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Sample records for health impact related

  1. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  2. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy. PMID:25310941

  3. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  4. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the ‘environment’ is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, ‘safety’ is often viewed by contributors as ‘health and safety’ and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. ‘Environment’ is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches. PMID:27782047

  5. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  6. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  7. Impact of Pesticide Exposure Misclassification on Estimates of Related Risks in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators (largely fanners) and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. We evaluate the impact of occupational pesticide exposure misclassification on relative risks using data from t...

  8. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  9. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  10. Orthodontic Treatment of Malocclusion and its Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Kiaee, Bita; Sanayei, Shabnam; Khosravi, Saeed; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Malocclusion, though not life-threatening, has vast impact on individual’s social interactions and self-esteem. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess whether orthodontic treatment of adolescents with malocclusion had any association with their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: The subjects for this study were recruited at a state-funded university clinic. Data were collected from 100 participants aged 17 to 21 with moderate to severe malocclusion. Experimental group comprised of 50 subjects who were in the retention phase of their orthodontic treatment and the control group comprised of 50 untreated subjects. The shortened version of the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP-14) as used to assess the subjects’ oral health-related impact. T-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used to analyze the data and p-value was set at P < 0.05. Results: In general, oral health-related quality of life of all subjects significantly improved after orthodontic treatment. (p<0.001) Subjects with moderate malocclusion showed better improvement than severe malocclusion subjects. (P<0.001) Conclusion: This study showed that oral health-related quality of life improves with the treatment of malocclusion. PMID:27386009

  11. A Life-Span, Relational, Public Health Model of Self-Regulation: Impact on Individual and Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniar, Swapnil; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors extend the ideas around the development of self-regulation and its impact on development by proposing a life-span, relational, public health model. They propose that the role of self-regulation should be understood across transitions from childhood to adulthood and through an individual and community perspective,…

  12. Public Health-Related Impacts of Climate Change inCalifornia

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsler, D.M.; Motallebi, N.; Kleeman, M.; Cayan, D.; Hayhoe,K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Miller, N.L.; Jin, J.; VanCuren, R.A.

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger issued Executive Order S-3-05 that set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for California, and directed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to report to the governor and the State legislature by January 2006 and biannually thereafter on the impacts to California of global warming, including impacts to water supply, public health, agriculture, the coastline, and forestry, and to prepare and report on mitigation and adaptation plans to combat these impacts. This report is a part of the report to the governor and legislature, and focuses on public health impacts that have been associated with climate change. Considerable evidence suggests that average ambient temperature is increasing worldwide, that temperatures will continue to increase into the future, and that global warming will result in changes to many aspects of climate, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation (McMichael and Githeko, 2001). It is expected that California will experience changes in both temperature and precipitation under current trends. Many of the changes in climate projected for California could have ramifications for public health (McMichael and Githeko, 2001), and this document summarizes the impacts judged most likely to occur in California, based on a review of available peer-reviewed scientific literature and new modeling and statistical analyses. The impacts identified as most significant to public health in California include mortality and morbidity related to temperature, air pollution, vector and water-borne diseases, and wildfires. There is considerable complexity underlying the health of a population with many contributing factors including biological, ecological, social, political, and geographical. In addition, the relationship between climate change and changes in public health is difficult to predict for the most part, although more detailed information is available on temperature-related

  13. The Relative Impacts of Disease on Health Status and Capability Wellbeing: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Coast, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of the impact of interventions for resource allocation purposes commonly focus on health status. There is, however, also concern about broader impacts on wellbeing and, increasingly, on a person's capability. This study aims to compare the impact on health status and capability of seven major health conditions, and highlight differences in treatment priorities when outcomes are measured by capability as opposed to health status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional four country survey (n = 6650) of eight population groups: seven disease groups with: arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, hearing loss, and heart disease and one health population ‘comparator’ group. Two simple self-complete questionnaires were used to measure health status (EQ-5D-5L) and capability (ICECAP-A). Individuals were classified by illness severity using condition-specific questionnaires. Effect sizes were used to estimate: (i) the difference in health status and capability for those with conditions, relative to a healthy population; and (ii) the impact of the severity of the condition on health status and capability within each disease group. Findings 5248 individuals were included in the analysis. Individuals with depression have the greatest mean reduction in both health (effect size, 1.26) and capability (1.22) compared to the healthy population. The effect sizes for capability for depression are much greater than for all other conditions, which is not the case for health. For example, the arthritis group effect size for health (1.24) is also high and similar to that of depression, whereas for the same arthritis group, the effect size for capability is much lower than that for depression (0.55). In terms of severity within disease groups, individuals categorised as 'mild' have similar capability levels to the healthy population (effect sizes <0.2, excluding depression) but lower health status than the healthy population (≥0.4). Conclusion

  14. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Deslee, Gaëtan; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Escamilla, Roger; Chanez, Pascal; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Nesme-Meyer, Pascale; Brinchault-Rabin, Graziella; Perez, Thierry; Jebrak, Gilles; Caillaud, Denis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and sputum production are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cough and sputum production and health-related quality of life in COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the French Initiatives COPD cohort and assessed cough and sputum production within the past 7 days using the cough and sputum assessment questionnaire (CASA-Q), health-related quality of life, spirometry, smoking status, dyspnea, exacerbations, anxiety and depression, and comorbidities. Results One hundred and seventy-eight stable COPD patients were included (age, 62 [56–69] years, 128 male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted) (median [Q1–Q3]). In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score) was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60). With chronic bronchitis (standard definition) instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54). Conclusion This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients.

  15. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  16. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  17. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Deslee, Gaëtan; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Escamilla, Roger; Chanez, Pascal; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Nesme-Meyer, Pascale; Brinchault-Rabin, Graziella; Perez, Thierry; Jebrak, Gilles; Caillaud, Denis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and sputum production are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cough and sputum production and health-related quality of life in COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the French Initiatives COPD cohort and assessed cough and sputum production within the past 7 days using the cough and sputum assessment questionnaire (CASA-Q), health-related quality of life, spirometry, smoking status, dyspnea, exacerbations, anxiety and depression, and comorbidities. Results One hundred and seventy-eight stable COPD patients were included (age, 62 [56–69] years, 128 male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted) (median [Q1–Q3]). In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score) was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60). With chronic bronchitis (standard definition) instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54). Conclusion This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients. PMID:27695305

  18. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  19. Impact evaluation of a Dutch community intervention to improve health-related behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Kloek, Gitte C; van Lenthe, Frank J; van Nierop, Peter W M; Koelen, Maria A; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the impact of a 2-year community intervention on health-related behaviour among adults aged 18-65 years living in deprived neighbourhoods in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The intervention is evaluated in a community intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design in a longitudinal cohort survey (n=1926 and attrition rate: 31%) using postal questionnaires. In the 2-year implementation phase, more than 40 intervention activities were planned and delivered by intersectoral neighbourhood coalitions. Outcome measures were fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and intermediate outcomes of behaviour (i.e. attitudes, self-efficacy, awareness, knowledge and stages of change). The intervention demonstrated no evidence for an impact on vegetable consumption, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption and weak evidence for a small impact on (intermediate) outcomes of fruit consumption.

  20. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    PubMed

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits. PMID:19197587

  1. Impact of Poststroke Fatigue on Health-Related Quality of Life of Nigerian Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Abdulbaqi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A stroke event is often characterized by a number of debilitating consequences that may impact negatively on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of survivors. This study examined the impact of poststroke fatigue (PSF), a persistent and prevalent stroke consequence, on HRQL of Nigerian stroke survivors. Methods One hundred stroke survivors were recruited from the physiotherapy outpatient departments of two tertiary hospitals in Northern Nigeria. The Fatigue Severity Scale and Health-Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients-26 were respectively used to assess PSF and HRQL. The independent impact of PSF on overall and domain-specific HRQL was examined using hierarchical regression analyses. Results Mean age of the stroke survivors was 55.32 years (SD 13.9 years). The majority were males (66%), had suffered ischemic stroke (70%) and presented with moderately severe disability (42%). After controlling for demographic and stroke-related variables, PSF was found to be significantly and independently associated with all the domains of HRQL albeit at varying degrees. While the influence of PSF on the emotional domain was the most pronounced and uniquely contributed to 15% of the variance in the domain, its influence on the cognitive domain was the least prominent. PSF also solely accounted for 9% of the variation in overall HRQL with higher levels of PSF related with lower HRQL. Conclusions Being a potentially treatable condition, PSF's significant impact on HRQL has implications for successful stroke care and rehabilitation. For instance, addressing PSF through appropriate interventions may assist in enhancing HRQL of stroke survivors. PMID:25328879

  2. The impact of marital status on epilepsy-related health concerns.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John O; Charyton, Christine; McAuley, James W; Shneker, Bassel F

    2011-08-01

    Social support from marriage has been linked with better health outcomes. Persons with epilepsy (PWE) are significantly less likely to be married than persons without epilepsy. No previous studies have examined the impact of marriage on epilepsy-related health concerns. Outpatient PWE (n=267) were asked to identify their top five concerns on the Epilepsy Foundation Concerns Index. After controlling for clinical factors (seizure frequency, age of epilepsy diagnosis and disability status) PWE who were married were significantly less likely to report "Fear of being injured during a seizure" Odds Ratio (OR) 0.33, "Holding down a job" OR 0.29, "Getting the work or education you want" OR 0.29, "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.21 and "Lack of people's understanding of epilepsy" OR 0.27. Once we controlled for both clinical factors and demographic factors only one concern "Medical costs of your epilepsy" OR 0.24 remained significant. Our findings support several theories examining the health benefits of marriage related to selection, protection and economic resources. PWE are particularly prone to economic disparities due to lower educational attainment and unemployment. Earlier intervention especially for those with childhood onset epilepsy may help mitigate these disparities and their impact on social relationships and marriage.

  3. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  4. Impact of Health-Related Family Factors on School Enrollment in Bolivia: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Dearden, Kirk; Heaton, Tim; Forste, Renata

    2005-01-01

    This study identified the extent to which family factors increase school enrollment in Bolivia, after adjusting for human and financial capital. The sample was drawn from the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of human capital, financial capital and family factors on school enrollment.…

  5. The impact of lean production and related new systems of work organization on worker health.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, P A; Cahill, J; Schnall, P

    1999-04-01

    New systems of work organization, such as lean production and total quality management, have been introduced by employers throughout the industrialized world to improve productivity, quality, and profitability. However, few studies have examined the impact of such systems on occupational injuries or illnesses or on job characteristics related to job strain, which has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The studies reviewed provide little evidence to support the hypothesis that lean production "empowers" auto workers. In fact, auto industry studies suggest that lean production creates intensified work pace and demands. Increases in decision authority and skill levels are modest or temporary, whereas decision latitude typically remains low. Thus, such work can be considered to have job strain. In jobs with ergonomic stressors, intensification of labor appears to lead to increases in musculoskeletal disorders. The evidence for adverse health effects remains inconclusive for related new work systems in other industries, such as modular manufacturing or patient-focused care.

  6. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being.

  7. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133

  8. Impact of Visual Field Loss on Health-Related Quality of Life in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Wang, Ying; Wu, Joanne; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and visual field (VF) loss in participants with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Two hundred thirteen participants with OAG and 2821 participants without glaucoma or VF loss. Methods Participants in the LALES—a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years and older, residing in Los Angeles, California—underwent a detailed eye examination including an assessment of their VF using the Humphrey Automated Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive thresholding algorithm Standard 24-2). Open-angle glaucoma was determined by clinical examination. Mean deviation scores were used to assess severity of VF loss. Health-related QOL was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Linear regression and analysis of covariance were used to assess the relationship between HRQOL scores and VF loss after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and visual acuity. Main Outcome Measures The 25-item NEI-VFQ and SF-12 scores. Results A trend of worse NEI-VFQ-25 scores for most subscales was observed with worse VF loss (using both monocular and calculated binocular data). Open-angle glaucoma participants with VF loss had lower scores than participants with no VF loss. This association was also present in participants who were previously undiagnosed and untreated for OAG (N = 160). Participants with any central VF loss had lower NEI-VFQ-25 scores than those with unilateral or bilateral peripheral VF loss. There was no significant impact of severity or location of VF loss on SF-12 scores. Conclusion Greater severity of VF loss in persons with OAG impacts vision-related QOL. This impact was present in persons who were previously unaware that they had glaucoma. Prevention of VF

  9. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W Murray; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality). Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives. PMID:17090332

  10. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  11. Evaluating the impact of wind turbine noise on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; McBride, David; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N; Hill, Erin M

    2011-01-01

    We report a cross-sectional study comparing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals residing in the proximity of a wind farm to those residing in a demographically matched area sufficiently displaced from wind turbines. The study employed a nonequivalent comparison group posttest-only design. Self-administered questionnaires, which included the brief version of the World Health Organization quality of life scale, were delivered to residents in two adjacent areas in semirural New Zealand. Participants were also asked to identify annoying noises, indicate their degree of noise sensitivity, and rate amenity. Statistically significant differences were noted in some HRQOL domain scores, with residents living within 2 km of a turbine installation reporting lower overall quality of life, physical quality of life, and environmental quality of life. Those exposed to turbine noise also reported significantly lower sleep quality, and rated their environment as less restful. Our data suggest that wind farm noise can negatively impact facets of HRQOL. PMID:21959113

  12. Developing Teachers' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge through a Community of Practice: Impact on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…

  13. Workshop on human health impacts of halogenated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on the Human Health Impacts of Halogenated Biphenyls and Related Compounds was held to assess the state of current research on these chemicals and to make recommendations for future studies. Participants discussed results from laboratory animal experiments on PCBs, PBBs, dioxins, and dibenzofurans which demonstrate a common mode of toxicological action while also revealing large variations in toxicological potency both within and between these chemical families. These variations demonstrate the importance of congener-specific analyses in future studies of effects of exposure to these compounds. Results from epidemiological studies of environmentally exposed adult and pediatric populations from the U.S., Japan, and Taiwan and occupationally exposed cohorts from around the world were considered. It was concluded that available evidence did not demonstrate serious adverse effects such as cancer, in exposed adult cohorts but did provide indications of possible neurobehavioral effects in children exposed in utero. In addition, workshop participants described newly developed markers of exposure and techniques for assessing endocrinological, immunological, and neurological effects and suggested these be applied to epidemiological studies of the effects of polyhalogenated compounds. Other recommendations included identification of other cohorts and development of a large registry of exposed individuals; performance of detailed studies of reproductive function and outcomes in exposed populations; and follow up of neurobehavioral effects in offspring of exposed women. PMID:1674906

  14. Impact of Job Satisfaction on Greek Nurses' Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Katsikavali, Vassiliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Papadatou, Danai; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2015-01-01

    Background Employee job satisfaction and its relationship with health and quality of life has been an issue of major concern over the past decades. Nurses experience difficult working conditions that affect their job satisfaction, health, and quality of life. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three general hospitals and their respective health centers. Stratified random sampling by level of education was used, and 508 nurses and nursing assistants were included. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which included the Measure of Job Satisfaction, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, as well as demographic details, education, and work conditions data, was used. Results Greek nurses were found to be dissatisfied with their job according to the total score of the job satisfaction scale, although personal satisfaction and satisfaction with support had had higher scores. Their general health was reported as average, because of physical and mental health problems, low vitality, low energy, and increased physical pain. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that males and those wishing to stay in the job had higher physical and mental health. Increased job satisfaction was related to increased physical and mental health. Conclusion Although Greek nurses are not satisfied with their work, those with high levels of job satisfaction had better health-related quality of life. The findings suggest that improvement of the work environment would contribute to a healthier and more satisfied nursing workforce. PMID:26929845

  15. [Productive restructuring and its impact on labor relations in the public health services in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex

    2013-06-01

    The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.

  16. Organizational culture: its impact on employee relations and discipline in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2002-12-01

    Organizations need to examine their cultures at the level of the "shop floor"--in health care, the point where health care workers deal with patients--to determine if the culture is consistent with management policies and will permit an effective program of reward and discipline. This article describes a case where organizational culture was a major imperative in the outcome of an arbitration case. Discussed is a shop-floor situation in manufacturing holding implications for health care, a setting in which management, by countenancing counterproductive aspects of the culture, made it impossible to apply discipline as needed. The conclusion is that health care organizations that neglect the detrimental elements of their culture may find themselves not only at risk of poor employee relations, but also unable to apply discipline effectively.

  17. Impact of caries prevalence on oral health-related quality of life among police personnel in Virajpet, South India

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kanuvanaghatta Nagesh; Shamarao, Supreetha; Jain, Jithesh; Haridas, Reshmi; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Khanapure, Sneha Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the impact of caries prevalence on oral health-related quality of life among police personnel in Virajpet, South India. Materials and Methods: Police personnel were randomly selected from the 296 police staff working in Virajpet, India. They were invited for a dental examination and a questionnaire survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect their demographic information, and to determine the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Caries experiences of the participants were recorded as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare within-group differences of the selected sociodemographic factors and the Chi-square analysis was used to explore the association between the variables. Results: All the 172 invited participants joined this study. Their mean age was 38.02 ± 9.08 years. There was no significant difference in oral health-related quality of life scores according to gender and age. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be 78% in the current study. Data analysis showed that there was no statistically significant association between the oral health-related quality of life scores and caries prevalence. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was no association between the oral health-related quality of life and caries prevalence among the police personnel in Virajpet. PMID:25374838

  18. Impact of rehabilitation with metal-ceramic restorations on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gisele Rodrigues; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Ribeiro, Cristianne Pacheco; da Mota, Adérito Soares; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    Dental ceramics present excellent ability to reproduce the natural teeth regarding esthetic and biomechanics. Recently, due to the advancement of ceramic technology, metal-free restorations were developed. However, the traditional metal-ceramic restorations still present the requirements of high strength, long survival in the oral environment and favorable aesthetics. In this context, it is essential to know the specificity of each ceramic system available in order to apply it properly to various clinical situations. This report describes an integrated rehabilitation using metal-ceramic restorations of a patient at 50 years of age, who presented edentulous spaces, and previous unsatisfactory composite and amalgam restorations, and indirect metallic restorations, leading to compromised quality of life in both functional and psychosocial aspects. The impact on quality of life was measured using a generic instrument, OHIP-14, validated for the World Health Organization, which covers both the biological and the psychosocial dimensions. This instrument was applied to the patient before and after treatment. The patient had an overall OHIP-14 score of 28 before the treatment and after treatment the score decreased to 0, showing that dental and oral health conditions are factors that do impact on the quality of life. Rehabilitation has provided functional and aesthetic restorations, harmony of the stomatognathic system and improvement of life quality.

  19. Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-02-15

    This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects.

