hawks, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    A tiered response model for social-emotional learning (SEL) is needed to address the significant mental health needs of young people in this country. In collaboration with other school mental health professionals, school psychologists have a unique expertise that situates them to be systems change agents in this work. This article describes a…

  16. Prioritizing young people's emotional health support needs via participatory research.

    PubMed

    Kendal, S E; Milnes, L; Welsby, H; Pryjmachuk, S

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: Young people's mental health is a concern to people around the world. Good emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness, but we need to know more about how to help young people look after their emotional health. We are learning that research is better if the public are involved in it, including children and young people. Therefore, we need to listen carefully to what young people have to say. In this paper, we describe some research that involved young people from start to finish. We were asking what kind of emotional health support would be useful to them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a useful way to involve young people in research so their voice can be heard. Young people like to use the Internet to find emotional health support and information, but need to know which web sites they can trust. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Our method of bringing young people together to tell us their views was successful. It is important to explore ways to help young people judge the quality of emotional health web sites. Introduction Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that concern them. Aim We aimed to develop a participatory approach for involving youth in research about their emotional health support preferences. Method Our team included a young expert-by-experience. We developed a qualitative, participatory research design. Eleven youth (16-18 years) participated in focus groups, followed immediately by a nominal group exercise in which they

  17. Dispositional emotion coping styles and physiological responses to expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Rie; Moss-Morris, Rona; Martin, Alexandra; Robinson, Elizabeth; Booth, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to assess how repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals exhibit their psychological and health characteristics subjectively through self-reports and objectively through physiological markers and ratings of emotional expression. Cross-sectional descriptive design (study one) and randomized controlled design (study two). In the first descriptive study, repressors, defensive, high-anxious individuals and low-anxious individuals were identified from a pool of 748 undergraduates. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires assessing psychological and health characteristics. In the second experimental study, the three groups were randomized into either emotional or non-emotional writing conditions. Participants were asked to write three essays on either an emotional or a non-emotional topic in a single day. In the first study, defensive, high-anxious individuals reported significantly more distress, symptoms, sickness behaviours and difficulty expressing anger relative to repressors. In the second study, there was a significant difference in salivary cortisol concentrations between the two writing conditions regardless of the emotional coping grouping. Analysis of the writing showed no significant differences among repressors, defensive, high-anxious and low-anxious individuals in their cognitive and affective expression. Whereas self-reports of health outcomes and psychological traits clearly distinguish repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals, more objective indices of emotional expressiveness and physiology do not appear to do so. The results also indicate that expressive writing may be helpful to reduce physiological arousal towards emotionally charged memories. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The roles of emotional reactivity and tolerance in generalized, social, and health anxiety: a multimethod exploration.

    PubMed

    Macatee, Richard J; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-03-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties have been implicated in the maintenance of many anxiety disorders. However, existing research has relied mostly on self-report measures of emotion regulation or one type of mood induction. The present study examined the relationships between anxiety symptoms and emotional reactivity and tolerance using multiple assessment methodologies. Participants (N=122) completed measures of generalized, social, and health anxiety symptoms and reported tolerance of and reactivity to negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, disgust) elicited by 4 film clips. Participants also completed a mirror-tracing persistence task, a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. Social anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in tolerance of film-elicited emotions, whereas generalized anxiety symptoms predicted unique variance in total peak reactivity to film-elicited emotions. Health anxiety was not related to tolerance or peak reactivity, but it was predictive of greater anxiety following the mirror-tracing task. The results of this study suggest heightened emotional reactivity is a salient feature of generalized anxiety symptoms, whereas emotional tolerance is more strongly related to social anxiety symptoms. The unique association between health anxiety and anxious response to the distress tolerance task represents a novel finding that warrants further investigation.

  19. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  20. Serious Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Mental Health Contacts in American and British Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojtabai, Ramin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…

  1. Universal Emotional Health Screening at the Middle School Transition

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kelly A.; Herting, Jerald R.; Kuo, Elena S.; Stewart, David G.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Kushner, Siri

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the Developmental Pathways Screening Program (DPSP) and an evaluation of program feasibility, acceptability, and yield. Using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and externalizing questions from the Youth Self Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001), universal classroom-based emotional health screening was implemented with students as they began middle school. Of all sixth graders enrolled in four participating Seattle schools, 861 (83%) were screened. Students who screened positive for emotional distress (15% of students screened) received onsite structured clinical evaluations with children's mental health professionals. Seventy-one percent of students who were evaluated were found to be experiencing significant emotional distress, with 59% warranting referral to academic tutoring, school counselor, and/or community mental health services. Successful implementation of in-class screening was facilitated by strong collaboration between DPSP and school staff. Limitations of emotional health screening and the DPSP are discussed, and future steps are outlined. PMID:21430789

  2. [[How to Prevent Emotional Burnout Syndrome in Health Professionals?].

    PubMed

    Elfimova, E V; Elfimov, M A; Berezkin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Working in conditions of physical and psychological overload, occupational hazard makes health workers vulnerable to the development of burnout syndrome. Currently, 67.6% of physicians in Russia suffer from emotional burnout syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a certain symptoms, which have their predictors. Prevention and treatment of emotional burnout syndrome - a complex problem that can be solved with the participation of heads of medical institutions, full- time psychologists and psychotherapists with the direct involvement of health professionals.

  3. Emotional Health of People with Visual Impairment Caused by Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keziah; Baranian, Mohammad; Timmis, Matthew; Pardhan, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand the emotional difficulties associated with living with the ocular condition Retinitis Pigmentosa, and to examine the functioning of a self-report instrument used to assess this construct. Methods The difficulty of goals and tasks in the emotional health domain of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory were rated by 166 people with Retinitis Pigmentosa in a cross-sectional study. Demographic factors were also assessed. Results Responses to the 23 emotional health tasks were Rasch analysed and could be used to form either one 20 item overview scale with some multidimensionality, or three unidimensional subscales addressing feelings (4 items), communicating visual loss (5 items) and fatigue (7 items). The most difficult individual tasks related to communicating visual loss to other people, and dealing with feelings such as frustration, anxiety and stress. The use of mobility aids and female gender were associated with increased difficulty with emotional health, explaining 19% of the variance in the overview scale. Conclusions The emotional health domain of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory is a valid tool to assess emotional difficulties arising from visual loss. Interventions to aid people with Retinitis Pigmentosa deal with emotional difficulties should particularly address communicating vision loss effectively to others and coping with negative feelings. PMID:26713624

  4. Emotion and the auditory brainstem response to speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jade Q.; Nicol, Trent; Skoe, Erika; Sams, Mikko; Kraus, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Effects of emotion have been reported as early as 20 ms after an auditory stimulus onset for negative valence, and bivalent effects between 30-130 ms. To understand how emotional state influences the listener’s brainstem evoked responses to speech, subjects looked at emotion-evoking pictures while listening to an unchanging auditory stimulus (“danny”). The pictures (Positive, Negative, or Neutral, valence) were selected from the IAPS database and controlled for dominance and arousal. Utilizing an array of measurements to assess subcortical modulation, we have found that emotion does not significantly affect the brainstem response although there is a subtle effect of background noise suppression in both emotional conditions. PMID:20018226

  5. Amygdala subnuclei response and connectivity during emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Hrybouski, Stanislau; Aghamohammadi-Sereshki, Arash; Madan, Christopher R; Shafer, Andrea T; Baron, Corey A; Seres, Peter; Beaulieu, Christian; Olsen, Fraser; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-06-01

    The involvement of the human amygdala in emotion-related processing has been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for many years. However, despite the amygdala being comprised of several subnuclei, most studies investigated the role of the entire amygdala in processing of emotions. Here we combined a novel anatomical tracing protocol with event-related high-resolution fMRI acquisition to study the responsiveness of the amygdala subnuclei to negative emotional stimuli and to examine intra-amygdala functional connectivity. The greatest sensitivity to the negative emotional stimuli was observed in the centromedial amygdala, where the hemodynamic response amplitude elicited by the negative emotional stimuli was greater and peaked later than for neutral stimuli. Connectivity patterns converge with extant findings in animals, such that the centromedial amygdala was more connected with the nuclei of the basal amygdala than with the lateral amygdala. Current findings provide evidence of functional specialization within the human amygdala.

  6. Using Video Self-Modelling to Increase Active Learning Responses during Small-Group Reading Instruction for Primary School Pupils with Social Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Pelton, Cheryl A.; Bushman, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention was examined with primary schoolchildren who attended a full-time special education programme for pupils with social emotional and behavioural difficulties and who exhibited inappropriate behaviour during small-group reading instruction. A randomised multiple-probe baseline design was used…

  7. Using Video Self-Modelling to Increase Active Learning Responses during Small-Group Reading Instruction for Primary School Pupils with Social Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Pelton, Cheryl A.; Bushman, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention was examined with primary schoolchildren who attended a full-time special education programme for pupils with social emotional and behavioural difficulties and who exhibited inappropriate behaviour during small-group reading instruction. A randomised multiple-probe baseline design was used…

  8. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  9. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  10. Patterns of emotional expression and responses to health and illness in women with functional voice disorders (MTVD) and a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet; Oates, Jennifer M; Leeson, Emma; Woodford, Hannah; Bond, Malcolm J

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether emotional expression, alexithymia, illness behavior, and coping strategies differed between women with muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) and those without voice disorder and between women with and without mucosal pathology of the vocal folds, and to explore possible links between psychosocial constructs and clinical features in women with MTVD. A within-subjects design matched 20 women with MTVD and 20 women without voice disorder on validated self-report measures of the psychosocial constructs. The effect of mucosal pathology was assessed using between-groups analyses. Correlations assessed relationships between psychosocial constructs and clinical features. Comparisons between women with MTVD and those without voice disorder showed an elevated sense of illness identity and greater belief in the presence of somatic illness in women with MTVD. There was a trend toward women with MTVD showing lower levels of emotional awareness. Women without vocal fold pathology reported lower levels of emotional awareness than those with pathology, whereas women with pathology reported greater use of a mixed pattern of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies than those with no pathology. Low vocal load was associated with higher scores on alexithymia, higher numbers of vocal symptoms were associated with the use of adaptive coping, and greater impact of symptoms was associated with higher levels of emotional awareness and greater belief in the presence of somatic illness. These findings encourage further investigation of relationships between emotional awareness, illness behavior, and coping in women with functional voice disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Shortened night sleep impairs facial responsiveness to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Popp, Roland; Haas, Jessica; Zulley, Jürgen; Geisler, Peter; Alpers, Georg W; Osterheider, Michael; Eisenbarth, Hedwig

    2013-04-01

    Sleep deprivation deteriorates mood, impairs the recognition of facial expressions, and affects the ability to regulate emotions. The present study investigated the effect of partial sleep deprivation on facial responses to emotional stimuli. Thirty-three healthy undergraduates were tested twice: after a night with (i) 8h and (ii) 4h sleep. Self-reported sleepiness and sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance Task) were assessed. Emotional reactivity was measured with facial Electromyogram (EMG) while participants were asked to respond with either compatible or incompatible facial muscles to emotional stimuli in order to study whether partial sleep deprivation caused slower reactions mainly in response to incompatible stimuli (due to an additional effort to suppress the compatible reaction caused by decreased inhibitory control) or in response to both compatible and incompatible stimuli. Self-reported sleepiness and reaction times in a sustained attention task significantly increased after one night of partial sleep deprivation. Facial reactions to emotional stimuli were decelerated. No significant interaction between sleep restriction and compatibility of the muscle to the picture valence could be observed. Hence, volitional facial reactions in response to emotional stimuli were slower after one night of reduced sleep, but affective inhibitory control was not significantly impaired. However, slowed facial responding to emotional stimuli may affect social interaction after sleep restriction.

  12. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  13. Emotion in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: responses to affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Burleson, Mary H; Weber, Dana J; Larson, Amy; Sergeant, Kristin; Devine, Michael J; Vincelette, Tara M; Wang, Norman C

    2012-05-01

    We examined emotional responses to standard affective pictures in 18 psychogenic nonepileptic seizure (PNES) patients. Given reports of trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) in many PNES patients, comparison groups were seizure-free individuals high and low in PTS (PTS-high, PTS-low; n=18 per group). Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (1) reported more emotional intensity to neutral and pleasant pictures than PTS-low and more intensity to neutral pictures than PTS-high, and (2) showed less positive emotional behavior to pleasant pictures than PTS-high. Groups did not differ in pleasantness/unpleasantness ratings, negative emotional behavior, cardiac interbeat interval, or respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity to the pictures. Patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures reported more general emotion regulation difficulties and showed lower baseline RSA than PTS-low but not PTS-high. In sum, intense emotional experience and diminished positive emotional behavior characterized PNES patients' emotional responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. White Students Reflecting on Whiteness: Understanding Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Nathan R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Aber, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors explored potential predictors of White students’ general emotional responses after they reflected on their Whiteness in a semi-structured interview (n = 88) or written reflection (n = 187). Specifically, the authors examined how color-blindness (i.e., awareness of White privilege) and racial affect (i.e., White empathy, White guilt, and White fear), assessed before the interview or written reflection, may predict positive and negative emotional responses, assessed immediately following the interview or written reflection. Furthermore, the authors considered whether affective costs of racism to Whites moderated the association between racial color-blindness and general positive and negative emotional responses of White students. Findings indicated that affective costs of racism moderated associations between racial color-blindness and general emotional responses. Specifically, White fear moderated associations for the written reflection group whereas White empathy moderated an association in the interview. White guilt did not moderate, but instead directly predicted a negative emotional response in the written reflection group. Findings suggest that the interaction between racial color-blindness and racial affect is important when predicting students’ emotional responses to reflecting on their Whiteness. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed. PMID:20657811

  15. White Students Reflecting on Whiteness: Understanding Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nathan R; Spanierman, Lisa B; Aber, Mark S

    2010-06-01

    In the present investigation, the authors explored potential predictors of White students' general emotional responses after they reflected on their Whiteness in a semi-structured interview (n = 88) or written reflection (n = 187). Specifically, the authors examined how color-blindness (i.e., awareness of White privilege) and racial affect (i.e., White empathy, White guilt, and White fear), assessed before the interview or written reflection, may predict positive and negative emotional responses, assessed immediately following the interview or written reflection. Furthermore, the authors considered whether affective costs of racism to Whites moderated the association between racial color-blindness and general positive and negative emotional responses of White students. Findings indicated that affective costs of racism moderated associations between racial color-blindness and general emotional responses. Specifically, White fear moderated associations for the written reflection group whereas White empathy moderated an association in the interview. White guilt did not moderate, but instead directly predicted a negative emotional response in the written reflection group. Findings suggest that the interaction between racial color-blindness and racial affect is important when predicting students' emotional responses to reflecting on their Whiteness. Implications for educators and administrators are discussed.

  16. Cancer caregivers online: hope, emotional roller coaster, and physical/emotional/psychological responses.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Paula; Wheeler, Erlinda

    2005-01-01

    The demands placed on cancer caregivers are well documented. Support for informal caregivers has been shown to increase hope and decrease psychosocial morbidity. The Internet is a readily available means of support for cancer caregivers, however little research on online support for informal caregivers of cancer patients exists. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis were used to evaluate messages posted over a 2-month period on an online cancer caregiver listserv. Three major themes emerged from the data: hope, emotional roller coaster, and physical/emotional/psychological responses. Supportive and hopeful statements prevailed among online participants in the current study. However, subjects also described the emotional roller coaster associated with caregiving. Emotional/physical/psychological responses included anger, weakness, exhaustion, grief, and sadness. Outcome research is needed to help evaluate the efficacy of online support for caregivers. Findings in this study can help nurses focus on some problems common to caregivers of cancer patients and plan appropriate interventions and research.

  17. Why emotions matter: expectancy violation and affective response mediate the emotional victim effect.

    PubMed

    Ask, Karl; Landström, Sara

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms behind the 'emotional victim effect' (i.e., that the emotionality of a rape victim's demeanor affects perceived credibility) are relatively unexplored. In this article, a previously neglected mechanism--observers' affective response to the victim--is proposed as an alternative to the traditional expectancy-violation account. The emotional victim effect was replicated in an experiment with a sample of police trainees (N = 189), and cognitive load was found to increase the magnitude of the effect. Importantly, both compassionate affective response and expectancy violation actively mediated the emotional victim effect when the other mechanism was controlled for. These findings extend previous research on credibility judgments by introducing a 'hot' cognitive component in the judgment process. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. The impact of personality traits on emotional responses to interpersonal stress.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hong Jin; Yeon, Bora; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of personality traits on emotional responses to interpersonal stress. Thirty-two healthy college students (18 men, 14 women; age 25.2±2.7 years) participated in the study. Mood and anxiety were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Personality traits were assessed with the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). The subjective emotional responses of participants to different (i.e., negative, neutral, and positive) interpersonal feedback were measured. Subject responses were positive to positive interpersonal feedback and negative to negative interpersonal feedback. The IPSM fragile inner self subscore was negatively correlated with the subjective emotional ratings in response to interpersonal feedback. No correlation was found between validation measures (i.e., the degree of attention in the task and task difficulty) and subjective emotional responses. Taken together, emotional responses to interpersonal stress may be modulated by personality traits and may impact health and psychological outcomes. Therefore, proper screening and stress management programs that focus on personality traits may improve the mental health of college students.

  19. Influence of work environment on emotional health in a health care setting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angelina O M; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2004-05-01

    Radical changes are taking place in health care services and might be expected to cause job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, somatic complaints and mental health problems. Research in this area is limited and focused primarily on nurses. To understand the impact of the work environment on the emotional health of doctors and nurses in a general hospital setting. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Civilians, the Trauma Experiences and Work Environment Scale. The response rates for the study were 28% (60) for doctors and 54% (431) for nurses. Whilst the prevalences of psychiatric disorder, anxiety, depression and PTSD were higher for doctors compared with nurses, this was not statistically significant. Both groups reported witnessing someone badly injured or killed as their most distressing experience (doctors 46% versus nurses 41%). Using multiple logistic regression, significant predictors of emotional health was task orientation for doctors (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6), and PTSD (OR = 17.2, 95% CI = 6.0-49.6), work pressure (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.01-1.4) and innovation (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.70-0.94) for nurses. The prevalence of psychiatric disorder among the doctors and nurses was similar to that in Britain. Elements of the work environment did impact on the emotional health of health care workers. Organizational development initiatives should include employee mental health issues in order to create a more positive work environment.

  20. Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Steven R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)

  1. Cognitive and emotional health risk perceptions among people living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Vicki S; Hovick, Shelly R

    2012-01-01

    Many theories of risk perception and health behavior examine cognitive dimensions of risk (i.e., perceived susceptibility or severity) but not emotional dimensions. To address this gap, the authors examined the emotional component of risk perception (as worry) and its relation to cognitive assessments of risk, self-efficacy and response efficacy, and health protective action. Although people in poverty are at high risk for many health conditions, little is known about how concerned they are about these conditions or how their risk perceptions influence health actions. African Americans and Whites with incomes≤$35,000 were surveyed (N=431). Participants reported their worry level for 10 health risks. Among their highest worry risks, they identified the risk they took the most action and the risk they took the least action to prevent. Worry was low or moderate for each health risk and chronic conditions were of the most concern. For high- and low-action risks, response efficacy moderated the relation between cognitive risk perception and health protective action. For low-action risks, decisions to act were affected independently by cognitive and emotional responses. The results support the Risk Perception Attitude Framework and indicate the importance of using cognitive and emotional dimensions of risk in behavior change models.

  2. Modulation of amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon J; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

    2017-01-24

    It has been shown that as cognitive demands of a non-emotional task increase, amygdala response to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli is reduced. However, it remains unclear whether effects are due to altered task demands, or altered perceptual input associated with task demands. Here, we present fMRI data from 20 adult males during a novel cognitive conflict task in which the requirement to scan emotional information was necessary for task performance and held constant across levels of cognitive conflict. Response to fearful facial expressions was attenuated under high (vs. low) conflict conditions, as indexed by both slower reaction times (RTs) and reduced right amygdala response. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis showed that increased amygdala response to fear in the low conflict condition was accompanied by increased functional coupling with middle frontal gyrus, a prefrontal region previously associated with emotion regulation during cognitive task performance. These data suggest that amygdala response to emotion is modulated as a function of task demands, even when perceptual inputs are closely matched across load conditions. PPI data also show that, in particular emotional contexts, increased functional coupling of amygdala with prefrontal cortex can paradoxically occur when executive demands are lower.

  3. Emotional Responses during Reading: Physiological Responses Predict Real-Time Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Samantha G.; Willett, John B.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured…

  4. Emotional Responses during Reading: Physiological Responses Predict Real-Time Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Samantha G.; Willett, John B.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between emotional responses and reading performance in middle-school students. Although a large number of prior studies have investigated the relationship between emotion and reading, those studies have concentrated primarily on relatively static and distal measures of emotion. In this research, we measured…

  5. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  6. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  8. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Behavior/Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Vincent; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…

  9. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Behavior/Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Vincent; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…

  10. Mapping a multidimensional emotion in response to television commercials.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jon D; Klahr, Nelson J; Shen, Feng; Villegas, Jorge; Wright, Paul; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun

    2009-03-01

    Unlike previous emotional studies using functional neuroimaging that have focused on either locating discrete emotions in the brain or linking emotional response to an external behavior, this study investigated brain regions in order to validate a three-dimensional construct--namely pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) of emotion induced by marketing communication. Emotional responses to five television commercials were measured with Advertisement Self-Assessment Manikins (AdSAM) for PAD and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify corresponding patterns of brain activation. We found significant differences in the AdSAM scores on the pleasure and arousal rating scales among the stimuli. Using the AdSAM response as a model for the fMRI image analysis, we showed bilateral activations in the inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyri associated with the difference on the pleasure dimension, and activations in the right superior temporal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus associated with the difference on the arousal dimension. These findings suggest a dimensional approach of constructing emotional changes in the brain and provide a better understanding of human behavior in response to advertising stimuli.

  11. Subjective responses to emotional stimuli during labeling, reappraisal, and distraction.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Matthew D; Inagaki, Tristen K; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Crockett, Molly J

    2011-06-01

    Although multiple neuroimaging studies suggest that affect labeling (i.e., putting feelings into words) can dampen affect-related responses in the amygdala, the consequences of affect labeling have not been examined in other channels of emotional responding. We conducted four studies examining the effect of affect labeling on self-reported emotional experience. In study one, self-reported distress was lower during affect labeling, compared to passive watching, of negative emotional pictures. Studies two and three added reappraisal and distraction conditions, respectively. Affect labeling showed similar effects on self-reported distress as both of these intentional emotion regulation strategies. In each of the first three studies, however, participant predictions about the effects of affect labeling suggest that unlike reappraisal and distraction, people do not believe affect labeling to be an effective emotion regulation strategy. Even after having the experience of affect labels leading to lower distress, participants still predicted that affect labeling would increase distress in the future. Thus, affect labeling is best described as an incidental emotion regulation process. Finally, study four employed positive emotional pictures and here, affect labeling was associated with diminished self-reported pleasure, relative to passive watching. This suggests that affect labeling tends to dampen affective responses in general, rather than specifically alleviating negative affect.

  12. Affective immunology: where emotions and the immune response converge.

    PubMed

    D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2017-03-01

    Affect and emotion are defined as "an essential part of the process of an organism's interaction with stimuli." Similar to affect, the immune response is the "tool" the body uses to interact with the external environment. Thanks to the emotional and immunological response, we learn to distinguish between what we like and what we do not like, to counteract a broad range of challenges, and to adjust to the environment we are living in. Recent compelling evidence has shown that the emotional and immunological systems share more than a similarity of functions. This review article will discuss the crosstalk between these two systems and the need for a new scientific area of research called affective immunology. Research in this field will allow a better understanding and appreciation of the immunological basis of mental disorders and the emotional side of immune diseases.

  13. Emotion Regulation in Emerging Adult Couples: Temperament, Attachment, and HPA Response to Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Powers, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Difficulty managing the stress of conflict in close relationships can lead to mental and physical health problems, possibly through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the neuroendocrine stress response system. Temperament, an individual characteristic, and attachment, a dyadic characteristic, have both been implicated in emotion regulation processes and physiological reactivity, yet there is no clear consensus on how the two work together to influence the stress response, especially after childhood. The present study investigated the ways in which temperament and attachment together predict HPA response in emerging adult couples. Analyses using multilevel modeling (HLM) found that partners' dyadic fit on attachment avoidance impacted females' cortisol response patterns, and attachment avoidance further moderated the effect of males' emotionality on both their own and their partners' cortisol. Results are discussed in terms of emotional coregulation processes in romantic attachment. PMID:17681662

  14. Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy.

  15. Parting Reflections on Education of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders [and] Response to Forness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Oswald, Donald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the need to incorporate research findings in developmental psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychopharmacology in school mental health programs to enable early detection and primary prevention of emotional and behavioral disorders in students. A response stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach.…

  16. Parting Reflections on Education of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders [and] Response to Forness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Oswald, Donald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the need to incorporate research findings in developmental psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychopharmacology in school mental health programs to enable early detection and primary prevention of emotional and behavioral disorders in students. A response stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach.…

  17. Emotional Life: Exploring Contradictions in Health Behavior Through Creative Writing in Public Health Education.

    PubMed

    Saffran, Lise

    2017-09-01

    Weaving personal experience with literature on social determinants and health humanities, the author argues that including art and literature in public health education will benefit efforts to integrate health care and public health by reminding practitioners that communities are composed of individuals with complicated and often contradictory impulses. She argues that those whose work involves planning interventions and reviewing population data also need to perform the tasks of mental flexibility, of imagination, to think about the people behind the numbers. Together with colleagues at the University of Missouri, the author researches the role of creative writing and imagination in reducing HIV stigma and finds hopeful signs in student responses that they are prepared to consider the contradictions present in human behavior if they are given the opportunity to reflect deeply upon them. Creative writing, literature, and art belong in public health education, she argues, because that is how we make space for emotion in our lives and how we connect with the emotional lives of others.

  18. Adolescents' Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Marital Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Lange, Garrett; Franck, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Early adolescents' (11-14 years) responses to marital hostility were examined in a sample of 416 families. The cognitive-contextual perspective and emotional security hypothesis guided the study and 9 adolescent responses were identified. Prospective associations were examined in several structural equation models that included adolescent problems…

  19. Adolescents' Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Marital Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Lange, Garrett; Franck, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Early adolescents' (11-14 years) responses to marital hostility were examined in a sample of 416 families. The cognitive-contextual perspective and emotional security hypothesis guided the study and 9 adolescent responses were identified. Prospective associations were examined in several structural equation models that included adolescent problems…

  20. Infants and Toddlers in Group Care: Feeding Practices that Foster Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Kathryn R.; Goble, Carla B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-teacher interactions during daily child care routines plays a significant role in young children's development. The nature of mealtimes--the pace, the caregiver's responsiveness, how food is offered--affects infants' and toddlers' emotional health. Maintaining consistency between how children are fed at home and at the center…

  1. Infants and Toddlers in Group Care: Feeding Practices that Foster Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Kathryn R.; Goble, Carla B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-teacher interactions during daily child care routines plays a significant role in young children's development. The nature of mealtimes--the pace, the caregiver's responsiveness, how food is offered--affects infants' and toddlers' emotional health. Maintaining consistency between how children are fed at home and at the center…

  2. Health care leader competencies and the relevance of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Weiszbrod, Twila

    2015-01-01

    As health care leader competencies continue to be refined and emphasized in health care administration educational programs, the "soft skills" of emotional intelligence have often been implied, but not included explicitly. The purpose of this study was to better understand what relationship, if any, could be identified between health care leader competencies and emotional intelligence. A quantitative correlational method of study was used, utilizing self-assessments and 360-degree assessments of both constructs. There were 43 valid participants in the study, representing the various types of health care delivery systems. Correlational analysis suggested there was a positive relationship; for each unit of increase in emotional intelligence, there was a 0.6 increase in overall health care leadership competence. This study did not suggest causation, but instead suggested that including the study and development of emotional intelligence in health care administration programs could have a positive impact on the degree of leader competence in graduates. Some curricula suggestions were provided, and further study was recommended.

  3. The professional responsibility of lawyers: emotional competence, multiculturalism and ethics.

    PubMed

    Silver, Marjorie A

    2006-05-01

    Traditional legal education and the Socratic method it utilises are by and large successful at training lawyers to think, reason and analyse. The cultivation of lawyers' intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, however, has been, at best, neglected by the profession. All lawyers, like all human beings, are emotional. Emotions affect who they are and how they practise law, whether or not they are conscious of them. As emotions cannot be removed from the practice of law, it is essential that lawyers learn to understand and manage their emotions, as well as learn to be attuned to their clients' emotional lives. Ignorance of concepts such as countertransference, denial and unconscious bias adversely impact the lawyer-client relationship. Lawyers who understand basic psychological principles and behaviours, who are aware of their own psychological makeup, understand their cultural perspective and recognise and credit their clients' differences, will enhance their effectiveness as counsellors. The client whose lawyer has these competencies will enjoy a therapeutically superior counselling or representational experience. The neglect of either the lawyer's or the client's emotional life threatens to sabotage the lawyer's ability, and thus professional responsibility, to render competent and impartial legal advice. Through drawing parallels to the training and practice in other counselling disciplines and relationships, this article argues that psychological-mindedness and multicultural competence are essential elements of ethically responsible legal representation.

  4. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.

  5. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Emotional Responses to Decision Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species. PMID:23734175

  7. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  8. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  9. Complexities of emotional responses to social and non-social affective stimuli in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Joel S.; Bekele, Esubalew; Bian, Dayi; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Park, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). Method: Galvanic skin response (GSR) and facial electromyography (fEMG) were recorded in medicated outpatients with SZ and demographically matched healthy controls (CO) while they viewed social and non-social images from the International Affective Pictures System. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symptom severity in the SZ and psychometric schizotypy in CO were assessed. Results: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with SZ were more positive in their valence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, mean GSR was greater in SZ, suggesting differential awareness, or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to non-social vs. social images were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in SZ. Negative symptoms in SZ and disorganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced mean fEMG. Greater corrugator mean fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions. Conclusion: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their mean GSR, and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in SZ and underscore the complexities of emotion processing in health and disease. PMID:25859230

  10. A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Avalosse, Hervé; Vancorenland, Sigrid; Verniest, Rebekka; Callens, Michael; van Broeck, Nady; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Mierop, Adrien

    2015-10-01

    Emotional competence (EC; also called "emotional intelligence"), which refers to individual differences in the identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use of one's emotions and those of others, has been found to be an important predictor of individuals' adaptation to their environment. Higher EC is associated with greater happiness, better mental health, more satisfying social and marital relationships, and greater occupational success. Whereas a considerable amount of research has documented the significance of EC, 1 domain has been crucially under investigated: the relationship between EC and physical health. We examined the relationship between EC and objective health indicators in 2 studies (N1 = 1,310; N2 = 9,616) conducted in collaboration with the largest Mutual Benefit Society in Belgium. These studies allowed us (a) to compare the predictive power of EC with other well-known predictors of health such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, education level, health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits), positive and negative affect, and social support; (b) to clarify the relative weight of the various EC dimensions in predicting health; and (c) to determine to what extent EC moderates the effect of already known predictors on health. Results show that EC is a significant predictor of health that has incremental predictive power over and above other predictors. Findings also show that high EC significantly attenuates (and sometimes compensates for) the impact of other risk factors. Therefore, we argue that EC deserves greater interest and attention from health professionals and governments.

  11. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed.

  12. Universal Emotional Health Screening at the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kelly A.; Herting, Jerald R.; Kuo, Elena S.; Stewart, David G.; Anderson, Cheryl A.; Kushner, Siri

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the Developmental Pathways Screening Program (DPSP) and an evaluation of program feasibility, acceptability, and yield. Using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and externalizing questions from the Youth Self Report (YSR; Achenbach, 2001), universal classroom-based emotional health screening was…

  13. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Bruno R.; Zeelenberg, René

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster, and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect, PCE). However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect, NCE). These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness. PMID:23162447

  14. Using the verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) and health provider responses (VR-CoDES-P) in the dental context.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alice; Humphris, Gerry; Wanyonyi, Kristina L; Freeman, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    To show if cues, concerns and provider responses (defined in VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P manuals) are present, can be reliably coded and require additional advice for adoption in a dental context. Thirteen patients in a dental practice setting were videoed with either their dentist or hygienist and dental nurse present in routine treatment sessions. All utterances were coded using the Verona systems: VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P. Rates of cue, concerns and provider responses described and reliability tested. The VR-CoDES and VR-CoDES-P were successfully applied in the dental context. The intra-rater ICCs for the detection of cues and concerns and provider response were acceptable and above 0.75. A similar satisfactory result was found for the inter-rater reliability. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P are applicable in the dental setting with minor supporting guidelines and show evidence of reliable coding. The VR-CoDES and the VR-CoDES-P may be helpful tools for analysing patient cues and concerns and the dental professionals' responses in the dental context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief.

  16. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief. PMID:26869839

  17. Emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: behavioral and neural responses to three socio-emotional tasks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is thought to involve deficits in emotion regulation, and more specifically, deficits in cognitive reappraisal. However, evidence for such deficits is mixed. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal, we examined reappraisal-related behavioral and neural responses in 27 participants with generalized SAD and 27 healthy controls (HC) during three socio-emotional tasks: (1) looming harsh faces (Faces); (2) videotaped actors delivering social criticism (Criticism); and (3) written autobiographical negative self-beliefs (Beliefs). Results Behaviorally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser reappraisal-related reduction in negative emotion in the Beliefs task. Neurally, compared to HC, participants with SAD had lesser BOLD responses in reappraisal-related brain regions when reappraising faces, in visual and attention related regions when reappraising criticism, and in the left superior temporal gyrus when reappraising beliefs. Examination of the temporal dynamics of BOLD responses revealed late reappraisal-related increased responses in HC, compared to SAD. In addition, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which showed reappraisal-related increased activity in both groups, had similar temporal dynamics in SAD and HC during the Faces and Criticism tasks, but greater late response increases in HC, compared to SAD, during the Beliefs task. Reappraisal-related greater late DMPFC responses were associated with greater percent reduction in negative emotion ratings in SAD patients. Conclusions These results suggest a dysfunction of cognitive reappraisal in SAD patients, with overall reduced late brain responses in prefrontal regions, particularly when reappraising faces. Decreased late activity in the DMPFC might be associated with deficient reappraisal and greater negative reactivity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00380731 PMID

  18. Effect of Forewarning on Emotional Responses to a Horror Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study which used the heart rate of subjects as the measure of physiological arousal to assess the effect of forewarning on emotional reactions and physiological responses to a frightening television film. Results indicate that although forewarning did not significantly affect anxiety, it did promote more intense fright and upset. (MBR)

  19. Responsive Classroom?: A Critique of a Social Emotional Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…

  20. Emotional Responsivity in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…

  1. Effect of Forewarning on Emotional Responses to a Horror Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Joanne; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study which used the heart rate of subjects as the measure of physiological arousal to assess the effect of forewarning on emotional reactions and physiological responses to a frightening television film. Results indicate that although forewarning did not significantly affect anxiety, it did promote more intense fright and upset. (MBR)

  2. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  3. Emotional & electroencephalographic responses during affective picture viewing after exercise.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, James B; Smith, J Carson; Dishman, Rod K

    2007-02-28

    We examined the effects of 30 min of cycling exercise at a moderate intensity of 50% peak oxygen uptake, compared to 30 min of rest, on changes in emotional responses to pictorial foreground stimuli that reliably elicit unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant affect. Emotional responses were measured by self-reports of valence (unpleasant to pleasant) and arousal (low to high) and by hemispheric asymmetry (R-L) of frontal and parietal brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in 13 females and 21 males (24+/-3 y). Compared to after rest, self-reports of arousal in response to unpleasant slides were diminished after exercise, but self-reports of valence and frontal asymmetry of alpha frequencies were generally unchanged. Even so, there were differential responses in asymmetry in the beta frequencies in the frontal region and for alpha and beta frequencies in the parietal region, indicative of decreased activity in the left frontal and right parietal regions after exercise compared to after rest. We conclude that moderately intense cycling exercise generally does not alter emotional responding to pleasant and neutral pictures, but may reduce emotional arousal during exposure to unpleasant stimuli.

  4. An Independence of Induced Amnesia and Emotional Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runcie, Dennis; O'Bannon, R. Michael

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this research was (a) to determine whether or not an emotional response, as measured by palmar skin conductance, does accompany a critical item, and (b) if it does, to investigate its relationship to the deficit in recognition memory. (Author/RK)

  5. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

  6. Emotional Responsivity in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…

  7. Neural response to emotional stimuli during experimental human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Jennifer S; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Lichte, Philipp; Kobbe, Philipp; Rosenberger, Christina; Banner, Christina; Wolf, Oliver T; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Bingel, Ulrike; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2013-09-01

    Increases in peripheral cytokines during acute inflammation may affect various neuropsychological functions. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate the effects of acute endotoxemia on mood and the neural response to emotionally aversive visual stimuli in healthy human subjects. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 18 healthy males received a bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response during the presentation of aversive versus neutral pictures. Endotoxin administration induced pronounced transient increases in plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, and cortisol. Positive mood was decreased and state anxiety increased. In addition, activation of right inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in response to emotional visual stimuli was significantly increased in the LPS condition. Increased prefrontal activation during the presentation of emotional material may reflect enhanced cognitive regulation of emotions as an adaptive response during an acute inflammation. These findings may have implications for the putative role of inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of depression.

  8. Helping Children with Emotional Difficulties: A Response to Intervention Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Lee R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of service delivery implemented within a rural elementary school for students in kindergarten through fifth grade experiencing significant emotional and behavioral difficulties. A multi-tiered model is presented that includes school wide interventions in Tier 1, as well as a six…

  9. Responsive Classroom?: A Critique of a Social Emotional Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks critically at the Responsive Classroom (RC) program, a social/emotional learning program used ubiquitously in elementary schools for teacher and student training, in the US as well as in Australia, the UK, and other parts of Western Europe. The paper examines empirical studies on RC's efficacy and outcomes, many of which were…

  10. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  11. Emotion triggers executive attention: anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala responses to emotional words in a conflict task.

    PubMed

    Kanske, Philipp; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-02-01

    Coherent behavior depends on attentional control that detects and resolves conflict between opposing actions. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study tested the hypothesis that emotion triggers attentional control to speed up conflict processing in particularly salient situations. Therefore, we presented emotionally negative and neutral words in a version of the flanker task. In response to conflict, we found activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the amygdala for emotional stimuli. When emotion and conflict coincided, a region in the ventral ACC was activated, which resulted in faster conflict processing in reaction times. Emotion also increased functional connectivity between the ventral ACC and activation of the dorsal ACC and the amygdala in conflict trials. These data suggest that the ventral ACC integrates emotion and conflict and prioritizes the processing of conflict in emotional trials. This adaptive mechanism ensures rapid detection and resolution of conflict in potentially threatening situations signaled by emotional stimuli.

  12. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship With General Health Among the Students of University of Guilan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farrahi, Hassan; Kafi, Seyed Mousa; Karimi, Tamjid; Delazar, Robabeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Particularly, this concept has used for examination of its empact on health of various people groups. Given the importance of students' health, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. Objectives: The concept of emotional intelligence has attracted growing interest from researchers working in various fields. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 136 students were selected from the University of Guilan, north of Iran, using simple random sampling. The subjects completed the Schutte self-report emotional intelligence test and general health questionnaire. Results: The results showed a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and general health. Also, results indicated that emotional perception and emotional utilization are predictors of general health. Conclusions: The findings reflect that emotional intelligence can play an important role in general health. PMID:26576167

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship With General Health Among the Students of University of Guilan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Hassan; Kafi, Seyed Mousa; Karimi, Tamjid; Delazar, Robabeh

    2015-09-01

    Particularly, this concept has used for examination of its empact on health of various people groups. Given the importance of students' health, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. The concept of emotional intelligence has attracted growing interest from researchers working in various fields. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. In this cross-sectional study, 136 students were selected from the University of Guilan, north of Iran, using simple random sampling. The subjects completed the Schutte self-report emotional intelligence test and general health questionnaire. The results showed a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and general health. Also, results indicated that emotional perception and emotional utilization are predictors of general health. The findings reflect that emotional intelligence can play an important role in general health.

  14. Patterns in response to chronic terrorism threats: A construct of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses among Israeli citizens.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2016-11-10

    Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats.

  15. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  16. Personality traits modulate neural responses to emotions expressed in music.

    PubMed

    Park, Mona; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Bao, Yan; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Welker, Lorenz; Reiser, Maximilian; Meindl, Thomas; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-07-26

    Music communicates and evokes emotions. The number of studies on the neural correlates of musical emotion processing is increasing but few have investigated the factors that modulate these neural activations. Previous research has shown that personality traits account for individual variability of neural responses. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the dimensions Extraversion and Neuroticism are related to differences in brain reactivity to musical stimuli expressing the emotions happiness, sadness and fear. 12 participants (7 female, M=20.33 years) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and were scanned while performing a passive listening task. Neurofunctional analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Neuroticism scores and activations in bilateral basal ganglia, insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to music expressing happiness. Extraversion scores were marginally negatively correlated with activations in the right amygdala in response to music expressing fear. Our findings show that subjects' personality may have a predictive power in the neural correlates of musical emotion processing and should be considered in the context of experimental group homogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug effects on responses to emotional facial expressions: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Bershad, Anya K.; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Many psychoactive drugs increase social behavior and enhance social interactions, which may, in turn, increase their attractiveness to users. Although the psychological mechanisms by which drugs affect social behavior are not fully understood, there is some evidence that drugs alter the perception of emotions in others. Drugs can affect the ability to detect, attend to, and respond to emotional facial expressions, which in turn may influence their use in social settings. Either increased reactivity to positive expressions or decreased response to negative expressions may facilitate social interaction. This article reviews evidence that psychoactive drugs alter the processing of emotional facial expressions using subjective, behavioral, and physiological measures. The findings lay the groundwork for better understanding how drugs alter social processing and social behavior more generally. PMID:26226144

  18. Drug effects on responses to emotional facial expressions: recent findings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-09-01

    Many psychoactive drugs increase social behavior and enhance social interactions, which may, in turn, increase their attractiveness to users. Although the psychological mechanisms by which drugs affect social behavior are not fully understood, there is some evidence that drugs alter the perception of emotions in others. Drugs can affect the ability to detect, attend to, and respond to emotional facial expressions, which in turn may influence their use in social settings. Either increased reactivity to positive expressions or decreased response to negative expressions may facilitate social interaction. This article reviews evidence that psychoactive drugs alter the processing of emotional facial expressions using subjective, behavioral, and physiological measures. The findings lay the groundwork for better understanding how drugs alter social processing and social behavior more generally.

  19. When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Scheibe, Susanne; Sims, Tamara L; Carstensen, Laura L

    2013-01-01

    Traditional models of emotion-health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health. More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being. Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of "taking the good with the bad" may benefit health outcomes. In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a 10-year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span. The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions (co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions) strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines.

  20. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, J. P.; Stansfeld, S.; Potter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8990992

  1. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  2. Life stress, emotional health, and mean telomere length in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

    PubMed

    Surtees, Paul G; Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Pooley, Karen A; Luben, Robert N; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the association between psychological stress, emotional health, and relative mean telomere length in an ethnically homogeneous population of 4,441 women, aged 41-80 years. Mean telomere length was measured using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Social adversity exposure and emotional health were assessed through questionnaire and covariates through direct measurement and questionnaire. This study found evidence that adverse experiences during childhood may be associated with shorter telomere length. This finding remained after covariate adjustment and showed evidence of a dose-response relationship with increasing number of reported childhood difficulties associated with decreasing relative mean telomere length. No associations were observed for any of the other summary measures of social adversity and emotional health considered. These results extend and provide support for some previous findings concerning the association of adverse experience and emotional health histories with shorter telomere length in adulthood. Replication of these findings in longitudinal studies is now essential.

  3. Emotional responses to music: towards scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Suda, Miyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Obata, Akiko; Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi

    2008-01-08

    Neurocognitive research has the potential to identify the relevant effects of music therapy. In this study, we examined the effect of music mode (major vs. minor) on stress reduction using optical topography and an endocrinological stress marker. In salivary cortisol levels, we observed that stressful conditions such as mental fatigue (thinking and creating a response) was reduced more by major mode music than by minor mode music. We suggest that music specifically induces an emotional response similar to a pleasant experience or happiness. Moreover, we demonstrated the typical asymmetrical pattern of stress responses in upper temporal cortex areas, and suggested that happiness/sadness emotional processing might be related to stress reduction by music.

  4. [Individual behavioral and autonomic response to emotional stress in humans].

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Iu V; Berlov, D N; Rusalova, M N

    2006-01-01

    Healthy subjects (n = 53) performed a sound version of the proof-reading test under normal conditions and in the state of emotional stress. Stress resistance was evaluated by the overall number of errors. The propensity to active or passive response to stress was evaluated by the number of "false alarms" and signal omissions. The reaction pattern to emotional stress in stress-resistant subjects, irrespective of their behavioral features, consisted in an increase in sympathetic effects on the cardiac rhythm and a decrease in the reaction time to significant signals. In subjects with low stress resistance, no statistically significant changes in the level of sympathetic tone and reaction time were revealed in the state of stress. Subjects with active behavioral response to stress, irrespective of their level of stress resistance, were characterized by aggressiveness, boldness and independence. Subjects with passive response to stress were inclined to conformism, dependence, and passivity.

  5. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P < 0.001). There was evidence of a correlation between the overall public health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). Conclusions The study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091

  6. Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Malho, André; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Popa, Daniela; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-04-17

    Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009-2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N = 51 were contacted and N = 33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P = 0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with "staff" preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P < 0.001). There was evidence of a correlation between the overall public health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r = 0.61, P < 0.001). The study shows a positive correlation between public health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership.

  7. Poverty and Internalizing Symptoms: The Indirect Effect of Middle Childhood Poverty on Internalizing Symptoms via an Emotional Response Inhibition Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Capistrano, Christian G.; Bianco, Hannah; Kim, Pilyoung

    2016-01-01

    Childhood poverty is a pervasive problem that can alter mental health outcomes. Children from impoverished circumstances are more likely than their middle-income counterparts to develop internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. To date, however, the emotional-cognitive control processes that link childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms remain largely unexplored. Using the Emotion Go/NoGo paradigm, we examined the association between poverty and emotional response inhibition in middle childhood. We further examined the role of emotional response inhibition in the link between middle childhood poverty and internalizing symptoms. Lower income was associated with emotional response inhibition difficulties (indexed by greater false alarm rates in the context of task irrelevant angry and sad faces). Furthermore, emotional response inhibition deficits in the context of angry and sad distracters were further associated with child-report internalizing problems. The results of the current study demonstrate the significance of understanding the emotional-cognitive control vulnerabilities of children raised in poverty and their association with mental health outcomes. PMID:27582725

  8. Inverse roles of emotional labour on health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Erika; Abe, Takeru; Ono, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    Emotional labour increases among long-term care workers because providing care and services to impaired elders causes conflicting interpersonal emotions. Thus, we investigated the associations between emotional labour, general health and job satisfaction among long-term care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 132 established, private day care centres in Tokyo using a mail survey. The outcome variables included two health-related variables and four job satisfaction variables: physical and psychological health, satisfaction with wages, interpersonal relationships, work environment and job satisfaction. We performed multiple regression analyses to identify significant factors. Directors from 36 facilities agreed to participate. A total of 123 responses from long-term care workers were analysed. Greater emotional dissonance was associated with better physical and psychological health and worse work environment satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -2.93, p = .0389; -3.32, p = .0299; -1.92, p = .0314, respectively). Fewer negative emotions were associated with more job satisfaction (partial regression coefficient: -1.87, p = .0163). We found that emotional labour was significantly inversely associated with health and job satisfaction. Our findings indicated that the emotional labour of long-term care workers has a negative and positive influence on health and workplace satisfaction, and suggests that care quality and stable employment among long-term care workers might affect their emotional labour. Therefore, we think a programme to support emotional labour among long-term care workers in an organized manner and a self-care programme to educate workers regarding emotional labour would be beneficial.

  9. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  10. An investigation of emotional intelligence measures using item response theory.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seonghee; Drasgow, Fritz; Cao, Mengyang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of 3 frequently administered emotional intelligence (EI) scales (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale [WLEIS], Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test [SEIT], and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [TEIQue]), which were developed on the basis of different theoretical frameworks (i.e., ability EI and mixed EI). By conducting item response theory (IRT) analyses, the authors examined the item parameters and compared the fits of 2 response process models (i.e., dominance model and ideal point model) for these scales with data from 355 undergraduate sample recruited from the subject pool. Several important findings were obtained. First, the EI scales seem better able to differentiate individuals at low trait levels than high trait levels. Second, a dominance model showed better model fit to the self-report ability EI scale (WLEIS) and also fit better with most subfactors of the SEIT, except for the mood regulation/optimism factor. Both dominance and ideal point models fit a self-report mixed EI scale (TEIQue). Our findings suggest (a) the EI scales should be revised to include more items at moderate and higher trait levels; and (b) the nature of the EI construct should be considered during the process of scale development.

  11. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  12. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  13. Electrocortical responses to NIMSTIM facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ezra; Weinberg, Anna; Moran, Tim; Hajcak, Greg

    2013-04-01

    Emotional faces are motivationally salient stimuli that automatically capture attention and rapidly potentiate neural processing. Because of their superior temporal resolution, scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) are ideal for examining rapid changes in neural activity. Some reports have found larger ERPs for fearful and angry faces compared with both neutral and other emotional faces, and a key aim of the present study was to assess neural response to multiple emotional expressions using the NIMSTIM. Importantly, no study has yet systematically evaluated neural activity and self-report ratings for multiple NIMSTIM expressions. Study 1 examined the time-course of electrocortical activity in response to fearful, angry, sad, happy, and neutral NIMSTIM faces. In Study 2, valence and arousal ratings were collected for the same faces in a separate sample. In line with previous findings, the early P1 was larger for fearful compared with neutral faces. The vertex positivity (VPP) was enhanced for fearful, angry, and happy expressions compared to neutral. There was no effect of expression on the N170. Marginally significant enhancements were observed for all expressions during the early posterior negativity (EPN). The late positive potential (LPP) was enhanced only for fearful and angry faces. All emotional expressions were rated as more arousing and more pleasant/unpleasant than neutral expressions. Overall, findings suggest that angry and fearful faces might be especially potent in terms of eliciting ERP responses and ideal for emotion research when more evocative images cannot be used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mothers' frontal EEG asymmetry in response to infant emotion states and mother-infant emotional availability, emotional experience, and internalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Lauren A; Teti, Douglas M

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the links between mothers' frontal EEG asymmetry at rest and during videos of their 5- to 8-month-old infants expressing three emotion states (joy, anger/distress, and neutral interest), mother-infant emotional availability (EA) in the home, mothers' depressive and anxious symptoms, and mothers' emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. Greater relative right frontal activity at rest was associated with greater maternal anxiety, but was unrelated to EA or mother-reported emotional experience in response to infant emotion cues. A shift toward greater relative right frontal activation in response to infant emotional stimuli was associated with lower maternal anxiety, greater mother-infant EA, and mothers' experience of sadness, concern, irritability, and the absence of joy in response to seeing their own infant in distress. These findings suggest that mothers' in the moment empathetic responding to their infant's emotions, indexed by a shift in frontal EEG asymmetry in response to infant emotional displays, is related to mother-infant EA in the home. Implications for conceptualizing parenting risk are discussed.

  15. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  16. Affirmative action and corporate emotional health programs.

    PubMed

    Manuso, J S

    1980-10-01

    Using the New York home office of the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States as a model for corporations in general, this paper addresses four major areas concerning the psychology of success or failure of minorities in newly acquired "corporate elite" jobs: (1) the nature of the corporate mandate for making Affirmative Action work; (2) the stressors unique to minorities in corporate life and the effects of such stressors; (3) the Equitable's response to its minority employees' stress-related symptoms; and (4) recommendations aimed at assuring the success of minority employees in organizational life.

  17. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; McCabe, M

    1997-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of attention and emotional responses to the sexual response to erotica. Self reported levels of sexual arousal, attention, and emotional responses were measured after 20 men and 20 women viewed a series of erotic film segments. Men and women reported greater sexual arousal to erotica when they became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. Subjective sexual arousal also correlated positively with the degree to which subjects experienced entertainment and curiousity to the erotic film segments, but negatively with boredom. The level of sexual arousal reported by subjects did not correlate significantly with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) and vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). The multidimensional nature of the sexual response was demonstrated by the fact that the magnitude of subjective sexual arousal was predicted by the separate groupings of state assessed attentional and emotional variables, trait indexed absorption and appetitive feelings, and demographic information. These findings applied to both men and women, with the exception that men experienced greater sexual arousal than women, and women reported more disgust to the stimulus materials. Future directions for studying the basis for differences in sexual arousal between men and women are outlined, with an emphasis on a psychophysiological exploration of these phenomena.

  18. Response to Kingsley Price's "How Can Music Seem to be Emotional"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nering, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a response to Kingsley Price's argument on the seemingness of the emotionality of music. For Price, music is not a person, cannot possibly harbor an inward life, and cannot possibly be emotional. He argues that since music is not personal, it cannot be emotional but can only seem emotional. He then sets out to discover how…

  19. Response to Kingsley Price's "How Can Music Seem to be Emotional"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nering, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a response to Kingsley Price's argument on the seemingness of the emotionality of music. For Price, music is not a person, cannot possibly harbor an inward life, and cannot possibly be emotional. He argues that since music is not personal, it cannot be emotional but can only seem emotional. He then sets out to discover how…

  20. Impact of a senior fitness program on measures of physical and emotional health and functioning.

    PubMed

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2013-12-01

    The SilverSneakers fitness program is a health plan benefit for Medicare beneficiaries that provides older adults with fitness center membership, customized group exercise classes, and a supportive social environment that promotes socialization among participants. This study evaluated the impact of the SilverSneakers program on physical and emotional health and activities of daily living (ADLs). A quasi-experimental retrospective analysis compared annual survey responses from SilverSneakers members (treatment N=5586) to a matched national random sample of Medicare Advantage organization beneficiaries (comparison N=22,344) in Cohort 10 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey. Matching was performed based on 6 demographic and 6 disease status variables. Survey responses from 2007 and 2009 were evaluated using categorical and logistic regression analysis. The treatment group showed significantly better physical and emotional health and lower impairment in both 2007 and 2009, less impairment for 4 of 6 ADLs in 2007, and all 6 in 2009, and a higher average number of days of good health within the prior month for both years. Three-year longitudinal analyses indicated a significantly more favorable survey response trend for the treatment group for nearly all measures of health and ADLs. Members who exercised less frequently had poorer health and functioning. Overall, participation in the SilverSneakers program was associated with more favorable overall physical and social/emotional health status and fewer activity impairments, suggesting that the provision of senior-oriented group fitness programs may be a valuable approach to improve quality of life and reduce the burden associated with declining health and functioning as older adults age.

  1. When Feeling Bad Can Be Good: Mixed Emotions Benefit Physical Health Across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hershfield, Hal E.; Scheibe, Susanne; Sims, Tamara L.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional models of emotion–health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health. More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being. Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of “taking the good with the bad” may benefit health outcomes. In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a 10-year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span. The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions (co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions) strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines. PMID:24032072

  2. Mental Health Response to Terrorism: The World Trade Center Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofman, Paul S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews literature pertaining directly to responses to man-made disasters, with specific emphasis on emotional responses to terrorism. Summarizes the effects of the bombing of the World Trade Center on its survivors and on the wider community. Examples of mental health outreach efforts and case vignettes of brief cognitive behavior therapeutic…

  3. Evidence for universality in phenomenological emotion response system coherence.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David; Nezlek, John B; Koopmann, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    The authors reanalyzed data from Scherer and Wallbott's (Scherer, 1997b; Scherer & Wallbott, 1994) International Study of Emotion Antecedents and Reactions to examine how phenomenological reports of emotional experience, expression, and physiological sensations were related to each other within cultures and to determine if these relationships were moderated by cultural differences, which were operationally defined using Hofstede's (2001) typology. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses produced several findings of note. First, the vast majority of the variance in ratings was within countries (i.e., at the individual level); a much smaller proportion of the total variance was between countries. Second, there were negative relationships between country-level means and long- versus short-term orientation for numerous measures. Greater long-term orientation was associated with lowered emotional expressivity and fewer physiological sensations. Third, at the individual (within-culture) level, across the 7 emotions, there were consistent and reliable positive relationships among the response systems, indicating coherence among them. Fourth, such relationships were not moderated by cultural differences, as measured by the Hofstede dimensions.

  4. Effects of virtual environment platforms on emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanguk; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael

    2014-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of different virtual environment (VE) technologies (i.e., desktop, head mounted display, or fully immersive platforms) on emotional arousal and task performance. Fifty-three participants were recruited from a college population. Reactivity to stressful VEs was examined in three VE systems from desktop to high-end fully immersive systems. The experiment was a 3 (desktop system, head mounted display, and six wall system)×2 (high- and low-stressful VE) within subject design, with self-reported emotional arousal and valence, skin conductance, task performance, presence, and simulator sickness examined as dependent variables. Replicating previous studies, the fully immersive system induced the highest sense of presence and the head mounted display system elicited the highest amount of simulator sickness. Extending previous studies, the results demonstrated that VE platforms were associated with different patterns in emotional responses and task performance. Our findings suggest that different VE systems may be appropriate for different scientific purposes when studying stress reactivity using emotionally evocative tasks.

  5. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G.; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health. PMID:25859229

  6. Preservice Teachers' Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations with Teachers' Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…

  7. Speaking about emotional events in hospital: the role of health-care professionals in children emotional experiences.

    PubMed

    Corsano, Paola; Cigala, Ada; Majorano, Marinella; Vignola, Valentina; Nuzzo, Maria Josè; Cardinale, Elisa; Izzi, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study aimed at exploring the role of health-care professionals in hospitalized children's emotional experiences. A total of 27 children and adolescents from ages 6 to 15 years admitted to the Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ward of an Italian hospital participated in the study. Each participant was asked to talk about an emotional experience of happiness, anger, sadness and fear, felt in the presence of a doctor or nurse on the ward. The emotional tales were coded and analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that all the emotions considered were experienced when the staff was present, nurses in particular. Doctors and nurses played a role of active participants, encouraging children's emotions, especially for happy events. More research is needed to clarify the role of the staff in supporting children to cope with negative emotions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Impact of leadership development on emotional health in healthcare managers.

    PubMed

    Lee, How; Spiers, Judith A; Yurtseven, Ozden; Cummings, Greta G; Sharlow, Janice; Bhatti, Aslam; Germann, Paula

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of a Leadership Development Initiative (LDI) on the emotional health and well-being among five levels of healthcare managers. Increasingly dynamic, demanding healthcare environments result in highly stressful work atmospheres. Using quasi-experimental and mixed methods, we used regression on pre- and post-LDI survey data with 86 managers, and individual/focus group interview data for focused ethnographic analysis. An increasing trend was observed in self-assessed leadership practices after the LDI with a significant increase in 'inspiring a shared vision' (P<0.01). However, a non-significant decreasing trend in areas of work life and a non-significant increase in cynicism (P=0.14) was observed. Before the LDI, participants' self-assessment of their practice to 'enable others to act' was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (P<0.01). Both before and after the LDI, 'modelling the way' was significantly related to professional efficacy (P<0.01 pre; P<0.05 post). Post-LDI, 'inspiring a shared vision' was negatively (P<0.01) and 'enabling others to act' was positively (P<0.05) related to cynicism. The LDI provided opportunities for healthcare managers to connect, strengthen leadership and social support networks and manage burnout. Transformational leadership practices may influence managers' emotional health. Senior administrative support and communicating the structure and vision of developmental initiatives may help to achieve realistic expectations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The mediating role of secondary beliefs: enhancing the understanding of emotional responses and illness perceptions in arthritis.

    PubMed

    McCracken, James; Lindner, Helen; Sciacchitano, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are a significant issue across many health professional domains, becoming an increasing burden on limited and costly resources. The current study investigated the relationship between secondary beliefs and emotional responses, beyond the relationship accounted for by illness perceptions, using the framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Sixty-five adults with arthritis participated in the questionnaire-based study. Multivariate analysis found that different emotional representations of the illness were significantly predicted by the individual's secondary belief, above and beyond that predicted by the cognitive representation of their illness alone. The study found that individuals who utilized an achievement secondary belief experienced feelings of worry, whereas individuals who used an approval orientation to understand their arthritis experienced emotions such as depression, being upset, anger, anxiety, and fear. No significant pattern emerged for individuals who used a comfort secondary belief to understand their arthritis. These findings are in line with the theory of secondary beliefs, as articulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

  10. Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Plasticity: Implications for Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva-María; Llorente, Ricardo; López-Gallardo, Meritxell

    2007-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been involved in the regulation of anxiety, and proposed as an inhibitory modulator of neuronal, behavioral and adrenocortical responses to stressful stimuli. Brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus and cortex, which are directly involved in the regulation of emotional behavior, contain high densities of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors show anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviors as well as an altered hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis activity, whereas enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling produces anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Genetic and pharmacological approaches also support an involvement of endocannabinoids in extinction of aversive memories. Thus, the endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in the regulation of emotional states. Endocannabinoids have emerged as mediators of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in diverse brain structures. Despite the fact that most of the studies on this field have been performed using in vitro models, endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity might be considered as a plausible candidate underlying some of the diverse physiological functions of the endogenous cannabinoid system, including developmental, affective and cognitive processes. In this paper, we will focus on the functional relevance of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity within the framework of emotional responses. Alterations of the endocannabinoid system may constitute an important factor in the aetiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and, in turn, enhancers of endocannabinoid signaling could represent a potential therapeutical tool in the treatment of both anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:17641734

  11. Irony comprehension: social conceptual knowledge and emotional response.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Miyazawa, Shiho; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Verbal irony conveys various emotional messages, from criticism to humor, that differ from the meaning of the actual words. To understand irony, we need conceptual knowledge of irony in addition to an understanding of context. We investigated the neural mechanism of irony comprehension, focusing on two overlooked issues: conceptual knowledge and emotional response. We studied 35 healthy subjects who underwent functional MRI. During the scan, the subject examined first-person-view stories describing verbal interactions, some of which included irony directed toward the subject. After MRI, the subject viewed the stories again and rated the degree of irony, humor, and negative emotion evoked by the statements. We identified several key findings about irony comprehension: (1) the right anterior superior temporal gyrus may be responsible for representing social conceptual knowledge of irony, (2) activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus might underlie the understanding of context, (3) modulation of activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the degree of irony perceived, and (4) modulation of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex varies with the degree of humor perceived. Our results clarified the differential contributions of the neural loci of irony comprehension, enriching our understanding of pragmatic language communication from a social behavior point of view.

  12. Toward a Further Understanding of Students' Emotional Responses to Classroom Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chory, Rebecca M.; Horan, Sean M.; Carton, Shannon T.; Houser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by emotional response theory, we examined students' emotional reactions to perceptions of classroom injustice. Undergraduates from three universities participated by completing questionnaires. Students most frequently reported procedural injustice, but experienced the most severe and most negative emotional responses to violations involving…

  13. Toward a Further Understanding of Students' Emotional Responses to Classroom Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chory, Rebecca M.; Horan, Sean M.; Carton, Shannon T.; Houser, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by emotional response theory, we examined students' emotional reactions to perceptions of classroom injustice. Undergraduates from three universities participated by completing questionnaires. Students most frequently reported procedural injustice, but experienced the most severe and most negative emotional responses to violations involving…

  14. Emotion Evaluation and Response Slowing in a Non-Human Primate: New Directions for Cognitive Bias Measures of Animal Emotion?