  20. Impact of cancer occurrence on health-related quality of life: A longitudinal pre-post assessment

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Stéphanie; Briançon, Serge; Guillemin, Francis; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2004-01-01

    Background Investigations focusing and implementing on the impact of cancer on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by the way of a mean comparison between cancer patients and subjects from the general population, are scarce and usually cross-sectional. Longitudinal application of HRQoL instruments to a general, initially healthy population allows for change to be assessed as an event occurs, rather than afterwards. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of new cancer on HRQoL. Methods The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were applied to the French SU.VI.MAX cohort in 1996 and 1998. A controlled longitudinal study was used to determine the impact on HRQoL of newly diagnosed cancer: 84 patients with cancer that occurred between the 2 HRQoL measures were compared with 420 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. Results Initial HRQoL level was similar in the two groups. A new cancer had a particularly marked effect on the SF-36 Physical functioning, Role-physical and General health dimensions (more than 6.6-point difference in change in HRQoL evolution on a 0–100 scale). The Bodily pain and Vitality dimensions were less severely affected (difference in change varying from 4.4 to 6.3 points), and there was no effect on either the GHQ-12 score or the SF-36 Mental health, Role-emotional and Social functioning dimensions. Conclusions The negative impact of cancer on the lives of patients was assessed in terms of HRQoL. The aspects most likely to be affected were those with a physical component, and general health perceptions. These results can thus help quantify the impact of a new cancer on HRQoL evolution and potentially facilitate early intervention by identifying the most affected HRQoL domains. PMID:14715085

  1. The impact of income inequality on individual and societal health: absolute income, relative income and statistical artefacts.

    PubMed

    Wildman, J

    2001-06-01

    The relative income hypothesis, that relative income has a direct effect on individual health, has become an important part of the literature on health inequalities. This paper presents a four-quadrant diagram, which shows the effect of income, relative income and aggregation bias on individual and societal health. The model predicts that increased income inequality reduces average health regardless of whether relative income affects individual health. If relative income does have a direct effect then societal health will decrease further.

  2. The impact of a second breast cancer diagnosis on health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Andrea A; Madlensky, Lisa; Flatt, Shirley W; Kaplan, Robert M; Pierce, John P

    2005-07-01

    A growing of research documents the negative impact of recurrent breast cancer on quality of life (QOL), however few prospective investigations are available that compare QOL outcomes across different types of second cancer events (e.g., local/regional recurrence (LR) versus distant/metastatic recurrence (DR) versus a new primary breast cancer (NP)). In addition, although participant attrition is a major issue in this group of cancer patients, the potential impact of attrition or response bias on QOL outcomes is not typically examined. To address these issues, we prospectively examined QOL data obtained from a sample of women (n=140) participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study who experienced a second cancer event (LR, DR or NP). Women in our study reported significant worsening in most areas of QOL, except for emotional wellbeing, from pre- to post-second cancer event. Although the patterns of change to QOL differed slightly within each category (LR versus DR versus NP), participants were more similar than different in their QOL ratings. However, the perceived health status of women with DR was significantly lower than women with LR or NP. We also identify important sources of response bias that should be considered when interpreting findings. Specifically, women diagnosed with DR (a) were more likely to decline to complete the post-recurrence QOL questionnaire (27% refusal rate versus 14% LR and 13% NP), and (b) had higher death rates (28% death rate versus 4% LR and 6% NP) after agreeing to but before completing the post-second diagnosis QOL questionnaire. PMID:15980988

  3. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  4. Genetic testing for inherited heart diseases: longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; O'Brien, Lisa; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-05-03

    Purpose:A genetic diagnosis is an extremely useful tool in the management and care of families with inherited heart diseases, particularly in allowing clarification of risk status of asymptomatic family members. The psychosocial consequences of genetic testing in this group are poorly understood. This longitudinal pilot study sought to determine changes in health-related quality of life in patients and asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for inherited heart diseases.Methods:Individuals attending two specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinics in Australia were invited to participate. Patients undergoing proband or predictive genetic testing for an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder were eligible. The Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (version 2) was administered before the genetic result was given, and follow-up surveys were completed 1-3, 6, and 12 months after the result was given.Results:A total of 54 individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and long QT syndrome completed baseline and at least one follow-up survey, including 33 probands and 21 asymptomatic relatives. Physical and mental component scores analyzed at baseline and 1-3 months were found to be unchanged in all groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed up to 12 months after result.Conclusion:In this longitudinal pilot study, no change in health-related quality of life was observed up to 12 months after the result was given in patients and their asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for an inherited heart disease.Genet Med 2012 advance online publication 3 May 2012.

  5. Quality of Life Impact Related to Foot Health in a Sample of Older People with Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    López, Daniel López; Callejo González, Lucía; Iglesias, Marta Elena Losa; Canosa, Jesús Luis Saleta; Sanz, David Rodríguez; Lobo, Cesar Calvo; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2016-01-01

    Hallux Valgus (HV) is a highly prevalent forefoot deformity in older people associated with progressive subluxation and osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and it is believed to be associated with varying degrees of HV effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of varying degrees of HV on foot health in a sample of older people. The sample consisted of 115 participants, mean age 76.7 ± 9.1, who attended an outpatient center where self-report data were recorded. The degree of HV deformity was determined in both feet using the Manchester Scale (MS) from stage 1 (mild) to 4 (very severe). Scores obtained on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) were compared. This has 13 questions that assess 4 health domains of the feet, namely pain, function, general health and footwear. The stage 4 of HV shown lower scores for the footwear domain (11.23 ± 15.6); general foot health (27.62 ± 19.1); foot pain (44.65 ± 24.5); foot function (53.04 ± 27.2); vigour (42.19 ± 16.8); social capacity (44.46 ± 28.1); and general health (41.15 ± 25.5) compared with stage 1 of HV (P<0.05) and there were no differences of physical activity (62.81 ± 24.6). Often, quality of life decreases in the elderly population based in large part on their foot health. There is a progressive reduction in health in general and foot health with increasing severity of hallux valgus deformity which appears to be associated with the presence of greater degree of HV, regardless of gender. PMID:26816663

  6. The Sustained, Positive Impact of a Native American Cultures and Health Course on Students’ Education and Practice-Related Choices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To encourage pharmacy students to elect education and practice opportunities in Native American communities, including careers with the Indian Health Service (IHS). Methods. Students in 2 elective courses were educated on various aspects of contemporary Native American life in urban and reservation environments, including cultural traditions, social and health-related challenges, health access disparities, and cultural approaches to health and wellness. The teachers were Native American leaders and healers primarily from Plains tribes, as well as non-Native American practitioners affiliated with IHS hospitals and tribal health facilities. Students kept reflective journals, and a subset spent 5 days immersed in a rural Navajo community where they lived and worked alongside IHS practitioners and Community Health Representatives. Results. Student engagement with IHS opportunities was tracked for 11 years. Of the 69 pharmacy students who completed the electives, 11 applied for a Junior Commissioned Officer Student Training and Externship Program (Jr. COSTEP) (8 accepted, 6 completed), 43 requested one or more IHS APPEs (43 accepted, 32 completed, 8 in progress), 17 applied for an IHS residency (1 pending, 8 accepted, 5 completed), and 5 became IHS Commissioned Corps officers. Five additional students accepted an IHS or tribal position, with 3 pursuing a USPHS commission. Conclusion. Since the first report on the impact of this elective experience was published, the course continues to meet its primary objective of promoting interest in IHS/tribal education experiences and pharmacy practice careers. PMID:26056410

  7. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dubois, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the short form-36, a generic (non-disease specific) HRQoL measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific HRQoL measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being. PMID:26005420

  8. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    PubMed

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts. PMID:27027217

  9. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    PubMed

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts.

  10. The impact of educational level on oral health-related quality of life in older people in London.

    PubMed

    Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Iliffe, Steve; Kharicha, Kalpa; Harari, Danielle; Swift, Cameron G; Gillman, Gerhard; Stuck, Andreas E

    2009-06-01

    There are socioeconomic inequalities in oral health, but the relationship between education and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among older adults has not been adequately studied. This study assessed whether there is an educational gradient in OHRQoL among older people in London. We employed secondary analysis of baseline data (n = 1,090) from a randomized controlled trial of health-risk appraisal on community-dwelling non-disabled people 65 yr of age and older, registered with three group medical practices in suburban London. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the association between OHRQoL [measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI)] and education, adjusted for age, gender, pension status, and denture wearing. Overall, 30.6% reported low levels of OHRQoL. Eating discomfort was the most frequent problem (24% reported 'often/always'), while concerns about appearance were also prevalent. Significant variations in OHRQoL existed between socioeconomic groups. In adjusted analyses, there was a clear education gradient in OHRQoL, with worse perceptions at each lower level of education. Low educational level has an independent negative impact on OHRQoL in older people, which is not explained by differences in income or in denture wearing between educational groups. Policies targeting lower educated groups should be complemented with whole-population strategies for the reduction of oral health inequalities.

  11. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization. PMID:24364129

  12. Lethal firearm-related violence against Canadian women: did tightening gun laws have an impact on women's health and safety?

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Mauser, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence remains a significant public health issue around the world, and policy makers continually strive to implement effective legislative frameworks to reduce lethal violence against women. This article examines whether the 1995 Firearms Act (Bill C-68) had a significant impact on female firearm homicide victimization rates in Canada. Time series of gender-disaggregated data from 1974 to 2009 were examined. Two different analytic approaches were used: the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and the Zivot-Andrews (ZA) structural breakpoint tests. There was little evidence to suggest that increased firearms legislation in Canada had a significant impact on preexisting trends in lethal firearm violence against women. These results do not support the view that increasing firearms legislation is associated with a reduced incidence of firearm-related female domestic homicide victimization.

  13. The impact on human health of car-related air pollution in the UK, 1995-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. W.; Axon, C. J.; Darton, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    We have analysed the impact on human health of emissions produced by the UK car fleet in the years 1995 and 2005. Calculations were based on reported measurements of pollutant concentration, literature values of exposure response coefficients and data for mortality and morbidity. A share was attributed to the car fleet based on emissions data. Although the total distance driven in the UK increased by 16% over this period to 460 billion km, there was a significant fall in engine emissions as increasingly stringent regulations (EURO standards) were introduced. As a result there was a decrease of some 25% in the number of deaths attributable to car-related air pollution - down to 5589 in 2005. The estimated number of years of life lost at 65 000 (England and Wales) in 2005, was about half that caused by road accidents involving cars in the same year. We report further calculations which show the effect of car-related pollution on hospital admissions. Our method is straightforward, providing acceptable estimates for health impacts on the predominantly urban population of the UK. There remains a need for more work, particularly cohort studies of morbidity, to establish the long-term effects of air pollution.

  14. Economic Impacts from PM2.5 Pollution-Related Health Effects in China: A Provincial-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Huijuan; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts on the national and provincial economy of China using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and the latest nonlinear exposure-response functions. Results show that the health and economic impacts may be substantial in provinces with a high PM2.5 concentration. In the WoPol scenario without PM2.5 pollution control policy, we estimate that China experiences a 2.00% GDP loss and 25.2 billion USD in health expenditure from PM2.5 pollution in 2030. In contrast, with control policy in the WPol scenario, a control investment of 101.8 billion USD (0.79% of GDP) and a gain of 1.17% of China's GDP from improving PM2.5 pollution are projected. At the provincial level, GDP loss in 2030 in the WoPol scenario is high in Tianjin (3.08%), Shanghai (2.98%), Henan (2.32%), Beijing (2.75%), and Hebei (2.60%) and the top five provinces with the highest additional health expenditure are Henan, Sichuan, Shandong, Hebei, and Jiangsu. Controlling PM2.5 pollution could bring positive benefits in two-thirds of provinces. Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing, Henan, Jiangsu, and Hebei experience most benefits from PM2.5 pollution control as a result of a higher PM2.5 pollution and dense population distribution. Conversely, the control investment is higher than GDP gain in some underdeveloped provinces, such as Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi, Gansu, and Yunnan.

  15. The impact of killing in war on mental health symptoms and related functioning.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J; Litz, Brett T; Seal, Karen H; Knight, Sara J; Marmar, Charles R

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the mental health and functional consequences associated with killing combatants and noncombatants. Using the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) survey data, the authors reported the percentage of male Vietnam theater veterans (N = 1200) who killed an enemy combatant, civilian, and/or prisoner of war. They next examined the relationship between killing in war and a number of mental health and functional outcomes using the clinical interview subsample of the NVVRS (n = 259). Controlling for demographic variables and exposure to general combat experiences, the authors found that killing was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, functional impairment, and violent behaviors. Experiences of killing in war are important to address in the evaluation and treatment of veterans.

  16. Impact of intensive treatment and remission on health-related quality of life in early and established rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, I C; Ibrahim, F; Lewis, C M; Scott, D L; Strand, V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish if using intensive treatment to reduce synovitis and attain remission in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improves all aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods A secondary analysis of two randomised clinical trials (CARDERA and TACIT) was undertaken. CARDERA randomised 467 patients with early active RA to different disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) regimens, including high-dose tapering corticosteroids. TACIT randomised 205 established patients with active RA to combination DMARDs (cDMARDs) or tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFis). Short-Form 36 (SF-36) measured HRQoL across eight domains, generating physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores. Linear regression evaluated 6-month intensive treatment impacts. Mean SF-36 scores, stratified by end point disease activity category, were compared with age/gender-matched population scores. Results In CARDERA, intensive corticosteroid treatment gave significantly greater improvements in PCS but not MCS scores relative to placebo. In TACIT, all eight SF-36 domains had improvements from baseline exceeding minimal clinically important differences with cDMARDs and TNFis. Significantly greater improvements with TNFi relative to cDMARDs were reported in PCS only (p=0.034), after adjusting for covariates. Remission provided the best SF-36 profiles, but scores in physical functioning, role physical and general health in both trials remained below normative values. Patient global assessment of disease activity had a greater association with HRQoL than other disease activity score (DAS28) components. Conclusions Intensive corticosteroid treatment in early RA improves physical but not mental health, relative to placebo. In established RA, cDMARDs and TNFi provide similar improvements in HRQoL. As remission optimises but fails to normalise HRQoL, a focus on treatment strategies targeting HRQoL is required. Trial registration numbers CARDERA was registered as

  17. Impact of intensive treatment and remission on health-related quality of life in early and established rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, I C; Ibrahim, F; Lewis, C M; Scott, D L; Strand, V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish if using intensive treatment to reduce synovitis and attain remission in active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improves all aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods A secondary analysis of two randomised clinical trials (CARDERA and TACIT) was undertaken. CARDERA randomised 467 patients with early active RA to different disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) regimens, including high-dose tapering corticosteroids. TACIT randomised 205 established patients with active RA to combination DMARDs (cDMARDs) or tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFis). Short-Form 36 (SF-36) measured HRQoL across eight domains, generating physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores. Linear regression evaluated 6-month intensive treatment impacts. Mean SF-36 scores, stratified by end point disease activity category, were compared with age/gender-matched population scores. Results In CARDERA, intensive corticosteroid treatment gave significantly greater improvements in PCS but not MCS scores relative to placebo. In TACIT, all eight SF-36 domains had improvements from baseline exceeding minimal clinically important differences with cDMARDs and TNFis. Significantly greater improvements with TNFi relative to cDMARDs were reported in PCS only (p=0.034), after adjusting for covariates. Remission provided the best SF-36 profiles, but scores in physical functioning, role physical and general health in both trials remained below normative values. Patient global assessment of disease activity had a greater association with HRQoL than other disease activity score (DAS28) components. Conclusions Intensive corticosteroid treatment in early RA improves physical but not mental health, relative to placebo. In established RA, cDMARDs and TNFi provide similar improvements in HRQoL. As remission optimises but fails to normalise HRQoL, a focus on treatment strategies targeting HRQoL is required. Trial registration numbers CARDERA was registered as

  18. Cancer-related information needs and cancer’s impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeRouen, Mindy C.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Lynch, Charles F.; Parsons, Helen M.; Kent, Erin E.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007–2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Results Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales (all p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, perceived control and unmet information need were independently associated with HRQOL (p-values for interaction >0.1). Conclusions AYA patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. PMID:25611943

  19. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  20. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genomics in Practice Newborn Screening Pharmacogenomics Reproductive Health Tools and Databases About the Genomics & Health Impact Update The Office of Public Health Genomics provides updated and credible ...

  1. Impact on the Performance of Health Workers Adopted Performance-Related Contracts in the Provision of Basic Public Health Service At Village and Township Levels

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Yaojun; HUO, Zhen’ang; WU, Jian; XIE, Shuangbao; ZHANG, Liang; FENG, Zhanchun

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode. Methods: The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed. Results: Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge. Conclusion: The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county. PMID:23785674

  2. Clarifying the Impact of Untreated and Treated Dental Caries on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Hernandez, Pedro Antonio González; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dental caries experience and the components of the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled at public schools in the municipality of Osório (southern Brazil). A calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination for caries (World Health Organization: DMFT index), malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index) and traumatic dental injuries [Andreasen et al., 2007]. The participants answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) - Impact Short Form, and their parents/guardians answered a structured questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data analysis involved Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of rate ratios adjusted for potential confounding variables. High severity of dental caries experience exerted a significant impact on OHRQoL, even after controlling for socioeconomic and clinical factors (rate ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.12-1.51). All OHRQoL domains were affected by untreated dental caries. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CPQ11-14 scores were 33% higher among adolescents with untreated caries (rate ratio 1.33; 95% CI 1.17-1.50) and 24% higher among those with missing teeth (rate ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.06-1.47). No difference in OHRQoL was found between adolescents with filled teeth and those without dental caries. In conclusion, dental caries experience, untreated dental caries and missing teeth exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL among the adolescents. PMID:27458722

  3. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  4. Bioavailability, bioactivity and impact on health of dietary flavonoids and related compounds: an update.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Vauzour, David; Krueger, Christian G; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Reed, Jess; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Del Rio, Daniele; Crozier, Alan

    2014-10-01

    There is substantial interest in the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective dietary agents. In particular, the involvement of flavonoids and related compounds has become a major topic in human nutrition research. Evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies is emerging regarding the protective effects of various (poly)phenol-rich foods against several chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, the use of HPLC-MS for the analysis of flavonoids and related compounds in foods and biological samples has significantly enhanced our understanding of (poly)phenol bioavailability. These advancements have also led to improvements in the available food composition and metabolomic databases, and consequently in the development of biomarkers of (poly)phenol intake to use in epidemiological studies. Efforts to create adequate standardised materials and well-matched controls to use in randomised controlled trials have also improved the quality of the available data. In vitro investigations using physiologically achievable concentrations of (poly)phenol metabolites and catabolites with appropriate model test systems have provided new and interesting insights on potential mechanisms of actions. This article will summarise recent findings on the bioavailability and biological activity of (poly)phenols, focusing on the epidemiological and clinical evidence of beneficial effects of flavonoids and related compounds on urinary tract infections, cognitive function and age-related cognitive decline, cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25182418

  5. Health impact assessment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Soeberg, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has its origins in environmental impact assessment methodology. New Zealand's approach to health impact assessment is consistent with other countries. During the 1990s, legislation that related to the management of natural and physical resources provided the basis for public health engagement in impact assessment. In the mid 1990s, the Public Health Commission released guidelines on health impact assessment that adopted a risk assessment approach and was aimed at particular environmental projects. The transition to policy-level impact assessment occurred in 2000 with the national health strategy identifying impact assessment as one its key objectives. Guidelines developed by the Public Health Advisory Committee in 2004 have been applied in a small number of policy-level health impact assessments in New Zealand. One of these projects was the review of a Liveable Communities Plan, a policy proposal for town centre growth and development.

  6. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: Impact on health-related quality of life, productivity, and depression.