    PubMed Central

    Bethell, Emily J.; Holmes, Amanda; MacLarnon, Ann; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive bias model of animal welfare assessment is informed by studies with humans demonstrating that the interaction between emotion and cognition can be detected using laboratory tasks. A limitation of cognitive bias tasks is the amount of training required by animals prior to testing. A potential solution is to use biologically relevant stimuli that trigger innate emotional responses. Here; we develop a new method to assess emotion in rhesus macaques; informed by paradigms used with humans: emotional Stroop; visual cueing and; in particular; response slowing. In humans; performance on a simple cognitive task can become impaired when emotional distractor content is displayed. Importantly; responses become slower in anxious individuals in the presence of mild threat; a pattern not seen in non-anxious individuals; who are able to effectively process and disengage from the distractor. Here; we present a proof-of-concept study; demonstrating that rhesus macaques show slowing of responses in a simple touch-screen task when emotional content is introduced; but only when they had recently experienced a presumably stressful veterinary inspection. Our results indicate the presence of a subtle “cognitive freeze” response; the measurement of which may provide a means of identifying negative shifts in emotion in animals. PMID:26761035

  15. Amygdala Response to Emotional Stimuli without Awareness: Facts and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Diano, Matteo; Celeghin, Alessia; Bagnis, Arianna; Tamietto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that the human amygdala exerts some of its functions also when the observer is not aware of the content, or even presence, of the triggering emotional stimulus. Nevertheless, there is as of yet no consensus on the limits and conditions that affect the extent of amygdala's response without focused attention or awareness. Here we review past and recent studies on this subject, examining neuroimaging literature on healthy participants as well as brain-damaged patients, and we comment on their strengths and limits. We propose a theoretical distinction between processes involved in attentional unawareness, wherein the stimulus is potentially accessible to enter visual awareness but fails to do so because attention is diverted, and in sensory unawareness, wherein the stimulus fails to enter awareness because its normal processing in the visual cortex is suppressed. We argue this distinction, along with data sampling amygdala responses with high temporal resolution, helps to appreciate the multiplicity of functional and anatomical mechanisms centered on the amygdala and supporting its role in non-conscious emotion processing. Separate, but interacting, networks relay visual information to the amygdala exploiting different computational properties of subcortical and cortical routes, thereby supporting amygdala functions at different stages of emotion processing. This view reconciles some apparent contradictions in the literature, as well as seemingly contrasting proposals, such as the dual stage and the dual route model. We conclude that evidence in favor of the amygdala response without awareness is solid, albeit this response originates from different functional mechanisms and is driven by more complex neural networks than commonly assumed. Acknowledging the complexity of such mechanisms can foster new insights on the varieties of amygdala functions without awareness and their impact on human behavior.

  16. Amygdala Response to Emotional Stimuli without Awareness: Facts and Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Diano, Matteo; Celeghin, Alessia; Bagnis, Arianna; Tamietto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, evidence has accumulated that the human amygdala exerts some of its functions also when the observer is not aware of the content, or even presence, of the triggering emotional stimulus. Nevertheless, there is as of yet no consensus on the limits and conditions that affect the extent of amygdala’s response without focused attention or awareness. Here we review past and recent studies on this subject, examining neuroimaging literature on healthy participants as well as brain-damaged patients, and we comment on their strengths and limits. We propose a theoretical distinction between processes involved in attentional unawareness, wherein the stimulus is potentially accessible to enter visual awareness but fails to do so because attention is diverted, and in sensory unawareness, wherein the stimulus fails to enter awareness because its normal processing in the visual cortex is suppressed. We argue this distinction, along with data sampling amygdala responses with high temporal resolution, helps to appreciate the multiplicity of functional and anatomical mechanisms centered on the amygdala and supporting its role in non-conscious emotion processing. Separate, but interacting, networks relay visual information to the amygdala exploiting different computational properties of subcortical and cortical routes, thereby supporting amygdala functions at different stages of emotion processing. This view reconciles some apparent contradictions in the literature, as well as seemingly contrasting proposals, such as the dual stage and the dual route model. We conclude that evidence in favor of the amygdala response without awareness is solid, albeit this response originates from different functional mechanisms and is driven by more complex neural networks than commonly assumed. Acknowledging the complexity of such mechanisms can foster new insights on the varieties of amygdala functions without awareness and their impact on human behavior. PMID:28119645

  17. Response expectancy versus response hope in predicting birth-related emotional distress and pain.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raluca; David, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Response expectancies and response hopes have been shown to be two distinct constructs with important implications for nonvolitional outcomes. More specifically, studies show that response expectancies: (1) are sufficient to cause nonvolitional outcomes, (2) are not mediated by other psychological variables, and (3) are self-confirming while seemingly automatic. A new programmatic research line has differentiated between people's response expectancies and their response hopes regarding nonvolitional outcomes and showed that even if response hope and response expectancy are separate constructs, they are not unrelated. These concepts have not yet been studied in pregnant women. Moreover, determining the causal factors that best explain the variance of emotional distress and pain in pregnancy is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interrelations between response expectancy and response hope in pregnant women with respect to (1) emotional distress prior to giving birth and (2) pain during giving birth. Additionally, self-reported labor hours were analyzed as a secondary outcome. Results show that response expectancy for pain directly predicts pain, and that the discrepancy between response hopes and response expectancies is a strong predictor of investigated outcomes. Thus, our results support the idea that preventive psychological interventions for pregnant women should emphasize adjusting response expectancies and response hopes regarding the pain and emotional distress associated with giving birth. We believe that the results have both theoretical and practical implications and the topic deserves further investigation.

  18. The role of self-aspects in emotions elicited by threats to physical health.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Hynie, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between self-aspects and socially engaging and socially disengaging emotions elicited by imagined and real physical health problems. In Study 1, participants imagined themselves experiencing a health problem described in a hypothetical scenario and rated the extent to which they would experience a list of emotions. The experience of socially engaging emotions such as shame and embarrassment was predicted by the endorsement of collective self. In Study 2, participants recalled a past health problem and emotions they experienced during its course. Again, collective self predicted the extent to which people mentioned socially engaging emotions in their free recall of emotions. Independent self was not related to the imagined experience of socially disengaging emotions in Study 1 or the recollection of such emotions in Study 2.

  19. Childhood Poverty Predicts Adult Amygdala and Frontal Activity and Connectivity in Response to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Arash; King, Anthony P.; Evans, Gary W.; Swain, James E.; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood poverty negatively impacts physical and mental health in adulthood. Altered brain development in response to social and environmental factors associated with poverty likely contributes to this effect, engendering maladaptive patterns of social attribution and/or elevated physiological stress. In this fMRI study, we examined the association between childhood poverty and neural processing of social signals (i.e., emotional faces) in adulthood. Fifty-two subjects from a longitudinal prospective study recruited as children, participated in a brain imaging study at 23–25 years of age using the Emotional Faces Assessment Task. Childhood poverty, independent of concurrent adult income, was associated with higher amygdala and medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) responses to threat vs. happy faces. Also, childhood poverty was associated with decreased functional connectivity between left amygdala and mPFC. This study is unique, because it prospectively links childhood poverty to emotional processing during adulthood, suggesting a candidate neural mechanism for negative social-emotional bias. Adults who grew up poor appear to be more sensitive to social threat cues and less sensitive to positive social cues. PMID:26124712

  20. Narrative versus Non-narrative: The Role of Identification, Transportation and Emotion in Reducing Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren B.; Chatterjee, Joyee S.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    This research empirically tests whether using a fictional narrative produces a greater impact on health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intention than presenting the identical information in a more traditional, nonfiction, non-narrative format. European American, Mexican American, and African American women (N = 758) were surveyed before and after viewing either a narrative or non-narrative cervical cancer-related film. The narrative was more effective in increasing cervical cancer-related knowledge and attitudes. Moreover, in response to the narrative featuring Latinas, Mexican Americans were most transported, identified most with the characters, and experienced the strongest emotions. Regressions revealed that transportation, identification with specific characters, and emotion each contributed to shifts in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Thus, narrative formats may provide a valuable tool in reducing health disparities. PMID:24347679

  1. Factors associated with the emotional health of children: high family income as a protective factor.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Janine; Vogel, M; Pietzner, D; Kroll, E; Wagner, O; Schwarz, S; Müller, E; Kiess, W; Richter, M; Poulain, T

    2017-09-23

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms have adverse effects on children's development. The present study investigates the associations of socioeconomic factors as well as maternal emotional health with children's emotional health status. The data were collected between 2011 and 2015 in the LIFE Child study, a population-based cohort study in Leipzig, Germany. The emotional health status of 1093 children (2.5-11.9 years old) was investigated using the subscale 'emotional problems' of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations of maternal emotional health, family status, and socioeconomic status (SES) with the emotional health status of children were estimated via regression analyses. 21.13% of the participating children were assigned to the 'risk' group for emotional problems. The results furthermore revealed that children of mothers reporting more depressive symptoms, children living in single-parent families, and children of families with lower SES scored higher in the emotional problems scale. When considering the different indicators of SES (parental education, occupational status, and monthly net income) separately, only income showed significant associations with children's emotional health status. The prevalence of emotional problems in children in Leipzig, a city in East Germany, appears to be higher than the previously reported German average. Maternal depressive symptoms, single-parent families, lower SES, and especially lower income can be seen as risk factors for children's emotional health.

  2. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks.

    PubMed

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern's mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol's causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies.

  3. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults.

  4. Emotional responses during social information seeking on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kevin; Alhabash, Saleem; Park, Hyojung

    2010-10-01

    Based on existing research on social networking and information seeking, it was proposed that Facebook.com use could be conceptualized as serving two primary goals: passive social browsing (i.e., newsfeeds) and extractive social searching (i.e., friends' profiles). This study explored whether these categories adequately reflect Facebook use and whether they moderate physiological indicators of emotion. Thirty-six participants navigated Facebook.com while their on-screen activity and physiological responses associated with motivation and emotion were recorded. Results showed that the majority of screens encountered during Facebook use could be categorized as devoted to social browsing or social searching. Participants spent more time on social browsing than they spent on social searching. Skin-conductance data indicated that sympathetic activation diminished during the course of both social browsing and social searching. Facial EMG data indicated that participants experienced more pleasantness during the course of social searching than they experienced during social browsing. These results are discussed in terms of existing social-networking research and an evaluative space model of emotion.

  5. COMT genotype influences prefrontal response to emotional distraction.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Sonia J; Cohen, Jonathan D; Fossella, John; Casey, B J; Farah, Martha J

    2006-03-01

    Early studies of genetic effects on brain activity have been conducted to investigate primarily either the influence of polymorphisms in dopaminergic genes, especially the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, on prefrontal cognitive processes such as working memory, or that of polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene on the amygdala response to threatening stimuli. Here, we address genetic influences on the neural systems underlying cognitive-affective interactions. Specifically, we assess the effect of the CO MT val158met polymorphism onfrontal regulation of attentionunder emotional distraction. Healthy volunteers were scanned while performing a house-matching task with affectively negative versus neutral distractors. Effects of val allele load were examined on frontal regions associated with attentional control and emotion regulation, and on parahippocampal regions associated with perception of houses. As we predicted, val load correlated positively with activity in control- and task-related regions during performance under emotional distraction. These findings provide an initial step toward identifying genetic contributions to interindividual variability in recruitment of mechanisms that regulate affective processing.

  6. Community mental health nurses speak out: the critical relationship between emotional wellbeing and satisfying professional practice.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel

    2006-10-01

    The article reports on selected findings of a research study concerning emotional wellbeing and professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). It highlights the relationship between community mental health nurses' and emotional wellbeing, and their capacity to provide satisfying professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). The notion of emotional wellbeing, factors that impacted upon the participants' emotional wellbeing, and the relationship of emotional wellbeing to professional practice were revealed in the study. These findings were based on a qualitative critical feminist research inquiry and specifically, interviews with five women community mental health nurses in Australia. Whilst complex, emotional wellbeing was found to be both implicitly and explicitly linked to the participants intertwined personal and professional experiences. Four key components were identified: the nebulous notion; the stress relationship; the mind, body, spirit connection; and, inner sense of balance. In terms of emotional wellbeing and professional practice, three themes were revealed. These were: being able to speak out (or not); being autonomous (or not) and being satisfied (or not). The authors argue that the emotional wellbeing of nurses working in community mental health settings is critical to satisfying professional practice. Furthermore nursing work involves emotional work which impacts on one's emotional wellbeing and emotional wellbeing is integrally linked to professional practice. It is recommended that health organisations must be pro-active in addressing the emotional needs of nurses to ensure the delivery of health care that is aligned to professional practice. This approach will ensure nurses will feel more recognised and validated in terms of their nursing practice.

  7. Evaluating the Emotion Ontology through use in the self-reporting of emotional responses at an academic conference.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Janna; Brass, Andy; Caine, Colin; Jay, Caroline; Stevens, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the application of the Emotion Ontology (EM) to the task of self-reporting of emotional experience in the context of audience response to academic presentations at the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). Ontology evaluation is regarded as a difficult task. Types of ontology evaluation range from gauging adherence to some philosophical principles, following some engineering method, to assessing fitness for purpose. The Emotion Ontology (EM) represents emotions and all related affective phenomena, and should enable self-reporting or articulation of emotional states and responses; how do we know if this is the case? Here we use the EM 'in the wild' in order to evaluate the EM's ability to capture people's self-reported emotional responses to a situation through use of the vocabulary provided by the EM. To achieve this evaluation we developed a tool, EmOntoTag, in which audience members were able to capture their self-reported emotional responses to scientific presentations using the vocabulary offered by the EM. We furthermore asked participants using the tool to rate the appropriateness of an EM vocabulary term for capturing their self-assessed emotional response. Participants were also able to suggest improvements to the EM using a free-text feedback facility. Here, we present the data captured and analyse the EM's fitness for purpose in reporting emotional responses to conference talks. Based on our analysis of this data set, our primary finding is that the audience are able to articulate their emotional response to a talk via the EM, and reporting via the EM ontology is able to draw distinctions between the audience's response to a speaker and between the speakers (or talks) themselves. Thus we can conclude that the vocabulary provided at the leaves of the EM are fit for purpose in this setting. We additionally obtained interesting observations from the experiment as a whole, such as that the majority of emotions captured had

  8. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Rosati, Alejandra; Brunetti, Enzo P; Cordero, Carmen; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  9. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez-Rosati, Alejandra; Brunetti, Enzo P.; Cordero, Carmen; Maldonado, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP) and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM)) differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients. PMID:28515685

  10. Stress reactivity and corticolimbic response to emotional faces in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2012-03-01

    Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong risk for psychopathology. Although both endocrinological and corticolimbic neural system mechanisms are implicated in the development of stress reactivity patterns, the roles of these systems and interactions between the systems in reactivity to social stimuli in adolescents are not clear. We investigated the relationship between cortisol response to a laboratory-based social stressor and regional brain responses to emotional face stimuli in adolescents. Changes in cortisol levels following the Trier Social Stress Test-Child version (TSST-C) were measured in 23 disadvantaged and chronically stressed adolescents who also participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during processing of emotional faces and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships between changes in cortisol following the TSST-C with regional brain activation during face processing, as well as with regional brain morphology, were assessed. Cortisol change on the TSST-C showed a significant inverse relationship with left hippocampus response to fearful faces (p < .05, corrected); significant associations with volume were not observed. Increased cortisol response to the Trier social stressor was associated with diminished response of the left hippocampus to faces depicting fear. This suggests that HPA-corticolimbic system mechanisms may underlie vulnerability to maladaptive responses to stress in adolescents that may contribute to development of stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…

  12. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Mental health curriculum should be delivered in classroom settings to address and remediate the socio-emotional needs of students with and without disabilities. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a comprehensive, universal, and humanistic approach that focuses on the emotional distress manifested by individuals has been used with children…

  13. Are irrational reactions to unfairness truly emotionally-driven? Dissociated behavioural and emotional responses in the Ultimatum Game task.

    PubMed

    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness (Sanfey, Rilling, Aronson, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2003; van't Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2006). We recorded skin conductance responses as a measure of emotional activation while participants performed a modified version of the UG, in which they were asked to play both for themselves and on behalf of a third-party. Our findings show that even unfair offers are rejected when participants' payoff is not affected (third-party condition); however, they show an increase in the emotional activation specifically when they are rejecting offers directed towards themselves (myself condition). These results suggest that theories emphasizing negative emotions as the critical factor of "irrational" rejections (Pillutla & Murninghan, 1996) should be re-discussed. Psychological mechanisms other than emotions might be better candidates for explaining this behaviour.

  14. Cognitive Appraisals and Emotions Predict Cortisol and Immune Responses: A Meta-Analysis of Acute Laboratory Social Stressors and Emotion Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Models of stress and health suggest that emotions mediate the effects of stress on health; yet meta-analytic reviews have not confirmed these relationships. Categorizations of emotions along broad dimensions such as valence (e.g., positive and negative affect) may obscure important information about the effects of specific emotions on physiology.…

  15. Cognitive Appraisals and Emotions Predict Cortisol and Immune Responses: A Meta-Analysis of Acute Laboratory Social Stressors and Emotion Inductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Thomas F.; Spanovic, Marija; Miller, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Models of stress and health suggest that emotions mediate the effects of stress on health; yet meta-analytic reviews have not confirmed these relationships. Categorizations of emotions along broad dimensions such as valence (e.g., positive and negative affect) may obscure important information about the effects of specific emotions on physiology.…

  16. Promoting emotional health through haiku, a form of Japanese poetry.

    PubMed

    Massey, M S

    1998-02-01

    This teaching technique can be adapted to use with young children. The use of rhymes may be easier and more fun for younger students. Also, this teaching technique can be used to address numerous health issues, which makes it appropriate for all health content areas. In addition to using student selections that illustrate various emotions, other resources are available for this activity. Libraries and bookstores offer wide selections of books containing poetry and quotations. In addition to books about haiku, consider general poetry selections by Maya Angelou, e.e. cummings, Ogden Nash, and Shel Silverstein. Musical selections can represent different styles, such as the Beatles' "Yesterday"; Blind Melon's "Change"; Garth Brooks' "The Dance"; Eric Clapton's "Tears from Heaven"; Gloria Estefan's "Coming Out of the Dark"; Whitney Houston's "Emotional" and "I Will Always Love You"; and Elton John's "Circle of Life." Internet sites also can be accessed for poetry samples (see Internet Resources). An Internet resource for ordering discounted books, including selections about haiku and poetry, is Amazon.com--Earth's Largest Book store, at http:www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ subst/home/home.html/0184-8423170-571096.

  17. Neural signatures of the response to emotional distraction: a review of evidence from brain imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Iordan, A. D.; Dolcos, S.; Dolcos, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prompt responses to emotional, potentially threatening, stimuli are supported by neural mechanisms that allow for privileged access of emotional information to processing resources. The existence of these mechanisms can also make emotional stimuli potent distracters, particularly when task-irrelevant. The ability to deploy cognitive control in order to cope with emotional distraction is essential for adaptive behavior, while reduced control may lead to enhanced emotional distractibility, which is often a hallmark of affective disorders. Evidence suggests that increased susceptibility to emotional distraction is linked to changes in the processing of emotional information that affect both the basic response to and coping with emotional distraction, but the neural correlates of these phenomena are not clear. The present review discusses emerging evidence from brain imaging studies addressing these issues, and highlights the following three aspects. First, the response to emotional distraction is associated with opposing patterns of activity in a ventral “hot” affective system (HotEmo, showing increased activity) and a dorsal “cold” executive system (ColdEx, showing decreased activity). Second, coping with emotional distraction involves top–down control in order to counteract the bottom-up influence of emotional distraction, and involves interactions between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Third, both the response to and coping with emotional distraction are influenced by individual differences affecting emotional sensitivity and distractibility, which are linked to alterations of both HotEmo and ColdEx neural systems. Collectively, the available evidence identifies specific neural signatures of the response to emotional challenge, which are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and the changes linked to individual variation in emotional distractibility and susceptibility to affective

  18. Emotional response to intravenous delta9tetrahydrocannabinol during oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Gregg, J M; Small, E W; Moore, R; Raft, D; Toomey, T C

    1976-04-01

    The administration of delta9THC intravenously as a premedicant to oral surgery resulted in acute pronounced elevations in anxiety states, a predominance of dysphoria over euphoria, and varying degrees of psychotic-like paranoiac thought. Neural effects that appeared to promote these effects included distortions of perception with sensory delusions, and heightened sensory receptiveness including antalgesic impressions of surgery; autonomic and visceral arousal greater than control or placebo levels; lack of overt behavioral signals of distress due to depersonalization; and time disintegration leading to fear-inducing misinformation about real surgical events. Introverted subjects who generally were inclined to rely on drug solutions to their problems tended to respond poorly to surgical pain and anxiety with delta9THC. These results, obtained from subjects considered to have levels of presurgical apprehension that were average or below average, suggest that the environment in which high doses of cannabinols are experienced is a potent factor in determining the quality of the emotional response. A surgical environment containing even the mild stress of outpatient oral surgery appears to have the potential to precipitate undesirable emotional responses among cannabinol-intoxicated patients. There is continued high-level social use of cannabinols inour society, with an estimate of 40% to 55% among the college-age group seen frequently by oral surgeons. Results of this study suggest that clinicians should be prepared to detect the subtle signs of marijuana intoxication to protect their patients from further psychophysiologic complications during surgery.

  19. Patterns in clinicians' responses to patient emotion in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Finset, Arnstein; Heyn, Lena; Ruland, Cornelia

    2013-10-01

    To investigate how patient, clinician and relationship characteristics may predict how oncologists and nurses respond to patients' emotional expressions. Observational study of audiotapes of 196 consultations in cancer care. The consultations were coded according to Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Associations were tested in multi-level analyzes. There were 471 cues and 109 concerns with a mean number of 3.0 (SD=3.2) cues and concerns per consultation. Nurses in admittance interviews were five times more likely to provide space for further disclosure of cues and concerns (according to VR-CoDES definitions) than oncologists in out-patient follow-up consultations. Oncologists gave more room for disclosure to the first cue or concern in the consultation, to more explicit and doctor initiated cues/concerns and when the doctor and/or patient was female. Nurses gave room for further disclosure to explicit and nurse initiated cues/concerns, but the effects were smaller than for oncologists. Responses of clinicians which provide room for further disclosure do not occur at random and are systematically dependent on the source, explicitness and timing of the cue or concern. Knowledge on which factors influence responses to cues and concerns may be useful in communication skills training. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  1. Neural correlates of experienced moral emotion: an fMRI investigation of emotion in response to prejudice feedback.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Melike M; Thomas, Kevin G F; Amodio, David M; Warton, Christopher M R; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2014-01-01

    Guilt, shame, and embarrassment are quintessential moral emotions with important regulatory functions for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods because their elicitation is more intricate than that of basic emotions. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI), we employed a novel social prejudice paradigm to examine specific brain regions associated with real-time moral emotion, focusing on guilt and related moral-negative emotions. The paradigm induced intense moral-negative emotion (primarily guilt) in 22 low-prejudice individuals through preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Black and disabled people. fMRI data indicated that this experience of moral-negative emotion was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, in addition to areas associated with mentalizing, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. Of significance was prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC, which is consistent with theories proposing an association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. Finally, a significant negative association between self-reported guilt and neural activity in the pregenual ACC suggested a role of self-regulatory processes in response to moral-negative affect. These findings are consistent with the multifaceted self-regulatory functions of moral-negative emotions in social behavior.

  2. Emotions and health: findings from a randomized clinical trial on psychoeducational nursing to patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Støier, Louise; Moons, Philip; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Winkel, Per; Ulrich Pedersen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Serious illness will inevitably lead to a fundamental emotional reaction. Traditionally, in interventional treatment or rehabilitation trials, the psychological status of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators has been evaluated with anxiety and depression as outcome measures. In caring for these patients, the aim of nursing is to help patients manage life with complex heart disease. The early detection and management of negative emotional response might prevent the development of pathological conditions such as depression. The aims of this study were to (a) describe the trajectory of primary emotions over time in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and (b) examine the potential effects of psychoeducational nursing on primary emotions. During the inclusion period (October 2007 to November 2009), 196 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator were randomized (1:1) to rehabilitation versus usual care. Rehabilitation consisted of a psychoeducational nursing component and an exercise training component. This article concerns phase 1, psychoeducational nursing, guided by a theory of nursing, Rosemary Rizzo Parses Human Becoming Practice Methodologies. The outcome measure is the Emotions and Health Scale. The scale consists of 8 primary emotions: joy, agreeableness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation. Mean (SD) age was 58 (13) years, and 79% of the participants were men. Significant improvements were found in primary emotional responses over time (P < .05) when combining groups. However, no difference in emotional intensity was found between the groups after 3 months of psychoeducational nursing intervention (P > .05). Primary emotions are affected after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Improvements over time were found. However, it was not possible to detect any effect of a short-term psychoeducational nursing intervention. Evaluating the primary emotions might be a good way for nurses

  3. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  4. Social and Spatial Disparities in Emotional Responses to Education: Feelings of "Guilt" among Student-Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emotional responses to higher education of students with dependent children, and draws on 68 in-depth interviews conducted with student-parents in universities in the UK and Denmark. By focussing on one specific emotion--guilt--it contends that emotions are important in helping to understand the way in which particular…

  5. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  6. Absorption in Music: Development of a Scale to Identify Individuals with Strong Emotional Responses to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Russo, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rise in research investigating music and emotion over the last decade, there are no validated measures of individual differences in emotional responses to music. We created the Absorption in Music Scale (AIMS), a 34-item measure of individuals' ability and willingness to allow music to draw them into an emotional experience. It was…

  7. Exploring Students' Emotional Responses and Participation in an Online Peer Assessment Activity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    In the social interactions among individuals of learning communities, including those individuals engaged in peer assessment activities, emotion may be a key factor in learning. However, research regarding the emotional response of learners in online peer assessment activities is relatively scarce. Detecting learners' emotion when they make…

  8. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed.

  9. Transformational Leadership Moderates the Relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention among Community Mental Health Providers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Amy E.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers’ emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers. PMID:22052429

  10. Transformational leadership moderates the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among community mental health providers.

    PubMed

    Green, Amy E; Miller, Elizabeth A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Public sector mental health care providers are at high risk for burnout and emotional exhaustion which negatively affect job performance and client satisfaction with services. Few studies have examined ways to reduce these associations, but transformational leadership may have a positive effect. We examine the relationships between transformational leadership, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention in a sample of 388 community mental health providers. Emotional exhaustion was positively related to turnover intention, and transformational leadership was negatively related to both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Transformational leadership moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, indicating that having a transformational leader may buffer the effects of providers' emotional exhaustion on turnover intention. Investing in transformational leadership development for supervisors could reduce emotional exhaustion and turnover among public sector mental health providers.

  11. Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Human Papillomavirus Test Results in Men

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Kolar, Stephanie; Ebbert-Syfrett, Judith; Vamos, Cheryl A.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV infection has been associated with a wide range of psychosocial responses among women; however, few studies have examined emotional responses among men. Purpose To examine psychosocial differences among self-reported HPV-positive and HPV-negative Florida men who were tested for HPV. Method Men (n=536) in a natural history study of HPV completed a cross-sectional psychosocial survey between 2007 and 2010. Results Most participants were White, non-Hispanic, unmarried and had some college education. HPV knowledge was high, with no statistically significant differences between groups. Significantly higher negative emotional responses and perceived threat scores were found among HPV-positive men (p<0.05). The majority of men (91%) reported they were very likely or likely to get the HPV vaccine if it became available for men, but identified barriers as factors to consider. HPV-negative men were significantly more likely to tell a sex partner their test results than HPV-positive men. Conclusions Men experienced a range of negative emotions after receiving HPV test results, but most disclosed their test result to their sexual partner and reported high intentions to receive the HPV vaccine in the future. Findings should be considered when implementing health-related interventions among men to assist in decreasing psychosocial sequalae associated with HPV. PMID:23026036

  12. Hyperventilation beyond fight/flight: respiratory responses during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Van Diest, I; Winters, W; Devriese, S; Vercamst, E; Han, J N; Van de Woestijne, K P; Van den Bergh, O

    2001-11-01

    Hyperventilation (HV) is often considered part of a defense response, implying an unpleasant emotion (negative valence) combined with a strong action tendency (high arousal). In this study, we investigated the importance of arousal and valence as triggers for HV responses. Forty women imagined eight different scripts varying along the arousal and valence dimensions. The scripts depicted relaxation, fear, depressive, action, and desire situations. After each trial, the imagery was rated for valence, arousal, and vividness. FetCO2, inspiratory and expiratory time, tidal volume, and pulse rate were measured in a nonintrusive way. FetCO2 drops and decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time occurred in all but the depressive and the relaxation scripts, suggesting that a defense conceptualization of hyperventilation is not always appropriate.

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of Amygdala Response to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Colin L; Hajcak, Greg; Angstadt, Mike; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we evaluated the test-retest reliability of amygdala response using an emotional face-matching task that has been widely usedto examine pathophysiology and treatment mechanisms in psychiatric populations. Activation within the fusiform face area (FFA) was also examined. Twenty-sevenhealthy volunteers completed a variation of the face-matching paradigm developed by Hariri et al. (2000) at two time-points approximately 90 days apart. Estimates of test-retest reliability of amygdala response to fearful faces were moderate, whereas angry and happy showed poor reliability. Test-retest reliability of the FFA was moderate to strong, regardless of facial affect. Collectively, these findings indicate that the reliability of the BOLD MR signal in the amygdala varies substantiallyby facial affect. Efforts to improve measurement precision, enlarge sample sizes, or increase the number of assessment occasions seem warranted. PMID:24128307

  14. The missing link: using emotional intelligence to reduce workplace stress and workplace violence in our nursing and other health care professions.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Because of our poor emotionally intelligent responses and interactions, many nurses and other health care staff have become scarred emotionally from abusive, demoralizing, or hostile acts inflicted on one another. Rude, disruptive behavior among health care professionals can pose a serious threat to patient safety and the overall quality of care. The expectation of regulating bodies is that health care professionals focus on effects disruptive behavior has on a culture of safety for both patients and staff. Relatively recent research in training and development, and behavior change, specifically on emotional intelligence, suggests that it is possible to improve the emotional competence of adults. I posit it is possible to increase emotional competence to reduce health workplace stress and workplace violence.

  15. Oxidative stress: a potential link between emotional wellbeing and immune response.

    PubMed

    Salim, Samina

    2016-08-01

    Emotional wellbeing is central to normal health and good living. Persistent psychological stress often disrupts emotional wellbeing and triggers onset of neuropsychiatric ailments. An integrated, multisystemic stress response involving neuroinflammatory, neuroendocrine and metabolic cascades seem to have some causative links. Of particular interest are the neuroinflammatory processes. Psychological stress has been suggested to negatively affect normal functioning of the immune system contributing to the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Thus examination of the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system is likely to reveal molecular targets critical for development of potential therapeutic and preventive measures. This review is a summarized discussion of evidence linking impact of psychological stress on the immune system, with a particular emphasis on oxidative stress mechanisms by which mental stress potentially impacts immune function leading to activation of multiple cascades resulting in subsequent manifestation of psychiatric symptomologies.

  16. Sex differences in emotional and psychophysiological responses to musical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nater, Urs M; Abbruzzese, Elvira; Krebs, Monika; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2006-11-01

    Although it is known that men and women differ in their music preferences and emotional reactions to music, little is known about sex differences in physiological reactions to music. In our study, we therefore set out to examine the differential reactivity to two musical stimuli that elicit distinct psychological and physiological reaction patterns. Fifty-three healthy subjects (mean age: 26.13, SD: 3.97; 26 males, 27 females) were examined. Heart rate, electrodermal activity, skin temperature, salivary cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase, and psychological variables were assessed during the course of the whole study. Following baseline assessment, two musical stimuli, which were carefully selected and rated in a pre-study as relaxing and pleasant (renaissance music) and arousing and unpleasant (heavy metal), respectively, were introduced. They were presented on two different days in a randomized order. Whereas psychological variables did not differ between men and women, results of electrophysiological measures indicate significantly different reactivity patterns between men and women. Women displayed elevated response curves to the arousing and unpleasant stimulus, whereas men did not. However, no differences were found with regards to endocrine measures in saliva. Our results demonstrate sex differences in reactivity patterns to musical stimuli in psychophysiological measures. In our study, we were able to show that women tend to show hypersensitivity to aversive musical stimuli. This finding is in accordance with previous literature on sex differences in emotion research. Furthermore, our study indicates that the confounding effects of sex differences have to be considered when using musical stimuli for emotion induction.

  17. Response efficacy: the key to minimizing rejection and maximizing acceptance of emotion-based anti-speeding messages.

    PubMed

    Lewis, I M; Watson, B; White, K M

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to improve understanding of the persuasive process of emotion-based appeals not only in relation to negative, fear-based appeals but also for appeals based upon positive emotions. In particular, the study investigated whether response efficacy, as a cognitive construct, mediated outcome measures of message effectiveness in terms of both acceptance and rejection of negative and positive emotion-based messages. Licensed drivers (N=406) participated via the completion of an on-line survey. Within the survey, participants received either a negative (fear-based) appeal or one of the two possible positive appeals (pride or humor-based). Overall, the study's findings confirmed the importance of emotional and cognitive components of persuasive health messages and identified response efficacy as a key cognitive construct influencing the effectiveness of not only fear-based messages but also positive emotion-based messages. Interestingly, however, the results suggested that response efficacy's influence on message effectiveness may differ for positive and negative emotion-based appeals such that significant indirect (and mediational) effects were found with both acceptance and rejection of the positive appeals yet only with rejection of the fear-based appeal. As such, the study's findings provide an important extension to extant literature and may inform future advertising message design. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  19. Undifferentiation of somatic responses to emotions in a case of functional amnesia.

    PubMed

    Tramoni, E; Khalfa, S; Felician, O; Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, A; Poncet, M; Ceccaldi, M

    2008-01-01

    The term functional amnesia (FA) has been proposed for cases of memory impairment presenting with severe retrograde amnesia in the absence of cerebral injury or history of psychiatric disturbance. Emotional flattening has often been reported alongside FA, however the mechanism of such a modification is unknown. This study aimed to explore the emotional processing in a rare case of a patient with FA complaining of severe emotional flattening. We presented ecological dynamic video stimuli conveying strong peaceful and fearful emotions to the patient and 13 controls. We then explored their emotional responses considering both conscious emotional judgements and automatic psychophysiological responses (skin conductance) and facial muscular activity (corrugator supercilii). Both patient P.P. and controls perfectly recognized the emotions conveyed by the films. However, P.P. failed to show an increased skin conductance and corrugator activity as found in controls during fearful film extracts compared with peaceful extracts. Taken together, these finding demonstrate the presence of an emotional deficit, characterized by a failure to generate appropriate somatic responses to positive and negative stimuli. Although this altered somatic processing did not interfere with PP's explicit recognition of emotion, it modified his emotional experience, thereby constituting a possible explanation for his emotional flattening. This study therefore suggests that FA is not limited to a mnemonic impairment, but is a more complex disorder, involving also the processing of emotionally loaded experiences.

  20. Parent Prediction of Child Mood and Emotional Resilience: The Role of Parental Responsiveness and Psychological Control

    PubMed Central

    Boughton, Kristy L.; Lumley, Margaret N.

    2011-01-01

    Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parent and child reports of child mood, suggesting that parents are not always the best predictors of child emotional functioning. This study examines parental responsiveness and psychological control for improving prediction of early adolescent mood and emotional resilience beyond parent report of child emotional functioning. Participants were 268 early adolescents administered measures of depression symptoms, emotional resilience, and perceptions of parenting. Parents of participating youth completed measures of youth emotional functioning. Parental responsiveness and psychological control each emerged as family variables that may be of value for predicting child emotional functioning beyond parent reports. Specifically, responsiveness explained significant variance in child depression and resilience after accounting for parent reports, while parental psychological control increased prediction of child mood alone. Results generally suggest that parenting behaviours may be an important consideration when children and parents provide discrepant reports of child emotional well-being. Conceptual and clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22110912

  1. Parent prediction of child mood and emotional resilience: the role of parental responsiveness and psychological control.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Kristy L; Lumley, Margaret N

    2011-01-01

    Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parent and child reports of child mood, suggesting that parents are not always the best predictors of child emotional functioning. This study examines parental responsiveness and psychological control for improving prediction of early adolescent mood and emotional resilience beyond parent report of child emotional functioning. Participants were 268 early adolescents administered measures of depression symptoms, emotional resilience, and perceptions of parenting. Parents of participating youth completed measures of youth emotional functioning. Parental responsiveness and psychological control each emerged as family variables that may be of value for predicting child emotional functioning beyond parent reports. Specifically, responsiveness explained significant variance in child depression and resilience after accounting for parent reports, while parental psychological control increased prediction of child mood alone. Results generally suggest that parenting behaviours may be an important consideration when children and parents provide discrepant reports of child emotional well-being. Conceptual and clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the "default" mechanism for emotion induction, a cognitive appraisal. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework featuring six additional mechanisms through which music listening may induce emotions: (1) brain stem reflexes, (2) evaluative conditioning, (3) emotional contagion, (4) visual imagery, (5) episodic memory, and (6) musical expectancy. We propose that these mechanisms differ regarding such characteristics as their information focus, ontogenetic development, key brain regions, cultural impact, induction speed, degree of volitional influence, modularity, and dependence on musical structure. By synthesizing theory and findings from different domains, we are able to provide the first set of hypotheses that can help researchers to distinguish among the mechanisms. We show that failure to control for the underlying mechanism may lead to inconsistent or non-interpretable findings. Thus, we argue that the new framework may guide future research and help to resolve previous disagreements in the field. We conclude that music evokes emotions through mechanisms that are not unique to music, and that the study of musical emotions could benefit the emotion field as a whole by providing novel paradigms for emotion induction.

  3. [The emotional burden of secrets. Consequences for somatic health and implications for health care].

    PubMed

    Wismeijer, A A J; Vingerhoets, A J J M

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that emotionally burdensome secrets may play a role in predisposing an individual to develop somatic symptoms. To provide an overview of the empirical evidence and theories concerning the relations between secrets and somatic health and to discuss the implications of these associations for health care. We searched for peer-reviewed publications in Medline, ScienceDirect, Psycinfo and Web of Science, using as search terms 'secrecy', 'geheimhouding', 'self-concealment', 'disclosure', 'inhibition' and 'health'. Secrets are associated with an increased risk of somatic dysfunctioning, probably because they induce pathophysiological processes. The theories currently available provide adequate backing for further studies of this association. Secrets seem to provoke pathophysiological processes that can affect a person's physical wellbeing. This means that health care professionals must realize that the emotional burden of secrets may contribute to a patients somatic symptoms.

  4. The conditional emotional response as a model of Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, J F

    1986-01-01

    Many investigators have assumed that the conditional emotional response (CER) with its attendant response measure, response suppression, can be used as a model for Pavlovian conditioning; that is, that the experimental results obtained with the CER will yield findings similar to those obtained with the direct conditional stimulus (CS)-conditional response (CR) paradigm, e.g., conditioning of the eyeblink, electrodermal (EDR), finger withdrawal, etc. Several problems, however, have emerged with this assumption. The first is a methodologic-statistical one. Measurement of response suppression using the familiar ratio measure assumes that different base rates of responding should play no role in determining the size of the suppression ratio, and operant responding from one pre-CS period to another will remain stable. These assumptions have been found to be in error. In addition, the statistical assumptions of normally distributed data and homogeneous variances of the experimental and control groups also have been called to question. Some experimenters, however, have taken the position that if CER and direct CS-CR experimental findings are in general agreement when a particular conditioning variable has been manipulated, the methodologic-statistical problems that we have identified can be ignored. The experimental evidence suggests that although such comparisons frequently indicate an identity of findings, there are sufficient exceptions in which caution is urged in assuming that the two paradigms are measuring the same learning correlate.

  5. Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Rösch, Andreas G; Stanton, Steven J; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition (AI) on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and AI were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (PSE) (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM) (Bradley and Lang, 1994) in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less arousal and less pleasurable affect across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × AI interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak AI experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong AI (inhibited power motive) did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These differentiated reaction patterns of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence.

  6. Implicit motives predict affective responses to emotional expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rösch, Andreas G.; Stanton, Steven J.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition (AI) on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and AI were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (PSE) (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (SAM) (Bradley and Lang, 1994) in a sample of 84 participants. We found that people with either a strong implicit power or achievement motive experienced stronger arousal, while people with a strong affiliation motive experienced less arousal and less pleasurable affect across emotions. Additionally, we obtained significant power motive × AI interactions for arousal ratings in response to FEEs and neutral faces. Participants with a strong power motive and weak AI experienced stronger arousal after the presentation of neutral faces but no additional increase in arousal after the presentation of FEEs. Participants with a strong power motive and strong AI (inhibited power motive) did not feel aroused by neutral faces. However, their arousal increased in response to all FEEs with the exception of happy faces, for which their subjective arousal decreased. These differentiated reaction patterns of individuals with an inhibited power motive suggest that they engage in a more socially adaptive manner of responding to different FEEs. Our findings extend established links between implicit motives and affective processes found at the procedural level to declarative reactions to FEEs. Implications are discussed with respect to dual-process models of motivation and research in motive congruence. PMID:24421775

  7. Contrasting Public Opinion Dynamics and Emotional Response during Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Volkova, Svitlana; Chetviorkin, Ilia; Arendt, Dustin L.; Van Durme, Ben

    2016-11-15

    We propose an approach for contrasting spatiotemporal dynamics of public opinions expressed toward targeted entities, also known as stance detection task, in Russia and Ukraine during crisis. Our analysis relies on a novel corpus constructed from posts on the VKontakte social network, centered on local public opinion of the ongoing Russian-Ukrainian crisis, along with newly annotated resources for predicting expressions of fine-grained emotions including joy, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise and fear. Akin to prior work on sentiment analysis we align traditional public opinion polls with aggregated automatic predictions of sentiments for contrastive geo-locations. We report interesting observations on emotional response and stance variations across geo-locations. Some of our findings contradict stereotypical misconceptions imposed by media, for example, we found posts from Ukraine that do not support Euromaidan but support Putin, and posts from Russia that are against Putin but in favor USA. Furthermore, we are the first to demonstrate contrastive stance variations over time across geo-locations using storyline visualization technique.

  8. Binge drinking, depression, and electrocortical responses to emotional images.

    PubMed

    Connell, Arin M; Patton, Emily; McKillop, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Binge drinking and depression are highly prevalent, associated with cognitive and affective impairments, and frequently co-occur. Yet little research has examined their joint relations with such processing impairment. The current study examines the relation between symptoms of depression, binge drinking, and the magnitude of early (early posterior negativity, EPN) and later (P3 and late positive potential, LPP) visual processing components of affectively negative, positive, and neutral visual stimuli. Participants included 42 undergraduate students recruited on the basis of depressive symptoms. Results of repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs; Depression × Binge × Emotion × Laterality) showed that binge drinkers exhibited lower LPP amplitudes for negative images, compared with nonbinge drinkers, regardless of depression, consistent with motivational models of alcohol abuse. Otherwise, differences across depressed and nondepressed groups were largest among binge drinkers, including a pattern of stronger early attentional engagement (EPN) to negative and neutral images, but decreased later processing (P3 and LPP) across all emotional categories, consistent with a vigilance-avoidance response pattern. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  10. Emotional Intelligence: A Critical Evaluation of the Literature with Implications for Mental Health Nursing Leadership.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kimberly R; Mabry, Jennifer Lynn; Mixer, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is necessary for the development of interpersonal and professional competence in nurses. We argue that the concept of emotional intelligence has particular relevance for mental health nursing leadership. In this critique, we examine the recent empirical evidence (2010-2014) related to emotional intelligence, in general, and nursing, specifically. Correlations between emotional intelligence and better overall health, increased work satisfaction, higher spiritual well-being, and decreased risk of job burnout are noted. We offer suggestions for mental health nurse leaders in developing successful project management teams and improving retention of current leaders. We also provide suggestions for future research.

  11. Facial feedback and autonomic responsiveness reflect impaired emotional processing in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Balconi, Michela; Pala, Francesca; Manenti, Rosa; Brambilla, Michela; Cobelli, Chiara; Rosini, Sandra; Benussi, Alberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Emotional deficits are part of the non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease but few attention has been paid to specific aspects such as subjective emotional experience and autonomic responses. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of emotional recognition in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) using the following levels: explicit evaluation of emotions (Self-Assessment Manikin) and implicit reactivity (Skin Conductance Response; electromyographic measure of facial feedback of the zygomaticus and corrugator muscles). 20 PD Patients and 34 healthy controls were required to observe and evaluate affective pictures during physiological parameters recording. In PD, the appraisal process on both valence and arousal features of emotional cues were preserved, but we found significant impairment in autonomic responses. Specifically, in comparison to healthy controls, PD patients revealed lower Skin Conductance Response values to negative and high arousing emotional stimuli. In addition, the electromyographic measures showed defective responses exclusively limited to negative and high arousing emotional category: PD did not show increasing of corrugator activity in response to negative emotions as happened in heathy controls. PD subjects inadequately respond to the emotional categories which were considered more “salient”: they had preserved appraisal process, but impaired automatic ability to distinguish between different emotional contexts. PMID:27509848

  12. Cry, Baby, Cry: A Dialogic Response to Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges traditional approaches to emotion as a discreet biological or dialectic process in the early years. In doing so the proposition is made that emotion is an answerable social act of meaning-making and self-hood. Inspired by Bakhtinian philosophy, which resists separating emotion from cognition or the individual from their…

  13. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  14. Cry, Baby, Cry: A Dialogic Response to Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges traditional approaches to emotion as a discreet biological or dialectic process in the early years. In doing so the proposition is made that emotion is an answerable social act of meaning-making and self-hood. Inspired by Bakhtinian philosophy, which resists separating emotion from cognition or the individual from their…

  15. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  16. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  17. Emotional intelligence and psychological health in a sample of Kuwaiti college students.

    PubMed

    Alkhadher, Othman

    2007-06-01

    This summary investigated correlations between emotional intelligence and psychological health amongst 191 Kuwaiti undergraduate students in psychology, 98 men and 93 women (M age=20.6 yr., SD=2.8). There were two measures of emotional intelligence, one based on the ability model, the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence, and the other on the mixed model, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Participants' psychological health was assessed using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory. A weak relationship between the two types of emotional intelligence was found. A correlation for scores on the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire with the Personality Assessment Inventory was found but not with those of the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence. Regression analysis indicated scores on Managing Emotions and Self-awareness accounted for most of the variance in the association with the Personality Assessment Inventory. Significant sex differences were found only on the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence; women scored higher than men. On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire measures, men had significantly higher means on Managing Emotions and Self-motivation. However, no significant differences were found between the sexes on the Total Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire scores.

  18. Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural studies have repeatedly demonstrated that East Asians are more likely to show a dialectical emotional style than Americans, but do not distinguish between specific types of dialectical emotional styles. Using an age diverse sample, we found that compared to Americans, Japanese are more likely to experience both positive and negative emotions moderately frequently (i.e., moderate dialectical), but are no more likely to experience them frequently (i.e., high dialectical). Thus, dialectical emotions prevalent in East Asia may be characterised by a “middle way” rather than by emotional extremes. Furthermore, we explored whether dialectical emotion types are associated with better health profiles depending on cultural background. Our results show that the moderate dialectical type is associated with fewer physical symptoms in Japan than in the USA. Together, these findings show the cultural differences in the experience of balanced positive and negative emotions and their health correlates. PMID:21432654

  19. Clues to the Blues: Predictors of Self-Reported Mental and Emotional Health Among Older African American Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Watkins, Daphne C; Shires, Deirdre; Chapman, Robert A; Burnett, Janice

    2015-09-07

    The mental health needs of aging African American men have been overlooked and few studies have distinguished between more severe clinically diagnosable mental health challenges and less severe emotional states for this population. African American men may not identify with or internalize the terminology of "depression" despite exhibiting the symptom criteria. This exploratory cross-sectional study examined correlates of "downheartedness" as an alternative indicator of emotional health. The authors examined the self-reported responses of 1,666 older African American men on a baseline questionnaire from a larger longitudinal study. Demographic, physical, mental and emotional health, and health system factors were examined as possible correlates of downheartedness. The mean age of participants was 73.6 years and 74.8% of men described themselves as "downhearted and blue" most or all of the time while only 18.5% of them reported feeling moderate to severe anxiety or depression. When other factors were controlled, mobility problems (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36), problems getting health care (OR = 2.69), having a doctor who never listens (OR = 2.18), physical or mental problems that interfere with social activities (OR = 1.34), accomplishing less due to physical health (OR = 1.35), and accomplishing less due to mental/emotional health (OR = 1.57) were all associated with greater odds of being downhearted. The current findings indicate that this sample more closely identified with language accurately describing their emotional health state (i.e., downhearted) and not with clinical mental health terminology (i.e., depression) that may be culturally stigmatized.

  20. Changes in Emotional-Social Intelligence, Caring, Leadership and Moral Judgment during Health Science Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larin, Helene; Benson, Gerry; Wessel, Jean; Martin, Lynn; Ploeg, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    In addition to having academic knowledge and clinical skills, health professionals need to be caring, ethical practitioners able to understand the emotional concerns of their patients and to effect change. The purpose of this study was to determine whether emotional-social intelligence, caring, leadership and moral judgment of health science…

  1. Emotional health, support, and self-efficacy in young adults with a history of language impairment.

    PubMed

    Botting, Nicola; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-11-01

    Children and adolescents with language impairment (LI) are at risk of emotional health difficulties. However, less is known about whether these difficulties continue into adulthood for this group, or about the potential role of environmental resources (e.g., social support) or internal resources (e.g., self-efficacy). This study investigates emotional health in 81 adults with a history of developmental LI (aged 24) compared with 87 age-matched peers (AMPs) using Beck Inventories. Social support and self-efficacy measures were examined as predictors. The results were fourfold: (1) adults with LI had higher levels of emotional health problems; (2) whilst the availability of social support was similar across groups, people with LI received more help from others compared to peers; (3) social support was not significantly related to emotional health in those with LI - in contrast, for AMPs, uptake of support indicated poorer emotional health; (4) self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of emotional health in both groups and fully mediated the relationship between language and emotional health (no moderation by group). This cross-sectional study has implications for concurrent factors that might affect emotional health outcomes for children and young people with and without LI.

  2. Using Emotional Intelligence and Social Support to Predict Job Performance of Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…

  3. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  4. Using Emotional Intelligence and Social Support to Predict Job Performance of Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Haider, Taj; Brown, David; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The theory of emotional intelligence (EI) has been developed to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health, especially on job performance. Purpose: No study has examined EI's role on the performance of public health educators; therefore, this study examined the role of EI and social support on the performance of health…

  5. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. More Than a Feeling: Public Expectations About Emotional Responses to Criminal Victimization.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Olof; Ask, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Crime victims' emotional display in legal settings has been found to influence credibility judgments. The specific nature of public expectations about crime victims' emotional responses have, however, not been adequately investigated. In an experimental vignette study, respondents in a community sample (N = 404) estimated the likelihood that female and male victims would experience 7 distinct emotions in response to 5 types of crimes. Across all crime types, female victims were expected to experience significantly more situation-focused (anxiety, fear) and inward-focused (guilt, shame, sadness) emotions, and significantly less other-focused emotions (hatred, anger) than male victims. This calls for an increased focus on distinct emotions in future research on victim's emotions. Implications for victims in legal and social settings are discussed.

  7. The paradox of fiction: Emotional response toward fiction and the modulatory role of self-relevance.

    PubMed

    Sperduti, Marco; Arcangeli, Margherita; Makowski, Dominique; Wantzen, Prany; Zalla, Tiziana; Lemaire, Stéphane; Dokic, Jérôme; Pelletier, Jérôme; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    For over forty years, philosophers have struggled with the "paradox of fiction", which is the issue of how we can get emotionally involved with fictional characters and events. The few neuroscientific studies investigating the distinction between the processing of real and fictional entities have evidenced that midline cortical structures and lateral fronto-parietal regions are more engaged for real and fictional entities, respectively. Interestingly, the former network is engaged in autobiographical memory retrieval and self-reference, processes that are known to boost emotional reactivity, while the latter underpins emotion regulation. Thus, a possible modulation of the emotional response according to the nature (real or fictional) of the stimulus is conceivable. To test this hypothesis, we presented short emotional (negative and positive) and neutral video as fictional or real. For negative material, we found that subjective emotional experience, but not physiological arousal measured by electrodermal activity, was reduced in the fictional condition. Moreover, the amount of personal memories linked to the scenes counteracted this effect boosting the subjective emotional response. On the contrary, personal memories elicited by the scenes, but not fiction, modulate the emotional response for positive material. These results suggest that when a stimulus triggers a personal memory, the emotional response is less prone to be modulated by contextual factors, and suggest that personal engagement could be responsible for emotional reaction toward fiction. We discuss these results in the emotion regulation framework and underline their implications in informing theoretical accounts of emotion in the neuroscientific domain and the philosophical debate on the paradox of emotional response to fiction.

  8. Emotional Distress and Compassionate Responses in Palliative Care Decision-Making Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A.; Gramling, David; Davis, J. Kelly; Metzger, Maureen; DeLuca, Jane; Gramling, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Seriously ill hospitalized patients and their loved ones are frequently faced with complex treatment decisions laden with expressions of emotional distress during palliative care (PC) consultations. Little is known about these emotional expressions or the compassionate responses providers make and how common these are in PC decision-making conversations. Objectives: To describe the types and frequency of emotional distress that patients and loved ones express and how providers respond to these emotions during PC decision-making consultations with seriously ill hospitalized patients. Methods: We used a quantitative descriptive approach to analyze 71 audio-recorded inpatient PC decision-making consultations for emotional distress and clinicians' responses to those emotions using reliable and established methods. Results: A total of 69% of conversations contained at least one expression of emotional distress. The per-conversation frequency of expressions of emotional distress ranged from 1 to 10. Anxiety/fear were the most frequently encountered emotions (48.4%) followed by sadness (35.5%) and anger/frustration (16.1%). More than half of the emotions related to the patient's feelings (53.6%) and 41.9% were related to the loved ones' own emotions. The majority of emotions were moderate in intensity (65.8%) followed by strong (20.7%) and mild (13.5%). Clinicians responded to a majority of emotions with a compassionate response (75.7%) followed by those with medical content (21.9%) and very few were ignored (1.3%). Conclusions: Expressions of emotional distress are common during PC consultations and are usually met with compassionate responses by the clinician. PMID:24588656

  9. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ) by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group) and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group). Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  10. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions.

  11. Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humans.

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Isabelle, Peretz; Jean-Pierre, Blondin; Manon, Robert

    2002-08-09

    While the reasons underlying musical emotions are unclear, music is nevertheless a powerful elicitor of emotion, and as such, may induce autonomic nervous system responses. One typical measure of this neural pathway is the skin conductance response (SCR). This response generally depends upon stimulus arousal, one of the two motivational determinants of emotion. The objective of the present study was to verify whether emotional reactions to music elicit such event-related autonomic responses. To this aim, four musical emotions varying in arousal were employed: fear, happiness, sadness and peacefulness. SCRs were found to be greater with the two more stimulating emotions, fear and happiness, as compared to the two more relaxing emotions, sadness and peacefulness (P<0.05). In addition, subjects' ratings of the emotional clarity for each excerpt did not parallel the corresponding SCRs magnitudes. The results show that SCRs can be evoked and modulated by musical emotional arousal, but are not sensitive to emotional clarity. While several studies have been performed with visual scenes and environmental sounds, the present study brings similar evidence from the musical domain.

  12. Choir singing and creative writing enhance emotion regulation in adults with chronic mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Williams, Elyse; Jetten, Jolanda; Welch, Jonathon

    2017-07-18

    Adults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls. The 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation. The ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p < .001, np2 = .319; and a decrease in negative emotions during the arts-based activity: F (2.637, 155.597) = 21.09, p < .001, np2 = .263. The influence on positive emotions was short-lived, while the effect on negative emotions lasted until evening. Findings show that participation in arts-based groups benefits the emotions of both healthy adults and those experiencing mental health conditions through individual and interpersonal processes. Individuals with chronic mental health conditions often experience difficulties in emotion processing Participation in arts-based groups was associated with significant increases in positive emotions although these were short-lived Negative emotion was significantly decreased during arts-based group activities, and sustained to the evening assessment Adults with chronic mental

  13. What's so special about eating? Examining unhealthy diet of adolescents in the context of other health-related behaviours and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, Maartje; de Ridder, Denise; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Dorsselaer, Saskia

    2007-05-01

    This study examines to what extent unhealthy diet in adolescents is related to other types of health-risk behaviours (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake). Whereas previous studies have emphasised that adolescents engage in health-risk behaviour because of a tendency to break the rules, the present study hypothesises that unhealthy diet may differ from this general pattern because emotional distress is involved. Data from the cross-sectional Dutch Health Behaviour in School aged Children study (N=5730) were employed to examine this issue. Participants completed questionnaires on eating habits, health-related behaviours, and emotional distress. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesis that unhealthy diet is only weakly related to other health-risk behaviours. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, emotional distress was not a significant predictor of unhealthy diet. Further research is required to examine which factors other than emotional distress are responsible for engaging in unhealthy diets in adolescence.

  14. The Nonverbal Expression of Negative Emotions: Peer and Supervisor Responses to Occupational Therapy Students' Emotional Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality…

  15. The Nonverbal Expression of Negative Emotions: Peer and Supervisor Responses to Occupational Therapy Students' Emotional Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Puccinelli, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    A study to investigate the preclinical and clinical consequences of 79 occupational-therapy students' emotional attributes found that, when interviews were conducted in pairs, their feelings and behavior were associated with attributes of negative emotionality and nonverbal expressiveness. Students who had a high degree of negative emotionality…

  16. Resilience as a mediator in emotional social support's relationship with occupational psychology health in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  18. Effects of Exposure to Physique Slides on the Emotional Responses of Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausenblas, Heather A.; Janelle, Christopher M.; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined high and low body dissatisfied (BD) men's and women's in-task emotional responses to acute exposure to sex-specific physique slides of the aesthetic ideal and of themselves. Participating college students reported their immediate in-task emotional responses to viewing the slides. Men and women, as well as high and low BD groups, reported…

  19. Responsivity to Offspring's Expression of Emotion among Childhood-Onset Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Schonberg, Michael; Sherrill, Joel; Huffman, Drew; Lukon, Joella; Obrosky, David; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study examined responsivity of mothers with childhood-onset depression (COD) in relation to children's overt expression of positive and negative emotion. It was hypothesized that COD and control mothers would differ in contingent responsivity to their children's expression of both positivity and different types of negative emotionality. Using…

  20. Responsivity to Offspring's Expression of Emotion among Childhood-Onset Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Schonberg, Michael; Sherrill, Joel; Huffman, Drew; Lukon, Joella; Obrosky, David; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study examined responsivity of mothers with childhood-onset depression (COD) in relation to children's overt expression of positive and negative emotion. It was hypothesized that COD and control mothers would differ in contingent responsivity to their children's expression of both positivity and different types of negative emotionality. Using…

  1. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  2. Effects of Exposure to Physique Slides on the Emotional Responses of Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausenblas, Heather A.; Janelle, Christopher M.; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined high and low body dissatisfied (BD) men's and women's in-task emotional responses to acute exposure to sex-specific physique slides of the aesthetic ideal and of themselves. Participating college students reported their immediate in-task emotional responses to viewing the slides. Men and women, as well as high and low BD groups, reported…

  3. Pupillary responses reveal infants' discrimination of facial emotions independent of conscious perception.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Sarah; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Sensitive responding to others' emotions is essential during social interactions among humans. There is evidence for the existence of subcortically mediated emotion discrimination processes that occur independent of conscious perception in adults. However, only recently work has begun to examine the development of automatic emotion processing systems during infancy. In particular, it is unclear whether emotional expressions impact infants' autonomic nervous system regardless of conscious perception. We examined this question by measuring pupillary responses while subliminally and supraliminally presenting 7-month-old infants with happy and fearful faces. Our results show greater pupil dilation, indexing enhanced autonomic arousal, in response to happy compared to fearful faces regardless of conscious perception. Our findings suggest that, early in ontogeny, emotion discrimination occurs independent of conscious perception and is associated with differential autonomic responses. This provides evidence for the view that automatic emotion processing systems are an early-developing building block of human social functioning.

  4. [Association between approach-avoidance commitment to romantic relationships, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and personal mental health].

    PubMed

    Komura, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson's (1999) and Levinger's (1999) theoretical argument.

  5. The Sound of Feelings: Electrophysiological Responses to Emotional Speech in Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions (cognitive dimension) and in the experience of emotions (affective dimension). Previous research focused mainly on visual emotional processing in the cognitive alexithymia dimension. We investigated the impact of both alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in 60 female subjects. Methodology During unattended processing, subjects watched a movie while an emotional prosody oddball paradigm was presented in the background. During attended processing, subjects detected deviants in emotional prosody. The cognitive alexithymia dimension was associated with a left-hemisphere bias during early stages of unattended emotional speech processing, and with generally reduced amplitudes of the late P3 component during attended processing. In contrast, the affective dimension did not modulate unattended emotional prosody perception, but was associated with reduced P3 amplitudes during attended processing particularly to emotional prosody spoken in high intensity. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a dissociable impact of the two alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses during the attended and unattended processing of emotional prosody. The observed electrophysiological modulations are indicative of a reduced sensitivity to the emotional qualities of speech, which may be a contributing factor to problems in interpersonal communication associated with alexithymia. PMID:22615853

  6. Dysregulation of emotional response in current and abstinent heroin users: negative heightening and positive blunting.

    PubMed

    Aguilar de Arcos, Francisco; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Ceverino, Antonio; Montañez-Pareja, Matilde; López-Juárez, Encarnación; Sánchez-Barrera, María; López-Jiménez, Angeles; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that abstinent opioid users have abnormal emotional response to natural reinforcing stimuli, but little is known about the emotional response of subjects currently using heroin. Abnormal emotional experience could underlie poor sensitivity to negative events related to heroin use and reduced ability to consider alternative reinforcers to help overcome addiction. In this paper, we will assess the subjective response of current and abstinent heroin users exposed to emotionally competent positive and negative stimuli. We administered the "Clinical Instrument for Emotional Response Evaluation" (including neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System) to 22 current opioid users enrolled in a clinical trial using controlled prescribed heroin and 41 abstinent opioid users enrolled in residential treatment. The dependent variable was their subjective response to the images measured with the Self-Assessment Manikin, a scale designed to rate the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) images in the three dimensions of emotion: valence, arousal, and dominance. We compared these ratings with IAPS normative values for healthy participants. Significant group x emotional condition interactions were found in the arousal dimension. Post-hoc tests showed that compared to healthy participants, both current and abstinent heroin users had greater emotional response to neutral images and lower response to pleasant images. Furthermore, current opioid users had higher emotional response to unpleasant images when compared to healthy participants and lower response to pleasant images when compared to abstinent users. Current opioid users have abnormal emotional experience, characterized by heightened response to unpleasant stimuli and blunted response to pleasant stimuli.