    PubMed

    Lumry, William R; Castaldo, Anthony J; Vernon, Margaret K; Blaustein, Marc B; Wilson, David A; Horn, Patrick T

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent acute attacks of swelling of the larynx, abdomen, and periphery. This study was designed to assess the humanistic burden of illness associated with HAE. HAE burden was assessed via a web-based survey of patients that solicited information on attack characterization, treatment, side effects, pain, and functional and emotional burden of disease management. In addition to HAE-specific sections, the survey used three standardized instruments to compare HAE patient data to normative (healthy) and chronic disease populations: the 12-Item Short Form (SF-12) Health Survey, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health (WPAI-GH) questionnaire, and the Hamilton Depression Inventory-Short Form (HDI-SF). A total of 457 HAE patients responded to the survey (response rate, ∼19%). Patients reported significantly poorer health-related quality of life versus population norms, based on the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (mean, 43.7 versus 49.6; p < 0.001) and Mental Component Summary (mean, 42.6 versus 49.4; p < 0.001). HAE patients also had higher mean HDI-SF scores than population norms (8.1 ± 6.5 versus 3.1 ± 3.0; p < 0.001), with 42.5% of HAE patients scoring >8.5, indicative of depressive symptomatology. Productivity was also markedly impaired in all WPAI-GH categories, including 34% overall work impairment. Because of their most recent HAE attack, workers lost a mean of 3.3 days; students lost a mean of 1.9 days. HAE results in considerable humanistic burden to patients across physical and mental health domains; negatively impacts education, career, and work productivity; and compounds the substantial economic burdens that are reported separately.

  7. Health impacts of wildfires.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-11-02

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors' focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi - organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events.

  8. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  9. Impact of mobility impairment on indirect costs and health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Craig I; Sidovar, Matthew F; Roberts, Matthew S; Kohn, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the indirect costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (utilities) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the United States (US), and to determine the impact of worsening mobility on these parameters. In collaboration with the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry we conducted a cross-sectional study of participants who completed the biannual update and supplemental spring 2010 survey. Demographic, employment status, income, mobility impairment, and health utility data were collected from a sample of registry participants who met the study criteria and agreed to participate in the supplemental Mobility Study. Mean annual indirect costs per participant in 2011US$ and mean utilities for the population and for cohorts reporting different levels of mobility impairment were estimated. Analyses included 3,484 to 3,611 participants, based on survey completeness. Thirty-seven percent of registrants were not working or attending school and 46.7% of these reported retiring early. Indirect costs per participant per year, not including informal caregiver cost, were estimated at $30,601±31,184. The largest relative increase in indirect costs occurred at earlier mobility impairment stages, regardless of the measure used. Participants' mean utility score (0.73±0.18) was lower than that of a similarly aged sample from the general US population (0.87). As with indirect costs, larger decrements in utility were seen at earlier mobility impairment stages. These results suggest that mobility impairment may contribute to increases in indirect costs and declines in HRQoL in MS patients. PMID:23355896

  10. Patients' perception of the financial impact of head and neck cancer and the relationship to health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Harvey-Woodworth, C N; Hare, J; Leong, P; Lowe, D

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to ask patients about the financial burden of having head and neck cancer, and to explore its relation with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In the Mersey region 447/752 eligible patients (59%) responded to the questionnaire. There was no obvious response bias. The most notable financial costs of head and neck cancer that were a moderate or large burden to patients were petrol (25%, 112), home heating (24%, 108), change in the type of food (21%, 95), and loss of earnings (20%, 88). During the previous week 15% (63/423) had lost a moderate or large amount of income because of their medical condition. In terms of taking care of their financial needs, 10% (40) were moderately dissatisfied and 15% (61) very dissatisfied. Patients with worse physical and social emotional functioning experienced more notable financial burden, more difficult life circumstances in the past month and greater financial difficulty and loss in income due to their condition in the previous week, more dissatisfaction with how well they took care of their own financial needs and were more likely to have sought statutory benefits. Cancer of the head and neck has a serious impact on financial aspects of patients' lives and seems to be associated with a poor HRQoL. Multidisciplinary teams can do much more to address the cost of having treatment by recognising need earlier, and giving advice and access to appropriate benefits. PMID:22000023

  11. Patients' perception of the financial impact of head and neck cancer and the relationship to health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Harvey-Woodworth, C N; Hare, J; Leong, P; Lowe, D

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to ask patients about the financial burden of having head and neck cancer, and to explore its relation with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In the Mersey region 447/752 eligible patients (59%) responded to the questionnaire. There was no obvious response bias. The most notable financial costs of head and neck cancer that were a moderate or large burden to patients were petrol (25%, 112), home heating (24%, 108), change in the type of food (21%, 95), and loss of earnings (20%, 88). During the previous week 15% (63/423) had lost a moderate or large amount of income because of their medical condition. In terms of taking care of their financial needs, 10% (40) were moderately dissatisfied and 15% (61) very dissatisfied. Patients with worse physical and social emotional functioning experienced more notable financial burden, more difficult life circumstances in the past month and greater financial difficulty and loss in income due to their condition in the previous week, more dissatisfaction with how well they took care of their own financial needs and were more likely to have sought statutory benefits. Cancer of the head and neck has a serious impact on financial aspects of patients' lives and seems to be associated with a poor HRQoL. Multidisciplinary teams can do much more to address the cost of having treatment by recognising need earlier, and giving advice and access to appropriate benefits.

  12. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups. PMID:27087188

  13. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  14. Intergovernmental relations in physician education and health planning: state adoption decisions and the impact of federal programs.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Nelson, S L; Patel, K

    1982-10-01

    This study seeks to explain states' adoptions of programs in health planning and in physician education. It also seeks to further understanding of the impact of federal health planning and education programs on the states. Several theories and models are employed in analyzing the actions of state decision-makers. These include incremental theory, models of the diffusion of innovations, economic resources theory, and a theory of competitive partisanship. The data utilized in this research were principally derived from intensive interviews with "key" state actors and from historical, documentary materials. Only minimal federal impact appears on states' goals in physician education and health planning. Rather, there is evidence of considerable innovativeness among the states prior to Federal program initiatives. A problem-generated search for solutions seems to be a major source of this innovation. Finally, federal program implementation requirements appear to be a major source of federal--state conflict and opposition.

  15. Health Impacts of Wildfires

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors’ focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi – organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events. PMID:23145351

  16. Health impacts of wildfires.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current evidence about the health effects of wildfires from the UK standpoint. Methods A comprehensive literature review of international evidence regarding wildfire related health effects was conducted in January 2012. Further information was gathered from authors' focus groups. Results A review of the published evidence shows that human health can be severely affected by wildfires. Certain populations are particularly vulnerable. Wood smoke has high levels of particulate matter and toxins. Respiratory morbidity predominates, but cardiovascular, ophthalmic and psychiatric problems can also result. In addition severe burns resulting from direct contact with the fire require care in special units and carry a risk of multi - organ complications. The wider health implications from spreading air, water and land pollution are of concern. Access to affected areas and communication with populations living within them is crucial in mitigating risk. Conclusion This study has identified factors that may reduce public health risk from wildfires. However more research is needed to evaluate longer term health effects from wildfires. An understanding of such factors is vital to ensure preparedness within health care services for such events. PMID:23145351

  17. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc; Llor, Carles; Molina, Jesús; Naberan, Karlos; Cots, Josep M; Ros, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days) on HRQL. Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3%) participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient) occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]). Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (−2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05) and “Symptoms” subscale (−5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02). The same findings were observed in patients with two or more exacerbations. Conclusions: In COPD outpatients, treatment of exacerbations with moxifloxacin had a more favorable long-term effect on quality of life than amoxicillin/clavulanate. PMID:20368907

  18. Impact of conventional radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and critical functions of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Nadine P. . E-mail: connor@surgery.wisc.edu; Cohen, Stacy B. M.A.; Kammer, Rachael E.; Sullivan, Paula A.; Brewer, Kathryn A.; Hong, Theodore S.; Chappell, Richard J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Head-and-neck radiotherapy is associated with significant morbidities. Our purpose was to document impact of morbidities by use of multiple objective measures and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Methods and Materials: Ten head-and-neck cancer patients were evaluated before receiving conventional head-and-neck radiotherapy and at 1 month and 6 months after treatment. We evaluated weight, saliva production, diet, swallow function, auditory function, and HR-QOL. Results: After radiotherapy, weight was reduced in 89% of subjects. Salivary function was significantly reduced and did not resolve by 6 months. Diet impairment and abnormalities in swallowing function persisted at 6 months. Perception of physical functioning was reduced after treatment, and swallowing, coughing, and dry-mouth symptoms increased. Very few changes were observed in auditory function. Conclusions: Conventional head-and-neck radiotherapy is associated with substantial functional deficits and diminished HR-QOL. Deficits reported here can serve as a baseline for comparison with results derived from new radiotherapy-treatment techniques.

  19. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  20. Using Professional Organizations to Prepare the Behavioral Health Workforce to Respond to the Needs of Pediatric Populations Impacted by Health-Related Disasters: Guiding Principles and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts.

  1. Impact of apathy on health-related quality of life in recently diagnosed Parkinson's disease: the ANIMO study.

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Cubo, Esther; Coronell, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    The impact of apathy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in recently diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been systematically investigated. The objective of this cross-sectional survey (ANIMO study) was to examine the contribution of apathy to HRQOL in a Spanish sample of recently diagnosed PD patients. PD patients, diagnosed within 2 years of inclusion, were recruited at 102 outpatient clinics in 82 communities throughout Spain. Apathy was quantified using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale and HRQOL with the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. A mean EuroQol-5D index score of 0.89 obtained from population references in Spain was used as the cutoff for this study. The relationship between apathy and the dichotomized EuroQol-5D index score (<0.89 [lower HRQOL] vs ≥0.89 [reference]) was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. We consecutively recruited 557 patients (60.3% men) with a mean age of 68.8 ± 9.7 years. Apathy was diagnosed in 291 (52.2%) and was related to problems in each of the EuroQoL dimensions. Apathetic PD patients showed EuroQol-5D index scores significantly lower than those without apathy (0.64 vs 0.83). In an adjusted model, apathetic PD patients were 2.49 times more likely to have lower HRQOL than nonapathetic patients (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-4.15, P < 0.01). Apathy is very common in those with recently diagnosed PD and is one of the major clinical determinants of HRQOL in this disease. It should be one of the primary concerns among clinicians who provide treatment to individuals affected by PD.

  2. Relative Impact of Multimorbid Chronic Conditions on Health-Related Quality of Life – Results from the MultiCare Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Christian; Leicht, Hanna; Bickel, Horst; Dahlhaus, Anne; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; König, Hans-Helmut; Altiner, Attila; Bickel, Horst; Blank, Wolfgang; Brettschneider, Christian; Bullinger, Monika; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Dahlhaus, Anne; Ehreke, Lena; Freitag, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Gensichen, Jochen; Gerlach, Ferdinand; Hansen, Heike; Heinrich, Sven; Höfels, Susanne; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; König, Hans-Helmut; Krause, Norbert; Leicht, Hanna; Luppa, Melanie; Maier, Wolfgang; Mayer, Manfred; Mellert, Christine; Nützel, Anna; Paschke, Thomas; Petersen, Juliana; Prokein, Jana; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Romberg, Heinz-Peter; Schäfer, Ingmar; Scherer, Martin; Schön, Gerhard; Steinmann, Susanne; Schulz, Sven; Wegscheider, Karl; Weckbecker, Klaus; Werle, Jochen; Weyerer, Siegfried; Wiese, Birgitt; Zieger, Margrit

    2013-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Previous studies included only a limited number of conditions. In this study, we analyse the impact of a large number of conditions on HRQL in multimorbid patients without preselecting particular diseases. We also explore the effects of these conditions on the specific dimensions of HRQL. Materials and Methods This analysis is based on a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 3189 multimorbid primary care patients aged 65 to 85. The impact of 45 conditions on HRQL was analysed. The severity of the conditions was rated. The EQ-5D, consisting of 5 dimensions and a visual-analogue-scale (EQ VAS), was employed. Data were analysed using multiple ordinary least squares and multiple logistic regressions. Multimorbidity measured by a weighted count score was significantly associated with lower overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b = −1.02 (SE: 0.06). Parkinson’s disease had the most pronounced negative effect on overall HRQL (EQ VAS), b = −12.29 (SE: 2.18), followed by rheumatism, depression, and obesity. With regard to the individual EQ-5D dimensions, depression (OR = 1.39 to 3.3) and obesity (OR = 1.44 to 1.95) affected all five dimensions of the EQ-5D negatively except for the dimension anxiety/depression. Obesity had a positive effect on this dimension, OR = 0.78 (SE: 0.07). The dimensions “self-care”, OR = 4.52 (SE: 1.37) and “usual activities”, OR = 3.59 (SE: 1.0), were most strongly affected by Parkinson’s disease. As a limitation our sample may only represent patients with at most moderate disease severity. Conclusions The overall HRQL of multimorbid patients decreases with an increasing count and severity of conditions. Parkinson’s disease, depression and obesity have the strongest impact on HRQL. Further studies should address the impact of disease combinations which require very large sample sizes as well as advanced statistical methods

  3. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  4. Differential Impact of Hyponatremia and Hepatic Encephalopathy on Health-Related Quality of Life and Brain Metabolite Abnormalities in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Wade, James B; Thacker, Leroy; Kraft, Kenneth A; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, R Todd; Fuchs, Michael; Bouneva, Iliana; Puri, Puneet; Luketic, Velimir; Sanyal, Arun J; Gilles, HoChong; Heuman, Douglas M; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia (HN) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) together can impair health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and cognition in cirrhosis. Aim To study effect of hyponatremia on cognition, HRQOL and brain MR spectroscopy (MRS) independent of HE. Methods Four cirrhotic groups(no HE/HN, HE alone, HN alone (sodium<130mEq/L),HE+HN) underwent cognitive testing, HRQOL using Sickness Impact Profile (SIP: higher score is worse; has psycho-social and physical sub-scores) and brain MRS (myoinositol(mI) and glutamate+glutamine(Glx)), which were compared across groups. A subset underwent HRQOL testing before/after diuretic withdrawal. Results 82 cirrhotics (30 no HE/HN, 25 HE, 17 HE+HN and 10 HN, MELD 12, 63% Hepatitis C) were included. Cirrhotics with HN alone and without HE/HN had better cognition compared to HE groups (median abnormal tests no-HE/HN:3, HN:3.5, HE:6.5,HE+HN:7, p=0.008). Despite better cognition, HN only patients had worse HRQOL in total and psychosocial SIP while both HN groups (with/without HE) had a significantly worse physical SIP(p<0.0001, all comparisons). Brain MRS showed lowest Glx in HN and highest in HE groups (p<0.02). mI levels were comparably decreased in the three affected (HE,HE+HN and HN) groups compared to no HE/HN and were associated with poor HRQOL. Six HE+HN cirrhotics underwent diuretic withdrawal which improved serum sodium and total/psycho-social SIP scores. Conclusions Hyponatremic cirrhotics without HE have poor HRQOL despite better cognition than those with concomitant HE. Glx levels were lowest in HN without HE but mI was similar across affected groups. HRQOL improved after diuretic withdrawal. Hyponatremia has a complex, non-linear relationship with brain Glx and mI, cognition and HRQOL. PMID:23665182

  5. The impact of cotton growing practices on soil microbiology and its relation to plant and soil health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily

    2013-04-01

    Crop production and agricultural practices heavily impact the soil microbial communities, which differ among varying types of soils and environmental conditions. Soil-borne microbial communities in cotton production systems, as in every other cropping system, consist of microbial populations that may either be pathogenic, beneficial or neutral with respect to the cotton crop. Crop production practices have major roles in determining the composition of microbial communities and function of microbial populations in soils. The structure and function of any given microbial community is determined by various factors, including those that are influenced by farming and those not controlled by farming activities. Examples of the latter are environmental conditions such as soil type, temperature, daylight length and UV radiation, air humidity, atmospheric pressure and some abiotic features of the soil. On the other hand, crop production practices may determine other abiotic soil properties, such as water content, density, oxygen levels, mineral and elemental nutrient levels and the load of other crop-related soil amendments. Moreover, crop production highly influences the biotic properties of the soil and has a major role in determining the fate of soil-borne microbial communities associated with the crop plant. Various microbial strains react differently to the presence of certain plants and plant exudates. Therefore, the type of plant and crop rotations are important factors determining microbial communities. In addition, practice management, e.g. soil cultivation versus crop stubble retention, have a major effect on the soil conditions and, thus, on microbial community structure and function. All of the above-mentioned factors can lead to preferential selection of certain microbial population over others. It may affect not only the composition of microbial communities (diversity and abundance of microbial members) but also the function of the community (the ability of

  6. The Impact of Weight Loss on Health-Related Quality-of-Life: Implications for Cost-effectiveness Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Amy E.; McEwen, Laura N.; Kraftson, Andrew T.; Neshewat, Gina M.; Fowler, Christine E.; Burant, Charles F.; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of weight loss on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL), to describe the factors associated with improvements in HRQL after weight loss, and to assess the relationship between obesity as assessed by body mass index (BMI) and HRQL before and after weight loss. Methods We studied 188 obese patients with BMI ≥32 kg/m2 with one or more comorbidities or ≥35 kg/m2. All patients had baseline and follow-up assessments of BMI and HRQL using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) and its visual analog scale (VAS) before and after 6 months of medical weight loss that employed very low calorie diets, physical activity, and intensive behavioral counseling. Results At baseline, age was 50 ± 8 years (mean ± SD), BMI was 40. 0 ± 5.0 kg/m2, EQ-5D-derived health utility score was 0.85 ± 0.13, and VAS-reported quality-of-life was 0.67 ± 0.18. At 6 months follow-up, BMI decreased by 7.0 ± 3.2 kg/m2, EQ-5D increased by 0.06 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.06 – 0.17), and VAS increased by 0.14 (IQR 0.04 – 0.23). In multivariate analyses, improvement in EQ-5D and VAS were associated with lower baseline BMI, greater reduction in BMI at follow-up, fewer baseline comorbidities, and lower baseline HRQL. For any given BMI category, EQ-5D and VAS tended to be higher at follow-up than at baseline. Conclusion Measured improvements in HRQL between baseline and follow-up were greater than predicted by the reduction in BMI at follow-up. If investigators use cross-sectional data to estimate changes in HRQL as a function of BMI, they will underestimate the improvement in HRQL associated with weight loss and underestimate the cost-utility of interventions for obesity treatment. PMID:24129672

  7. The Impact of Diabetes-Related Complications on Preference-Based Measures of Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Type I Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Peasgood, Tessa; Brennan, Alan; Mansell, Peter; Elliott, Jackie; Basarir, Hasan; Kruger, Jen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study estimates health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or utility decrements associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using data from a UK research program on the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) education program. Methods. A wide range of data was collected from 2341 individuals who undertook a DAFNE course in 2009–2012, at baseline and for 2 subsequent years. We use fixed- and random-effects linear models to generate utility estimates for T1DM using different instruments: EQ-5D, SF-6D, and EQ-VAS. We show models with and without controls for HbA1c and depression, which may be endogenous (if, for example, there is reverse causality in operation). Results. We find strong evidence of an unobserved individual effect, suggesting the superiority of the fixed-effects model. Depression shows the greatest decrement across all the models in the preferred fixed-effects model. The fixed-effects EQ-5D model also finds a significant decrement from retinopathy, body mass index, and HbA1c (%). Estimating a decrement using the fixed-effects model is not possible for some conditions where there are few new cases. In the random-effects model, diabetic foot disease shows substantial utility decrements, yet these are not significant in the fixed-effects models. Conclusion. Utility decrements have been calculated for a wide variety of health states in T1DM that can be used in economic analyses. However, despite the large data set, the low incidence of several complications leads to uncertainty in calculating the utility weights. Depression and diabetic foot disease result in a substantial loss in HRQoL for patients with T1DM. HbA1c (%) appears to have an independent negative impact on HRQoL, although concerns remain regarding the potential endogeneity of this variable. PMID:27553209

  8. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  9. Estimate of Impact on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Thai People by the Provision of Dentures through the Royal Project

    PubMed Central

    Korwanich, Narumanas; Jienmaneechotchai, Sutha; Dalodom, Supranee; Veerachai, Nontalee; Vejvitee, Warangkana; Roseman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the impact of the provision of dentures to Thai older people by the Royal Project on their oral health-related quality of life. Methods. A purposive cross-sectional study of a sample of 812 subjects was conducted. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) measure was used to assess the oral health-related quality of life. Results. Four groups of older people with different tooth types were studied. 216 (26.6%) had natural teeth (NT). 189 (23.3%) had natural and replaced teeth (NRT). 167 (20.6%) had below the minimum number of teeth but had no dentures (Edent) and 240 were edentate with complete dentures provided by the Royal Project (ECD) (29.6%). Overall, 36.5% had at least one oral impact. Eating was the most affected oral impact. When compared to the group with natural teeth (NT), the Edent group was significantly more likely to report having impacts on eating OR = 6.5 (3.9–10.9), speaking clearly OR = 43.7 (12.7–15.07), emotional stability OR = 16.5 (6.0–45.6), and social contacts OR = 4.6 (2.2–9.5) (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Those who are edentulous are much more likely to have an oral impact on their daily performances than those provided dentures. Provision of dentures may lead to improvement of considerable oral impacts. PMID:27528873

  10. Estimate of Impact on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Thai People by the Provision of Dentures through the Royal Project.

    PubMed

    Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Jienmaneechotchai, Sutha; Dalodom, Supranee; Veerachai, Nontalee; Vejvitee, Warangkana; Roseman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the impact of the provision of dentures to Thai older people by the Royal Project on their oral health-related quality of life. Methods. A purposive cross-sectional study of a sample of 812 subjects was conducted. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) measure was used to assess the oral health-related quality of life. Results. Four groups of older people with different tooth types were studied. 216 (26.6%) had natural teeth (NT). 189 (23.3%) had natural and replaced teeth (NRT). 167 (20.6%) had below the minimum number of teeth but had no dentures (Edent) and 240 were edentate with complete dentures provided by the Royal Project (ECD) (29.6%). Overall, 36.5% had at least one oral impact. Eating was the most affected oral impact. When compared to the group with natural teeth (NT), the Edent group was significantly more likely to report having impacts on eating OR = 6.5 (3.9-10.9), speaking clearly OR = 43.7 (12.7-15.07), emotional stability OR = 16.5 (6.0-45.6), and social contacts OR = 4.6 (2.2-9.5) (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Those who are edentulous are much more likely to have an oral impact on their daily performances than those provided dentures. Provision of dentures may lead to improvement of considerable oral impacts.

  11. Estimate of Impact on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Thai People by the Provision of Dentures through the Royal Project.

    PubMed

    Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Jienmaneechotchai, Sutha; Dalodom, Supranee; Veerachai, Nontalee; Vejvitee, Warangkana; Roseman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the impact of the provision of dentures to Thai older people by the Royal Project on their oral health-related quality of life. Methods. A purposive cross-sectional study of a sample of 812 subjects was conducted. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) measure was used to assess the oral health-related quality of life. Results. Four groups of older people with different tooth types were studied. 216 (26.6%) had natural teeth (NT). 189 (23.3%) had natural and replaced teeth (NRT). 167 (20.6%) had below the minimum number of teeth but had no dentures (Edent) and 240 were edentate with complete dentures provided by the Royal Project (ECD) (29.6%). Overall, 36.5% had at least one oral impact. Eating was the most affected oral impact. When compared to the group with natural teeth (NT), the Edent group was significantly more likely to report having impacts on eating OR = 6.5 (3.9-10.9), speaking clearly OR = 43.7 (12.7-15.07), emotional stability OR = 16.5 (6.0-45.6), and social contacts OR = 4.6 (2.2-9.5) (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Those who are edentulous are much more likely to have an oral impact on their daily performances than those provided dentures. Provision of dentures may lead to improvement of considerable oral impacts. PMID:27528873

  12. Does a Change in Health Research Funding Policy Related to the Integration of Sex and Gender Have an Impact?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joy; Sharman, Zena; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Stewart, Donna E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a requirement introduced in December 2010 that all applicants to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research indicate whether their research designs accounted for sex or gender. We aimed to inform research policy by understanding the extent to which applicants across health research disciplines accounted for sex and gender. We conducted a descriptive statistical analysis to identify trends in application data from three research funding competitions (December 2010, June 2011, and December 2011) (N = 1459). We also conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of applicants' responses. Here we show that the proportion of applicants responding affirmatively to the questions on sex and gender increased over time (48% in December 2011, compared to 26% in December 2010). Biomedical researchers were least likely to report accounting for sex and gender. Analysis by discipline-specific peer review panel showed variation in the likelihood that a given panel will fund grants with a stated focus on sex or gender. These findings suggest that mandatory questions are one way of encouraging the uptake of sex and gender in health research, yet there remain persistent disparities across disciplines. These disparities represent opportunities for policy intervention by health research funders. PMID:24964040

  13. Does a change in health research funding policy related to the integration of sex and gender have an impact?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joy; Sharman, Zena; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Stewart, Donna E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a requirement introduced in December 2010 that all applicants to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research indicate whether their research designs accounted for sex or gender. We aimed to inform research policy by understanding the extent to which applicants across health research disciplines accounted for sex and gender. We conducted a descriptive statistical analysis to identify trends in application data from three research funding competitions (December 2010, June 2011, and December 2011) (N = 1459). We also conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of applicants' responses. Here we show that the proportion of applicants responding affirmatively to the questions on sex and gender increased over time (48% in December 2011, compared to 26% in December 2010). Biomedical researchers were least likely to report accounting for sex and gender. Analysis by discipline-specific peer review panel showed variation in the likelihood that a given panel will fund grants with a stated focus on sex or gender. These findings suggest that mandatory questions are one way of encouraging the uptake of sex and gender in health research, yet there remain persistent disparities across disciplines. These disparities represent opportunities for policy intervention by health research funders.

  14. [Impact of the crisis on the relationship between housing and health. Policies for good practice to reduce inequalities in health related to housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana M; Bosch, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Malmusi, Davide; Darnell, Mercè; Trilla, Carme

    2014-06-01

    Housing conditions can impact on physical and mental health through 4 interrelated dimensions: 1) the home (the emotional housing conditions), 2) the physical housing conditions, and 3) the physical environment, and 4) the social (community) environment of the neighborhood where the house is located. In Spain, the use of the construction market as an engine for economic growth and the promotion of private property as the main type of housing tenure has led to the use of housing as a speculative good instead of its being considered a first-necessity good. While Spain is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the largest housing stock per inhabitant, this stock is highly underutilized, thus excluding the most deprived sector of the population from access to housing. The impact of the current economic crisis on housing has mainly been due to a reduction in household income, which has increased the number of families or persons struggling to cover their housing costs or being evicted. Evidence indicates that this type of problem has a negative impact on health, especially on mental health, but financial problems also make it difficult to meet other basic needs such as eating. There are several instruments to reduce the impact of the economic crisis, such as debt financing or deed of assignment in payment. In the long-term, the creation of a social housing stock should be promoted, as well as rental assistance mechanisms. PMID:24863993

  15. [Impact of the crisis on the relationship between housing and health. Policies for good practice to reduce inequalities in health related to housing conditions].

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana M; Bosch, Jordi; Díaz, Fernando; Malmusi, Davide; Darnell, Mercè; Trilla, Carme

    2014-06-01

    Housing conditions can impact on physical and mental health through 4 interrelated dimensions: 1) the home (the emotional housing conditions), 2) the physical housing conditions, and 3) the physical environment, and 4) the social (community) environment of the neighborhood where the house is located. In Spain, the use of the construction market as an engine for economic growth and the promotion of private property as the main type of housing tenure has led to the use of housing as a speculative good instead of its being considered a first-necessity good. While Spain is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country with the largest housing stock per inhabitant, this stock is highly underutilized, thus excluding the most deprived sector of the population from access to housing. The impact of the current economic crisis on housing has mainly been due to a reduction in household income, which has increased the number of families or persons struggling to cover their housing costs or being evicted. Evidence indicates that this type of problem has a negative impact on health, especially on mental health, but financial problems also make it difficult to meet other basic needs such as eating. There are several instruments to reduce the impact of the economic crisis, such as debt financing or deed of assignment in payment. In the long-term, the creation of a social housing stock should be promoted, as well as rental assistance mechanisms.

  16. Impact of fluticasone propionate powder on health-related quality of life in patients with moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P; Okamoto, L J; Schaberg, A; Kellerman, D; Schoenwetter, W F

    1997-01-01

    Because biological indicators alone do not adequately represent the comprehensive health status of a patient with asthma, we also assessed patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (FP). A total of 342 patients with moderate asthma were treated twice daily for 12 weeks with FP powder (50, 100, or 250 micrograms) or placebo. At regular intervals, patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, acute version (SF-36A), a general health status questionnaire measuring eight dimensions of HRQOL; the 20-item Living with Asthma (LWA-20) questionnaire, a disease-specific instrument measuring HRQOL; and three additional questions related to sleep loss and number of nighttime awakenings. Each of the three FP groups compared with placebo had significantly higher scores at study endpoint on the Physical Functioning (p < 0.001) and Role-Physical (p < or = 0.0001) dimensions of the SF-36A; the FP 100- or 250-micrograms groups compared with placebo also had significantly higher scores on General Health Perceptions (p < 0.03), Vitality (p < 0.007), and Mental Health (p < 0.02). At endpoint, all three FP groups compared with placebo had significantly better scores on the LWA questionnaire (p < 0.05) and on the sleep-related items (p < 0.0001). These data, collected using both a general health status questionnaire and an asthma-specific questionnaire, demonstrate that fluticasone propionate powder can improve HRQOL in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. PMID:9168850

  17. The Impacts of Traffic-Related and Woodsmoke Particulate Matter on Measures of Cardiovascular Health: A HEPA Filter Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Brauer, Michael; Karlen, Barbara; Carlsten, Chris; van Eeden, Stephan; Allen, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Combustion-generated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Both traffic-related air pollution and residential wood combustion may be important, but few studies have compared their impacts. Objectives To assess and compare effects of traffic-related and woodsmoke PM2.5 on endothelial function and systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and band cells) among healthy adults in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada using high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to introduce indoor PM2.5 exposure gradients. Methods We recruited 83 healthy adults from 44 homes in traffic- or woodsmoke-impacted areas to participate in this randomized, single-blind crossover intervention study. PM2.5 concentrations were measured during two consecutive 7-day periods, one with filtration and the other with “placebo filtration”. Endothelial function and biomarkers of systematic inflammation were measured at the end of each 7-day period. Results HEPA filtration was associated with a 40% decrease in indoor PM2.5 concentrations. There was no relationship between PM2.5 exposure and endothelial function. There was evidence of an association between indoor PM2.5 and C-reactive protein among those in traffic-impacted locations [42.1% increase in C-reactive protein per interquartile range increase in indoor PM2.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 99.5] but not among those in woodsmoke-impacted locations. There were no associations with interleukin-6 or band cells. Conclusions Evidence of an association between C-reactive protein and indoor PM2.5 among healthy adults in traffic-impacted areas is consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related particles, even at relatively low concentrations, play an important role in the cardiovascular effects of the urban PM mixture. Trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01570062) PMID:25896330

  18. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  19. Health-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham

    2009-04-01

    The concept of stigma, denoting relations of shame, has a long ancestry and has from the earliest times been associated with deviations from the 'normal', including, in various times and places, deviations from normative prescriptions of acceptable states of being for self and others. This paper dwells on modern social formations and offers conceptual and theoretical pointers towards a more convincing contemporary sociology of health-related stigma. It starts with an appreciation and critique of Goffman's benchmark sensitisation and traces his influence on the personal tragedy or deviance paradigm dominant in the medical sociology from the 1970s. To allow for the development of an argument, the focus here is on specific types of disorder--principally, epilepsy and HIV--rather than the research literature as a whole. Brief and critical consideration is given to attempts to operationalise or otherwise 'measure' health-related stigma. The advocacy of a rival oppression paradigm by disability theorists from the 1980s, notably through re-workings of the social model of disability, is addressed. It is suggested that we are now in a position to learn and move on from this paradigm 'clash'. A re-framing of notions of relations of stigma, signalling shame, and relations of deviance, signalling blame, is proposed. This framework, and the positing of a variable and changing dynamic between cultural norms of shame and blame--always embedded in social structures of class, command, gender, ethnicity and so on--is utilised to explore recent approaches to health stigma reduction programmes. PMID:19366430

  20. The relative impact of a vegetable-rich diet on key markers of health in a cohort of Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ross; Bilgin, Ayse; Zeuschner, Carol; Guy, Trish; Pearce, Robyn; Hokin, Bevan; Ashton, John

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a widespread health problem in Australia. Overweight in childhood can lead to adult overweight and the development of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective strategies for reducing childhood obesity are urgently required. A vegetarian diet has been shown to be an effective prophylactic to many lifestyle diseases in the adult population and may therefore be beneficial in children. However the metabolic demands of adolescents are different to adults and the impact of a vegetarian diet on CVD markers in this demographic is not certain. We compared key physiological and biochemical markers of health against responses to a modified, Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) using one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance. 215 adolescents (14-15 yrs) from 5 Adventist secondary schools in the Sydney and Hunter regions of New South Wales, Australia, participated in this study. Adolescents consuming predominantly vegetarian foods showed significantly better scores on markers of cardiovascular health, including, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, Cholesterol/High density lipoprotein ratio and low density lipoprotein. Adolescents consuming nuts more than once per week, also showed lower scores for BMI and serum glucose irrespective of their vegetarian status. Markers of general health including haemoglobin and average height were not different between groups; however a lower serum level of vitamin B12 was apparent in the vegetarian cohort. Surprisingly, exercise on its own was not statistically associated with any of the risk factors tested suggesting that diet may be the most significant factor in promoting health in this age group.

  1. Understanding the relative valuation of research impact: a best–worst scaling experiment of the general public and biomedical and health researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Alexandra; Potoglou, Dimitris; Patil, Sunil; Burge, Peter; Guthrie, Susan; King, Suzanne; Wooding, Steven; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To test the use of best–worst scaling (BWS) experiments in valuing different types of biomedical and health research impact, and (2) to explore how different types of research impact are valued by different stakeholder groups. Design Survey-based BWS experiment and discrete choice modelling. Setting The UK. Participants Current and recent UK Medical Research Council grant holders and a representative sample of the general public recruited from an online panel. Results In relation to the study's 2 objectives: (1) we demonstrate the application of BWS methodology in the quantitative assessment and valuation of research impact. (2) The general public and researchers provided similar valuations for research impacts such as improved life expectancy, job creation and reduced health costs, but there was less agreement between the groups on other impacts, including commercial capacity development, training and dissemination. Conclusions This is the second time that a discrete choice experiment has been used to assess how the general public and researchers value different types of research impact, and the first time that BWS has been used to elicit these choices. While the 2 groups value different research impacts in different ways, we note that where they agree, this is generally about matters that are seemingly more important and associated with wider social benefit, rather than impacts occurring within the research system. These findings are a first step in exploring how the beneficiaries and producers of research value different kinds of impact, an important consideration given the growing emphasis on funding and assessing research on the basis of (potential) impact. Future research should refine and replicate both the current study and that of Miller et al in other countries and disciplines. PMID:27540096

  2. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  3. Health-related quality of life in children with sickle cell anemia: impact of blood transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Beverung, Lauren M; Strouse, John J; Hulbert, Monica L; Neville, Kathleen; Liem, Robert I; Inusa, Baba; Fuh, Beng; King, Allison; Meier, Emily Riehm; Casella, James; DeBaun, Michael R; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-02-01

    The completion of the Multicenter Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial demonstrated that children with pre-existing silent cerebral infarct and sickle cell anemia (SCA) who received regular blood transfusion therapy had a 58% relative risk reduction of infarct recurrence when compared to observation. However, the total benefit of blood transfusion therapy, as assessed by the parents, was not measured against the burden of monthly blood transfusion therapy. In this planned ancillary study, we tested the hypothesis that a patient centered outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQL), would be greater in participants randomly assigned to the blood transfusion therapy group than the observation group. A total of 89% (175 of 196) of the randomly allocated participants had evaluable entry and exit HRQL evaluations. The increase in Change in Health, measured as the child's health being better, was significantly greater for the transfusion group than the observation group (difference estimate = -0.54, P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first evidence that children with SCA who received regular blood transfusion therapy felt better and had better overall HRQL than those who did not receive transfusion therapy.

  4. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized. PMID:26134739

  5. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  6. The impact of comorbidity on health-related quality of life in elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Efficace, F; Rosti, G; Breccia, M; Cottone, F; Giesinger, J M; Stagno, F; Iurlo, A; Russo Rossi, A; Luciano, L; Martino, B; Galimberti, S; Turri, D; Bergamaschi, M; Tiribelli, M; Fava, C; Angelucci, E; Mandelli, F; Baccarani, M

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbidities was associated with a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). A sample of 174 CML patients aged 60 years or above was analyzed. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). A number of pre-selected sociodemographic and disease-related factors were considered as potential confounding factors for the association between comorbidity and HRQOL. Mean age of the 174 patients analyzed was 70 years (range 60-87 years) and 55 % were male. Overall, 111 patients (64 %) reported at least one comorbidity. Analysis stratified by age group category showed a greater proportion of patients with comorbidities in the older sub-group population (≥70 years) compared to younger patients (60 to 69 years). Differences in HRQOL outcomes between patients with no comorbidity at all and those with two or more comorbid conditions were at least twice the magnitude of a clinically meaningful difference in all the physical and mental health scales of the SF-36. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for key confounding factors, the following scales were significantly lower in those with comorbidity: general health (p < 0.001), bodily pain (p < 0.001), physical functioning (p = 0.002), and vitality (p = 0.002). Assessing comorbidity in elderly patients with CML is important to facilitate identification of those most in need of HRQOL improvements. PMID:26546359

  7. Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy A.; Kohli, Anjalee; Remy, Mitima Mpanano

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. Methods The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP), on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. Findings The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64) traumatic events (range 0–18). Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66range 0–4) and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD  = 0·49, range 0–3.47). The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021) and depression (p = 0·002) symptom models. Interpretation The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708 PMID

  8. Use of antacids in a general population: the impact of health-related variables, lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Furu, K; Straume, B

    1999-06-01

    Self-medication with antacids is very common in patients with less severe forms of dyspepsia, but we know very little about the users of antacids and their incentive to take them. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between self-reported use of antacids and health-related variables, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics in order to characterize the use of antacids in a general population. The use of antacids was assessed by a questionnaire answered by men and women aged 20-62 years (n = 15,986; response rate 75.9%). Logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the relationships between the use of antacids and health-related variables, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics. Approximately 10% of the population had used antacids during the preceding 14 days. There was no overall gender difference. Among those who had no dyspeptic symptoms, 1.5% reported use of antacids, whereas among those who had all three dyspeptic symptoms (heartburn, epigastric pain, peptic ulcer), 46.5% had used antacids. Heartburn was the most important predictor for antacid use in both men (odds ratio [OR] = 8.57 [6.65-11.04]) and women (OR = 9.35 [7.16-12.221) followed by self-reported epigastric pain and peptic ulcer (both: OR = approximately 2). The importance of these self-reported health conditions remained unchanged after adjusting for lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. There were fewer antacid users among unmarried women than married women, and coffee-drinking was inversely associated with antacid use. These findings were consistent in both bivariate and multivariate analysis. The present study provides population-based information showing that self-medication with antacids in Norway appeared to be appropriate. Because dyspeptic symptoms play a major role in the consumption of antacids, this study shows the importance of including information about specific clinical variables in the analysis and interpretation of patterns of drug use.