  7. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  8. Emotion regulation and the quality of social interaction: does the ability to evaluate emotional situations and identify effective responses matter?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo N; Nezlek, John B; Extremera, Natalio; Hertel, Janine; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo; Schütz, Astrid; Salovey, Peter

    2011-04-01

    We examined self and friends' ratings of social relationship quality and everyday social interactions in 3 studies involving 544 college students in Germany, Spain, and the United States. Scores on a situational judgment test measuring strategic emotion regulation ability (SERA) were negatively related to conflict with others. SERA was more consistently and strongly related to conflict with others than to the positive dimension of relationship quality (support, companionship, and nurturance). The relationship between SERA and conflict was generally not mediated by trait positive or negative affect, and it remained significant or marginally significant controlling for the Big Five personality traits. These findings highlight the importance of the ability to evaluate emotional situations and identify effective responses to these in interpersonal emotion regulation. Furthermore, they suggest that situational judgment and flexible response selection may help people to manage conflicts more than to bond with others. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: moderating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L

    2014-07-01

    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Automatic facial mimicry in response to dynamic emotional stimuli in five-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tamami

    2016-12-14

    Human adults automatically mimic others' emotional expressions, which is believed to contribute to sharing emotions with others. Although this behaviour appears fundamental to social reciprocity, little is known about its developmental process. Therefore, we examined whether infants show automatic facial mimicry in response to others' emotional expressions. Facial electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) of four- to five-month-old infants was measured while they viewed dynamic clips presenting audiovisual, visual and auditory emotions. The audiovisual bimodal emotion stimuli were a display of a laughing/crying facial expression with an emotionally congruent vocalization, whereas the visual/auditory unimodal emotion stimuli displayed those emotional faces/vocalizations paired with a neutral vocalization/face, respectively. Increased activation of the corrugator supercilii muscle in response to audiovisual cries and the zygomaticus major in response to audiovisual laughter were observed between 500 and 1000 ms after stimulus onset, which clearly suggests rapid facial mimicry. By contrast, both visual and auditory unimodal emotion stimuli did not activate the infants' corresponding muscles. These results revealed that automatic facial mimicry is present as early as five months of age, when multimodal emotional information is present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

    PubMed

    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Depersonalization Disorder: Disconnection of Cognitive Evaluation from Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E.; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. Methods 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). Results DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:24058547

  13. Depersonalization disorder: disconnection of cognitive evaluation from autonomic responses to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Michal, Matthias; Koechel, Ansgar; Canterino, Marco; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Vossel, Gerhard; Beutel, Manfred E; Gamer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Patients with depersonalization disorder (DPD) typically complain about emotional detachment. Previous studies found reduced autonomic responsiveness to emotional stimuli for DPD patients as compared to patients with anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate autonomic responsiveness to emotional auditory stimuli of DPD patients as compared to patient controls. Furthermore, we examined the modulatory effect of mindful breathing on these responses as well as on depersonalization intensity. 22 DPD patients and 15 patient controls balanced for severity of depression and anxiety, age, sex and education, were compared regarding 1) electrodermal and heart rate data during a resting period, and 2) autonomic responses and cognitive appraisal of standardized acoustic affective stimuli in two conditions (normal listening and mindful breathing). DPD patients rated the emotional sounds as significantly more neutral as compared to patient controls and standardized norm ratings. At the same time, however, they responded more strongly to acoustic emotional stimuli and their electrodermal response pattern was more modulated by valence and arousal as compared to patient controls. Mindful breathing reduced severity of depersonalization in DPD patients and increased the arousal modulation of electrodermal responses in the whole sample. Finally, DPD patients showed an increased electrodermal lability in the rest period as compared to patient controls. These findings demonstrated that the cognitive evaluation of emotional sounds in DPD patients is disconnected from their autonomic responses to those emotional stimuli. The increased electrodermal lability in DPD may reflect increased introversion and cognitive control of emotional impulses. The findings have important psychotherapeutic implications.

  14. Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Five Sociocultural Groups: Multigroup Invariance and Latent Mean Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael; Felix, Erika; O'Malley, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social-emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9-12; N =…

  15. Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Five Sociocultural Groups: Multigroup Invariance and Latent Mean Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael; Felix, Erika; O'Malley, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social-emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9-12; N =…

  16. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    PubMed

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toddlers' Social-Emotional Competence in the Contexts of Maternal Emotion Socialization and Contingent Responsiveness in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika London; Dupuis, Sara B.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Horodynski, Mildred; Onaga, Esther; Van Egeren, Laurie A.; Hillaker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Early social-emotional development occurs in the context of parenting, particularly via processes such as maternal emotion socialization and parent-child interactions. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that maternal contingent responsiveness partially mediated the relationship between maternal emotion socialization of toddlers (N…

  18. Eye movement related brain responses to emotional scenes during free viewing.

    PubMed

    Simola, Jaana; Torniainen, Jari; Moisala, Mona; Kivikangas, Markus; Krause, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed over neutral stimuli. Previous studies, however, disagree on whether emotional stimuli capture attention preattentively or whether the processing advantage is dependent on allocation of attention. The present study investigated attention and emotion processes by measuring brain responses related to eye movement events while 11 participants viewed images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Brain responses to emotional stimuli were compared between serial and parallel presentation. An "emotional" set included one image with high positive or negative valence among neutral images. A "neutral" set comprised four neutral images. The participants were asked to indicate which picture-if any-was emotional and to rate that picture on valence and arousal. In the serial condition, the event-related potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to the stimulus onset. In the parallel condition, the ERPs were time-locked to the first eye entry on an image. The eye movement results showed facilitated processing of emotional, especially unpleasant information. The EEG results in both presentation conditions showed that the LPP ("late positive potential") amplitudes at 400-500 ms were enlarged for the unpleasant and pleasant pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Moreover, the unpleasant scenes elicited stronger responses than pleasant scenes. The ERP results did not support parafoveal emotional processing, although the eye movement results suggested faster attention capture by emotional stimuli. Our findings, thus, suggested that emotional processing depends on overt attentional resources engaged in the processing of emotional content. The results also indicate that brain responses to emotional images can be analyzed time-locked to eye movement events, although the response amplitudes were larger during serial presentation.

  19. Emotional responses to Hindustani raga music: the role of musical structure

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Avantika; Vijayakumar, Suhas H.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Singh, Nandini C.

    2015-01-01

    In Indian classical music, ragas constitute specific combinations of tonic intervals potentially capable of evoking distinct emotions. A raga composition is typically presented in two modes, namely, alaap and gat. Alaap is the note by note delineation of a raga bound by a slow tempo, but not bound by a rhythmic cycle. Gat on the other hand is rendered at a faster tempo and follows a rhythmic cycle. Our primary objective was to (1) discriminate the emotions experienced across alaap and gat of ragas, (2) investigate the association of tonic intervals, tempo and rhythmic regularity with emotional response. 122 participants rated their experienced emotion across alaap and gat of 12 ragas. Analysis of the emotional responses revealed that (1) ragas elicit distinct emotions across the two presentation modes, and (2) specific tonic intervals are robust predictors of emotional response. Specifically, our results showed that the ‘minor second’ is a direct predictor of negative valence. (3) Tonality determines the emotion experienced for a raga where as rhythmic regularity and tempo modulate levels of arousal. Our findings provide new insights into the emotional response to Indian ragas and the impact of tempo, rhythmic regularity and tonality on it. PMID:25983702

  20. Are Irrational Reactions to Unfairness Truly Emotionally-Driven? Dissociated Behavioural and Emotional Responses in the Ultimatum Game Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness ([Sanfey et al., 2003] and [van't Wout et al., 2006]). We recorded skin conductance responses as…

  1. [Role of interoceptive signalization in modulating emotional-behavioral responses].

    PubMed

    Emel'ianenko, I V; Raĭtses, V S

    1976-03-01

    Chronic experiments were conducted on rabbits; electrodes were implanted into the deep structures of the brain. Stimulation of gastric receptors led to modulation of the emotional-behavioristic reactions induced by electric stimulation of the hypothalamus, the amygdala and the hypocampus. The effect depended on the intensity of interoceptive stimulation and peculiarities of the emotional reaction with own cerebral control systems.

  2. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  3. Will They Like Me? Adolescents' Emotional Responses to Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…

  4. Neonatal handling alters maternal emotional response to stress.

    PubMed

    Reis, Adolfo R; Jacobs, Silvana; Menegotto, Pâmela R; Silveira, Patrícia P; Lucion, Aldo B

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to analyze the effects of environmental interventions during early postpartum days (PPD). Long-lasting effects of repeated stress exposure in the neonatal period on the maternal side are poorly studied in this model. The aim of this study was to verify if handling the pups induces enduring effects on damśstress responses, increasing their risk for depression. Dams were divided into two groups (NH-Non-handled and H-Handled) based on the handling procedure (pups were handled for 1 min/per day from PPD1-PPD10) and then subdivided into four groups (NH, NH + S, H, and H + S) based on the exposure or not to restraint stress after weaning (1 hr/per day for 7 days, PPD22-PPD28). We analyzed damśbehavior in the forced swimming test (FST PPD29-PPD30), plasma basal corticosterone and BDNF levels, as well as adrenal weight (PPD31). The results show that handling alters the stress response of dams to acute and chronic stress, as evidenced by dams of the H group having increased immobility in the first day of FST (p < .001), similar to NH + S (p < .01). Dams of the H and H + S groups show decreased levels of corticosterone when compared to NH and NH + S groups (p < .05), but the H + S group shows an increased adrenal weight, suggesting an increased sensibility of the maternal organism to the chronic stress applied after weaning (p < .05). We show that handling may induce a long-lasting effect on maternal stress response; these changes in the damśemotional reactivity increase their susceptibility for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 614-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of content and physical properties of affective pictures on emotional responses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Selva, José María; Román, Francisco; Ginesa, Torrente

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of both the emotional content and the physical characteristics of affective stimuli on the psychophysiological, behavioral and cognitive indexes of the emotional response. We selected 54 pictures from the IAPS, depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant contents, and used two picture sizes as experimental conditions (120 x 90 cm and 52 x 42 cm). Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to each experimental condition. We recorded the startle blink reflex, skin conductance response, heart rate, free viewing time, and picture valence and arousal ratings. In line with previous research (e.g., Bradley, Codispoti, Cuthbert, and Lang, 2001), our data showed an effect of the affective content on all the measurements recorded. Importantly, effects of the size of the affective pictures on emotional responses were not found, indicating that the emotional content is more important than the formal properties of the stimuli in evoking the emotional response.

  6. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required.

  7. Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Considerable research has disclosed how cognitive reappraisals and the modulation of emotional responses promote successful emotion regulation. Less research has examined how the early processing of emotion-relevant stimuli may create divergent emotional response consequences. Mindfulness--a receptive, non-evaluative form of attention--is theorized to foster emotion regulation, and the present study examined whether individual differences in mindfulness would modulate neural responses associated with the early processing of affective stimuli. Focus was on the late positive potential (LPP) of the event-related brain potential to visual stimuli varying in emotional valence and arousal. This study first found, replicating past research, that high arousal images, particularly of an unpleasant type, elicited larger LPP responses. Second, the study found that more mindful individuals showed lower LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images, even after controlling for trait attentional control. Conversely, two traits contrasting with mindfulness--neuroticism and negative affectivity--were associated with higher LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images. Finally, mindfulness was also associated with lower LPP responses to motivationally salient pleasant images (erotica). These findings suggest that mindfulness modulates neural responses in an early phase of affective processing, and contribute to understanding how this quality of attention may promote healthy emotional functioning.

  8. Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert J.; Inzlicht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Considerable research has disclosed how cognitive reappraisals and the modulation of emotional responses promote successful emotion regulation. Less research has examined how the early processing of emotion-relevant stimuli may create divergent emotional response consequences. Mindfulness—a receptive, non-evaluative form of attention—is theorized to foster emotion regulation, and the present study examined whether individual differences in mindfulness would modulate neural responses associated with the early processing of affective stimuli. Focus was on the late positive potential (LPP) of the event-related brain potential to visual stimuli varying in emotional valence and arousal. This study first found, replicating past research, that high arousal images, particularly of an unpleasant type, elicited larger LPP responses. Second, the study found that more mindful individuals showed lower LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images, even after controlling for trait attentional control. Conversely, two traits contrasting with mindfulness—neuroticism and negative affectivity—were associated with higher LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images. Finally, mindfulness was also associated with lower LPP responses to motivationally salient pleasant images (erotica). These findings suggest that mindfulness modulates neural responses in an early phase of affective processing, and contribute to understanding how this quality of attention may promote healthy emotional functioning. PMID:22253259

  9. Real-time moment-to-moment emotional responses to narrative and informational breast cancer videos in African American women.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2012-06-01

    In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular mammograms. A community-based convenience sample of African American women (n = 59) used a hand-held audience response device to report the intensity of their emotional reaction while watching one of the two videos. Strong emotions were more likely to correspond to contextual information about characters in the video and less likely to correspond to health content among women who watched the narrative video compared with those who watched the informational video (P < 0.05). Women who watched the narrative video were more likely to report feeling attentive (41 versus 28%, respectively), inspired (54 versus 34%) and proud (30 versus 18%) and less likely to feel upset (8 versus 16%) (all P < 0.05). Women in the narrative group were more likely to mention women's personal stories than health information in open-ended recall questions, but this did not detract from obtaining health information. Findings suggest that stories can be used to communicate health information without distracting from core health content.

  10. Searching from the Heart: The Interplay between Emotions and Customization in Online Health Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of a threat to one's health or an opportunity for improved health can spark emotional reactions--the fear of an illness or the hope of a healthier life. People are increasingly turning to the Internet to search for information related to such health issues. However, the dizzying amount of online health information--some of it of…

  11. Searching from the Heart: The Interplay between Emotions and Customization in Online Health Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of a threat to one's health or an opportunity for improved health can spark emotional reactions--the fear of an illness or the hope of a healthier life. People are increasingly turning to the Internet to search for information related to such health issues. However, the dizzying amount of online health information--some of it of…

  12. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael; Takai- Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2009-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N=32), African American (N=63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N=54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and sadness, but more of both exposure and evaluative embarrassment. African American and White American children did not differ from one another. American children however showed more evaluative as opposed to exposure embarrassment. This finding supports the idea that success and failure are interpreted differently by Japanese children during the preschool years. The low amount of sadness and shame expression, and the limited range of number of different expressions observed in the Japanese children agree with the general finding that East Asian infants and young children differ from Western infants and children primarily in the display of negative expressions. These results demonstrate that cultural differences, whether due to temperament or direct socialization of cultural values, influence how children respond to achievement situations. PMID:20161610

  13. Cultural context moderates the relationship between emotion control values and cardiovascular challenge versus threat responses.

    PubMed

    Mauss, Iris B; Butler, Emily A

    2010-07-01

    Cultural context affects people's values regarding emotions, as well as their experiential and behavioral but not autonomic physiological responses to emotional situations. Little research, however, has examined how cultural context influences the relationships among values and emotional responding. Specifically, depending on their cultural context, individuals' values about emotion control (ECV; the extent to which they value emotion control) may have differing meanings, and as such, be associated with differing responses in emotional situations. We examined this possibility by testing the effect of two cultural contexts (28 female Asian-American (AA) versus 28 female European-American (EA) undergraduate students) on the associations between individuals' ECV and emotional responding (experiential, behavioral, and cardiovascular) to a relatively neutral film clip and a laboratory anger provocation. In the AA group, greater ECV were associated with reduced anger experience and behavior, and a challenge pattern of cardiovascular responding. In the EA group, greater ECV were associated with reduced anger behavior but not anger experience, and a threat pattern of cardiovascular responding. These results are consistent with the notion that individuals' values about emotion are associated with different meanings in different cultural contexts, and in turn, with different emotional and cardiovascular responses.

  14. Children’s Empathy Responses and their Understanding of Mother’s Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Erin C.; Donohue, Meghan Rose; Garcia, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated children’s empathic responses to their mother’s distress to provide insight about child factors that contribute to parental socialization of emotions. Four- to six-year-old children (N=82) observed their mother’s sadness and anger during a simulated emotional phone conversation. Children’s facial negative affect was rated and their heart rate variability was recorded during the conversation, and their emotion understanding of the conversation was measured through their use of negative emotion words and perspective-taking themes (i.e., discussing the causes or resolution of mother’s emotions) in narrative accounts of the conversation. There were positive quadratic relationships between HRV and ratings of facial affect, narrative references to mother’s negative emotions, and perspective-taking themes. High and low HRV were associated with high facial negative affect, suggesting well-regulated sympathy and poorly regulated personal distress empathic responses, respectively. Moderate HRV was associated with low facial negative affect, suggesting minimal empathic engagement. High and low HRV were associated with the highest probabilities of both emotion understanding indicators, suggesting both sympathy and personal distress responses to mother’s distress facilitate understanding of mother’s emotions. Personal distress may motivate attempts to understand mother’s emotions as a self-soothing strategy, whereas sympathy-related attempts to understand may be motivated by altruism. PMID:24650197

  15. Drawing as a Tool to Promote Emotional Health in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Gidoni, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequent exposure of Israeli pupils to political violence, it was meaningful to conduct research on ways to promote the expression of emotions in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in conflict-ridden contexts. Drawing, as a tool for emotional health, may serve to reduce general anxiety, as well as foreign language learning…

  16. Family Health and Characteristics in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Emotional Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…

  17. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  18. Drawing as a Tool to Promote Emotional Health in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Gidoni, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequent exposure of Israeli pupils to political violence, it was meaningful to conduct research on ways to promote the expression of emotions in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in conflict-ridden contexts. Drawing, as a tool for emotional health, may serve to reduce general anxiety, as well as foreign language learning…

  19. Family Health and Characteristics in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Emotional Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…

  20. Emotion regulation predicts change of perceived health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    van Middendorp, H; Geenen, R; Sorbi, M; van Doornen, L J P; Bijlsma, J

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Sixty six patients (44 female, 22 male; mean (SD) age 57.7 (11.6) years) participated in a prospective study. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to predict change of perceived health between study entry and follow up (1½ years later) from the emotion regulation styles ambiguity, control, orientation, and expression at study entry. Results: Valuing and intensely experiencing emotions (emotional orientation) predicted a decrease of positive affect. Difficulty recognising and expressing emotions (ambiguity) predicted an increase of perceived disease activity. Emotion regulation showed no associations with change of negative affect and social and physical functioning. Conclusions: Two styles of emotion regulation were shown to have a significant though modest role in the prediction of perceived health change in patients with RA. This suggests that the monitoring of emotion regulation may help to identify patients who are at risk for a reduction of perceived health. If our findings were confirmed by experimental research, improving emotion regulation skills might favourably affect perceived health. PMID:15958762

  1. Sense of Coherence and Emotional Health in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moksnes, Unni K.; Espnes, Geir A.; Lillefjell, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (state depression and state anxiety) and sense of coherence (SOC) as well as the association between SOC and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in…

  2. Sense of Coherence and Emotional Health in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moksnes, Unni K.; Espnes, Geir A.; Lillefjell, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (state depression and state anxiety) and sense of coherence (SOC) as well as the association between SOC and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in…

  3. Self-evaluative emotions and expectations about self-evaluative emotions in health-behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; Buunk, Abraham P

    2008-03-01

    Engaging in a behaviour that has negative physical consequences is considered to be a threat to the self because it makes the self appear inadequate and non-adaptive. This self-threat is experienced as self-evaluative emotions. The self-threat can be removed by refraining from the unhealthy behaviour. The experience of self-threat influences behaviour because it contributes to expectations about the occurrence of self-evaluative emotions in the case of behaviour change. The results of Study 1, conducted among 503 smokers, showed that self-evaluative emotions were the central predictor of quitting activity during a 7-month period, among measures related to the negative consequences of smoking. The results of Study 2, conducted among 409 smokers, showed that expectations about the self-evaluative emotions that follow quitting smoking predicted quitting activity during a 9-month period and that these expectations partly mediated the relation between self-evaluative emotions and quitting. The results of Study 3, conducted among 255 smokers, showed that information on the negative outcomes of smoking led to quitting activity only when there was room to change self-evaluative outcome expectations. In addition, increases in these expectations predicted quitting activity during a 6-month period. The results suggest that negative self-evaluative emotions are a central motive to change unhealthy behaviour and that self-evaluative outcome expectations govern the behaviour change. The results can be understood within Steele's (1999) Self-affirmation theory.

  4. Eye movement related brain responses to emotional scenes during free viewing

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Jaana; Torniainen, Jari; Moisala, Mona; Kivikangas, Markus; Krause, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed over neutral stimuli. Previous studies, however, disagree on whether emotional stimuli capture attention preattentively or whether the processing advantage is dependent on allocation of attention. The present study investigated attention and emotion processes by measuring brain responses related to eye movement events while 11 participants viewed images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Brain responses to emotional stimuli were compared between serial and parallel presentation. An “emotional” set included one image with high positive or negative valence among neutral images. A “neutral” set comprised four neutral images. The participants were asked to indicate which picture—if any—was emotional and to rate that picture on valence and arousal. In the serial condition, the event-related potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to the stimulus onset. In the parallel condition, the ERPs were time-locked to the first eye entry on an image. The eye movement results showed facilitated processing of emotional, especially unpleasant information. The EEG results in both presentation conditions showed that the LPP (“late positive potential”) amplitudes at 400–500 ms were enlarged for the unpleasant and pleasant pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Moreover, the unpleasant scenes elicited stronger responses than pleasant scenes. The ERP results did not support parafoveal emotional processing, although the eye movement results suggested faster attention capture by emotional stimuli. Our findings, thus, suggested that emotional processing depends on overt attentional resources engaged in the processing of emotional content. The results also indicate that brain responses to emotional images can be analyzed time-locked to eye movement events, although the response amplitudes were larger during serial presentation. PMID:23970856

  5. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems.

  6. Acute Sleep Restriction Effects on Emotion Responses in 30- to 36-Month-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebecca H.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers’ emotion expression. Ten healthy children (7 females; 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 hrs time in bed/24 hrs) for 5 days before each of two randomly-assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (5 positive, 3 neutral, 3 negative) and completed puzzles (1 solvable, 1 unsolvable). Children’s faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently “taxes” young children’s emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  7. Understanding of School Related Factors Associated with Emotional Health and Bullying Behavior among Jordanian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ≤.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:26060720

  8. Engaging in Distancing Tactics among Sport Fans: Effects on Self-Esteem and Emotional Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)

  9. Young Children with Autism Show Atypical Brain Responses to Fearful versus Neutral Facial Expressions of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Carver, Leslie; Panagiotides, Heracles; McPartland, James

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that autism is associated with impaired emotion perception, but it is unknown how early such impairments are evident. Furthermore, most studies that have assessed emotion perception in children with autism have required verbal responses, making results difficult to interpret. This study utilized high-density event-related…

  10. Adolescents Caught between Fires: Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Response to War Experiences in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of war experiences and the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies in response to these experiences among 294 formerly abducted adolescents at three rehabilitation centres in Uganda. Cognitive strategies were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Symptoms of…

  11. Adolescents Caught between Fires: Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Response to War Experiences in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of war experiences and the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies in response to these experiences among 294 formerly abducted adolescents at three rehabilitation centres in Uganda. Cognitive strategies were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Symptoms of…

  12. Emotional Responsiveness after Low- and Moderate-Intensity Exercise and Seated Rest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Carson; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Crabbe, James B.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether anxiety-reducing conditions of low- and moderate-intensity cycling exercise would lead to changes in emotional responsiveness to pictures designed to elicit pleasant neutral, and unpleasant emotions among healthy female college students. Results indicated that cycling exercise resulted in decreased baseline activity of facial…

  13. The Construction and Validation of a New Scale for Measuring Emotional Response Style in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarbour, Jane; Roger, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on children's emotional behaviour has been hampered by the lack of psychometric assessment scales. The present study reports on the construction and validation of a new self-report instrument to measure the emotional response styles of adolescents. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out on the…

  14. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  15. Young Children with Autism Show Atypical Brain Responses to Fearful versus Neutral Facial Expressions of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Carver, Leslie; Panagiotides, Heracles; McPartland, James

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that autism is associated with impaired emotion perception, but it is unknown how early such impairments are evident. Furthermore, most studies that have assessed emotion perception in children with autism have required verbal responses, making results difficult to interpret. This study utilized high-density event-related…

  16. Emotional Responsiveness after Low- and Moderate-Intensity Exercise and Seated Rest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Carson; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Crabbe, James B.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether anxiety-reducing conditions of low- and moderate-intensity cycling exercise would lead to changes in emotional responsiveness to pictures designed to elicit pleasant neutral, and unpleasant emotions among healthy female college students. Results indicated that cycling exercise resulted in decreased baseline activity of facial…

  17. Engaging in Distancing Tactics among Sport Fans: Effects on Self-Esteem and Emotional Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of distancing tactics on self-esteem and emotions following a win or loss of one's favorite basketball team. Measures the self-esteem and emotional responses of basketball fans as they exited the sport arena after their team won or lost an official game. (CMK)

  18. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  19. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion.

  20. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Andrew S.; Wing, Erik K.; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M.; Vack, Nathan J.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. PMID:26203145

  1. [Education for responsible health behavior].

    PubMed

    Steffens, M C; Bergler, R

    1996-12-01

    34 nursery school teachers, 40 primary school teachers, and 40 parents of primary school children were interviewed. Based on the results of these interviews, standardized questionnaires were developed and answered by 100 mothers of primary school children. Main results are as follows. Most of the nursery school teachers, primary school teachers, and mothers don't show great interest in health-related information, despite the fact that they lack knowledge in this area. Health risks which children could be educated to know, like unhealthy nutrition, are underestimated, whereas ecological risks which cannot be affected are overrated. Nursery and primary school teachers hold that parents are responsible for the health education of their children. Consequently, health-related behaviour in kindergarten and health-related teaching in school are unsatisfactory. Mothers, however, expect schools to teach health-related topics concerning dependencies of all sorts--nicotine, alcohol, illegal drugs, and medication. Nursery school teachers as well as mothers demonstrate little systematic control and few sanctions when it comes to teaching children hygienic behaviour. Therefore, most children show satisfactory preventive behaviour only with regard to brushing their teeth. There are clear deficits in other areas. The mothers act only partly as good role models--for example, many mothers smoke when their children are around. Additionally, mothers don't regularly talk to their children about health-related topics.

  2. Eating, feeding, and feeling: emotional responsiveness mediates longitudinal associations between maternal binge eating, feeding practices, and child weight.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Pineros-Leano, Maria; Liechty, Janet M; Bost, Kelly K; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-08-02

    Although it is known that maternal disordered eating is related to restrictive feeding practices, there is little research exploring mechanisms for this association or its effects on other feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to assess whether maternal emotion responses mediate the association between maternal binge eating (BE) and child feeding practices, in order to identify potential risk factors for feeding practices that influence child weight. This longitudinal observational study included (n = 260) mothers and children from the STRONG Kids Panel Survey. At Wave 1, children were an average of 37 months old (SD = 6.9), and at Wave 2 children were an average of 57 months old (SD = 8.3). Mothers self-reported their frequency of binge eating behavior (Wave 1), responses to children's negative emotions (Wave 1), feeding practices (Wave 1 and Wave 2), and child height and weight were measured at both time points. Using bias-corrected bootstrapping procedures, we tested the hypothesis that longitudinal associations between maternal BE and nonresponsive parent feeding practices would be mediated by parents' unsupportive responses to children's negative emotion. We also tested a serial mediation model positing that maternal BE predicts child body mass index (BMI) percentile change 18-24 months later, indirectly through unsupportive responses to negative emotion and nonresponsive feeding practices. Maternal BE predicted use of more nonresponsive feeding practices (e.g. Emotion Regulation, Restriction for Health, Pressure to Eat, and Food as Reward), indirectly through more Distress responses to children's negative emotions. In the serial mediation model, maternal BE was associated with greater use of Distress responses, which indirectly predicted higher child BMI percentile through Food as Reward feeding practices. These results suggest that maternal eating and emotion responsiveness are important for understanding the interpersonal context of

  3. Neural Dynamics of Emotional Salience Processing in Response to Voices during the Stages of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chenyi; Sung, Jia-Ying; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Sleep has been related to emotional functioning. However, the extent to which emotional salience is processed during sleep is unknown. To address this concern, we investigated night sleep in healthy adults regarding brain reactivity to the emotionally (happily, fearfully) spoken meaningless syllables dada, along with correspondingly synthesized nonvocal sounds. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were continuously acquired during an entire night of sleep while we applied a passive auditory oddball paradigm. During all stages of sleep, mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to emotional syllables, which is an index for emotional salience processing of voices, was detected. In contrast, MMN to acoustically matching nonvocal sounds was undetected during Sleep Stage 2 and 3 as well as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Post-MMN positivity (PMP) was identified with larger amplitudes during Stage 3, and at earlier latencies during REM sleep, relative to wakefulness. These findings clearly demonstrated the neural dynamics of emotional salience processing during the stages of sleep.

  4. Neural Dynamics of Emotional Salience Processing in Response to Voices during the Stages of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chenyi; Sung, Jia-Ying; Cheng, Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Sleep has been related to emotional functioning. However, the extent to which emotional salience is processed during sleep is unknown. To address this concern, we investigated night sleep in healthy adults regarding brain reactivity to the emotionally (happily, fearfully) spoken meaningless syllables dada, along with correspondingly synthesized nonvocal sounds. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were continuously acquired during an entire night of sleep while we applied a passive auditory oddball paradigm. During all stages of sleep, mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to emotional syllables, which is an index for emotional salience processing of voices, was detected. In contrast, MMN to acoustically matching nonvocal sounds was undetected during Sleep Stage 2 and 3 as well as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Post-MMN positivity (PMP) was identified with larger amplitudes during Stage 3, and at earlier latencies during REM sleep, relative to wakefulness. These findings clearly demonstrated the neural dynamics of emotional salience processing during the stages of sleep. PMID:27378870

  5. Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning.

    PubMed

    Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G

    1994-02-01

    The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.

  6. Food insecurity and emotional health in the USA: a systematic narrative review of longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales

    2017-09-14

    To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.

  7. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Shoaf, Kimberley

    2014-09-01

    Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  8. Effects of empathic social responses on the emotions of the recipient.

    PubMed

    Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M; Klann-Delius, Gisela; Menninghaus, Winfried; Prehn, Kristin

    2016-03-01

    Empathy is highly relevant for social behavior and can be verbally expressed by voicing sympathy and concern (emotional empathy) as well as by paraphrasing or stating that one can mentally reconstruct and understand another person's thoughts and feelings (cognitive empathy). In this study, we investigated the emotional effects and neural correlates of receiving empathic social responses after negative performance feedback and compared the effects of emotionally vs. cognitively empathic comments. 20 participants (10 male) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while receiving negative performance feedback for a cognitive task. Performance feedback was followed by verbal comments either expressing cognitive and emotional empathy or demonstrating a lack of empathy. Empathic comments in general led to less negative self-reported feelings and calmer breathing. At the neural level, empathic comments induced activity in regions associated with social cognition and emotion processing, specifically in right postcentral gyrus and left cerebellum (cognitively empathic comments), right precentral gyrus, the opercular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (emotionally empathic comments), as well as the orbital part of the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus (emotionally empathic vs. unempathic comments). The study shows that cognitively and emotionally empathic comments appear to be processed in partially separable neural systems. Furthermore, confirming and expanding on another study on the same subject, the present results demonstrate that the social display of cognitive empathy exerts almost as positive effects on the recipient's feelings and emotions in states of distress as emotionally empathic response does. This can be relevant for professional settings in which strong negative emotions need to be de-escalated while maintaining professional impartiality, which may allow the display of cognitive but not

  9. Toward an operational model of decision making, emotional regulation, and mental health impact.

    PubMed

    Collura, Thomas Francis; Zalaquett, Ronald P; Bonnstetter, Carlos Joyce; Chatters, Seria J

    2014-01-01

    Current brain research increasingly reveals the underlying mechanisms and processes of human behavior, cognition, and emotion. In addition to being of interest to a wide range of scientists, educators, and professionals, as well as laypeople, brain-based models are of particular value in a clinical setting. Psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and other mental health professionals are in need of operational models that integrate recent findings in the physical, cognitive, and emotional domains, and offer a common language for interdisciplinary understanding and communication. Based on individual traits, predispositions, and responses to stimuli, we can begin to identify emotional and behavioral pathways and mental processing patterns. The purpose of this article is to present a brain-path activation model to understand individual differences in decision making and psychopathology. The first section discusses the role of frontal lobe electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry, summarizes state- and trait-based models of decision making, and provides a more complex analysis that supplements the traditional simple left-right brain model. Key components of the new model are the introduction of right hemisphere parallel and left hemisphere serial scanning in rendering decisions, and the proposition of pathways that incorporate both past experiences as well as future implications into the decision process. Main attributes of each decision-making mechanism are provided. The second section applies the model within the realm of clinical mental health as a tool to understand specific human behavior and pathology. Applications include general and chronic anxiety, depression, paranoia, risk taking, and the pathways employed when well-functioning operational integration is observed. Finally, specific applications such as meditation and mindfulness are offered to facilitate positive functioning.