  9. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  10. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.

  11. Clinical status in adolescents: is its impact on oral health-related quality of life influenced by psychological characteristics?

    PubMed

    Foster Page, Lyndie A; Thomson, W Murray; Ukra, Ali; Baker, Sarah R

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine, using structural equation modelling, the relationships among clinical characteristics (such as caries experience and malocclusion), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and psychological characteristics (mental health, self-esteem, somatisation, and social perception of body image) in adolescents in New Zealand. Adolescents were examined for malocclusion using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and for dental caries. Among the 353 (58.8%) 12- and 13-yr-old adolescents who took part in this cross-sectional study, the overall mean ± SD decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (DMFS) value was 1.6 ± 3.0, with slightly more than 50% of being caries-free; the mean ± SD DAI was 31.5 ± 7.6, with one-quarter of subjects having a 'handicapping' malocclusion. The structural equation modelling analysis showed that the structural model was a good fit to the data. As hypothesized, the DAI score significantly predicted OHRQoL. There was no direct relationship between caries experience (DMFS) and OHRQoL, but there was an indirect effect of DMFS on OHRQoL mediated through psychological characteristics. The amount of OHRQoL variance accounted for in the model was substantial, at 62%. It appears that investigating OHRQoL in adolescents is not straightforward; while malocclusion directly affects OHRQoL, the influence of dental caries experience is less direct.

  12. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  13. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters.

  14. Public health impact of large airports.

    PubMed

    Passchier, W; Knottnerus, A; Albering, H; Walda, I

    2000-01-01

    Large airports with the related infrastructure, businesses and industrial activities affect the health of the population living, travelling and working in the surroundings of or at the airport. The employment and contributions to economy from the airport and related operations are expected to have a beneficial effect, which, however, is difficult to quantify. More pertinent data are available on the, largely negative, health effects of environmental factors, such as air and soil pollution, noise, accident risk, and landscape changes. Information on the concurrent and cumulative impact of these factors is lacking, but is of primary relevance for public health policy. A committee of the Health Council of The Netherlands recently reviewed the data on the health impact of large airports. It was concluded that, generally, integrated health assessments are not available. Such assessments, as part of sustainable mobility policy, should accompany the further development of the global aviation system.

  15. Development of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion: part 1 – qualitative inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neil; Hodges, Samantha J.; Hall, Melanie; Benson, Philip E.; Marshman, Zoe; Cunningham, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To seek the views of adolescents with malocclusion about how the appearance and arrangement of their teeth affects their everyday life and to incorporate these views into a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 30 young people (10–16 years) referred for orthodontic treatment to two dental teaching hospitals. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Several themes and sub themes were identified and these were used to identify items to include in the new measure. Results: Three themes emerged which were: concerns about the appearance of their teeth, effect on social interactions and oral health/function. Participants expressed the view that their teeth did not look normal, causing them embarrassment and a lack of confidence, particularly when they were with their peers or having their photograph taken. Concerns regarding the potential effect of a malocclusion on oral health, in terms of food becoming stuck between crooked teeth, interferences when chewing and increased risk of damaging the teeth were also identified. The themes were used to generate individual items for inclusion in the questionnaire. Conclusions: Common themes relating to the impact of malocclusion on the lives of young people were identified and generated items for the new MIQ to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion. Part 2 outlines the further development and testing of the MIQ. PMID:26747334

  16. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration.

    PubMed

    Myers, Samuel S; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D; Ostfeld, Richard S; Redford, Kent H; Ricketts, Taylor H; Turner, Will R; Osofsky, Steven A

    2013-11-19

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth's natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms.

  17. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms. PMID:24218556

  18. Relating health and climate impacts to grid-scale emissions using adjoint sensitivity modeling for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henze, D. K.; Lacey, F.; Seltzer, M.; Vallack, H.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Anenberg, S.; Sasser, E.; Lee, C. J.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) was initiated in 2012 to develop, understand and promote measures to reduce short lived climate forcers such as aerosol, ozone and methane. The Coalition now includes over 30 nations, and as a service to these nations is committed to providing a decision support toolkit that allows member nations to explore the benefits of a range of emissions mitigation measures in terms of the combined impacts on air quality and climate and so help in the development of their National Action Plans. Here we will present recent modeling work to support the development of the CCAC National Action Plans toolkit. Adjoint sensitivity analysis is presented as a means of efficiently relating air quality, climate and crop impacts back to changes in emissions from each species, sector and location at the grid-scale resolution of typical global air quality model applications. The GEOS-Chem adjoint model is used to estimate the damages per ton of emissions of PM2.5 related mortality, the impacts of ozone precursors on crops and ozone-related health effects, and the combined impacts of these species on regional surface temperature changes. We show how the benefits-per-emission vary spatially as a function of the surrounding environment, and how this impacts the overall benefit of sector-specific control strategies. We present initial findings for Bangladesh, as well as Mexico, Ghana and Colombia, some of the first countries to join the CCAC, and discuss general issues related to adjoint-based metrics for quantifying air quality and climate co-benefits.

  19. Impact of changes in physical activity on health-related quality of life among patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Esteban, C; Quintana, J M; Aburto, M; Moraza, J; Egurrola, M; Pérez-Izquierdo, J; Aizpiri, S; Aguirre, U; Capelastegui, A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in regular physical activity (PA) affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 611 patients (mean age 67.2+/-8.4 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 49.7+/-14.6) completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36) questionnaire. PA, defined as patients' self-reported regular walking times, was classified as low, moderate and high. After 5 yrs, 391 survivors completed these instruments again. After adjustment for relevant confounders, patients who reported low PA at baseline and who increased their PA over the study period improved their SGRQ and CRQ scores by 15.9 and 8.7 points, respectively. Patients who moved from moderate to high PA improved their SGRQ scores by 18.4 and their CRQ scores by 14.8. Slightly smaller increases were observed for patients who maintained a high level of PA throughout the study period. Maintaining a low level of PA or decreasing PA over the study period was associated with a significant HRQoL decline. Among COPD patients, a reduction in time spent engaging in PA or maintaining a low level may impair HRQoL, whereas an increase in PA can improve HRQoL parameters.

  20. Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes – The Impact of Gender, Age, and Health-Related Functioning on Eating Disorder Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of eating disorder psychopathology in adolescent males and females with type 1 diabetes. Method A total of 105 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (42% males), aged 12–20 years, were recruited from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry in this population-based study. All participants were interviewed with the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Additionally, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire were administered to assess health-related functioning. Clinical data were obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Significant gender differences were demonstrated in the pattern of correlates of eating disorder pathology. Among females, eating disorder psychopathology was significantly associated with body mass index adjusted for age and gender, age, insulin restriction, coping, illness perceptions, and perceptions of insulin concern. In a regression model, age, illness perceptions, and insulin restriction remained significantly associated with eating disorder psychopathology, explaining 48% of the variance. None of the variables were associated with eating disorder psychopathology among males. Discussion Greater clinical awareness of illness perceptions, attitudes toward insulin, and insulin restriction may potentially decrease the risk of developing eating disorders among female adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and the subsequent increased morbidity and mortality associated with comorbid type 1 diabetes and eating disorders. PMID:26529593

  1. Health impacts of large dams

    SciTech Connect

    Lerer, L.B.; Scudder, T.

    1999-03-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects.

  2. Impact of dental treatment under general anesthesia on the oral health-related quality of life of adolescents and adults with special needs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Patton, Lauren L; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the perception of the family's primary caregiver on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and the impact on family dynamics, of dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) in adolescent and adult patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and neurocognitive disorders. Self-administered questionnaires were completed, before dental treatment, by 116 primary family caregivers of patients who received dental treatment under GA, and 102 (88%) of these caregivers completed the same questionnaires within 4 wk after treatment. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) and the Family Impact Scale (FIS) were shortened to a 14-item COHIP (COHIP-14) and a 12-item FIS (FIS-12) based on the limitations of patients' communication. The COHIP-14 and FIS-12 scores and each subscale improved after treatment. The baseline scores varied based on certain characteristics of the patients, such as age, disabilities, medications, caregivers, meal types, cooperation levels, and treatment needs. The postoperative improvement in OHRQoL was significant in the patients who were older than 30 yr of age, originally eating soft meals, displaying no or very low levels of cooperation, or receiving endodontic treatment. Based on the primary caregiver perceptions, the OHRQoL of adolescents and adults with IDD and neurocognitive disorders was improved by dental treatment under GA.

  3. The public health impact of tsunami disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis have the potential to cause an enormous impact on the health of millions of people. During the last half of the twentieth century, more people were killed by tsunamis than by earthquakes. Most recently, a major emergency response operation has been underway in northeast Japan following a devastating tsunami triggered by the biggest earthquake on record in Japan. This natural disaster has been described as the most expensive in world history. There are few resources in the public health literature that describe the characteristics and epidemiology of tsunami-related disasters, as a whole. This article reviews the phenomenology and impact of tsunamis as a significant public health hazard.

  4. Impact of a new sarco-osteopenia definition on health-related quality of life in a population-based cohort in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia has been shown to be a marker of falling; therefore, combining osteopenia and sarcopenia could identify a frailer, higher-fracture-risk population. We aimed to define sarco-osteopenia (SOP) in a population-based healthy young sample using both muscle functional and quantitative parameters and assessing the impact of this definition on health-related quality of life. A population sample of 304 patients aged 25-70 yr was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine (GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, UK), and their health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. SOP was defined as bone mineral density (BMD) -1 standard deviation (SD) and height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass -2 SD and/or grip strength -2 SD less than the mean values of 77 young individuals in the population sample (age: 25-39 yr). Our proposed SOP definition identifies 3-9% of the population older than 40 yr as sarco-osteopenic. These individuals also show markedly lower scores in the role-physical (p=0.01), vitality (p=0.03), and role-emotional (p=0.02) subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire. No difference in the quality of life was observed between osteopenic individuals and those with normal BMD. The new definition identifies a population with significant decrements in health-related quality of life. PMID:22071030

  5. Impact of a new sarco-osteopenia definition on health-related quality of life in a population-based cohort in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kull, Mart; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia has been shown to be a marker of falling; therefore, combining osteopenia and sarcopenia could identify a frailer, higher-fracture-risk population. We aimed to define sarco-osteopenia (SOP) in a population-based healthy young sample using both muscle functional and quantitative parameters and assessing the impact of this definition on health-related quality of life. A population sample of 304 patients aged 25-70 yr was analyzed with a Lunar DPX-IQ dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine (GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, UK), and their health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. SOP was defined as bone mineral density (BMD) -1 standard deviation (SD) and height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass -2 SD and/or grip strength -2 SD less than the mean values of 77 young individuals in the population sample (age: 25-39 yr). Our proposed SOP definition identifies 3-9% of the population older than 40 yr as sarco-osteopenic. These individuals also show markedly lower scores in the role-physical (p=0.01), vitality (p=0.03), and role-emotional (p=0.02) subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire. No difference in the quality of life was observed between osteopenic individuals and those with normal BMD. The new definition identifies a population with significant decrements in health-related quality of life.

  6. Pediatric allo-SCT for malignant and non-malignant diseases: impact on health-related quality of life outcomes.

    PubMed

    Oberg, J A; Bender, J G; Morris, E; Harrison, L; Basch, C E; Garvin, J H; Sands, S A; Cairo, M S

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was prospectively to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of 80 pediatric recipients of allo-SCT for malignant and non-malignant diseases. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess self-reported physical, emotional and social functioning of children 5 years old once, pre-allo-SCT and on days +100, +180, +365 and +730. Emotional and social functioning was stable pre-to-post-allo-SCT and comparable to the normative sample (P>0.05), and physical functioning was 17 points lower pre-allo-SCT (P0.01) with improved scores equivalent to the norms by day +730. Lower physical scores were reflected by 50-54% of children reporting difficulties with movement, strength, pain and fatigue. At baseline, children ages 5-7 reported lower social functioning (P<0.05) and patients with non-malignant disease reported better physical functioning (P<0.05). Emotional functioning in ages 8-12 improved over time (P<0.05). More than 50% of the participants were minority and their HRQOL was similar to non-minority participants. Physical functioning significantly improved for recipients of reduced-toxicity conditioning (P0.01), significantly worsened for patients with chronic GVHD (cGVHD; P<0.05), and significantly decreased in recipients of matched-unrelated donor transplant who developed cGVHD (P<0.05). Multidisciplinary efforts are necessary to identify and support pediatric patients' physical needs to improve functional outcomes.

  7. The Impact of Liver Cell Injury on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Yvonne; Grimm, Anna; Schlegel, Liesa; Grambihler, Annette; Kittner, Jens M.; Wiltink, Jörg; Galle, Peter R.; Wörns, Marcus A.; Schattenberg, Jörn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic liver disease often suffer from unspecific symptoms and report severe impairment in the quality of life. The underlying mechanisms are multifactorial and include disease-specific but also liver related causes. The current analysis evaluated the association of hepatocellular apoptosis in non-viral chronic liver disease and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Furthermore we examined factors, which influence patient's physical and mental well-being. Methods A total of 150 patients with non-infectious chronic liver disease were included between January 2014 and June 2015. The German version of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ-D), a liver disease specific instrument to assess HRQL, was employed. Hepatocellular apoptosis was determined by measuring Cytokeratin 18 (CK18, M30 Apoptosense ELISA). Results Female gender (5.24 vs. 5.54, p = 0.04), diabetes mellitus type II (4.75 vs. 5.46, p<0.001) and daily drug intake (5.24 vs. 6.01, p = 0.003) were associated with a significant impairment in HRQL. HRQL was not significantly different between the examined liver diseases. Levels of CK18 were the highest in patients with NASH compared to all other disease entities (p<0.001). Interestingly, CK18 exhibited significant correlations with obesity (p<0.001) and hyperlipidemia (p<0.001). In patients with cirrhosis levels of CK18 correlated with the MELD score (r = 0.18, p = 0.03) and were significantly higher compared to patients without existing cirrhosis (265.5 U/l vs. 186.9U/l, p = 0.047). Additionally, CK18 showed a significant correlation with the presence and the degree of hepatic fibrosis (p = 0.003) and inflammation (p<0.001) in liver histology. Finally, there was a small negative association between CLDQ and CK18 (r = -0.16, p = 0.048). Conclusion Different parameters are influencing HRQL and CK18 levels in chronic non-viral liver disease and the amount of hepatocellular apoptosis correlates with the impairment in HRQL in

  8. Prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and their impact on health-related quality of life, physical function and mental health in Portugal: results from EpiReumaPt– a national health survey

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Jaime C; Rodrigues, Ana M; Gouveia, Nélia; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro M; da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Laires, Pedro; Sepriano, Alexandre; Araújo, Filipe; Gonçalves, Sónia; Coelho, Pedro S; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Mendes, Jorge M; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the national prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) in the adult Portuguese population and to determine their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical function, anxiety and depression. Methods EpiReumaPt is a national health survey with a three-stage approach. First, 10 661 adult participants were randomly selected. Trained interviewers undertook structured face-to-face questionnaires that included screening for RMDs and assessments of health-related quality of life, physical function, anxiety and depression. Second, positive screenings for ≥1 RMD plus 20% negative screenings were invited to be evaluated by a rheumatologist. Finally, three rheumatologists revised all the information and confirmed the diagnoses according to validated criteria. Estimates were computed as weighted proportions, taking the sampling design into account. Results The disease-specific prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) of RMDs in the adult Portuguese population were: low back pain, 26.4% (23.3% to 29.5%); periarticular disease, 15.8% (13.5% to 18.0%); knee osteoarthritis (OA), 12.4% (11.0% to 13.8%); osteoporosis, 10.2% (9.0% to 11.3%); hand OA, 8.7% (7.5% to 9.9%); hip OA, 2.9% (2.3% to 3.6%); fibromyalgia, 1.7% (1.1% to 2.1%); spondyloarthritis, 1.6% (1.2% to 2.1%); gout, 1.3% (1.0% to 1.6%); rheumatoid arthritis, 0.7% (0.5% to 0.9%); systemic lupus erythaematosus, 0.1% (0.1% to 0.2%) and polymyalgia rheumatica, 0.1% (0.0% to 0.2%). After multivariable adjustment, participants with RMDs had significantly lower EQ5D scores (β=−0.09; p<0.001) and higher HAQ scores (β=0.13; p<0.001) than participants without RMDs. RMDs were also significantly associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms (OR=3.5; p=0.006). Conclusions RMDs are highly prevalent in Portugal and are associated not only with significant physical function and mental health impairment but also with poor HRQoL, leading to more health resource consumption. The Epi

  9. Self-Ligating Brackets and Their Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescence Patients: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, MinLing; Lin, Jiaqiang; Wang, Yi; Ni, Zhen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Although the associations between orthodontic and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) have been explored, little research has been done to address the influence of brackets type on perceived OHRQOL. The aim of this study was to assess whether the levels of OHRQOL in Chinese adolescence patients were influenced by the type of brackets. Materials and Methods. One hundred fifty Chinese orthodontic adolescence patients completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Chinese version) at five distinct intervals: after insertion of the fixed appliance at 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T4); and after treatment (T5). Results. Patients with self-ligating brackets were associated with less pain and discomfort at any intervals compared with conventional brackets, but no significant difference of overall OHIP-14 scores could be found between two groups. Moreover, in both groups, overall scores at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than the scores at any other intervals in both groups. Conclusions. The type of orthodontic appliance did not affect oral health-related quality of life in Chinese adolescence patients. PMID:25202720

  10. Impact of Untreated Traumatic Injuries to Anterior Teeth on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life As Assessed By Video Based Smiling Patterns in Children

    PubMed Central

    Golai, Shruti; Patil, Sandya Devi; Baali, Praveen; Kumar, Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the oral health status, oral health related quality of life and the evaluations of their smiles as assessed by the children, their parents, and through measurements of the children’s videotaped smiles and compare the smiling patterns in children suffering from untreated traumatic injuries to anterior teeth and control group. Materials and Methods Fifty eight children of the age 5–15 years of both sexes were selected for the study and categorized into experimental group and control group. The experimental group consisted of 29 children with untreated trauma to one or more anterior teeth while the control group consisted of 29 children with good oral health. Oral examination of all children was done to include in study groups. Children and parents participating in the study responded to two separate Oral Health Related Quality of Life questionnaires for children and parents respectively. The children were asked to watch a funny cartoon show and a video was made while the children watched the show. The video was cropped into still images at 25 predetermined points. Width and openness of the children’s mouth and number of teeth shown were measured during the taped sessions to assess the children’s video–based smiling patterns. Results The children’s self evaluation scores had statistically significant correlation with their smiling patterns, the number of traumatized teeth and the parental assessment of their children’s oral health. Children with trauma to anterior teeth had more impacts on their smiling pattern compared to control group. Conclusion Children suffering from trauma to anterior teeth had more effects on the emotions, the self confidence and social interaction than children without any traumatic injury. PMID:26266209

  11. Climate Change Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality in the Netherlands: A Scenario-Based Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Huynen, Maud M. T. E.; Martens, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Although people will most likely adjust to warmer temperatures, it is still difficult to assess what this adaptation will look like. This scenario-based integrated health impacts assessment explores baseline (1981–2010) and future (2050) population attributable fractions (PAF) of mortality due to heat (PAFheat) and cold (PAFcold), by combining observed temperature–mortality relationships with the Dutch KNMI’14 climate scenarios and three adaptation scenarios. The 2050 model results without adaptation reveal a decrease in PAFcold (8.90% at baseline; 6.56%–7.85% in 2050) that outweighs the increase in PAFheat (1.15% at baseline; 1.66%–2.52% in 2050). When the 2050 model runs applying the different adaptation scenarios are considered as well, however, the PAFheat ranges between 0.94% and 2.52% and the PAFcold between 6.56% and 9.85%. Hence, PAFheat and PAFcold can decrease as well as increase in view of climate change (depending on the adaptation scenario). The associated annual mortality burdens in 2050—accounting for both the increasing temperatures and mortality trend—show that heat-related deaths will range between 1879 and 5061 (1511 at baseline) and cold-related deaths between 13,149 and 19,753 (11,727 at baseline). Our results clearly illustrate that model outcomes are not only highly dependent on climate scenarios, but also on adaptation assumptions. Hence, a better understanding of (the impact of various) plausible adaptation scenarios is required to advance future integrated health impact assessments. PMID:26512680

  12. Impact of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder on functional outcome and health-related quality of life of patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Scholten, Annemieke C; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Vos, Pieter E; Van Beeck, Ed F; Polinder, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    The impact of disability following traumatic brain injury (TBI), assessed by functional measurement scales for TBI or by health-related quality of life (HRQoL), may vary because of a number of factors, including presence of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and impact of depression and PTSD on functional outcome and HRQoL six and 12 months following mild TBI. We selected a sample of 1919 TBI patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) followed by either hospital admission or discharge to the home environment. The sample received postal questionnaires six and 12 months after treatment at the ED. The questionnaires included items regarding socio-demographics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Perceived Quality of Life Scale (PQoL), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. A total of 797 (42%) TBI patients completed the six-month follow-up survey. Depression and PTSD prevalence rates at both the six- and 12-month follow-up were 7% and 9%, respectively. Living alone was an independent predictor of depression and/or PTSD at six- and 12-month follow-up. Depression and PTSD were associated with a significantly decreased functional outcome (measured with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended) and HRQoL (measured using the SF-36 and the PQoL). We conclude that depression and/or PTSD are relatively common in our sample of TBI patients and associated with a considerable decrease in functional outcome and HRQoL.

  13. Variation in Estimated Ozone-Related Health Impacts of Climate Change due to Modeling Choices and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Ellen S.; Grambsch, A.; Weaver, C. P.; Morefield, Philip; Huang, Jin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Adams, P. J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Zhu, J.; Mahoney, Hardee

    2012-11-01

    Future climate change may cause air quality degradation via climate-induced changes in meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and emissions into the air. Few studies have explicitly modeled the potential relationships between climate change, air quality, and human health, and fewer still have investigated the sensitivity of estimates to the underlying modeling choices.

  14. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars), and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated) water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation). This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter social and environmental

  15. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-01-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects. PMID:11359687

  16. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-05-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects.

  17. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S M; Samet, J M; Grambsch, A; Ebi, K L; Romieu, I

    2001-05-01

    Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. Local temperature, precipitation, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, and wind direction influence atmospheric chemical processes, and interactions occur between local and global-scale environments. If the climate becomes warmer and more variable, air quality is likely to be affected. However, the specific types of change (i.e., local, regional, or global), the direction of change in a particular location (i.e., positive or negative), and the magnitude of change in air quality that may be attributable to climate change are a matter of speculation, based on extrapolating present understanding to future scenarios. There is already extensive evidence on the health effects of air pollution. Ground-level ozone can exacerbate chronic respiratory diseases and cause short-term reductions in lung function. Exposure to particulate matter can aggravate chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, alter host defenses, damage lung tissue, lead to premature death, and possibly contribute to cancer. Health effects of exposures to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide can include reduced work capacity, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases, effects on pulmonary function, respiratory illnesses, lung irritation, and alterations in the lung's defense systems. Adaptations to climate change should include ensuring responsiveness of air quality protection programs to changing pollution levels. Research needs include basic atmospheric science work on the association between weather and air pollutants; improving air pollution models and their linkage with climate change scenarios; and closing gaps in the understanding of exposure patterns and health effects. PMID:11359687

  18. Interceptive orthodontic treatment in bullied adolescents and its impact on self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Seehra, Jadbinder; Newton, J T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to measure the self-reported frequency and severity of bullying in orthodontic patients previously identified as being bullied, who have commenced interceptive orthodontic treatment, and to investigate the effect on an individual's self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Forty-three adolescents previously identified as being bullied due to the presence of a malocclusion were invited to take part in a follow-up study following commencement of orthodontic treatment at three UK Hospitals. Validated questionnaires were used to assess the self-reported frequency and severity of bullying, self-esteem and OHRQoL. The participation rate at follow-up was 63 per cent. Following commencement of orthodontic treatment, 21 (78 per cent) participants reported they were currently no longer being bullied due to the presence of their malocclusion. In comparison to their pre-treatment scores, participants reported fewer functional limitations (P = 0.013), decreased emotional (P < 0.001) and social impact (P < 0.001), and improved overall oral health (P = 0.03) and OHRQoL (P = 0.002). In addition, an improvement in functional limitations (P = 0.021), emotional (P = 0.008), social impact (P = 0.008) and OHRQoL (P = 0.02) was reported by participants who were no longer being bullied in comparison to those who continued to report bullying. There appears to be no effect on an individual's self-esteem. Orthodontic treatment may have a positive effect on adolescents experiencing bullying related to their malocclusion and their OHRQoL.

  19. Reducing the Impact of Temptation Cues on Health-Related Goal Cognitions among College Student Cigarette Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisserson, Rebecca N.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is an increasing problem among college-age individuals. Despite having the desire to quit smoking, many students are unable to achieve this goal. One factor that contributes to difficulties in the self-control of smoking is the effect of temptation contexts on the valuation of goals related to smoking cessation. Contextual cues may…

  20. Impact of human papillomavirus-related genital diseases on quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing: results of an observational, health-related quality of life study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases other than cervical cancer are scarce. The objectives of this study were to measure and compare the psychosocial burden and the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HPV-related lower genital tract diseases and genital warts (GW) using several generic and disease-specific instruments. Methods Overall, 842 individuals with normal cervical cytology (n = 241), borderline nuclear abnormalities and/or mild dyskaryosis (n = 23), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 (n = 84), CIN2/3 (n = 203), vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN)2/3 (n = 43), GW (n = 186) and a history of GW (non-current) (n = 62) were included. The generic European Quality of Life Index Version 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire was completed by patients with GW and VIN2/3. Sexual functioning was evaluated using the Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ). Psychosocial impact was measured in women using the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) questionnaire. HRQoL was assessed using a GW-specific questionnaire, the Cuestionario Especifico en Condilomas Acuminados (CECA) (completed by patients with GW and history of GW). For each instrument, scores were compared between groups using the Student's t-test. In addition, utility loss due to GW and VIN2/3 was evaluated by comparing mean EQ-5D scores weighted by age and sex with the UK general population normal values. Results A significant psychosocial impact was found in women diagnosed with HPV-related genital diseases, particularly in those with GW. The health state of younger adults with GW was significantly impaired compared with UK normal values (mean EQ-5D index score 0.86 vs 0.94, p < 0.001 for 18–24-year-olds; 0.87 vs 0.93, p = 0.030 for 25–34-year-olds). VIN2/3 was found to have a significant negative impact on sexual functioning, and women with VIN2/3 had a highly impaired health state compared with women in the

  1. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Mays, Nicholas; Pleasant, Andrew; Walt, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. Methods The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. Results We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Conclusion Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive categories that helped them

  2. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-03-21

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed.

  3. Treatment Options for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Budget Impact Analysis from the Perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva; da Silva, Everton Nunes; Belfort, Rubens; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that causes reduced visual acuity and blindness. The new treatment options for AMD are not provided by the Brazilian public health system. Objective To conduct a budget impact analysis of three scenarios for the introduction of AMD treatments: all the medications (verteporfin, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab–the reference scenario), ranibizumab alone, and bevacizumab alone. Methods The basic assumption was that the Brazilian public health system would treat the entire target population with AMD aged > 70 years between 2008 and 2011. The size of the population of interest was estimated from official population projections and the prevalence of the disease was obtained from a systematic review. Medication prices were estimated by weighting their market values with correction factors to take account of the public procurement policy. The possibility of aliquoting bevacizumab was also considered. A panel of experts was consulted to estimate the market share of the different medications for the reference scenario. The incremental costs of the ranibizumab-alone and bevacizumab-alone scenarios compared to the reference scenario were calculated. Univariate sensitivity analyses were run to check the robustness of the model. Results In four years, the Brazilian public health system would have treated 1,136,349 individuals with AMD. The annual costs of treating one patient would have been US$476.65 for bevacizumab, US$11,469.39 for ranibizumab, and US$4,376.28 for verteporfin. The incremental cost of the ranibizumab-alone scenario would have been US$1,878,318,056.00 in four years, while the incremental cost for the bevacizumab-alone scenario would have been a reduction of US$4,978,326,359.00 (i.e., a cost saving) in the same period. The bevacizumab-alone option was found to represent a cost saving across sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The introduction of bevacizumab for the treatment of AMD is recommended for the

  4. Integrated case management for work-related upper-extremity disorders: impact of patient satisfaction on health and work status.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Michael; Huang, Grant D; Ortiz, Jose M; Shaw, William S; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    An integrated case management (ICM) approach (ergonomic and problem-solving intervention) to work-related upper-extremity disorders was examined in relation to patient satisfaction, future symptom severity, function, and return to work (RTW). Federal workers with work-related upper-extremity disorder workers' compensation claims (n = 205) were randomly assigned to usual care or ICM intervention. Patient satisfaction was assessed after the 4-month intervention period. Questionnaires on clinical outcomes and ergonomic exposure were administered at baseline and at 6- and 12-months postintervention. Time from intervention to RTW was obtained from an administrative database. ICM group assignment was significantly associated with greater patient satisfaction. Regression analyses found higher patient satisfaction levels predicted decreased symptom severity and functional limitations at 6 months and a shorter RTW. At 12 months, predictors of positive outcomes included male gender, lower distress, lower levels of reported ergonomic exposure, and receipt of ICM. Findings highlight the utility of targeting workplace ergonomic and problem solving skills. PMID:12915782

  5. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation can impact on health-related quality of life outcome in radical cystectomy: secondary reported outcome of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Bente Thoft; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Laustsen, Sussie; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Søndergaard, Ingrid; Borre, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in cancer care, although it is not well reported in surgical uro-oncology. Radical cystectomy (RC) with lymph-node dissection is the standard treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer and high-risk noninvasive bladder cancer. A wide range of impairments are reported postsurgery. The aims were to evaluate whether a standardized pre- and postoperative physical exercise program and enhanced mobilization can impact on HRQoL and inpatient satisfaction in RC, as defined by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Materials and methods Patients were randomized to fast-track RC and intervention (nI=50) or fast-track standard treatment (nS=57). HRQoL and inpatient satisfaction was measured using valid questionnaires: EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) combined with the disease-specific EORTC BLS24 (baseline), and EORTC BLM30 (follow-up), and IN-PATSAT32 inpatient-satisfaction survey at discharge. Efficacy was defined as the differences in HRQoL-scores between treatment groups at the 4-month follow-up. Results The intervention group significantly improved HRQoL scores in dyspnea (P≤0.05), constipation (P<0.02), and abdominal flatulence (P≤0.05) compared to the standard group. In contrast, the standard group reported significantly reduced symptoms in sleeping pattern (P≤0.04) and clinically relevant differences in role function, body function, and fatigue. The intervention did not compromise inpatient satisfaction. Conclusion We found no overall impact on global HRQoL due to a physical rehabilitation program. However, pre- and postoperative physical rehabilitation can significantly and positively impact on HRQoL aspects related to bowel management and respiratory function (dyspnea) without compromising inpatient satisfaction. These results highlight the role of multimodal rehabilitation, including physical exercises in fast-track RC. PMID:25075194

  6. Classification of Health Related Applications.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Matthias; von Jan, Ute; Framke, Theodor; Albrecht, Urs-Vito

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a large number of health related apps available in the stores of the major mobile platforms, the stores do not really offer clear definitions of what health related apps are and how they can be categorized. A similar picture is found in literature. Here, many proposals covering different app related aspects have been published, but often, these only cover a narrow field. There is no common terminology describing what health apps are and neither is there a common classification. In order to alleviate the situation, we developed a proposal for categorization that can be used as a basis for discussing aspects related to health applications and for describing the unclear situation on the market. In this paper, the function related aspects are covered, although the scheme itself covers many other aspects related to users of health apps, technical aspects and so on. This initial classification was applied to a sample of health apps available for iOS and Android. PMID:27350487

  7. The impact of overweight and obesity on health-related quality of life in childhood – results from an intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Petersen, Christiane; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    Background The negative impact of overweight (including obesity) and related treatment on children's and adolescents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown in few specific samples thus far. We examined HRQoL and emotional well-being in overweight children from an outpatient treatment sample as well as changes of these parameters during treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional design, self-reported HRQoL of 125 overweight (including obese) children who contacted a treatment facility, but had not yet receive treatment, were compared to 172 children from randomly selected schools using independent two-sample t-tests. Additionally, in a longitudinal design, the overweight children were retested by administering the same questionnaire at the end of the intervention (after one year). It included measures such as the body mass index (BMI), the general health item (GHI), the KINDLR, and the Child Dynamic Health Assessment Scale (ChildDynHA). Comparisons were based on dependent t-tests and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results Overweight children showed statistically significant impairment in the GHI (Cohen's d = 0.59) and emotional well-being (ChildDynha) (d = 0.33) compared to the school children. With respect to HRQoL, the friends dimension of the KINDLR was significantly impaired in the overweight group (d = 0.33). However, no impairment was found for the total HRQoL score or other KINDLR subdimensions. Regarding the longitudinal part of our study, most of the children improved their BMI, but the majority (87.5%) remained overweight. Nevertheless, the participants' perceived health, emotional well-being, and generic as well as disease-specific HRQoL improved during intervention. Conclusion The findings emphasize the importance of patient-reported outcomes such as HRQoL. Even though overweight and obesity might accompany most of the children throughout their lifetime, the impairment associated with this chronic condition can be considerably reduced

  8. Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Health-Related Quality of Life among South African Women in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Garrett, Nigel; Werner, Lise; Burns, Jonathan K.; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Zuma, Nomthandazo; Mlisana, Koleka; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns are often raised regarding potentially adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but there is limited longitudinal data to prove this. Building on our prior investigation, we examined the impact of ART on HRQoL among HIV-infected South African women with extensive follow-up in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Cohort Study. Overall HRQoL and five sub-domains [physical well-being (PWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional and global well-being (FGWB), social well-being (SWB) and cognitive functioning (CF)] were assessed using the Functional Assessment of HIV Infection (FAHI) instrument. Our analyses comparing FAHI scores between pre-ART (established infection) and ART phases using paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and adjusted mixed-effects regression models revealed improvements on ART in overall HRQoL, and in PWB, EWB, and SWB, but not in FGWB and CF. No long-term adverse impact of ART on HRQoL was detected, providing additional non-biomedical support to early treatment strategies. PMID:24849623

  9. Impact of childhood maltreatment on physical health-related quality of life in U.S. active duty military personnel and combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Laura H; Lemmer, Jennifer; Nunnink, Sarah; McLay, Robert N; Baker, Dewleen G

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have found an association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to a lesser extent have considered whether psychiatric symptoms may explain the relationship. This study aimed to further our understanding of the link between CM and HRQoL by testing whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical HRQoL. Mediation models were examined in a sample of male Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) active duty and combat veterans (n=249). PTSD and depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between CM and overall physical HRQoL, as well as participation in daily activities due to physical health, bodily pain, and social functioning. Mediation of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical and social functioning by depression and PTSD symptoms may lend support to neurobiological hypotheses that childhood maltreatment sensitizes the nervous system and after repeated trauma may lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms, which have a major impact on morbidity and mortality.

  10. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations. PMID:24188173

  11. Mobile phone tracking: in support of modelling traffic-related air pollution contribution to individual exposure and its implications for public health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Skjetne, Erik; Kobernus, Mike

    2013-11-04

    We propose a new approach to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health by mapping personal trajectories using mobile phone tracking technology in an urban environment. Although this approach is not based on any empirical studies, we believe that this method has great potential and deserves serious attention. Mobile phone tracking technology makes it feasible to generate millions of personal trajectories and thereby cover a large fraction of an urban population. Through analysis, personal trajectories are not only associated to persons, but it can also be associated with vehicles, vehicle type, vehicle speed, vehicle emission rates, and sources of vehicle emissions. Pollution levels can be estimated by dispersion models from calculated traffic emissions. Traffic pollution exposure to individuals can be estimated based on the exposure along the individual human trajectories in the estimated pollution concentration fields by utilizing modelling tools. By data integration, one may identify trajectory patterns of particularly exposed human groups. The approach of personal trajectories may open a new paradigm in understanding urban dynamics and new perspectives in population-wide empirical public health research. This new approach can be further applied to individual commuter route planning, land use planning, urban traffic network planning, and used by authorities to formulate air pollution mitigation policies and regulations.