  10. Gender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play

    PubMed Central

    Kivikangas, J. Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities. PMID:24983952

  11. Gender differences in emotional responses to cooperative and competitive game play.

    PubMed

    Kivikangas, J Matias; Kätsyri, Jari; Järvelä, Simo; Ravaja, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.

  12. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions.

    PubMed

    Schel, Margot A; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful) as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs) than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.

  13. Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: Evidence from EDA and facial EMG

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Ian G.; Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While the basic nature of irony is saying one thing and communicating the opposite, it may also serve additional social and emotional functions, such as projecting humor or anger. Emoticons often accompany irony in computer‐mediated communication, and have been suggested to increase enjoyment of communication. In the current study, we aimed to examine online emotional responses to ironic versus literal comments, and the influence of emoticons on this process. Participants read stories with a final comment that was either ironic or literal, praising or critical, and with or without an emoticon. We used psychophysiological measures to capture immediate emotional responses: electrodermal activity to directly measure arousal and facial electromyography to detect muscle movements indicative of emotional expressions. Results showed higher arousal, reduced frowning, and enhanced smiling for messages with rather than without an emoticon, suggesting that emoticons increase positive emotions. A tendency toward less negative responses (i.e., reduced frowning and enhanced smiling) for ironic than literal criticism, and less positive responses (i.e., enhanced frowning and reduced smiling) for ironic than literal praise suggests that irony weakens the emotional impact of a message. The present findings indicate the utility of a psychophysiological approach in studying online emotional responses to written language. PMID:26989844

  14. Emotional responses to irony and emoticons in written language: Evidence from EDA and facial EMG.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dominic; Mackenzie, Ian G; Leuthold, Hartmut; Filik, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    While the basic nature of irony is saying one thing and communicating the opposite, it may also serve additional social and emotional functions, such as projecting humor or anger. Emoticons often accompany irony in computer-mediated communication, and have been suggested to increase enjoyment of communication. In the current study, we aimed to examine online emotional responses to ironic versus literal comments, and the influence of emoticons on this process. Participants read stories with a final comment that was either ironic or literal, praising or critical, and with or without an emoticon. We used psychophysiological measures to capture immediate emotional responses: electrodermal activity to directly measure arousal and facial electromyography to detect muscle movements indicative of emotional expressions. Results showed higher arousal, reduced frowning, and enhanced smiling for messages with rather than without an emoticon, suggesting that emoticons increase positive emotions. A tendency toward less negative responses (i.e., reduced frowning and enhanced smiling) for ironic than literal criticism, and less positive responses (i.e., enhanced frowning and reduced smiling) for ironic than literal praise suggests that irony weakens the emotional impact of a message. The present findings indicate the utility of a psychophysiological approach in studying online emotional responses to written language. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Happiness is best kept stable: positive emotion variability is associated with poorer psychological health.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B

    2013-02-01

    Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive.

  16. Teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses and their general health: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sharif, F; Rezaie, S; Keshavarzi, S; Mansoori, P; Ghadakpoor, S

    2013-07-01

    Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9) was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001). Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  17. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience.

  18. Effects of Positive Action on the emotional health of urban youth: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kendra M; DuBois, David L; Bavarian, Niloofar; Acock, Alan; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    We examined the effects of Positive Action (PA), a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program, on the emotional health of predominately low-income and ethnic minority urban youth. The study was a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 14 Chicago public schools. Outcomes were assessed over a 6-year period of program implementation for a cohort of youth in each school, followed from grades 3 to 8. Youth reported on their emotional health (positive affect, life satisfaction, depression, anxiety) and social-emotional and character development. Growth-curve and structural-equation modeling analyses assessed overall program effects on the emotional health outcomes as well as mediation of these effects via the program's impact on youths' social-emotional and character development. Students in PA schools, compared with those in control schools, had more favorable change over the course of the study in positive affect (standardized mean difference effect size [ES] = .17) and life satisfaction (ES = .13) as well as significantly lower depression (ES = -.14) and anxiety (ES = -.26) at study end point. Program effects for positive affect, depression, and anxiety were mediated by more favorable change over time in social-emotional and character development for students in PA schools. Results suggest that universal, school-based programs can benefit the emotional health of youth in low-income, urban settings. The modest magnitude of effects over an extended period of program implementation, however, reflects the challenges of both mounting interventions and offsetting formidable risks for mental health problems in such environments. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrete emotion effects on lexical decision response times.

    PubMed

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account.

  20. Discrete Emotion Effects on Lexical Decision Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Briesemeister, Benny B.; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge about affective processes, especially concerning effects on cognitive demands like word processing, is increasing steadily. Several studies consistently document valence and arousal effects, and although there is some debate on possible interactions and different notions of valence, broad agreement on a two dimensional model of affective space has been achieved. Alternative models like the discrete emotion theory have received little interest in word recognition research so far. Using backward elimination and multiple regression analyses, we show that five discrete emotions (i.e., happiness, disgust, fear, anger and sadness) explain as much variance as two published dimensional models assuming continuous or categorical valence, with the variables happiness, disgust and fear significantly contributing to this account. Moreover, these effects even persist in an experiment with discrete emotion conditions when the stimuli are controlled for emotional valence and arousal levels. We interpret this result as evidence for discrete emotion effects in visual word recognition that cannot be explained by the two dimensional affective space account. PMID:21887307

  1. Emotional processing in Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia: evidence for response bias deficits in PD.

    PubMed

    Laskowska, Ilona P; Gawryś, Ludwika; Łęski, Szymon; Koziorowski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in facial emotion recognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been well documented. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether facial emotion recognition deficits are secondary to other cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether deficits in facial emotion recognition in PD result from impaired sensory processes, or from impaired decision processes. To address this question, we tested the ability to recognize a mixture of basic and complex emotions in 38 non-demented PD patients and 38 healthy controls matched on demographic characteristics. By using a task with an increased level of ambiguity, in conjunction with the signal detection theory, we were able to differentiate between sensitivity and response bias in facial emotion recognition. Sensitivity and response bias for facial emotion recognition were calculated using a d-prime value and a c index respectively. Our study is the first to employ the EIS-F scale for assessing facial emotion recognition among PD patients; to test its validity as an assessment tool, a group comprising schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were also tested. Patients with PD recognized emotions with less accuracy than healthy individuals (d-prime) and used a more liberal response criterion (c index). By contrast, patients with schizophrenia merely showed diminished sensitivity (d-prime). Our results suggest that an impaired ability to recognize facial emotions in PD patients may result from both decreased sensitivity and a significantly more liberal response criteria, whereas facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia may stem from a generalized sensory impairment only.

  2. Predicting Emotional Responses to Horror Films from Cue-Specific Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Sparks, Glenn G.

    1988-01-01

    Assesses individuals' fear and enjoyment reactions to horror films, applying theories of cognition and affect that predict emotional responses to a stimulus on the basis of prior affect toward specific cues included in that stimulus. (MM)

  3. Preserved emotional modulation of motor response time despite psychomotor slowing in young-old adults.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Creighton, Judy; Assuras, Stephanie; Borod, Joan C; Tse, Winona; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Foldi, Nancy S; Kaufmann, Horacio; Olanow, C Warren; Voustianiouk, Andrei

    2011-08-01

    Whereas aging affects cognitive and psychomotor processes negatively, the impact of aging on emotional processing is less clear. Using an "old-new" binary decision task, we ascertained the modulation of response latencies after presentation of neutral and emotional pictures in "young" (M = 27.1 years) and "young-old" adults with a mean age below 60 (M = 57.7 years). Stimuli varied on valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) and arousal (high and low) dimensions. Young-old adults had significantly longer reaction times. However, young and young-old adults showed the exact same pattern of response time modulation by emotional stimuli: Response latencies were longer for high-arousal than for low-arousal pictures and longer for negative than for positive or neutral stimuli. This result suggests that the specific effects of implicitly processed emotional valence and arousal information on behavioral response time are preserved in young-old adults despite significant age-related psychomotor decline.

  4. Predicting Emotional Responses to Horror Films from Cue-Specific Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Sparks, Glenn G.

    1988-01-01

    Assesses individuals' fear and enjoyment reactions to horror films, applying theories of cognition and affect that predict emotional responses to a stimulus on the basis of prior affect toward specific cues included in that stimulus. (MM)

  5. Distribution of Response Time, Cortical, and Cardiac Correlates during Emotional Interference in Persons with Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Holper, Lisa K B; Aleksandrowicz, Alekandra; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Hagenmuller, Florence; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females) were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R). Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots [behavioral response time (RT) data] and quantile analysis (fNIRS data) were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects. Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific) effects could be detected, based on behavioral RTs, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates), and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates). Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001) and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001), supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype.

  6. Distribution of Response Time, Cortical, and Cardiac Correlates during Emotional Interference in Persons with Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Holper, Lisa K. B.; Aleksandrowicz, Alekandra; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Hagenmuller, Florence; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    A psychosis phenotype can be observed below the threshold of clinical detection. The study aimed to investigate whether subclinical psychotic symptoms are associated with deficits in controlling emotional interference, and whether cortical brain and cardiac correlates of these deficits can be detected using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A data set derived from a community sample was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services. 174 subjects (mean age 29.67 ± 6.41, 91 females) were assigned to four groups ranging from low to high levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms (derived from the Symptom Checklist-90-R). Emotional interference was assessed using the emotional Stroop task comprising neutral, positive, and negative conditions. Statistical distributional methods based on delta plots [behavioral response time (RT) data] and quantile analysis (fNIRS data) were applied to evaluate the emotional interference effects. Results showed that both interference effects and disorder-specific (i.e., group-specific) effects could be detected, based on behavioral RTs, cortical hemodynamic signals (brain correlates), and heart rate variability (cardiac correlates). Subjects with high compared to low subclinical psychotic symptoms revealed significantly reduced amplitudes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (interference effect, p < 0.001) and middle temporal gyrus (disorder-specific group effect, p < 0.001), supported by behavioral and heart rate results. The present findings indicate that distributional analyses methods can support the detection of emotional interference effects in the emotional Stroop. The results suggested that subjects with high subclinical psychosis exhibit enhanced emotional interference effects. Based on these observations, subclinical psychosis may therefore prove to represent a valid extension of the clinical psychosis phenotype. PMID:27660608

  7. Emotional intelligence is associated with reduced insula responses to masked angry faces.

    PubMed

    Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S

    2015-07-08

    High levels of emotional intelligence (EI) have been associated with increased success in the workplace, greater quality of personal relationships, and enhanced wellbeing. Evidence suggests that EI is mediated extensively by the interplay of key emotion regions including the amygdala, insula, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, among others. The insula, in particular, is important for processing interoceptive and somatic cues that are interpreted as emotional responses. We investigated the association between EI and functional brain responses within the aforementioned neurocircuitry in response to subliminal presentations of social threat. Fifty-four healthy adults completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and underwent functional magnetic brain imaging while viewing subliminal presentations of faces displaying anger, using a backward masked facial affect paradigm to minimize conscious awareness of the expressed emotion. In response to masked angry faces, the total MSCEIT scores correlated negatively with a cluster of activation located within the left insula, but not with activation in any other region of interest. Considering the insula's role in the processing of interoceptive emotional cues, the results suggest that greater EI is associated with reduced emotional visceral reactivity and/or more accurate interoceptive prediction when confronted with stimuli indicative of social threat.

  8. Exploring the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Montes-Berges, B; Augusto, J-M

    2007-04-01

    Studies conducted with nurses or nursing students have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. The present work examines the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, in the use of stress-coping strategies, in the quantity and quality of social support and in the mental health of nursing students. The results indicated positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and mental health. Hierarchy regression analysis pointed out that clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support, and emotional repair is the main predictor of mental health. These results show the importance of PEI in stress coping within the nursing framework.

  9. Pain severity and emotion dysregulation among Latinos in a community health care setting: relations to mental health.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Mayorga, Nubia Angelina; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Lu, Qian; Ditre, Joseph; Vowles, Kevin; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although pain severity is often related to poorer mental health and is one of the most common presenting complaints in community health care settings, there is little understanding of the pain experience in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and disorders among Latino populations in medical contexts. To address this gap, the current study explored an interactive model of pain severity and emotion dysregulation in relation to anxiety/depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 274 Latinos who attended a community-based primary health care clinic [86.9% female; Mage=39.3 (SD=11.2); 96.0% indicated Spanish as their first language]. Results indicated a statistically significant interaction between pain severity and emotion dysregulation for suicidal symptoms, social anxiety symptoms and number of mood/anxiety disorders, such that more severe pain and greater levels of emotion dysregulation related to poorer mental health. Both pain severity and emotion dysregulation were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, but only pain severity was a significant predictor of anxious arousal symptoms. These novel findings suggest a clinically significant interplay between pain severity and emotion dysregulation among Latinos in. The results are discussed in relation to the need for new screening and intervention tactics that address interrelations between pain severity and emotional dysregulation among Latinos seeking treatment in community health-care-based settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Brain responses to emotional salience and reward in alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Alba-Ferrara, L; Müller-Oehring, E M; Sullivan, E V; Pfefferbaum, A; Schulte, T

    2016-03-01

    Heightened neural responsiveness of alcoholics to alcohol cues and social emotion may impede sobriety. To test mesocorticolimbic network responsivity, 10 (8 men) alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients sober for 3 weeks to 10 months and 11 (8 men) controls underwent fMRI whilst viewing pictures of alcohol and non-alcohol beverages and of emotional faces (happy, sad, angry). AUD and controls showed similarities in mesocorticolimbic activity: both groups activated fusiform for emotional faces and hippocampal and pallidum regions during alcohol picture processing. In AUD, less fusiform activity to emotional faces and more pallidum activity to alcohol pictures were associated with longer sobriety. Using graph theory-based network efficiency measures to specify the role of the mesocorticolimbic network nodes for emotion and reward in sober AUD revealed that the left hippocampus was less efficiently connected with the other task-activated network regions in AUD than controls when viewing emotional faces, while the pallidum was more efficiently connected when viewing alcohol beverages. Together our findings identified lower occipito-temporal sensitivity to emotional faces and enhanced striatal sensitivity to alcohol stimuli in AUD than controls. Considering the role of the striatum in encoding reward, its activation enhancement with longer sobriety may reflect adaptive neural changes in the first year of drinking cessation and mesocorticolimbic system vulnerability for encoding emotional salience and reward potentially affecting executive control ability and relapse propensity during abstinence.

  11. Emotional response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: neural and behavioural data.

    PubMed

    López-Martín, S; Albert, J; Fernández-Jaén, A; Carretié, L

    2015-07-01

    Although both emotion and response inhibition are thought to be important in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the interaction between these two processes in patients with this disorder. This study aimed at examining how emotional contexts affect inhibitory control in children with ADHD. A total of 24 ADHD children and 24 healthy comparison subjects performed a modified go/no-go task during three different emotionally laden contexts: negative, neutral and positive. To explore the timing and the underlying neural substrates of emotion-modulated response inhibition, event-related potentials were measured and further analysed both at the scalp and at the voxel level. Patients with ADHD showed greater activation of inhibition-related neural mechanisms (i.e. no-go P3 amplitudes and orbitofrontal cortex activity) to maintain a similar level of performance as healthy comparison subjects, especially during the emotionally arousing contexts (negative and positive). This study provides plausible neural mechanisms for the difficulty that ADHD children have in controlling their behaviour in highly emotional situations. Such emotional contexts might increase the need for top-down inhibitory control and put ADHD children at greater risk for impulsive behaviours and emotional dysregulation.

  12. BRAIN RESPONSES TO EMOTIONAL SALIENCE AND REWARD IN ALCOHOL USE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.; Schulte, T.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened neural responsiveness of alcoholics to alcohol cues and social emotion may impede sobriety. To test mesocorticolimbic network responsivity, 10 (8 men) alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients sober for 3 weeks to 10 months and 11 (8 men) controls underwent fMRI whilst viewing pictures of alcohol and non-alcohol beverages and of emotional faces (happy, sad, angry). AUD and controls showed similarities in mesocorticolimbic activity: both groups activated fusiform for emotional faces and hippocampal and pallidum regions during alcohol picture processing. In AUD, less fusiform activity to emotional faces and more pallidum activity to alcohol pictures were associated with longer sobriety. Using graph theory-based network efficiency measures to specify the role of the mesocorticolimbic network nodes for emotion and reward in sober AUD revealed that the left hippocampus was less efficiently connected with the other task-activated network regions in AUD than controls when viewing emotional faces, while the pallidum was more efficiently connected when viewing alcohol beverages. Together our findings identified lower occipito-temporal sensitivity to emotional faces and enhanced striatal sensitivity to alcohol stimuli in AUD than controls. Considering the role of the striatum in encoding reward, its activation enhancement with longer sobriety may reflect adaptive neural changes in the first year of drinking cessation and mesocorticolimbic system vulnerability for encoding emotional salience and reward potentially affecting executive control ability and relapse propensity during abstinence. PMID:25875013

  13. Emotional contagion, empathic concern and communicative responsiveness as variables affecting nurses' stress and occupational commitment.

    PubMed

    Omdahl, B L; O'Donnell, C

    1999-06-01

    Based on data gathered from registered nurses at two hospitals, this research examined the extent to which empathy variables contributed to nursing stress and occupational commitment. The empathy variables examined were emotional contagion (i.e. sharing the emotions of patients), empathic concern (i.e. being concerned for patients) and communicative effectiveness (i.e. effectively communicating with patients and their families). Nursing stress was explored through the variables of depersonalization, reduced personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the combination of the three emotional communication variables explained significant proportions of the variance in all three of the stress variables, as well as occupational commitment. The analyses further revealed that a lack of empathic concern and poor communicative responsiveness accounted for significant proportions of the variance in depersonalization. Lack of empathic concern, poor communicative responsiveness and high emotional contagion significantly contributed to reduced personal accomplishment. Emotional contagion explained a significant proportion of the variance in emotional exhaustion. Emotional contagion also significantly reduced occupational commitment. The findings are discussed in terms of nursing education and administration.

  14. Activity in the human brain predicting differential heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Hugo D; Rotshtein, Pia; Nagai, Yoko; O'Doherty, John; Mathias, Christopher J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2005-02-01

    The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that automatically generated bodily reactions not only color subjective emotional experience of stimuli, but also necessitate a mechanism by which these bodily reactions are differentially generated to reflect stimulus quality. To examine this putative mechanism, we simultaneously measured brain activity and heart rate to identify regions where neural activity predicted the magnitude of heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions. Using a forewarned reaction time task, we showed that orienting heart rate acceleration to emotional face stimuli was modulated as a function of the emotion depicted. The magnitude of evoked heart rate increase, both across the stimulus set and within each emotion category, was predicted by level of activity within a matrix of interconnected brain regions, including amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate, and brainstem. We suggest that these regions provide a substrate for translating visual perception of emotional facial expression into differential cardiac responses and thereby represent an interface for selective generation of visceral reactions that contribute to the embodied component of emotional reaction.

  15. Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A.; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex. PMID:24194707

  16. Emotional expressions evoke a differential response in the fusiform face area.

    PubMed

    Harry, Bronson; Williams, Mark A; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the fusiform face area (FFA), a brain region specialized for face perception, is not involved in processing emotional expressions. This assumption is based on the proposition that the FFA is involved in face identification and only processes features that are invariant across changes due to head movements, speaking and expressing emotions. The present study tested this proposition by examining whether the response in the human FFA varies across emotional expressions with functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain decoding analysis techniques (n = 11). A one vs. all classification analysis showed that most emotional expressions that participants perceived could be reliably predicted from the neural pattern of activity in left and the right FFA, suggesting that the perception of different emotional expressions recruit partially non-overlapping neural mechanisms. In addition, emotional expressions could also be decoded from the pattern of activity in the early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that retinotopic cortex also shows a differential response to emotional expressions. These results cast doubt on the idea that the FFA is involved in expression invariant face processing, and instead indicate that emotional expressions evoke partially de-correlated signals throughout occipital and posterior temporal cortex.

  17. Disrupting SMA activity modulates explicit and implicit emotional responses: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Rodigari, Alessia; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2014-09-05

    Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) has been considered as an interface between the emotional/motivational system and motor effector system. Here, we investigated whether it is possible to modulate emotional responses using non-invasive brain stimulation of the SMA. 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) trains were applied over the SMA of healthy subjects performing a task requiring to judge the valence and arousal of emotional stimuli. rTMS trains over the SMA increased the perceived valence of emotionally negative visual stimuli, while decreasing the perceived valence of emotionally positive ones. The modulatory effect on emotional valence was specific for stimuli with emotional content, since it was not observed for neutral visual stimuli. The effect was also specific for the site of stimulation, since rTMS of the visual cortex failed to modulate either perceived valence or arousal. These findings provide the first example of neuromodulation of emotional responses based on non-invasive brain stimulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Dynamic Emotional and Neural Responses to Music Depend on Performance Expression and Listener Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Heather; Jantzen, Kelly; Scott Kelso, J. A.; Steinberg, Fred; Large, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Apart from its natural relevance to cognition, music provides a window into the intimate relationships between production, perception, experience, and emotion. Here, emotional responses and neural activity were observed as they evolved together with stimulus parameters over several minutes. Participants listened to a skilled music performance that included the natural fluctuations in timing and sound intensity that musicians use to evoke emotional responses. A mechanical performance of the same piece served as a control. Before and after fMRI scanning, participants reported real-time emotional responses on a 2-dimensional rating scale (arousal and valence) as they listened to each performance. During fMRI scanning, participants listened without reporting emotional responses. Limbic and paralimbic brain areas responded to the expressive dynamics of human music performance, and both emotion and reward related activations during music listening were dependent upon musical training. Moreover, dynamic changes in timing predicted ratings of emotional arousal, as well as real-time changes in neural activity. BOLD signal changes correlated with expressive timing fluctuations in cortical and subcortical motor areas consistent with pulse perception, and in a network consistent with the human mirror neuron system. These findings show that expressive music performance evokes emotion and reward related neural activations, and that music's affective impact on the brains of listeners is altered by musical training. Our observations are consistent with the idea that music performance evokes an emotional response through a form of empathy that is based, at least in part, on the perception of movement and on violations of pulse-based temporal expectancies. PMID:21179549

  19. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    PubMed Central

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D.; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Background The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Methodology Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Principal Findings Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Conclusions Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Significance Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions. PMID:20657777

  20. Experience, cortisol reactivity, and the coordination of emotional responses to skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Lee, Yoojin; Böttger, Christian; Leonbacher, Uwe; Allison, Amber L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Physiological habituation to laboratory stressors has previously been demonstrated, although the literature remains equivocal. Previous studies have found skydiving to be a salient naturalistic stressor that elicits a robust subjective and physiological stress response. However, it is uncertain whether (or how) stress reactivity habituates to this stressor given that skydiving remains a risky, life-threatening challenge with every jump despite experience. While multiple components of the stress response have been documented, it is unclear whether an individual’s subjective emotions are related to their physiological responses. Documenting coordinated responsivity would lend insight into shared underlying mechanisms for the nature of habituation of both subjective (emotion) and objective (cortisol) stress responses. Therefore, we examined subjective emotion and cortisol responses in first-time compared to experienced skydivers in a predominantly male sample (total n = 44; males = 32, females = 12). Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that experienced skydivers showed less reactivity and faster recovery compared to first-time skydivers. Subjective emotions were coordinated with physiological responses primarily within first-time skydivers. Pre-jump anxiety predicted cortisol reactivity within first-time, but not experienced, skydivers. Higher post-jump happiness predicted faster cortisol recovery after jumping although this effect overlapped somewhat with the effect of experience. Results suggest that experience may modulate the coordination of emotional response with cortisol reactivity to skydiving. Prior experience does not appear to extinguish the stress response but rather alters the individual’s engagement of the HPA axis. PMID:25859199

  1. Experience, cortisol reactivity, and the coordination of emotional responses to skydiving.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vanessa J; Lee, Yoojin; Böttger, Christian; Leonbacher, Uwe; Allison, Amber L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Physiological habituation to laboratory stressors has previously been demonstrated, although the literature remains equivocal. Previous studies have found skydiving to be a salient naturalistic stressor that elicits a robust subjective and physiological stress response. However, it is uncertain whether (or how) stress reactivity habituates to this stressor given that skydiving remains a risky, life-threatening challenge with every jump despite experience. While multiple components of the stress response have been documented, it is unclear whether an individual's subjective emotions are related to their physiological responses. Documenting coordinated responsivity would lend insight into shared underlying mechanisms for the nature of habituation of both subjective (emotion) and objective (cortisol) stress responses. Therefore, we examined subjective emotion and cortisol responses in first-time compared to experienced skydivers in a predominantly male sample (total n = 44; males = 32, females = 12). Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that experienced skydivers showed less reactivity and faster recovery compared to first-time skydivers. Subjective emotions were coordinated with physiological responses primarily within first-time skydivers. Pre-jump anxiety predicted cortisol reactivity within first-time, but not experienced, skydivers. Higher post-jump happiness predicted faster cortisol recovery after jumping although this effect overlapped somewhat with the effect of experience. Results suggest that experience may modulate the coordination of emotional response with cortisol reactivity to skydiving. Prior experience does not appear to extinguish the stress response but rather alters the individual's engagement of the HPA axis.

  2. The Amygdala Mediates the Emotional Modulation of Threat-Elicited Skin Conductance Response

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kimberly H.; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W.; Knight, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to respond adaptively to threats in a changing environment is an important emotional function. The amygdala is a critical component of the neural circuit that mediates many emotion- related processes, and thus likely plays an important role in modulating the peripheral emotional response to threat. However, prior research has largely focused on the amygdala’s response to stimuli that signal impending threat, giving less attention to the amygdala’s response to the threat itself. From a functional perspective, however, it is the response to the threat itself that is most biologically relevant. Thus, understanding the factors that influence the amygdala’s response to threat is critical for a complete understanding of adaptive emotional processes. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate factors (i.e. valence and arousal of co-occurring visual stimuli) that influence the amygdala’s response to threat (loud white-noise). We also assessed whether changes in amygdala activity varied with the peripheral expression of emotion (indexed via skin conductance response; SCR). The results showed that threat-elicited amygdala activation varied with the arousal, not valence of emotional images. More specifically, threat-elicited amygdala activation was larger to the threat when presented during high arousal (i.e. negative & positive) vs. low arousal (i.e. neutral) images. Further, the threat-elicited amygdala response was positively correlated with threat-elicited SCR. These findings indicate the amygdala’s response to threat is modified by the nature (e.g. arousal) of other stimuli in the environment. In turn, the amygdala appears to mediate important aspects of the peripheral emotional response to threat. PMID:24866521

  3. The effects of valence-based and discrete emotional states on aesthetic response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that consumer aesthetics--the responses of consumers to the aesthetic or appearance aspects of products--has become an important area of marketing in recent years. Consumer aesthetic responses to a product are a source of pleasure for the consumer. Previous research into the aesthetic responses to products has often emphasized exterior factors and visual design, but studies have seldom considered the psychological aesthetic experience of consumers, and in particular their emotional state. This study attempts to bridge this gap by examining the link between consumers' emotions and their aesthetic response to a product. Thus, the major goal of this study was to determine how valence-based and discrete emotional states influence choice. In Studies 1 and 2, positive and negative emotions were manipulated to implement two different induction techniques and explore the effect of emotions on participants' choices in two separate experiments. The results of both experiments confirmed the predictions, indicating that aesthetic responses and purchase intention are functions of emotional valence, such that both are stronger for people in a positive emotional state than for those in a negative emotional state. Study 2 also used a neutral affective state to establish the robustness of this observed effect of incidental affect. The results of Study 3 demonstrate that aesthetic response and purchase intention are not only a function of affect valence, but also are affected by the certainty appraisal associated with specific affective states. This research, therefore, contributes to the literature by offering empirical evidence that incidental affect is a determinant of aesthetic response.

  4. Religion-based emotional social support mediates the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hovey, Joseph D; Hurtado, Gabriela; Morales, Lori R A; Seligman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that increased religiosity is associated with better mental health and many authors have conjectured that religion-based social support may help explain this connection, scant research has directly examined whether religion-based support mediates religiosity and mental health. The present study examined whether various dimensions of religion-based support (social interaction, instrumental, and emotional) mediated the relationship between religiosity and mental health in college students in the Midwest United States. As expected, of the support dimensions, perceived emotional support was the strongest predictor of decreased hopelessness, depression, and suicide behaviors; and the relationships among intrinsic religiosity and the mental health variables were fully mediated by emotional support. These findings provide strong support to the notion that the relationship between religiosity and mental health can be reduced to mediators such as social support. Research and theoretical implications are discussed.

  5. Physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Salam, A A; Alshekteria, A A; Mohammed, H A A; Al Abar, N M; Al Jhany, M M; Al Flah, F

    2012-06-01

    Adolescence and youth are stages of life that other great opportunities for reduction of future health needs. A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical, mental, emotional and social health status of adolescents and youths attending 2 large universities in Benghazi city, Libya, and to determine variables associated with their health status. Stratified sampling was used to select 383 students aged 17-24 years and data were collected by face-to-face interview and self-administered questionnaires. Major health problems were depression/anxiety and pain/discomfort, and these were suffered by significantly more females than males. Mental health was at the transitional stage in Dabrowski's emotional development theory (spontaneous multilevel disintegration). Females had higher levels of emotional development. Regular physical activity was practised by 34.7% overall (25.8% of women) and 17.2% were smokers. The main social activity was visiting family members.

  6. Autonomic and prefrontal cortex responses to autobiographical recall of emotions.

    PubMed

    Marci, Carl D; Glick, Debra M; Loh, Rebecca; Dougherty, Darin D

    2007-09-01

    The present study combined measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) with measures of the autonomic nervous system using skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the high frequency band of heart rate variability (HRV) in ten healthy participants who were exposed to autobiographical scripts of memories for three target emotions: anger, happiness, and sadness. According to the results, anger was the only emotion to show a significant increase in sympathetic activity, accompanied by a significant decrease in HRV when compared with a neutral script. Anger was also the only emotion to show significant changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, the results for the happy and sad conditions showed no significant increase in sympathetic activity and no changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex in comparison with the neutral script. The findings suggest that a relative increase in sympathetic activity with a reciprocal decrease in parasympathetic activity may be necessary to generate frontal activity in autobiographical recall of emotions.

  7. Measuring Emotional Responses to Music within a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Jessica; Madsen, Clifford K.

    2008-01-01

    Investigating the emotional impact of music listening has a long history. Indeed, reactions to subtle as well as obvious changes in music, whether inadvertent or deliberate, occupy a good deal of interest for the music researcher as well as the music educator. Regardless of the extremely subtle acoustic changes that are perceptible within almost…

  8. Measuring Emotional Responses to Music within a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Jessica; Madsen, Clifford K.

    2008-01-01

    Investigating the emotional impact of music listening has a long history. Indeed, reactions to subtle as well as obvious changes in music, whether inadvertent or deliberate, occupy a good deal of interest for the music researcher as well as the music educator. Regardless of the extremely subtle acoustic changes that are perceptible within almost…

  9. The Role of Emotions in Reinforcement: Response Selection in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overskeid, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…

  10. The Role of Emotions in Reinforcement: Response Selection in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overskeid, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…

  11. Social and Emotional Competence: Motivating Cultural Responsive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    In spite of legislation to eliminate discrimination, attitudes are more difficult to change than behavior. Noting that schools have followed the letter of the law and enforced integration but may have fallen short of adhering to the spirit of the law, this paper explores methods for teaching social and emotional competence within a culturally…

  12. Attention and emotion influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response

    PubMed Central

    Hutcherson, C. A.; Goldin, P. R.; Ramel, W.; McRae, K.