  12. The impact of pharmacist-managed clinic on medication adherence and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Chuanwei; Xia, Zhongni; Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Mengmeng; Li, Gonghua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction COPD is rapidly becoming one of the most challenging health problems worldwide, which is characterized by not fully reversible airflow limitation. Although a lot of treatment medications have been delivered, the treatment goals of COPD are often not achieved. Furthermore, few well-designed randomized controlled trials in the People’s Republic of China have been reported to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-managed clinic (PMC) on medication adherence and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A prospective randomized controlled study (on a PMC group and a control group) was conducted between January 2015 and December 2015. A structured education about COPD was provided by a clinical pharmacist to the PMC group. Primary outcomes were medication adherence (assessed by medication refill adherence scores) and health-related quality of life (assessed by St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes were exacerbation rate, hospitalization rate, and smoking behavior. Results A total of 244 patients were enrolled for our study. The PMC group showed a significantly greater improvement in medication adherence compared with the baseline (93.1±14.2 vs 78.8±12.3, P<0.01). When compared with the control group, there were more patients whose medication refill adherence score was ≥80 in the PMC group (83.3% vs 51.3%, P<0.01). The total St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores was found to be improved significantly in the PMC group (42.7±3.2 vs 52.4±5.2, P<0.05). There was a lower hospitalization rate in the PMC group, and more patients in the PMC group quit smoking (71.0% vs 52.2%, P<0.05). Conclusion The PMC may result in improvement of medication adherence and the health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. In the PMC group, a significant reduction in exacerbation rate, hospitalization rate, and smoking behavior was observed; therefore, our study provides support for a greater involvement of PMC in the

  13. Impact of hepatocellular carcinoma on health related quality of life in Egyptian patients: a single centre study.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Hassan; Fathy Barakat, Eman Mahmoud; El Folly, Runia Fouad

    2013-04-01

    Among patients with chronic liver disease, impairment in HRQOL has been reported. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major squeal of chronic liver diseases. So, relationship between subjective HRQOL and HCC must be analysed. This study assessed the effect of HCC on HRQOL, and its loco-regional treatment on HRQOL. Forty patients with HCV related chronic liver disease as a control group was enrolled in the study. Eighty HCC patients on top of chronic HCV liver disease categorized according to the modality of loco-regional treatment (BCLC staging system) into GI; 40 HCC patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and GII; 40 HCC patients treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The SF-36 questionnaire was performed before and one month after the intervention. Comparing the parameters of HRQOL in GI before and after RFA, and in GII before and after TACE; there was a statistically significant improvement in group I. However, the improvement in group II (TACE) was non-significant (P>0.05).

  14. Federal Health Care Planning: Impact on the Student Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Gerald K.

    1978-01-01

    Major proposals for national health insurance are surveyed with regard to the alternative impacts on the student health center enterprise, and suggestions are made for preparing for and directing the impact. (Author/DS)

  15. Impact of Climate Conditions on Occupational Health and Related Economic Losses: A New Feature of Global and Urban Health in the Context of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord

    2016-03-01

    One feature of climate change is the increasing heat exposure in many workplaces where efficient cooling systems cannot be applied. Excessive heat exposure is a particular problem for working people because of the internal heat production when muscle work is carried out. The physiological basis for severe heat stroke, other clinical effects, and heat exhaustion is well known. One feature of this health effect of excessive workplace heat exposure is reduced work capacity, and new research has started to quantify this effect in the context of climate change. Current climate conditions in tropical and subtropical parts of the world are already so hot during the hot seasons that occupational health effects occur and work capacity for many working people is affected. The Hothaps-Soft database and software andClimateCHIP.orgwebsite make it possible to rapidly produce estimates of local heat conditions and trends. The results can be mapped to depict the spatial distribution of workplace heat stress. In South-East Asia as much as 15% to 20% of annual work hours may already be lost in heat-exposed jobs, and this may double by 2050 as global climate change progresses. By combining heat exposure data and estimates of the economic consequences, the vulnerability of many low- and middle-income countries is evident. The annual cost of reduced labor productivity at country level already in 2030 can be several percent of GDP, which means billions of US dollars even for medium-size countries. The results provide new arguments for effective climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and preventive actions in all countries.

  16. Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with neurologic diseases often have neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), which can result in a loss of voluntary bladder control and uncontrollable urinary incontinence (UI).The impact of UI due to NDO on patients’ lives has not been well studied. The objective of this review was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden in patients with urgency UI due to NDO in select countries in North America, the European Union, Asia, and Australia. Methods Systematic literature searches and reviews of articles published in English (January 2000 to February 2011) were conducted using MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the impact of UI on HRQoL of patients with an underlying neurologic condition of interest (i.e., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, or spina bifida) were included. Economic studies in urgency UI also were included. Results Of 876 citations generated in the initial search, a total of 27 articles were deemed relevant: 16 articles presented HRQoL data and 11 articles presented information on the economic burden of UI. Humanistic studies used a range of HRQoL instruments to measure HRQoL burden, and the economic studies included different cost components to quantify the economic burden, making meaningful comparisons challenging. Despite this heterogeneity, the literature suggests that HRQoL in patients with UI due to NDO is worse than patients with UI in general or those with the same underlying neurologic condition without UI. In addition, urgency UI also results in substantial economic costs. Conclusions Incontinent patients with underlying neurologic conditions have impaired HRQoL as well as substantial economic burden attributable to UI due to NDO. There is a need for urgency UI treatments that improve HRQoL of these patients and alleviate the economic burden of this condition. PMID:23369111

  17. The impact of joint range of motion limitations on health-related quality of life in patients with haemophilia A: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Huang, K C; Chen, C C; Huang, S U; Huang, C E; Chen, Y Y; Hsu, S L

    2015-05-01

    In patients with haemophilia A, repeated occurrences of haemarthrosis and synovitis lead to limitations in range of motion (ROM) of major joints. However, the effect of limitations in joint ROM on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients has not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ROM limitations of 10 major joints (bilateral shoulders, elbows, hips, knees and ankles), combined with other possibly influential factors, on HRQOL in patients with haemophilia A. The ROM limitations in 13 movements and pain intensity of the 10 major joints were measured. The socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Short-Form 36 was used as the HRQOL measurement. Eighteen patients (mean age: 36.9 years) were included. Hip ROM limitations, knee ROM limitations and hip pain intensity predicted physical functioning scale (P < 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.553). Shoulder ROM limitations and age predicted role limitation were due to emotional problems scale (P < 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.373). Elbow ROM limitations and haemophilia severity predicted mental health scale (P = 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.320). Hip ROM limitations predicted social functioning scale (P = 0.041; adjusted R2 = 0.091). Educational level and elbow ROM limitations predicted vitality scale (P < 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.416). The ROM limitations of hip, knee, shoulder and elbow could be predictors for HRQOL in patients with haemophilia A. Improving ROM of major joints could be an appropriate treatment strategy to enhance HRQOL in these patients.

  18. Clinical impact of a gluten-free diet on health-related quality of life in seven fibromyalgia syndrome patients with associated celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder, characterized by the presence of gastrointestinal and multisystem symptoms, which occasionally mimic those of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS). To assess the effectiveness of a Gluten-Free Diet (GFD) in seven adult female screening-detected CD subjects, categorized as severe IBS and FMS patients. Methods All subjects showed villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies, were HLA-DQ2/DQ8-positive, and fulfilled the Rome III and ACR 1990 criteria respectively for IBS and FMS classification. GFD effectiveness was assessed at baseline and after 1 year, examining the score changes in the Tender Points (TPs) test, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for gastrointestinal complaints, pain and tiredness, drug prescriptions and tissue-Trans-Glutaminase (tTG) serum levels. Results At baseline, all patients had poor Quality of Life and VAS scores, a high number of TPs and drug prescriptions, and increased tTG levels. After 1 year of GFD, all outcome measures significantly improved, with a decrease of 51-60% in TPs, FIQ, HAQ, and VAS scales, and in the number of prescribed drugs, accompanied by an increase of 48-60% in SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores, and a decrease of tTG to normal values. Conclusion Results of this pilot study show that the adherence to a GFD by CD-related IBS/FMS patients can simultaneously improve CD and IBS/FMS symptoms, and indicate the merit of further research on a larger cohort. PMID:24209578

  19. Caregiving in Dementia and its Impact on Psychological Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from a Colombian Sample.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jhon Alexander; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Ojeda, Natalia; De los Reyes-Aragón, Carlos José; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Existing published studies about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in caregivers of dementia patients living in Latin American countries are very limited. However, cultural aspects, personal values, and social structure may affect the way caregivers experience their role in different societies. The current study investigated the relationship between HRQOL and psychological factors using a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 102 informal caregivers of patients with dementia from Bogotá, Colombia, South America. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Zarit Burden Interview, and the Short Health Questionnaire (SF36) for HRQOL. Canonical correlations revealed that there was a significant relationship between caregivers' mental health and HRQOL, such that caregivers with better satisfaction with life and less symptoms of depression had more vitality and better general health. There is a strong relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life in Colombian caregivers of dementia patients living in their country of origin. Specific aspects of mental health, including satisfaction with life and depression, need to be addressed in order to improve caregivers' quality of life. Given that mental health care resources may be scarce in Latin American countries, culturally appropriate interventions should focus on preventing/treating depression and promote life satisfaction, as a way to improve their quality of life.

  20. Caregiving in Dementia and its Impact on Psychological Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from a Colombian Sample.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jhon Alexander; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Ojeda, Natalia; De los Reyes-Aragón, Carlos José; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Existing published studies about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in caregivers of dementia patients living in Latin American countries are very limited. However, cultural aspects, personal values, and social structure may affect the way caregivers experience their role in different societies. The current study investigated the relationship between HRQOL and psychological factors using a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 102 informal caregivers of patients with dementia from Bogotá, Colombia, South America. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Zarit Burden Interview, and the Short Health Questionnaire (SF36) for HRQOL. Canonical correlations revealed that there was a significant relationship between caregivers' mental health and HRQOL, such that caregivers with better satisfaction with life and less symptoms of depression had more vitality and better general health. There is a strong relationship between mental health and health-related quality of life in Colombian caregivers of dementia patients living in their country of origin. Specific aspects of mental health, including satisfaction with life and depression, need to be addressed in order to improve caregivers' quality of life. Given that mental health care resources may be scarce in Latin American countries, culturally appropriate interventions should focus on preventing/treating depression and promote life satisfaction, as a way to improve their quality of life. PMID:26290365

  1. Oral health-related quality of life in diabetic patients: comparison of the Persian version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and Oral Health Impact Profile: A descriptive-analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the systemic disease which is show important oral manifestation and influence oral health. This study describes how diabetes mellitus affects oral health and oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health and oral health-related quality of life of diabetic patients and compare the discriminative capability of Persian versions of two GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires in these patients. Methods A total of 350 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus, referring to the Diabetes Clinic, were selected and data were collected by GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires completed by patients and clinical examinations. Oral health parameters (CAL,BI,GI,PLI,DMFT and xerostomia) were measured, also concurrent validity and conformity of two questionnaires were assessed. In order to test Discriminant analysis capabilities of two questionnaires, ADD and SC scores of questionnaires were divided into two parts and a logistic regression model was designed, which included subjective and objective variables. Results Mean patients age was 55 years (with 75.4% female patients). The results showed that some oral conditions such as xerostomia, clinical attachment loss, number of missing teeth and plaque index were correlated to diabetes control level (HbA1c) and type of anti-diabetic medication. ADD and SC scores of two questionnaires were at high level. However, the effect of oral problems on decreasing OHRQoL was evident. Both questionnaires had acceptable concurrent validity and conformity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between GOHAI and OHIP-14. OHIP-14 questionnaire had a higher discriminant analysis capability compared to GOHAI and better diagnosed patients who needed dental treatments: patients with higher GI, xerostomia and those wearing partial dentures. Conclusion Diabetic patients did not show acceptable oral health status and in some extent, oral problems affected oral health-related quality

  2. [Impact of disasters on the mental health].

    PubMed

    Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters.

  3. The public health impact of prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Belay, Ermias D; Schonberger, Lawrence B

    2005-01-01

    Several prion disease-related human health risks from an exogenous source can be identified in the United States, including the iatrogenic transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the possible occurrence of variant CJD (vCJD), and potential zoonotic transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although cross-species transmission of prion diseases seems to be limited by an apparent "species barrier," the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its transmission to humans indicate that animal prion diseases can pose a significant public health risk. Recent reports of secondary person-to-person spread of vCJD via blood products and detection of vCJD transmission in a patient heterozygous at codon 129 further illustrate the potential public health impacts of BSE.

  4. The prevalence and health impact of shiftwork.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Cleary, P D; Parker, C E; Czeisler, C A

    1986-10-01

    Data from the National Center for Health Statistics National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were analyzed to determine the impact of variable shift schedules on health-related behaviors of persons in the United States labor force. Twenty-six per cent of men and 18 per cent of women in the US labor force reported working a variable shift in Spring 1980. As compared to men working non-variable work schedules, those working variable shifts exhibited higher rates of heavy drinking, job stress, and emotional problems. Female variable shift workers reported higher rates of sleeping pill, tranquilizer, and alcohol use, as well as lower social network scores, more job stress, and more emotional problems. PMID:3752325

  5. The prevalence and health impact of shiftwork.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N P; Cleary, P D; Parker, C E; Czeisler, C A

    1986-10-01

    Data from the National Center for Health Statistics National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences were analyzed to determine the impact of variable shift schedules on health-related behaviors of persons in the United States labor force. Twenty-six per cent of men and 18 per cent of women in the US labor force reported working a variable shift in Spring 1980. As compared to men working non-variable work schedules, those working variable shifts exhibited higher rates of heavy drinking, job stress, and emotional problems. Female variable shift workers reported higher rates of sleeping pill, tranquilizer, and alcohol use, as well as lower social network scores, more job stress, and more emotional problems.

  6. [The health impact of woodsmoke].

    PubMed

    Masse, Roland; Boudène, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is an important renewable resource of primary energy. Wood burning is expected to expand in future as a cheap means of residential heating, especially in wood-producing rural areas. The health consequences of wood smoke are taken in account far less actively in Europe than in North America, where stringent limitations have been introduced, such as those of the EPA Burnwise project. Recently, wildfires were estimated to release 2 petagrams of carbon into the atmosphere worldwide, contributing to more than 300 000 deaths annually. More effective measures are thus needed to prevent indoor and outdoor exposure to wood smoke. Ultrafine particles are the biggest concern, but the volatile phase also contains many toxicants. Ultrafine particles are among the most dangerous carbonaceous particles found in polluted atmospheres. They can be identified by using C14, levoglucosan, crystallography and spectrometry. Any expansion of the use of wood as a fuel source should take into account its health impact, which is similar to that of fossil fuels. PMID:24672990

  7. Health impacts of urban development: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Capon, Anthony G

    2007-01-01

    The urban environment is an important determinant of health. Health impact assessment is a tool for systematic analysis of the health consequences of urban development and management. This paper identifies key considerations, including opportunities for physical activity, food access and local economic development. Time use by urban residents has health implications. The schedule for infrastructure development in new release areas (in particular transport, education and health infrastructure) also has health implications. Health impacts should be considered a primary outcome of urban development and management.

  8. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  9. Impact of metabolic comorbidity on the association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: a Scotland-wide cross-sectional study of 5,608 participants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is rising in Scotland and globally. Overall, obesity is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and reduced health-related quality of life. Studies suggest that "healthy obesity" (obesity without metabolic comorbidity) may not be associated with morbidity or mortality. Its impact on health-related quality of life is unknown. Methods We extracted data from the Scottish Health Survey on self-reported health-related quality of life, body mass index (BMI), demographic information and comorbidity. SF-12 responses were converted into an overall health utility score. Linear regression analyses were used to explore the association between BMI and health utility, stratified by the presence or absence of metabolic comorbidity (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or cardiovascular disease), and adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex and deprivation quintile). Results Of the 5,608 individuals, 3,744 (66.8%) were either overweight or obese and 921 (16.4%) had metabolic comorbidity. There was an inverted U-shaped relationship whereby health utility was highest among overweight individuals and fell with increasing BMI. There was a significant interaction with metabolic comorbidity (p = 0.007). Individuals with metabolic comorbidty had lower utility scores and a steeper decline in utility with increasing BMI (morbidly obese, adjusted coefficient: -0.064, 95% CI -0.115, -0.012, p = 0.015 for metabolic comorbidity versus -0.042, 95% CI -0.067, -0.018, p = 0.001 for no metabolic comorbidity). Conclusions The adverse impact of obesity on health-related quality of life is greater among individuals with metabolic comorbidity. However, increased BMI is associated with reduced health-related quality of life even in the absence of metabolic comorbidity, casting doubt on the notion of "healthy obesity". PMID:22364437

  10. Impact of Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients and caregivers: literature review.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Katy; Wild, Diane; Nixon, Annabel; Verdian, Lara; Cramer, Joyce A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to evaluate the impact of LGS on the HRQL of children with LGS and their caregivers. The literature search revealed that there is limited published research on the impact of LGS on the HRQL of the child or caregiver. LGS has a major physical impact on a child, with a high frequency of seizures, and a high rate of seizure-related injuries. It interferes with all aspects of the child's intellectual and social development. The patient, and also his/her entire family are affected. Caring for a child with LGS is described as a 'burden', with increased anxiety about injury from seizures as well as the strain associated with providing continuous care. Overall, there is a lack of research on LGS, specifically the extent of the impact of LGS on the HRQL of the child and caregiver is under-explored.

  11. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited. PMID:25115476

  12. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  13. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  14. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and

  15. Health impact assessment of urban waterway decisions.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B J; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-12-25

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a "health lens". This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond.

  16. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  17. Epilepsy beyond seizures: a review of the impact of epilepsy and its comorbidities on health-related quality of life in dogs.

    PubMed

    Packer, Rowena M A; Volk, Holger A

    2015-09-26

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions in the dog, estimated to affect 0.6 to 0.75 per cent of dogs. Owners of dogs with epilepsy have previously indicated that their dog's quality of life (QoL) is of greatest importance to them above seizure frequency; however, much of the research into canine epilepsy to date has focussed on seizure frequency, and how to reduce it via antiepileptic drug treatment. In people, the impact of epilepsy upon QoL has been widely studied, exploring not only its impact on physical health, but also the psychological health and cognitive capabilities of affected individuals. This paper reviews the existing literature on canine epilepsy, identifies potential threats to QoL, and draws parallels from human epilepsy research. We suggest that canine epilepsy poses threats to both quality and quantity of life, with treatment interventions posing a fine balance of potential benefits and harms to the patient. At present, little is known about the neurobehavioural, emotional and cognitive effects of epilepsy upon affected dogs. Further studies are needed to establish the extent to which unknown QoL-inhibiting comorbidities exist in the dog, in order to avoid their undertreatment, and to objectively quantify the effects of epilepsy on canine QoL.

  18. Impact of Tobacco-Related Health Warning Labels across Socioeconomic, Race and Ethnic Groups: Results from a Randomized Web-Based Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Thrasher, James F.; Nagler, Rebekah H.; Feirman, Shari P.; Muenz, Larry R.; He, David Y.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22−1.62), and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10−1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057). Conclusions Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of

  19. Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 2: Assessment of health impacts; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Unnasch, S.

    1999-04-01

    The task 2 report compares the relative health and hazard impacts of EV battery recycling technologies. Task 2 compared the relative impact of recycling EV batteries in terms of cancer, toxicity, and ecotoxicological potential, as well as leachability, flammability, and corrosivity/reactivity hazards. Impacts were evaluated for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron sulfide and disulfide, lithium-polymer, lithium-ion, and zinc-air batteries. Health/hazard impacts were evaluated for recycling methods including smelting, electrowinning, and other appropriate techniques that apply to different battery technologies.

  20. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health.

  1. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Rao, Yunshuang; Shi, Zumin; Liu, Lingli; Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health. PMID:27630771

  2. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health. PMID:27630771

  3. How gender affects patterns of social relations and their impact on health: a comparison of one or multiple sources of support from "close persons".