    2008-01-01

    Extraversion has been shown to positively correlate with activation within the ventral striatum, amygdala and other dopaminergically innervated, reward-sensitive regions. These regions are implicated in emotional responding, in a manner sensitive to attentional focus. However, no study has investigated the interaction among extraversion, emotion and attention. We used fMRI and dynamic, evocative film clips to elicit amusement and sadness in a sample of 28 women. Participants were instructed either to respond naturally (n = 14) or to attend to and continuously rate their emotions (n = 14) while watching the films. Contrary to expectations, striatal response was negatively associated with extraversion during amusement, regardless of attention. A negative association was also observed during sad films, but only when attending to emotion. These findings suggest that attentional focus does not influence the relationship between extraversion and neural response to positive (amusing) stimuli but does impact the response to negative (sad) stimuli. PMID:19015097

  13. Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Poppe, Christine; Luhmann, Maike; Wupperman, Peggilee; Jaggi, Verena; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify mechanisms underlying the association between emotion regulation and psychopathology, we tested whether the ability to modify negative emotions mediates the associations of other emotion-regulation skills with psychopathological symptoms in two studies. The first study included 151 college students; the second included 121 psychiatric inpatients. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were utilized to assess associations between self-reports of emotion-regulation skills and psychopathology, as well as potential mediation effects. In both samples, the ability to modify emotions completely mediated the association between symptoms and skills for most skills, but not for the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions. Major limitations include the use of a cross-sectional design as well as exclusive use of self-report data. The ability to modify negative emotions may be the common pathway by which many emotion-regulation skills exert their influence on mental health; however, the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions may be beneficial to mental health regardless of whether or not it facilitates modification of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients with Parkinson's disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Daniel; Svärd, Joakim; Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa; Fischer, Håkan; Svenningsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  16. Brain activity of adolescents with high functioning autism in response to emotional words and facial emoticons.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Kim, Bung Nyun; McMahon, William; Renshaw, Perry F

    2014-01-01

    Studies of social dysfunction in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generally focused on the perception of emotional words and facial affect. Brain imaging studies have suggested that the fusiform gyrus is associated with both the comprehension of language and face recognition. We hypothesized that patients with ASD would have decreased ability to recognize affect via emotional words and facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. In addition, we expected that this decreased ability would be associated with altered activity of the fusiform gyrus in patients with ASD. Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words) were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces) were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion.

  17. Emotional intelligence correlates with functional responses to dynamic changes in facial trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Webb, Christian A; DelDonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Rauch, Scott L; Weber, Mareen

    2013-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a constellation of traits, competencies, or abilities that allow individuals to understand emotional information and successfully navigate and solve social/emotional problems. While little is known about the neurobiological substrates that underlie EI, some evidence suggests that these capacities may involve a core neurocircuitry involved in emotional decision-making that includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and amygdala. In a sample of 39 healthy volunteers (22 men; 17 women), scores on the Bar-On EQ-i (a trait/mixed model of EI) and Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; an ability model of EI) were correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during brief presentations of moving facial expressions that changed in the level of perceived trustworthiness. Core emotion neurocircuitry was responsive to dynamic changes in facial features, regardless of whether they reflected increases or decreases in apparent trustworthiness. In response to facial movements indicating decreasing trustworthiness, MSCEIT correlated positively with functional responses of the vmPFC and rostral ACC, whereas the EQ-i was unrelated to regional activation. Systematic differences in EI ability appear to be significantly related to the responsiveness of the vmPFC and rostral ACC to facial movements suggesting potential trustworthiness.

  18. Emotion regulation reduces loss aversion and decreases amygdala responses to losses

    PubMed Central

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Camerer, Colin F.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion regulation strategies can alter behavioral and physiological responses to emotional stimuli and the neural correlates of those responses in regions such as the amygdala or striatum. The current study investigates the brain systems engaged when using an emotion regulation technique during financial decisions. In decision making, regulating emotion with reappraisal-focused strategies that encourage taking a different perspective has been shown to reduce loss aversion as observed both in choices and in the relative arousal responses to actual loss and gain outcomes. In the current study, we find using fMRI that behavioral loss aversion correlates with amygdala activity in response to losses relative to gains. Success in regulating loss aversion also correlates with the reduction in amygdala responses to losses but not to gains. Furthermore, across both decisions and outcomes, we find the reappraisal strategy increases baseline activity in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the striatum. The similarity of the neural circuitry observed to that seen in emotion regulation, despite divergent tasks, serves as further evidence for a role of emotion in decision making, and for the power of reappraisal to change assessments of value and thereby choices. PMID:22275168

  19. Health status, emotional/behavioral problems, health care use, and expenditures in overweight/obese US children/adolescents.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association of overweight/obesity with health, health care utilization, and expenditures in a national sample of 10- to 17-year-old children and adolescents. Secondary analysis of 2005 to 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (n = 17,224). Outcome measures included suboptimal health, emotional/behavioral problems, health care utilization, and expenditures. Overweight and obese children and adolescents had greater risk of suboptimal health (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 1.4 and 1.7; P < .01), use of prescriptions (ARR, both 1.1; P = .01), and emergency department visits (ARR, 1.2 and 1.1; P = .01); overweight children/adolescents had lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures (∼$100, P < .01); and obese children/adolescents had greater risk of emotional/behavioral problems (ARR, 1.2; P < .01) and specialist visits (ARR, 1.1; P = .01). The most common specialty referral among obese children/adolescents was psychiatry. Overweight and obesity were not associated with office visits or total expenditures. A greater proportions of children and adolescents with suboptimal health and emotional/behavioral problems had health care expenditures, and those with suboptimal health were more likely to have out-of-pocket expenditures. Pediatric overweight and obesity affect child and adolescent health status, emotional/behavioral problems, and specific domains of health care utilization, but do not appear to be associated with total health care expenditures. Out-of-pocket expenditures are lower among overweight children and adolescents. These findings highlight the need for early intervention in overweight children/adolescents, when health care expenditures may not be greater, and suggest that it may prove useful to pay special attention to the health status and emotional/behavioral problems of overweight and obese children/adolescents in weight-management interventions. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural responses to emotional faces in women recovered from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Harmer, Catherine J; Park, Rebecca J; McCabe, Ciara

    2012-03-31

    Impairments in emotional processing have been associated with anorexia nervosa. However, it is unknown whether neural and behavioural differences in the processing of emotional stimuli persist following recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural processing of emotional faces in individuals recovered from anorexia nervosa compared with healthy controls. Thirty-two participants (16 recovered anorexia nervosa, 16 healthy controls) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Participants viewed fearful and happy emotional faces and indicated the gender of the face presented. Whole brain analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups to the contrasts of fear versus happy and vice versa. Region of interest analysis demonstrated no significant differences in the neural response to happy or fearful stimuli between the groups in the amygdala or fusiform gyrus. These results suggest that processing of emotional faces may not be aberrant after recovery from anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Rentz, Dorene M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over-75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socioeconomic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men's narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30-47 (Vaillant & Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75-85) men completed a performance-based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression 3 to 4 decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and emotional health. In addition

  2. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Erikson’s (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one’s relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over 75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socio-economic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men’s narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30–47 (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75–85) men completed a performance - based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression three to four decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and

  3. The levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and measures of mental and emotional health in HCV patients treated with ledipasvir (LDV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) with or without ribavirin (RBV)

    PubMed Central

    Golabi, Pegah; Elsheikh, Elzafir; Karrar, Azza; Estep, James M.; Younossi, Issah; Stepanova, Maria; Gerber, Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mental and emotional health (MEH) impairment is commonly encountered in hepatitis C patients. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, alterations in neurotransmitter and cytokine levels maybe associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related MEH issues. The aim of the study was to assess association of serum biomarkers with self-reports of MEH in HCV patients before treatment and after achieving sustained virologic response (SVR). The HCV genotype-1-infected patients who achieved SVR at 12 weeks after treatment with ledipasvir (LDV)/sofosbuvir (SOF) ± ribavirin (RBV) were selected. Frozen serum samples from baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and posttreatment week 4 (PTW4) were used to assay 16 cytokines and monoamine neurotransmitters. Validated self-reports were used to assess MEH. Hundred patients were evaluated. Mean age was 53 years (57% male, 86% white). Compared with baseline, emotional well-being and emotional health significantly increased by EOT, and role emotional, emotional well-being, and emotional health significantly increased at PTW4 in the RBV-containing arm (P < 0.05). In patients taking LDV/SOF + RBV, serotonin levels were significantly decreased at PTW4 compared with baseline (P = 0.046). Compared with baseline, there were significant decreases in interleukin (IL)-10 levels at EOT and PTW4 in both treatment groups. The changes in IL-8 also differed significantly between LDV/SOF + RBV and LDV/SOF groups (P < 0.05). Changes in dopamine and tryptophan levels at EOT correlated with increasing emotional health scores, whereas changes in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 at EOT and IL-8 at PTW4 correlated with increasing mental health scores. The neurotransmitters and cytokines were found to be independent predictors of MEH scores in multiple regression analysis. Cytokine and neurotransmitter changes are associated with mental and emotional health. Patient-reported outcome scores change during and after treatment

  4. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  6. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES, FAMILY FUNCTIONING AND ADOLESCENT HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Alvira-Hammond, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been consistently linked in a strong and graded fashion to a host of health problems in later adulthood but few studies have examined the more proximate effect of ACE on health and emotional well-being in adolescence. Study Design Nationally representative cross-sectional study. Methods Using logistic regression on the 2011/12 National Survey of Children’s Health, we examined the cumulative effect of total ACE score on the health and emotional well-being of US adolescents ages 12 through 17. We investigated the moderating effect of family functioning on the impact of ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Results Adolescents with higher ACE scores had worse reported physical and emotional well-being than adolescents with fewer ACEs net of key demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Family functioning moderated the negative impact of cumulative ACE on adolescent health and emotional well-being. Conclusions Adolescent well-being has enduring consequences; identifying children with ACE exposure who also have lower-functioning family could also help identify those families at particular risk. PMID:26718424

  7. Cognitive representations of breast cancer, emotional distress and preventive health behaviour: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Decruyenaere, M; Evers-Kiebooms, G; Welkenhuysen, M; Denayer, L; Claes, E

    2000-01-01

    Individuals at high risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer are faced with difficult decisions regarding genetic testing, cancer prevention and/or intensive surveillance. Large interindividual differences exist in the uptake of these health-related services. This paper is aimed at understanding and predicting how people emotionally and behaviourally react to information concerning genetic predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer. For this purpose, the self-regulation model of illness representations is elaborated. This model suggests that health-related behaviour is influenced by a person's cognitive and emotional representation of the health threat. These representations generate coping behaviour aimed at resolving the objective health problems (problem-focussed coping) and at reducing the emotional distress induced by the health threat (emotion-focussed coping). Based on theoretical considerations and empirical studies, four interrelated attributes of the cognitive illness representation of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer are described: causal beliefs concerning the disease, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility to the disease and perceived controllability. The paper also addresses the complex interactions between these cognitive attributes, emotional distress and preventive health behaviour.

  8. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  9. Adolescent Mental Health: Neighborhood Stress and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedker, Karen A.; Herting, Jerald R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the role of neighborhood characteristics, specifically economic disadvantage/advantage, residential instability, and racial/ethnic heterogeneity on emotional distress (depressed affect, anxiety, hopelessness) among youth. Using a regional sample of adolescents and matching their data to census tracts, we…

  10. Emotional labor: relevant theory for occupational health practice in post-industrial America.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Arnold B; Agnew, Jacqueline; Fitzgerald, Sheila T

    2004-03-01

    The occupational experience of workers in service-oriented jobs can have profound effects on their health and well being, such as burnout, inauthenticity, and job dissatisfaction. The growing service economy and resultant proliferation of service-oriented jobs in current times and in the future must be acknowledged and investigated. The move from an economy driven by manufacturing industries to one dominated by service industries has taken place and currently prevails in the United States. In recognizing this shift in the "work" experience of the American work force, the changing nature of work related hazards must also be considered. Emotional labor has come to be known as an appreciable aspect of work involving direct interactions with clients and customers that can lead to adverse psychosocial outcomes. These relationships reveal the potential unpleasantness of service employment in which the performance of emotional labor is unavoidable. Although worker attributes can influence the emotional experience on the job, emotional labor is also likely to threaten the well being of workers through significantly high demands to express organizationally desired emotions and low control over what emotions can be felt and displayed. Recognition and investigation of emotional labor is necessary to understand its effects on worker populations. Conceptual models featuring emotional labor are available to guide research. However, discrimination among them based on utility and application in relation to identified study objectives and needs is essential.

  11. Nonauditory-system response to noise and effects on health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Continued exposure to noise in real life can be a source of physiological stress possibly capable of causing health disorders beyond that of direct damage to the auditory receptor system. Some theorists hold that some of these effects occur because of innate, reflexive responses to noise that cannot be prevented or, when suppressed, that require some effort that may itself become somewhat debilitting in time. An alternative theory is that the truly nonhabituating reflexive responses to noise are not sufficient in character to cause any ill health, and that those responses to noise that are or could be significant in this regard are not directly the result of exposure to noise but are responses to the emotional meanings conveyed by the sounds. Obviously, the degree to which noise can lead to harm to nonauditory physiological systems of the body are questions of utmost importance for the assessment of the need for noise control.

  12. An exploration of children's nursing graduates' ability to assess children's emotional health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Little, Moira Catherine

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory, qualitative study was designed to be the first stage of an action research project to investigate whether graduates from BSc children's nursing programmes are sufficiently prepared to assess children's emotional health. Early identification of children's and young people's emotional problems is important for timely interventions to be initiated. Data were gathered from a focus group and a series of semi-structured interviews and interpreted using thematic analysis approaches. The findings indicated those interviewed can recognise when a child was emotionally unwell, reporting that assessments were brief, subjective and completed without the use of age-appropriate assessment tools. It is concluded that assessment of a child's emotional health appears to take low priority in comparison to its physical counterpart.

  13. Probabilistic models of expectation violation predict psychophysiological emotional responses to live concert music.

    PubMed

    Egermann, Hauke; Pearce, Marcus T; Wiggins, Geraint A; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a study testing the often-theorized role of musical expectations in inducing listeners' emotions in a live flute concert experiment with 50 participants. Using an audience response system developed for this purpose, we measured subjective experience and peripheral psychophysiological changes continuously. To confirm the existence of the link between expectation and emotion, we used a threefold approach. (1) On the basis of an information-theoretic cognitive model, melodic pitch expectations were predicted by analyzing the musical stimuli used (six pieces of solo flute music). (2) A continuous rating scale was used by half of the audience to measure their experience of unexpectedness toward the music heard. (3) Emotional reactions were measured using a multicomponent approach: subjective feeling (valence and arousal rated continuously by the other half of the audience members), expressive behavior (facial EMG), and peripheral arousal (the latter two being measured in all 50 participants). Results confirmed the predicted relationship between high-information-content musical events, the violation of musical expectations (in corresponding ratings), and emotional reactions (psychologically and physiologically). Musical structures leading to expectation reactions were manifested in emotional reactions at different emotion component levels (increases in subjective arousal and autonomic nervous system activations). These results emphasize the role of musical structure in emotion induction, leading to a further understanding of the frequently experienced emotional effects of music.

  14. Response confidence for emotion perception in schizophrenia using a Continuous Facial Sequence Task.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Woznica, Aneta; Andreou, Christina; Köther, Ulf

    2012-12-30

    Deficits in emotion perception and overconfidence in errors are well-documented in schizophrenia but have not been examined concurrently. The present study aimed to fill this gap. Twenty-three schizophrenia patients and twenty-nine healthy subjects underwent a Continuous Facial Sequence Task (CFST). The CFST comprised two blocks: a female (1st block) and a male protagonist (2nd block) displayed the six basic emotions postulated by Ekman as well as two more complex mental states and a neutral expression. Participants were first asked to identify the affect displayed by the performer and then to judge their response confidence. No group differences emerged regarding overall emotion perception. Follow-up analyses showed that patients were less correct in detecting some negative emotions but performed better for neutral or positive emotions. Regarding confidence, incorrect decisions in patients were associated with higher confidence than in controls (statistical trend level, moderate effect size). Patients displayed significant overconfidence in errors for negative emotions. In addition, patients were more prone to high-confident errors for emotions that were displayed in weak emotional intensity. While the study supports the view that the examination of confidence adds unique information to our understanding of social cognition, several methodological limitations render its findings preliminary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural differences in the dialectical and non-dialectical emotional styles and their implications for health.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural studies have repeatedly demonstrated that East Asians are more likely to show a dialectical emotional style than Americans, but do not distinguish between specific types of dialectical emotional styles. Using an age diverse sample, we found that compared to Americans, Japanese are more likely to experience both positive and negative emotions moderately frequently (i.e., moderate dialectical), but are no more likely to experience them frequently (i.e., high dialectical). Thus, dialectical emotions prevalent in East Asia may be characterised by a "middle way" rather than by emotional extremes. Furthermore, we explored whether dialectical emotion types are associated with better health profiles depending on cultural background. Our results show that the moderate dialectical type is associated with fewer physical symptoms in Japan than in the USA. Together, these findings show the cultural differences in the experience of balanced positive and negative emotions and their health correlates. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  16. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  17. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-04-07

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  18. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response. PMID:28387335

  19. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  20. Like mother, like daughter? An examination of the emotive responses to food.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah; Katsikitis, Mary; Mulgrew, Kate

    2015-06-01

    The modelling of sub-clinical eating disorders and emotive responses to food between mothers and their early adolescent daughters was investigated. Twenty dyads viewed images of food and rated their levels of happiness, fear and disgust. Results suggest similarities between mothers' and daughters' emotive responses, but the exact nature of this relationship differed across food type and response type. Disordered eating was only related to responses to the low-calorie foods. Furthermore, mother's eating disorders symptoms were related to concerns about shape and weight in the daughters (all ps < .05). These results suggest a transmission of emotive responses to food within the dyad which may inform family-based intervention efforts in the prevention of eating disorders in young women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Belief, emotion, and health: toward an integrative account. Commentary on John Cromby's 'beyond belief'.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Louise

    2012-10-01

    This commentary identifies in Cromby's formulation of belief the potentials for developing three innovative approaches to belief systems: emotion as meaning, cognition as dialogue, and an aesthetic model of meaning making based on Susanne Langer's integrative approach to feeling and form. It is argued that the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce can help to weave these threads into an integrative theory to shed some light on the connection between belief, emotion, and health.

  2. Changes in emotional empathy, affective responsivity, and behavior following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Arielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between deficits in empathy, emotional responsivity, and social behavior in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 21 patients with severe TBI and 25 control participants viewed six film clips containing pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral content whilst facial muscle responses, skin conductance, and valence and arousal ratings were measured. Emotional empathy (the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale, BEES: self-report) and changes in drive and control in social situations (The Current Behaviour Scale, CBS: relative report) were also assessed. In comparison to control participants, those in the TBI group reported less ability to empathize emotionally and had reduced facial responding to both pleasant and unpleasant films. They also exhibited lowered autonomic arousal, as well as abnormal ratings of valence and arousal, particularly to unpleasant films. Relative reported loss of emotional control was significantly associated with heightened empathy, while there was a trend to suggest that impaired drive (or motivation) may be related to lower levels of emotional empathy. The results represent the first to suggest that level of emotional empathy post traumatic brain injury may be associated with behavioral manifestations of disorders of drive and control.

  3. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heart rate response after emotional picture presentation is modulated by interoceptive awareness.

    PubMed

    Pollatos, Olga; Herbert, Beate M; Matthias, Ellen; Schandry, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The perception of visceral signals plays a crucial role in many theories of emotions. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between interoceptive awareness, emotional experience and heart rate responses in an emotional stimulation paradigm. Based on their performance in a heartbeat perception task 38 participants (16 males, 22 females) were classified as subjects with either high (n=19; 8 males) or low interoceptive awareness (n=19; 8 males). 120 pictures (40 pleasant, 40 unpleasant, 40 neutral slides) from the International Affective Picture System served as emotional stimuli. Heart rate changes were recorded during baseline and during slide presentation. After each slide, the subjects had to rate emotional valence and arousal on a 9-point self-report scale. Statistical analyses revealed significantly stronger heart rate responses to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli in subjects with high interoceptive awareness. Furthermore, subjects with high interoceptive awareness rated pleasant and unpleasant slides as significantly more arousing; no differences were found in the emotional valence ratings. Heartbeat perception scores correlated significantly positive with both the mean arousal rating and with the mean heart rate changes. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between the perception of cardiac signals and the peripheral processing of emotional stimuli.

  5. Multidimensional scaling of emotional responses to music in patients with temporal lobe resection.

    PubMed

    Dellacherie, D; Bigand, E; Molin, P; Baulac, M; Samson, S

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated emotional responses to music by using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis in patients with right or left medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions and matched normal controls (NC). Participants were required to evaluate emotional dissimilarities of nine musical excerpts that were selected to express graduated changes along the valence and arousal dimensions. For this purpose, they rated dissimilarity between pairs of stimuli on an eight-point scale and the resulting matrices were submitted to an MDS analysis. The results showed that patients did not differ from NC participants in evaluating emotional feelings induced by the musical excerpts, suggesting that all participants were able to distinguish refined emotions. We concluded that the ability to detect and use emotional valence and arousal when making dissimilarity judgments was not strongly impaired by a right or left MTL lesion. This finding has important clinical implications and is discussed in light of current neuropsychological studies on emotion. It suggests that emotional responses to music can be at least partially preserved at a non-verbal level in patients with unilateral temporal lobe damage including the amygdala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumer Perceptions About Pilot Training: An Emotional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Timothy G.

    Civilian pilot training has followed a traditional path for several decades. With a potential pilot shortage approaching, ICAO proposed a new paradigm in pilot training methodology called the Multi-Crew Pilot License. This new methodology puts a pilot in the cockpit of an airliner with significantly less flight time experience than the traditional methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent gender, country of origin and pilot training methodology effect an aviation consumer's willingness to fly. Additionally, this study attempted to determine what emotions mediate a consumer's decision. This study surveyed participants from India and the United States to measure their willingness to fly using the Willingness to Fly Scale shown to be valid and reliable by Rice et al. (2015). The scale uses a five point Likert-type scale. In order to determine the mediating emotions, Ekman and Friesen's (1979) universal emotions, which are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics are provided for respondent's age and willingness to fly values. An ANOVA was conducted to test the first four hypotheses and Hayes (2004, 2008) bootstrapping process was used for the mediation analysis. Results indicated a significant main effect for training, F(1,972) = 227.76, p . .001, etap 2 = 0.190, country of origin, F(1, 972) = 28.86, p < .001, .p 2 = 0.029, and a two-way interaction was indicated between training and country of origin, F(7, 972) = 46.71, p < .001, etap 2 = 0.252. Mediation analysis indicated the emotions anger, fear, happiness, and surprise mediated the relationship between training and country of origin, and training. The findings of this study are important to designers of MPL training programs and airline marketers.

  7. Physical and Emotional Health Care Needs of Indochinese Refugees: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Court

    The purpose of this report is to identify the physical and emotional health needs of the Indochinese refugees; to describe the efforts being made to respond to these needs both in the United States and overseas; to discuss the complications that still exist in the physical and mental health care delivery systems for refugees; and to assess…

  8. Mental Health Needs in Schools for Emotional, Behavioural and Social Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Latha; Theodosiou, Louise; Bond, Caroline; Blackburn, Claire; Spicer, Freya; Lever, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Within the UK, around 10% of children have mental health problems, but this is likely to be higher among certain specific populations. Children and young people attending provisions for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) are a particularly vulnerable group whose mental health needs are under-researched. The authors, Latha…

  9. Emotional Health of Canadian and Finnish Students with Disabilities or Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, William F.; Davies, Diane; Raman, Sudha R.; Tynjala, Jorma; Valimaa, Raili; King, Matt; Gallupe, Owen; Kannas, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensions of emotional health in two population-based groups (Finland and Canada) of adolescents (ages 13 and 15 years) who self-identify as having a disability or chronic condition, as conceptualized by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Data from the 2002…

  10. Physical and Emotional Health Care Needs of Indochinese Refugees: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Court

    The purpose of this report is to identify the physical and emotional health needs of the Indochinese refugees; to describe the efforts being made to respond to these needs both in the United States and overseas; to discuss the complications that still exist in the physical and mental health care delivery systems for refugees; and to assess…

  11. Emotional Health of Canadian and Finnish Students with Disabilities or Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, William F.; Davies, Diane; Raman, Sudha R.; Tynjala, Jorma; Valimaa, Raili; King, Matt; Gallupe, Owen; Kannas, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensions of emotional health in two population-based groups (Finland and Canada) of adolescents (ages 13 and 15 years) who self-identify as having a disability or chronic condition, as conceptualized by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Data from the 2002…

  12. Investigating the emotional response to room acoustics: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M S; Vigeant, M C

    2015-10-01

    While previous research has demonstrated the powerful influence of pleasant and unpleasant music on emotions, the present study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the positive and negative emotional responses as demonstrated in the brain when listening to music convolved with varying room acoustic conditions. During fMRI scans, subjects rated auralizations created in a simulated concert hall with varying reverberation times. The analysis detected activations in the dorsal striatum, a region associated with anticipation of reward, for two individuals for the highest rated stimulus, though no activations were found for regions associated with negative emotions in any subject.

  13. Analysis of single-unit responses to emotional scenes in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hiroto; Adolphs, Ralph; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kovach, Christopher; Damasio, Hanna; Kaufman, Olaf; Howard, Matthew

    2005-10-01

    Lesion and functional imaging studies in humans have shown that the ventral and medial prefrontal cortex is critically involved in the processing of emotional stimuli, but both of these methods have limited spatiotemporal resolution. Conversely, neurophysiological studies of emotion in nonhuman primates typically rely on stimuli that do not require elaborate cognitive processing. To begin bridging this gap, we recorded from a total of 267 neurons in the left and right orbital and anterior cingulate cortices of four patients who had chronically implanted depth electrodes for monitoring epilepsy. Peristimulus activity was recorded to standardized, complex visual scenes depicting neutral, pleasant, or aversive content. Recording locations were verified with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Using a conservative, multistep statistical evaluation, we found significant responses in 56 neurons; 16 of these were selective for only one emotion class, most often aversive. The findings suggest sparse and widely distributed processing of emotional value in the prefrontal cortex, with a predominance of responses to aversive stimuli.

  14. Online detection of an emotional response of a horse during physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jansen, F; Van der Krogt, J; Van Loon, K; Avezzù, V; Guarino, M; Quanten, S; Berckmans, D

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method to detect an emotional response of a horse to novelty during physical activity. Two horses performed 20 trials each, in which the horse's heart rate (HR) and physical activity were continuously measured. The relationship between the horse's physical activity and HR was described by a mathematical model allowing online decomposition of the horse's HR into a physical component and a component containing information about its emotional state. Exposure to the novel object resulted in an increase in the emotional component of HR, which allowed automatic detection of an emotional response of the horse in 33/40 trials. In the remaining seven trials no stable model could be built or data were missing. The results show that model-based decomposition of HR can be a useful tool for quantification of certain aspects of temperament.

  15. Emotional wellbeing and mental health: an exploration into health promotion in young people and families.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Gillian E; Long, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Promoting mental health and emotional wellbeing (EWB) in children and young people (YP) is vitally important for their psycho-social development. Critical review of the literature reveals a dearth of research that has explored the perspective of the child, adolescent or adult in this concept, with much research being intervention focused and promoted at crisis level. The current study aims to address this gap in understanding of young persons' and parents' perspectives. A small-scale, exploratory qualitative study was conducted with YP, and parents of YP aimed at exploring the meaning of EWB and how it could be promoted. Data were collected via focus groups with 15 YP (aged 18-24 years) and 15 interviews with parents of a different group of YP. Study participants identified key constructs for good EWB as stability, coping ability, happiness, confidence, balance, empathy and being grounded. Feeling comfortable with self, managing and controlling emotions and having the confidence to persevere with challenges were all felt to contribute to a positive sense of EWB. Sources of support were overwhelmingly cited as family and friends, with schools identified as a potentially good environment for supporting and promoting the EWB of pupils. Participants stressed the need for a positive attitude change towards YP, advocating this as promoting a sense of belonging and community citizenship. A lay-informed 'recipe' for successful EWB promotion is drawn out, centred on the core goal of raising awareness and understanding of YP's EWB, in the YP themselves, their parents, schools and the wider community. This research provides key messages for society, policy makers, education and public health and healthcare practitioners for integration into the delivery of services for YP and families that include education on supporting EWB, activities for YP and a multi-agency approach to supporting families within the community. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  16. The Design and Development of Staff Wellbeing Initiatives: Staff Stressors, Burnout and Emotional Exhaustion at Children and Young People's Mental Health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Coates, Dominiek D; Howe, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Mental health work presents problems for staff over and above those encountered in other organisations, including other areas of healthcare. Healthcare workers, in particular mental health workers, have poorer job satisfaction and higher job burnout and turnover compared with established norms for other occupational groups. To make sense of why healthcare workers experience high levels of burnout, a strong body of literature points to the emotionally demanding nature of people-work. The negative effects of mental health work on employee health can be mitigated by the provision of appropriate job resources and wellbeing initiatives. As to develop initiatives that appropriately target staff sources of stress and needs, it is important to engage staff in this process. As such, Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH) and headspace Gosford, in Australia, New South Wales (NSW), developed a survey to identify how staff experience and manage the emotional demands of mental health work, what they identify as key stressors and which initiatives they would like to see implemented. Fifty-five staff (response rate of 73 %) completed the survey, and the results suggest that while staff find the work emotionally demanding, they do not appear to be emotionally exhausted and report administrative rather than client issues as their primary concerns. While a strong body of literature identifies the management of emotions in the workplace as a significant cause of stress, organisational stressors such as working in a bureaucratic environment are also important to understanding staff wellbeing.

  17. Is Social Anhedonia related to Emotional Responsivity and Expressivity? A laboratory study in Women

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Winnie W.; Couture, Shannon M.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Lin, Stephanie; Llerena, Katiah

    2010-01-01

    Social anhedonia is an important feature of schizophrenia and it is a promising indicator of schizotypy. Although social anhedonia is defined as an affective construct (less pleasure derived from social encounters), little is known about the emotional responsivity and expressivity of individuals with high levels of social anhedonia. After screening a large sample of female undergraduate students (N = 1 085), a cohort of psychometrically identified individuals with high levels of social anhedonia (n = 34) and normally hedonic controls (n = 45) participated in laboratory assessments involving trait affectivity, self-reported dispositional emotional expressiveness, and the expression and experience of emotion in response to neutral, nonaffiliative (i.e., comedy) and affiliative film clips. Results revealed that individuals with high levels of social anhedonia are characterized by lower positive affect, both as a trait and in response to emotionally evocative stimuli, and are less facially expressive, both by their own self-report and in response to film clips. Attenuated positive affect was observed across film stimuli, indicating a general reduction in affective response rather than a specific decrease in responsivity for affiliative stimuli. Future work should continue to investigate whether there is a unique role for social stimuli in the emotional lives of individuals with high levels of social anhedonia or whether these individuals tend to experience anhedonia more broadly regardless of social context. PMID:20620020

  18. Promotion of Social and Emotional Competence: Experiences from a Mental Health Intervention Applying a Whole School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Line; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools "Up" is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of…

  19. Promotion of Social and Emotional Competence: Experiences from a Mental Health Intervention Applying a Whole School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Line; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Nelausen, Malene Kubstrup; Koushede, Vibeke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of Health Promoting Schools "Up" is an intervention using a whole school approach aimed at promoting mental health by strengthening social and emotional competence among schoolchildren. Social and emotional competence is an integral part of many school-based mental health interventions but only a minority of…

  20. How positive emotions build physical health: perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Kok, Bethany E; Coffey, Kimberly A; Cohn, Michael A; Catalino, Lahnna I; Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Algoe, Sara B; Brantley, Mary; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between positive emotions and physical health remain a mystery. We hypothesize that an upward-spiral dynamic continually reinforces the tie between positive emotions and physical health and that this spiral is mediated by people's perceptions of their positive social connections. We tested this overarching hypothesis in a longitudinal field experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that self-generated positive emotions via loving-kindness meditation or to a waiting-list control group. Participants in the intervention group increased in positive emotions relative to those in the control group, an effect moderated by baseline vagal tone, a proxy index of physical health. Increased positive emotions, in turn, produced increases in vagal tone, an effect mediated by increased perceptions of social connections. This experimental evidence identifies one mechanism-perceptions of social connections-through which positive emotions build physical health, indexed as vagal tone. Results suggest that positive emotions, positive social connections, and physical health influence one another in a self-sustaining upward-spiral dynamic.

  1. How Does Emotional Context Modulate Response Inhibition in Alexithymia: Electrophysiological Evidence from an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fengqiong; Cao, Zhaolun; Zhu, Chunyan; Cai, Zhu; Hu, Panpan; Pu, Hui; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, is highly indicative of a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have also discovered the response inhibition ability impairment in alexithymia. However, few studies on alexithymic individuals have specifically examined how emotional context modulates response inhibition procedure. In order to investigate emotion cognition interaction in alexithymia, we analyzed the spatiao-temporal features of such emotional response inhibition by the approaches of event-related potentials and neural source-localization. Method The study participants included 15 subjects with high alexithymia scores on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (alexithymic group) and 15 matched subjects with low alexithymia scores (control group). Subjects were instructed to perform a modified emotional Go/Nogo task while their continuous electroencephalography activities were synchronously recorded. The task includes 3 categories of emotional contexts (positive, negative and neutral) and 2 letters (“M” and “W”) centered in the screen. Participants were told to complete go and nogo actions based on the letters. We tested the influence of alexithymia in this emotional Go/Nogo task both in behavioral level and related neural activities of N2 and P3 ERP components. Results We found that negatively valenced context elicited larger central P3 amplitudes of the Nogo–Go difference wave in the alexithymic group than in the control group. Furthermore, source-localization analyses implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as the neural generator of the Nogo-P3. Conclusion These findings suggest that difficulties in identifying feelings, particularly in negative emotions, is a major feature of alexithymia, and the ACC plays a critical role in emotion-modulated response inhibition related to alexithymia. PMID:23227242

  2. Physiological and psychological responses to expressions of emotion and empathy in post-stress communication.

    PubMed

    Ono, Makiko; Fujita, Mizuho; Yamada, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of communicating during and after expressing emotions and receiving empathy after exposure to stress were investigated for 18 female students (9 pairs). After mental and physical tasks, a subject spoke to a listener about the stress task. In Experiment 1, responses to speaking about negative emotions aroused by the task (the "with emotion" condition) were compared to speaking about only objective facts about the task (the control). In Experiment 2, responses to empathetic reactions from the listener (the "with empathy" condition) were compared to no reaction (the control). Electroencephalograms were recorded, and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated from electrocardiogram data. Subjective stress was estimated by a visual analog scale. Experiment 1 demonstrated that expressing emotions activated the left temporal region (T3) in the "with emotion" condition. In Experiment 2, physiological responses depended on cognition of different elements of empathy. During communication, feeling that the listener had the same emotion decreased the subject's T3 activity and sympathetic activity balance indicated by HRV. After communication, feeling that the listener understood her emotions decreased bilateral frontal and temporal activity. On the other hand, subjective stress did not differ between conditions in both experiments. These findings indicate that the comfort of having shared a message reduced physiological activity, especially in the "with empathy" condition. Conversely, even in the "with empathy" condition, not sharing a message can result in more discomfort or stress than the control. Sharing might be associated with cognition of the degree of success of communication, which reflected in the physiological responses. In communication, therefore, expressing emotions and receiving empathy did not in themselves reduce stress, and the level of cognition of having shared a message is a key factor in reducing stress.

  3. Reducing the Meta-Emotional Problem Decreases Physiological Fear Response during Exposure in Phobics

    PubMed Central

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem). PMID:27504102

  4. Reducing the Meta-Emotional Problem Decreases Physiological Fear Response during Exposure in Phobics.

    PubMed

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem).

  5. Child-care chaos and teachers' responsiveness: The indirect associations through teachers' emotion regulation and coping.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education.

  6. Infant Pupil Diameter Changes in Response to Others' Positive and Negative Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age. PMID:22110605

  7. The protective effect of emotional vitality on adverse health outcomes in disabled older women.

    PubMed

    Penninx, B W; Guralnik, J M; Bandeen-Roche, K; Kasper, J D; Simonsick, E M; Ferrucci, L; Fried, L P

    2000-11-01

    Although the adverse physical health consequences of negative emotions have been studied extensively, much less is known about the potential impact of positive emotions. This study examines whether emotional vitality protects against progression of disability and mortality in disabled older women. A community-based study, The Women's Health and Aging Study. A total of 1002 moderately to severely disabled women aged 65 years and older living in the community. Emotional vitality was defined as having a high sense of personal mastery, being happy, and having low depressive symptomatology and anxiety. The onset of new disability was determined by semiannual assessments of disability in performing activities of daily living (ADLs), walking across a room, walking 1/4 mile, and lifting/carrying 10 pounds. Mortality status was determined by proxy interviews and linkage with death certificates. Survival analyses with time to onset of specific disabilities (among those not disabled at baseline) and time to mortality were performed and adjusted for age, baseline level of difficulty, physical performance, and chronic conditions. Three hundred fifty-one of the 1002 older disabled women studied were emotionally vital. Among women without the specific disability at baseline, emotional vitality was associated with a significantly decreased risk for incident disability performing ADLs (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66-0.99), for incident disability walking one-quarter mile (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59-0.92), and for incident disability lifting/carrying 10 pounds (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.95). Emotional vitality was also associated with a lower risk of dying (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). These results were not simply caused by the absence of depression since protective health effects remained when emotionally vital women were compared with 334 women who were not emotionally vital and not depressed. Emotional vitality in older disabled women reduces the risk for subsequent new disability

  8. Emotional abuse of girls in Swaziland: prevalence, perpetrators, risk and protective factors and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Fry, Deborah; Ginindza, Choice; Wazny, Kerri; Elizalde, Aldo; Spreckelsen, Thees F; Maternowska, M Catherine; Dunne, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research on emotional child abuse in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Few studies thus far have examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for emotional child abuse or the associations between emotional abuse and girls' health. A nationally representative two-stage, cluster-sampled, household survey of females aged 13-24 years (n = 1244) on childhood abuse victimisation was conducted. Participants completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires. Associations between emotional abuse and putative risk, and protective factors and health outcomes were analyzed using separate logistic regression models accounting for sampling design. Marginal effects of cumulative risk factors for emotional abuse victimisation were examined. Lifetime prevalence of emotional abuse was 28.5% with 58.3% of these girls reporting many abusive incidents. The most common perpetrators were female (27.8%) and male (16.7%) relatives and, more rarely, biological parents. Risk factors associated with emotional abuse were frequent caregiver changes (odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.970, poverty (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12-2.03), and physical abuse (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71) and sexual abuse (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.10) victimisation. Being close to one's mother was a protective factor (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97). Risk for emotional abuse increased from 13% with no risk factors present to 58.4% -with all four risk factors present. Health outcomes associated with emotional child abuse were suicidal ideation (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.30-2.63) and feeling depressed (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.31-2.71). Girls in Swaziland experience high levels of emotional abuse victimisation. Emotional abuse is associated with economic disadvantage, family factors, other types of abuse victimisation and poor mental health. Therefore, a holistic approach to prevention is needed, incorporating poverty reduction and programmes to improve parent-child relationships, reduce the use of harsh criticism, and change

  9. Can functional emotion regulation protect children's mental health from war trauma? A Palestinian study.

    PubMed

    Diab, Marwan; Peltonen, Kirsi; Qouta, Samir R; Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-04-19

    Effective emotion regulation (ER) is expected to protect mental health in traumatic stress. We first analysed the protective (moderator) function of different ER strategies and the associations between ER and mental health. Second, we tested gender differences in the protective function of ER and the associations between ER strategies and mental health. Participants were 482 Palestinian children (girls 49.4%; 10-13 years, M = 11.29, SD = .68) whose ER was assessed by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and mental health by post-traumatic stress (Children's Impact Event Scale), depressive, and psychological distress (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) symptoms, and by psychosocial well-being (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form). War trauma involved 42 events. Results showed, first, that none of the ER strategies could protect a child's mental health from negative impact of war trauma, but self-focused ER was associated with low depressive symptoms, and other-facilitated ER with high psychological well-being. However, controlling of emotions formed a comprehensive risk for children's mental health. Second, gender differences were found in the protective role of ER, as self-focused and distractive ER formed a vulnerability among boys. The results are discussed in the context of emotional and regulative demands of war and life-threat. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10) employed a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions, and DVD analysis of sessions. Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of 'joy', 'emotional synchronicity' and 'initiation of engagement' behaviours in the children than toy play sessions. In response to the therapist's interpersonal demands, 'compliant (positive) responses' were observed more in music therapy than in toy play sessions, and 'no responses' were twice as frequent in toy play sessions as in music therapy. The results of this exploratory study found significant evidence supporting the value of music therapy in promoting social, emotional and motivational development in children with autism.

  11. Emotional response in patients with frontal brain damage: effects of affective valence and information content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Navarro, J P; Martínez-Selva, J M; Román, F

    2005-02-01

    The authors investigated the role of the frontal lobes in the emotional response in 19 patients with brain damage and 23 control subjects. They studied the modulation of the startle blink reflex by affective pictures, and other autonomic responses. Patients showed a dissociation between the startle reflex and the affective valence ratings of the pictures, as a result of a low inhibition of the startle reflex by pleasant pictures. Pictures elicited lower skin conductance responses (SCRs) in patients than in controls, whereas the groups did not differ in the SCRs prompted by less significant acoustic stimuli. The findings point to the frontal lobe as a structure involved in the emotional response and in the physiological emotional arousal related to the complexity of the stimuli. Copyright 2005 APA.

  12. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks

    PubMed Central

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D.; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern’s mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol’s causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies. PMID:26491487

  13. Referral for management of emotional health issues during the perinatal period: does mental health assessment make a difference?

    PubMed

    Reilly, Nicole; Harris, Sheree; Loxton, Deborah; Chojenta, Catherine; Forder, Peta; Milgrom, Jeannette; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2013-12-01

    There exists little evidence that routine assessment of current or past mental health in the perinatal period positively impacts on rates of referral for emotional health issues. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this early intervention approach on reported referrals for emotional health issues during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. A subsample of women (N = 1,804) drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health participated in the study. Multivariate analyses showed that predictors of being given a referral for emotional health issues during pregnancy and the postnatal period, respectively, included assessment of past mental health (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.40, p < 0.001, and AOR = 5.69, p < 0.001), assessment of current mental health (AOR = 2.47, p < 0.001, and AOR = 2.72, p < 0.001), and reported experience of significant emotional distress (AOR = 2.58, p < 0.001, and AOR = 2.83, p < 0.001). The odds of receiving a referral were up to 16 times greater for women who were asked about both their past and current mental health than for women who did not receive any form of mental health assessment. This study highlights that enquiry into risk factors such as past history (in addition to current mental health) enhances initiation of referrals. Importantly, results suggest that enquiry about current mental health is associated with appropriate rates of referral rather than a nonspecific inflation of referrals. In line with Australia's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Perinatal Mental Health, the value of a comprehensive approach to mental health assessment to aid decision making around referral for further assessment or care is particularly evident. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  15. Using the Nominal Response Model to Evaluate Response Category Discrimination in the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kathleen; Reise, Steven; Cai, Li; Hays, Ron D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a nominal response item response theory model to estimate category boundary discrimination (CBD) parameters for items drawn from the Emotional Distress item pools (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger) developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systems (PROMIS) project. For polytomous items with ordered response…

  16. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Sestoft, Dorte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [(11)C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli and neutral faces were nogo stimuli (p = 0.05, corrected alpha = 0.0125), but not with false alarms for non-emotional stimuli (failures to inhibit geometric figures). A posthoc analysis revealed the strongest association in anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.006). In summary, 5-HT1BRs in the anterior cingulate are involved in withholding a prepotent response in the context of angry faces. Our findings suggest that serotonin modulates response inhibition in the context of certain emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368-382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual arousal. Erection concern thoughts in the men and failure/disengagement thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts in the women presented the most significant negative correlations with sexual arousal. Additionally, sadness and disillusion were positively related to these negative cognitions and negatively associated with sexual arousal in both sexes. On the other hand, pleasure and satisfaction were negatively associated with the above-mentioned negative cognitions and positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions are closely linked and suggest a mode typical of sexual dysfunction composed of negative automatic thoughts, depressive affect, and low subjective sexual arousal.

  18. Emotional Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Bullies: Does It Differ from Straight Bullies?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.

  19. Fear, anger, fruits, and veggies: interactive effects of emotion and message framing on health behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A; Maner, Jon K

    2011-07-01

    Message framing is a theoretically grounded health communication strategy designed to motivate action by emphasizing either the benefits of engaging in a particular behavior (gains) or the costs of failing to engage in the behavior (losses). This study investigated whether the effectiveness of a framed message depends on the emotional state of the message recipient. We examined effects of fear versus anger, emotions that frequently occur within the context of health decision-making. Undergraduate students (N = 133) were randomly assigned to complete a fear or anger induction task after which they read a gain- or loss-framed pamphlet promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable intake (servings per day) subsequently was assessed over the following 2 weeks. As predicted, a significant frame by emotion interaction was observed, such that participants in the fear condition reported eating more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a loss-framed message than to a gain-framed message. In contrast, participants in the anger condition reported eating (marginally) more servings of fruits and vegetables after exposure to a gain-framed message than to a loss-framed message. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake from baseline to follow-up were observed when the message frame was matched to the participant's emotional state. The effectiveness of framed health communications depends on the message recipient's current emotional state. Affective factors that are incidental to the behavior recommended in a health communication can affect the relative success of gain- and loss-framed appeals.

  20. Associations of abdominal fat with perceived racism and passive emotional responses to racism in African American women.

    PubMed

    Vines, Anissa I; Baird, Donna Day; Stevens, June; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Light, Kathleen C; McNeilly, Maya

    2007-03-01

    An excess in abdominal fat may predispose African American women to chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Because stress may increase body fat in the center-body region, we used the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) to examine associations between excess abdominal fat and perceived racism (a chronic stressor) and daily stress. Passive emotional responses to perceived racism, hypothesized to have particularly adverse effects, were also examined. We controlled for body mass index in multiple logistic regression models among 447 African American women who completed a telephone interview on perceived racism. Passive emotional responses were not related to WHR (odds ratio [OR]=1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.8, 2.4). High perceived racism was associated with a low WHR in this population (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8). However, high daily stress was related to a high WHR (OR=2.7; 95% CI=1.1, 6.7). Findings support an association between daily stress and WHR but do not support our hypothesis that passive emotional responses to perceived racism increase abdominal fat. Further study of the stress physiology of perceived racism in African American women is warranted.

  1. Changes in Health Perceptions after Exposure to Human Suffering: Using Discrete Emotions to Understand Underlying Processes

    PubMed Central

    Paschali, Antonia A.; Mitsopoulou, Efi; Tsaggarakis, Valentinos; Karademas, Evangelos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality), as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. Methodology/Findings An experimental group (N = 47) was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47) was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. Conclusion These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being. PMID:22558242

  2. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  3. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  4. The Role of Emotional Responses and Physiological Reactivity in the Marital Conflict-Child Functioning Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…

  5. Effects of Student Response Systems on Participation and Learning of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Erika

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a student response system (SRS) on the participation, classroom behavior, and academic achievement of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The purpose of this research was to determine if using an SRS, in place of typical classroom methods of student response, would generate increases in…

  6. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of…

  7. Analysis of physiological responses associated with emotional changes induced by viewing video images of dental treatments.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Taki; Miwa, Zenzo; Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2015-03-30

    Since the understanding of emotional changes induced by dental treatments is important for dentists to provide a safe and comfortable dental treatment, we analyzed physiological responses during watching video images of dental treatments to search for the appropriate objective indices reflecting emotional changes. Fifteen healthy young adult subjects voluntarily participated in the present study. Electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and corrugator muscle electromyogram (EMG) were recorded and changes of them by viewing videos of dental treatments were analyzed. The subjective discomfort level was acquired by Visual Analog Scale method. Analyses of autonomic nervous activities from ECG and four emotional factors (anger/stress, joy/satisfaction, sadness/depression and relaxation) from EEG demonstrated that increases in sympathetic nervous activity reflecting stress increase and decreases in relaxation level were induced by the videos of infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation, but not intraoral examination. The corrugator muscle activity was increased by all three images regardless of video contents. The subjective discomfort during watching infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation was higher than intraoral examination, showing that sympathetic activities and relaxation factor of emotion changed in a manner consistent with subjective emotional changes. These results suggest that measurement of autonomic nervous activities estimated from ECG and emotional factors analyzed from EEG is useful for objective evaluation of subjective emotion.

  8. Event-related brain responses to emotional words, pictures, and faces - a cross-domain comparison.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2014-01-01

    Emotion effects in event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously been reported for a range of visual stimuli, including emotional words, pictures, and facial expressions. Still, little is known about the actual comparability of emotion effects across these stimulus classes. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating emotion effects in response to words, pictures, and facial expressions using a blocked within-subject design. Furthermore, ratings of stimulus arousal and valence were collected from an independent sample of participants. Modulations of early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive complex (LPC) were visible for all stimulus domains, but showed clear differences, particularly in valence processing. While emotion effects were limited to positive stimuli for words, they were predominant for negative stimuli in pictures and facial expressions. These findings corroborate the notion of a positivity offset for words and a negativity bias for pictures and facial expressions, which was assumed to be caused by generally lower arousal levels of written language. Interestingly, however, these assumed differences were not confirmed by arousal ratings. Instead, words were rated as overall more positive than pictures and facial expressions. Taken together, the present results point toward systematic differences in the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli of emotional content, not only in terms of a valence bias evident in ERPs, but also concerning their emotional evaluation captured by ratings of stimulus valence and arousal.

  9. Educated but anxious: How emotional states and education levels combine to influence online health information seeking.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2017-07-01

    This study combined conceptual frameworks from health information seeking, appraisal theory of emotions, and social determinants of health literatures to examine how emotional states and education predict online health information seeking. Nationally representative data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3) were used to test the roles of education, anxiety, anger, sadness, hope, happiness, and an education by anxiety interaction in predicting online health information seeking. Results suggest that women, tablet owners, smartphone owners, the college educated, those who are sad some or all of the time, and those who are anxious most of the time were significantly more likely to seek online health information. Conversely, being angry all of the time decreased the likelihood of seeking. Furthermore, two significant interactions emerged between anxiety and education levels. Discrete psychological states and demographic factors (gender and education) individually and jointly impact information seeking tendencies.

  10. The role of Emotional Intelligence in mental health and Type D personality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Sharma, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) was developed as a way to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health as it relates to overall quality of life. This study examines the predictive nature of EI with standardized measures of mental health to create a model that can be utilized to create more effective health promotion interventions. Step-wise multiple regression was used to predict mental health (Kessler K-6 scale) and Type D personality (Denollett's Scale of Negative Affectivity and Social Inhibition) with five dimensions of EI. The results revealed that while not all of the dimensions of EI regressed significantly in each model, mood management was highly predictive of all mental health measures under investigation. Cut-off points for each scale were also helpful in interpreting the relatedness of EI to mental health.

  11. High and low emotion events influence emotional stress perceptions and are associated with salivary cortisol response changes in a consecutive stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nejtek, Vicki A

    2002-04-01

    Numerous studies over the last few decades have successfully utilized "psychological" stressors to examine stress-induced cortisol release as a function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cascade. In contrast, research examining the effect emotionally-laden stressors may have on cortisol release is scarce. Moreover, the results from the few studies that have examined subjective perceptions of emotional stress and their relationship to cortisol release are mixed. Thus, little is known about the impact an emotionally-charged stressor may have on cortisol responsivity and even less is understood about the relationship between cortisol release and perceived emotional stress. The primary goal of the present research was to investigate the effect of consecutive, emotionally stressful events on cortisol release. The secondary goal was to examine the influence perceptions about emotionally stressful events might have on cortisol responsivity. This is the first study to identify two distinct patterns of cortisol release that were significantly reversed (P=0.006) in response to high and low emotion events presented in a consecutive stress paradigm that were associated with perceptions of emotional stress.

  12. What factors are predictors of emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jonathan D; Bishop, Julie Y; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E; Baumgarten, Keith M; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, Brian G; Jones, Grant L; Ma, Benjamin C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W

    2016-11-01

    The importance of emotional and psychological factors in treatment of patients with rotator cuff disease has been recently emphasized. Our goal was to establish factors most predictive of poor emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs). In 2007, we began to prospectively collect data on patients with symptomatic, atraumatic FTRCTs. All patients completed a questionnaire collecting data on demographics, symptom characteristics, comorbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient-related outcomes (12-Item Short Form Health Survey, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index [WORC], Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. To evaluate the predictors of lower WORC emotion scores, a linear multiple regression model was fit. Baseline data for 452 patients were used for analysis. In patients with symptomatic FTRCTs, the factors most predictive of worse WORC emotion scores were higher levels of pain (interquartile range odds ratio, -18.9; 95% confidence interval, -20.2 to -11.6; P < .0001) and lower Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores (rating of percentage normal that patients perceive their shoulder to be; interquartile range odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-9.95; P = .0012). Higher education (P = .006) and unemployment status (P = .0025) were associated with higher WORC emotion scores. Education level, employment status, pain levels, and patient perception of percentage of shoulder normalcy were most predictive of emotional health in patients with FTRCTs. Structural data, such astendon tear size, were not. Those with poor emotional health may perceive their shoulder to be worse than others and experience more pain. This may allow us to better optimize patient outcomes with nonoperative and operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder

  13. Indeterminacy of definitions and criteria in mental health: case study of emotional disorders.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, George

    2013-06-01

    The concept of emotions has gone through radical transformations during the last couple of centuries. Despite these severe re-specifications of its content, the concept of emotions (and especially some such as depression or anxiety) has acquired a central role in contemporary clinical Psychology and Psychiatry. This creates an apparent paradox, utilizing more and more concepts for which no clear conceptual understanding has been obtained. This paradox creates a challenge for researchers as well as clinicians, as on a daily basis, millions of people are currently ascribed with 'having' or 'being in' emotional states, which also entails certain interventions to be applied, without much clear insight into what exactly those states might really constitute. Conceptual research in aetiological and historical transformation of theoretical accounts of emotions as well as an overview of relevant empirical research on fundamental emotions. Examining of critical respective questions such as: whether there are any universal 'typical' emotional reactions to be found in each and every known culture, indicating their intrinsic existence as being a part of the human condition; whether there are 'basic' and 'secondary' emotions; whether emotions are merely bodily events, patterns of behavioural reactions to given types of stimuli or whether they rely inevitably on their cognitive content; whether emotions are necessarily intentional (in Brentano's sense) viz. are inevitably about a real or an imaginary object or whether there can be objectless emotional states; whether emotions are in a significant sense rational or fundamentally irrational responses and so forth. Moreover, more recent experimental data advocating for one or the other response to the aforementioned fundamental questions are scrutinized. In both conceptual research (including the works of thinkers such as the highly influential contributions of Darwin, James, Cannon, Freud, Ryle and Sartre or contemporary attempts

  14. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zayas, Luis H; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2007-10-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group.

  15. Legal status, emotional well-being and subjective health status of Latino immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    Among the many stresses that undocumented Latino immigrants experience, worries about their legal status and preoccupation with disclosure and deportation can heighten the risk for emotional distress and impaired quality of health. To better document these effects, this study examined the relationship between deportation concern and emotional and physical well-being among a group of Latino immigrants in a midwestern city. One-hundred-forty-three persons were recruited through community sources. Fifty-six participants (39%) expressed concern with seeking services for fear of deportation, while 87 did not endorse this concern. Measures of emotional distress, Hispanic immigrant stress and subjective health status were administered. Results indicate that Latino immigrants with concerns about deportation are at heightened risk of experiencing negative emotional and health states (particularly anger), Hispanic immigrant stress associated with extrafamilial factors and substandard health status. Findings inform policymakers of culturally relevant stressors of undocumented Latino immigrants that help to create and perpetuate the health and mental health disparities of this group. PMID:17987916

  16. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The role of behavioral inhibition and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Asselmann, E; Wittchen, H-U; Lieb, R; Höfler, M; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2015-04-01

    The role of behavioral inhibition (BI) and parenting for an unfavorable emotional trauma response (DSM-IV criterion A2) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development is unclear. A community sample of adolescents and young adults (aged 14-24) was followed up over 10 years (N=2378). Traumatic events, criterion A2, and PTSD (according to DSM-IV-TR) were assessed using the M-CIDI. BI and parenting were assessed using the Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition and the Questionnaire of Recalled Parenting Rearing Behavior. Multiple logistic regressions adjusted for sex, age, and number of traumata were used to examine associations of BI as well as maternal and paternal overprotection, rejection, and reduced emotional warmth with (i) criterion A2 in those with trauma (N=1794) and (ii) subsequent PTSD in those with criterion A2 (N=1160). Behavioral inhibition (BI; odds ratio, OR=1.32) and paternal overprotection (OR=1.27) predicted criterion A2 in those with trauma, while only BI (OR=1.53) predicted subsequent PTSD. BI and paternal emotional warmth interacted on subsequent PTSD (OR=1.32), that is, BI only predicted PTSD in those with low paternal emotional warmth. Our findings suggest that BI and adverse parenting increase the risk of an unfavorable emotional trauma response and subsequent PTSD. Paternal emotional warmth buffers the association between BI and PTSD development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lateral prefrontal cortex activity during cognitive control of emotion predicts response to social stress in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-01-01

    LPFC dysfunction is a well-established neural impairment in schizophrenia and is associated with worse symptoms. However, how LPFC activation influences symptoms is unclear. Previous findings in healthy individuals demonstrate that lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) activation during cognitive control of emotional information predicts mood and behavior in response to interpersonal conflict, thus impairments in these processes may contribute to symptom exacerbation in schizophrenia. We investigated whether schizophrenia participants show LPFC deficits during cognitive control of emotional information, and whether these LPFC deficits prospectively predict changes in mood and symptoms following real-world interpersonal conflict. During fMRI, 23 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 24 healthy controls completed the Multi-Source Interference Task superimposed on neutral and negative pictures. Afterwards, schizophrenia participants completed a 21-day online daily-diary in which they rated the extent to which they experienced mood and schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms, as well as the occurrence and response to interpersonal conflict. Schizophrenia participants had lower dorsal LPFC activity (BA9) during cognitive control of task-irrelevant negative emotional information. Within schizophrenia participants, DLPFC activity during cognitive control of emotional information predicted changes in positive and negative mood on days following highly distressing interpersonal conflicts. Results have implications for understanding the specific role of LPFC in response to social stress in schizophrenia, and suggest that treatments targeting LPFC-mediated cognitive control of emotion could promote adaptive response to social stress in schizophrenia.

  19. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  20. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  1. Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica: a psychophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; McCabe, M P

    2001-08-01

    The relative contribution of attentional and emotional factors to the physiological and subjective sexual arousal elicited by erotic film was evaluated. Sexual arousal, attentional, and emotional responses were measured while 30 men were presented with a series of erotic film segments. Levels of physiological and subjective sexual arousal were higher when subjects became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the depicted erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. The erotic film elicited a diminished startle response to a sudden burst of white noise presented during stimulation relative to the nature film, suggesting that at a physiological level the erotic segments of film were processed as more appetitive in valence. The level of sexual arousal elicited by the erotic segments was related to the extent to which subjects were entertained by the film, even though there was considerable anxiety generated by the portrayed sexual scenarios. Sexual response was not significantly correlated with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) nor with vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). Arousal was related to state-assessed attentional and emotional variables, and physiological measures of emotional response, demonstrating the multidimensional nature of the sexual response. Future directions for comparing male sexual response patterns with female response patterns are suggested.

  2. Pain-related emotions modulate experimental pain perception and autonomic responses.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Pierre; Bao, Quoc Viet Huynh; Chrétien, Pablo

    2005-12-05

    The effect of emotions on pain perception is generally recognized but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, emotions related to pain were induced in healthy volunteers using hypnosis, during 1-min immersions of the hand in painfully hot water. In Experiment 1, hypnotic suggestions were designed to induce various positive or negative emotions. Compared to a control condition with hypnotic-relaxation, negative emotions produced robust increases in pain. In Experiment 2, induction of pain-related anger and sadness were found to increase pain. Pain increases were associated with increases in self-rated desire for relief and decreases in expectation of relief, and with increases in arousal, negative affective valence and decreases in perceived control. In Experiment 3, hypnotic suggestions specifically designed to increase and decrease the desire for relief produced increases and decreases in pain, respectively. In all three experiments, emotion-induced changes in pain were most consistently found on ratings of pain unpleasantness compared to pain intensity. Changes in pain-evoked cardiac responses (R-R interval decrease), measured in experiments 2 and 3, were consistent with changes in pain unpleasantness. Correlation and multiple regression analyses suggest that negative emotions and desire for relief influence primarily pain affect and that pain-evoked autonomic responses are strongly associated with pain affect. These results confirm the hypothesized influence of the desire for relief on pain perception, and particularly on pain affect, and support the functional relation between pain affect and autonomic nociceptive responses. This study provides further experimental confirmation that pain-related emotions influence pain perception and pain-related physiological responses.

  3. Potentiated amygdala response to repeated emotional pictures in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Erin A; Zhang, Jing; New, Antonia S; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Goldstein, Kim E; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Meyerson, David; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J; Chu, King-Wai

    2012-09-15

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an inability to regulate emotional responses. The amygdala is important in learning about the valence (goodness and badness) of stimuli and functions abnormally in BPD. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed in three groups: unmedicated BPD (n = 33) and schizotypal personality disorder (n = 28) participants and healthy control subjects (n = 32) during a task involving an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures each presented twice within their respective trial block/run. The amygdala was hand-traced on each participant's structural MRI scan and co-registered to their MRI scan. Amygdala responses were examined with a mixed-model multivariate analysis of variance. Compared with both control groups, BPD patients showed greater amygdala activation, particularly to the repeated emotional but not neutral pictures, and a prolonged return to baseline for the overall blood oxygen level-dependent response averaged across all pictures. Despite amygdala overactivation, BPD patients showed blunted self-report ratings of emotional but not neutral pictures. Fewer dissociative symptoms in both patient groups were associated with greater amygdala activation to repeated unpleasant pictures. The increased amygdala response to the repeated emotional pictures observed in BPD was not observed in schizotypal patients, suggesting diagnostic specificity. This BPD-related abnormality is consistent with the well-documented clinical feature of high sensitivity to emotional stimuli with unusually strong and long-lasting reactions. The finding of a mismatch between physiological and self-report measures of emotion reactivity in BPD patients suggests they may benefit from treatments targeting emotion recognition. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Comorbid Depressive Disorders on Subjective and Physiological Responses to Emotion in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Saren H.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Aldao, Amelia; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Fresco, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli. HRV in the GAD + UDD group changed only in response to sadness, but was otherwise unvarying between timepoints. Though preliminary, these findings suggest comorbid UDD as a potential moderator of emotional responding in GAD. PMID:27660375

  5. Impact of Comorbid Depressive Disorders on Subjective and Physiological Responses to Emotion in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Saren H; Mennin, Douglas S; Aldao, Amelia; McLaughlin, Katie A; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Fresco, David M

    2016-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and unipolar depressive disorders (UDD) have been shown to differ from each other in dimensions of affective functioning despite their high rates of comorbidity. We showed emotional film clips to a community sample (n = 170) with GAD, GAD with secondary UDD, or no diagnosis. Groups had comparable subjective responses to the clips, but the GAD group had significantly lower heart rate variability (HRV) during fear and after sadness, compared to controls. While HRV in the GAD and control groups rose in response to the sadness and happiness clips, it returned to baseline levels afterwards in the GAD group, potentially indicating lesser ability to sustain attention on emotional stimuli. HRV in the GAD + UDD group changed only in response to sadness, but was otherwise unvarying between timepoints. Though preliminary, these findings suggest comorbid UDD as a potential moderator of emotional responding in GAD.

  6. Connecting Social and Emotional Learning with Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    As knowledge of effective treatments for mental disorders has grown, so too has the field of mental health promotion and positive development. Studies completed during the last two decades have synthesized the state of mental health promotion and documented that universal mental health supports positively affect child and adolescent developmental…

  7. Age-Related Differences in Response to Music-Evoked Emotion among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, K. G.; Quintin, E. M.; South, M.

    2016-01-01

    While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older…

  8. Age-Related Differences in