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, R; Stansfeld, S A

    2002-03-01

    Numerous studies have reported gender differences in the effects of social relations on morbidity and mortality. When studying health and associated factors, one cannot ignore that sex differences exist and methods that are not "gender-fair" may lead to erroneous conclusions. This paper presents a critical analysis of the health/social relations association from a measurement perspective, including the definitions of people's networks and how they differ by gender. Findings from the Whitehall II Study of Civil Servants illustrate that women report more close persons in their primary networks, and are less likely to nominate their spouse as the closest person, but both men and women report the same proportion of women among their four closest persons. Women have a wider range of sources of emotional support. To date, most epidemiological studies have habitually analysed support provided by the closest person or confidant(e). We compared the health effects of social support when measured for the closest person only and when information from up to four close persons was incorporated into a weighted index. Information from up to four close persons offered a more accurate portrayal of support exchanged, and gender differences were attenuated, if not eliminated, when this support index was used to predict physical and psychological health.

  4. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  5. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  6. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104), Barcelona 37 (24-56), Paris 37 (18-64) and Basel 5 (3-9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3-42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21) in Prague, 6 (4-9) in Basel, 3 (2-6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  7. Proposing a New Conceptual Model and an Exemplar Measure Using Health Information: Technology to Examine the Impact of Relational Nurse Continuity on Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the staffing variable relational nurse continuity on patient outcomes has been rarely studied and with inconclusive results. Multiple definitions and an absence of systematic methods for measuring the influence of continuity have resulted in its exclusion from nurse-staffing studies and conceptual models. We present a new conceptual model and an innovative use of health information technology to measure relational nurse continuity and to demonstrate the potential for bringing the results of big data science back to the bedside. Understanding the power of big data to address critical clinical issues may foster a new direction for nursing administration theory development. PMID:26244480

  8. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  9. The impact of stakeholder values and power relations on community-based health insurance coverage: qualitative evidence from three Senegalese case studies.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2015-07-01

    Continued low rates of enrolment in community-based health insurance (CBHI) suggest that strategies proposed for scaling up are unsuccessfully implemented or inadequately address underlying limitations of CBHI. One reason may be a lack of incorporation of social and political context into CBHI policy. In this study, the hypothesis is proposed that values and power relations inherent in social networks of CBHI stakeholders can explain levels of CBHI coverage. To test this, three case studies constituting Senegalese CBHI schemes were studied. Transcripts of interviews with 64 CBHI stakeholders were analysed using inductive coding. The five most important themes pertaining to social values and power relations were: voluntarism, trust, solidarity, political engagement and social movements. Analysis of these themes raises a number of policy and implementation challenges for expanding CBHI coverage. First is the need to subsidize salaries for CBHI scheme staff. Second is the need to develop more sustainable internal and external governance structures through CBHI federations. Third is ensuring that CBHI resonates with local values concerning four dimensions of solidarity (health risk, vertical equity, scale and source). Government subsidies is one of the several potential strategies to achieve this. Fourth is the need for increased transparency in national policy. Fifth is the need for CBHI scheme leaders to increase their negotiating power vis-à-vis health service providers who control the resources needed for expanding CBHI coverage, through federations and a social movement dynamic. Systematically addressing all these challenges would represent a fundamental reform of the current CBHI model promoted in Senegal and in Africa more widely; this raises issues of feasibility in practice. From a theoretical perspective, the results suggest that studying values and power relations among stakeholders in multiple case studies is a useful complement to traditional health

  10. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  11. Exploring the relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life: a pilot study of the impact of weight self-stigma and experiential avoidance.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Jason; Levin, Michael E; Hayes, Steven C

    2011-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been shown to deteriorate as body mass index (BMI) increases. Recent research suggests weight stigma and experiential avoidance may partially account for the relationship between BMI and HRQL. Eighty-seven adults recruited from a weight-loss clinic completed an intake assessment, which consisted of physical measurement taking and completion of self-report measures. Experiential avoidance and weight self-stigma were significant predictors of HRQL and mediated the relationship between BMI and HRQL. Results provide preliminary support for targeting weight stigma and experiential avoidance in order to produce changes in HRQL with or without concurrent weight loss. PMID:21441358

  12. The impact of the environment on health.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly science is providing evidence linking the disease burden of people with exposure to toxins in their environments. The quality of one's health is determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychological problems in the environment. This article provides an overview of the current science on how environmental pollution is impacting upon the chronic disease burden in people, how toxic chemicals are traveling globally and entering the food chain, and the impact of changes in climate upon one's health.

  13. Identifying and Describing the Impact of Cyclone, Storm and Flood Related Disasters on Treatment Management, Care and Exacerbations of Non-communicable Diseases and the Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Benjamin; Franklin, Richard C.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Aitken, Peter; Smith, Erin; Watt, Kerrianne; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last quarter of a century the frequency of natural disasters and the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) across the globe have been increasing. For individuals susceptible to, or chronically experiencing, NCDs this has become a significant risk. Disasters jeopardize access to essential treatment, care, equipment, water and food, which can result in an exacerbation of existing conditions or even preventable death. Consequently, there is a need to expand the public health focus of disaster management to include NCDs. To provide a platform for this to occur, this article presents the results from a systematic review that identifies and describes the impact of cyclone, flood and storm related disasters on those susceptible to, or experiencing, NCDs. The NCDs researched were: cardiovascular diseases; cancers; chronic respiratory diseases; and diabetes.   Methods: Four electronic publication databases were searched with a date limit of 31 December 2014. The data was analyzed through an aggregation of individual papers to create an overall data description. The data was then grouped by disease to describe the impact of a disaster on treatment management, exacerbation, and health care of people with NCDs. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide presentation of the research. Results:  The review identified 48 relevant articles. All studies represented developed country data. Disasters interrupt treatment management and overall care for people with NCDs, which results in an increased risk of exacerbation of their illness or even death. The interruption may be caused by a range of factors, such as damaged transport routes, reduced health services, loss of power and evacuations. The health impact varied according to the NCD. For people with chronic respiratory diseases, a disaster increases the risk of acute exacerbation. Meanwhile, for people with cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes there is an increased risk of their illness

  14. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  15. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Dental students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions: impact of the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration's community-based dental partnership program.

    PubMed

    Hamershock, Rose A; Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; Mofidi, Mahyar; Abel, Stephen N; York, Jill A; Kunzel, Carol; Sanogo, Moussa; Mayfield, Theresa G

    2014-08-01

    Access to oral health care for vulnerable populations is one of the concerns addressed by the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP). The program introduces dental students and residents at several dental schools to care for vulnerable patients through didactic and clinical work in community-based dental settings. This study of the dental students and residents in this program answered three questions: 1) What are their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 2) How has participation in the CBDPP impacted their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors? 3) Has the intervention affected their work placement decisions and attitudes after graduation, particularly with respect to treating people living with HIV and other underserved populations? A total of 305 first- through fourth-year dental students and first- and second-year residents at five dental schools across the United States completed surveys before and after a community-based rotation and following graduation. Response rates at each of the five schools ranged from 82.4 to 100 percent. The results showed an increase in the participants' knowledge and positive attitudes regarding treatment for patients with HIV and other vulnerable populations post-rotation compared to pre-rotation. Results after graduation found that most respondents were practicing in private settings or in academic institutions as residents but were willing to treat a diverse patient population. These findings support the role of training programs, such as the CBDPP, for expanding the dental workforce to treating vulnerable populations including people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25086143

  17. Measuring the impact of allied health research

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Jan; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Milanese, Steve; Hillier, Susan; King, Ellena; Johnston, Kylie; Wall, Kylie; Thorpe, Olivia; Young, Alexandra; Kumar, Saravana

    2011-01-01

    Background Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) rankings are given to academic journals in which Australian academics publish. This provides a metric on which Australian institutions and disciplines are ranked for international competitiveness. This paper explores the issues surrounding the ERA rankings of allied health journals in Australia. Methods We conducted a broad search to establish a representative list of general allied health and discipline-specific journals for common allied health disciplines. We identified the ERA rankings and impact factors for each journal and tested the congruence between these metrics within the disciplines. Results Few allied health journals have high ERA rankings (A*/A), and there is variability in the impact factors assigned to journals within the same ERA rank. There is a small group of allied health researchers worldwide, and this group is even smaller when divided by discipline. Current publication metrics may not adequately assess the impact of research, which is largely aimed at clinicians to improve clinical practice. Moreover, many journals are produced by underfunded professional associations, and readership is often constrained by small numbers of clinicians in specific allied health disciplines who are association members. Conclusion Allied health must have a stronger united voice in the next round of ERA rankings. The clinical impact of allied health journals also needs to be better understood and promoted as a research metric. PMID:21811386

  18. Qualitative health psychology research: diversity, power, and impact.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-04-01

    This special issue showcases a range of qualitative research projects conducted by health psychologists with a view to promoting greater uptake and development of qualitative research methods in the field. It is timely because qualitative methods have become prominent across psychology and health research and because major health research funders are now inviting qualitative research to help give voice to patient experiences. As a whole, the papers demonstrate the diversity, power, and impact of qualitative research conducted in health-related settings and show how traditional health psychology methods and concepts can be enriched in the process.

  19. Mental health services. Poor relations.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J; Sashidharan, S

    1999-04-01

    The case for London requiring greater resources for mental health services than other parts of the country has not been proved. Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester are among the six most deprived areas in England. Spending per capita on mental health services in inner London is double that in Birmingham and Liverpool and 40 per cent higher than in Manchester. A national strategy is needed to address inequities in funding.

  20. IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Medjedovic, Eida; Medjedovic, Senad; Deljo, Dervis; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoride is natural element that strengthens teeth and prevents their decay. Experts believe that the best way to prevent cavities is the use of fluoride from multiple sources. Studies even show that in some cases, fluoride can stop already started damage of the teeth. In children younger than 6 years fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of permanent teeth, making the teeth more resistant to the action of bacterial and acids in food. Goal: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of improving the health status of teeth after six months treatment with the use of topical fluoridation 0.5% NaF, and the level and quality of the impact of treatment with chemical 0.5% NaF on the dental health of children at age from 8 to 15 years, in relation to gender and chronological age. This study included school children aged 8 to 15 years who visited health and dental services dependent in Mostar. Results: It is obvious that after the implementation of treatment with 5% NaF by the method of topical fluoridation, health status of subjects from the experimental group significantly improved, so that at the final review 89.71% or 61 subjects of the experimental group had healthy (cured teeth), tooth with dental caries only 5.88% or 4 respondents tooth with dental caries and filling 4.41% or 3 respondents, extracted baby tooth 14.71% or 10 respondents, while for 13.24% of respondents was identified state with still unerupted teeth. Our findings are indirectly confirmed that the six-month treatment of fluoridation with 5% NaF, contributed to statistically significant improvement in overall oral health of the experimental group compared to the control group which was not treated by any dental treatment. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the evaluated parameters of oral health of children in the control group compared to the studied parameters of oral health the experimental group of children at the final

  1. Health-related research on older inmates: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Susan J; Abudagga, Azza

    2006-12-01

    The literature on older inmates' health is fragmented and insufficiently developed. In this integrative review, 21 research articles on health and older inmates were identified, critiqued, and synthesized to determine: the minimum age criterion most commonly used; health-related variables explored; health status; the health impact of incarceration; and aging-specific policies, programs, and facilities. Age 50 and older was used most often. The top three health variables were psychiatric conditions, physical illnesses, and substance abuse. Self-reports of health status varied across studies; however, inmates consistently reported health declines since incarceration. Older inmates' health needs appear often to be left unmet. Nursing investigations are needed leading to practice innovations to enhance prisoners' self-management to reduce disease burden and fiscal and societal costs. PMID:17131280

  2. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p < 0.05) than fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the impact of organic respirable compounds is smaller for fossil fuels (p < 0.05) than for biofuels. Analysis of inorganic compounds like PM₁₀,₂.₅, SO₂ or NO(x) shows some advantages of sugar beet bioethanol and soybean biodiesel production (p < 0.05), although production of sugarcane bioethanol shows larger impacts of respirable inorganic compounds than for fossil fuels (p < 0.001). Although liquid biofuels are made of renewable energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  3. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  4. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases.

  5. Burning Fossil Fuels: Impact of Climate Change on Health.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    A recent, sophisticated granular analysis of climate change in the United States related to burning fossil fuels indicates a high likelihood of dramatic increases in temperature, wet-bulb temperature, and precipitation, which will dramatically impact the health and well-being of many Americans, particularly the young, the elderly, and the poor and marginalized. Other areas of the world, where they lack the resources to remediate these weather impacts, will be even more greatly affected. Too little attention is being paid to the impending health impact of accumulating greenhouse gases. PMID:26721565

  6. A framework for public health action: the health impact pyramid.

    PubMed

    Frieden, Thomas R

    2010-04-01

    A 5-tier pyramid best describes the impact of different types of public health interventions and provides a framework to improve health. At the base of this pyramid, indicating interventions with the greatest potential impact, are efforts to address socioeconomic determinants of health. In ascending order are interventions that change the context to make individuals' default decisions healthy, clinical interventions that require limited contact but confer long-term protection, ongoing direct clinical care, and health education and counseling. Interventions focusing on lower levels of the pyramid tend to be more effective because they reach broader segments of society and require less individual effort. Implementing interventions at each of the levels can achieve the maximum possible sustained public health benefit. PMID:20167880

  7. Income-related health inequality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphries, K H; van Doorslaer, E

    2000-03-01

    This study uses data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey and applies the methods developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer (1994, measuring inequalities in health in the presence of multiple-category morbidity indicators. Health Economics 3, 281-291) to measure the degree of income-related inequality in self-reported health in Canada by means of concentration indices. It finds that significant inequalities in self-reported ill-health exist and favour the higher income groups--the higher the level of income, the better the level of self-assessed health. The analysis also indicates that lower income individuals are somewhat more likely to report their self-assessed health as poor or less-than-good than higher income groups, at the same level of a more 'objective' health indictor such as the McMaster Health Utility Index. The degree of inequality in 'subjective' health is slightly higher than in 'objective' health, but not significantly different. The degree of inequality in self-assessed health in Canada was found to be significantly higher than that reported by van Doorslaer et al. (1997, income related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics 16, 93-112) for seven European countries, but not significantly different from the health inequality measured for the UK or the US. It also appears as if Canada's health inequality is higher than what would be expected on the basis of its income inequality.

  8. Public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wirawan, I Made Ady

    2010-01-01

    Although climate change is a global concern, there are particular considerations for Indonesia as an archipelagic nation. These include the vulnerability of people living in small islands and coastal areas to rising sea levels; the expansion of the important mosquito-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue, into areas that lack of immunity; and the increase in water-borne diseases and malnutrition. This article proposes a set of public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia. Some important principles and practices in public health are highlighted, to develop effective public health approaches to climate change in Indonesia. PMID:20032032

  9. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident.

  10. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged > 21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in

  11. Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Mitchell G; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Somma, Daryl

    2006-08-01

    As a feature of many chronic health problems, stigma contributes to a hidden burden of illness. Health-related stigma is typically characterized by social disqualification of individuals and populations who are identified with particular health problems. Another aspect is characterized by social disqualification targeting other features of a person's identity-such as ethnicity, sexual preferences or socio-economic status-which through limited access to services and other social disadvantages result in adverse effects on health. Health professionals therefore have substantial interests in recognizing and mitigating the impact of stigma as both a feature and a cause of many health problems. Rendering historical concepts of stigma as a discrediting physical attribute obsolete, two generations of Goffman-inspired sociological studies have redefined stigma as a socially discrediting situation of individuals. Based on that formulation and to specify health research interests, a working definition of health-related stigma is proposed. It emphasizes the particular features of target health problems and the role of particular social, cultural and economic settings in developing countries. As a practical matter, it relates to various strategies for intervention, which may focus on controlling or treating target health problems with informed health and social policies, countering the disposition of perpetrators to stigmatize, and supporting those who are stigmatized to limit their vulnerability and strengthen their resilience. Our suggestions for health studies of stigma highlight needs for disease- and culture-specific research that serves the interests of international health. PMID:17130065

  12. Impact of diagnosis of diabetes on health-related quality of life among high risk individuals: the Diabetes Prevention Program outcomes study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Q.; Barrett-Connor, E.; de Groot, M.; Zhang, P.; Percy, C.; Florez, H.; Ackermann, R.; Montez, M.; Rubin, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess if diagnosis of type 2 diabetes affected health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcome Study and changes with treatment or diabetes duration. Methods 3,210 participants with pre-diabetes were randomized to metformin (MET), intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS), or placebo (PLB). HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 including: (1) 8 SF-36 subscales; (2) the physical component (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores; and (3) the SF-6D. The sample was categorized by diabetes free versus diagnosed. For diagnosed subgroup, mean scores in the diabetes-free period, at 6 months, 2, 4 and 6 years post-diagnosis, were compared. Results PCS and SF-6D scores declined in all participants in all treatment arms (P <.001). MCS scores did not change significantly in any treatment arm regardless of diagnosis. ILS participants reported a greater decrease in PCS scores at 6 months post-diagnosis (P <.001) and a more rapid decline immediately post-diagnosis in SF-6D scores (P = .003) than the MET or PLB arms. ILS participants reported a significant decrease in the social functioning subscale at 6 months (P <.001) and two years (P <.001) post-diagnosis. Conclusions Participants reported a decline in measures of overall health state (SF-6D) and overall physical HRQoL, whether or not they were diagnosed with diabetes during the study. There was no change in overall mental HRQoL. Participants in the ILS arm with diabetes reported a more significant decline in some HRQoL measures than those in the MET and PLB arms that developed diabetes. PMID:23709097

  13. Health literacy and women's health-related behaviors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N

    2012-04-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food expiration dates, and monitoring physical changes) in women and to test whether the association is mediated by health knowledge. A national sample of 1,754 female adults in Taiwan was included in the study. Result showed that health literacy was positively and independently related to checking food expiration dates and monitoring physical changes, and that health literacy was not related to physical checkup and Pap smear screening. Interestingly, women with high health literacy were more likely to be a current smoker. Study findings suggest that efforts to improve health promotion behaviors in women should consider health literacy as an important factor and that the effect of health literacy on health prevention behaviors may vary by women's access to care. PMID:21742948

  14. Relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health among adolescents in Germany. Do socio-economic status and type of school have an impact on that relation?

    PubMed

    Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003‒2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11‒17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents.

  15. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  16. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Charmian M; Friel, Sharon

    2014-12-03

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world's poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Charmian M.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health. PMID:27417491

  19. Impact of External Beam Adjuvant Radiotherapy on Health-Related Quality of Life for Long-Term Survivors of Endometrial Adenocarcinoma: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M.; Lybeert, Marnix L.M.; Berg, Hetty A. van den; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 5-10-year survivors of Stage I-II endometrial (adeno-)carcinoma (EC) treated with surgery alone or surgery with external beam adjuvant radiotherapy (EBRT) and an age-matched norm population. Methods and Materials: A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted by the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. All patients were included who had been diagnosed with EC between 1994 and 1998 (n = 462). Information from the questionnaires returned was linked to data from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry on patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Results: Responses were received from 75% of the patients. The analyses were restricted to women with Stage I-II disease at diagnosis, treated with either surgery alone or surgery with adjuvant EBRT, and without recurrent disease or new primary malignancies (n = 264). The patients who had received adjuvant EBRT (n = 80) had had a significantly higher tumor stage and grade at diagnosis (p < 0.0001) and a longer mean time since diagnosis (p = 0.04). Age, number of comorbid diseases, current marital status, nulliparity, education, and occupation were similar for both treatment groups. On multivariate analyses, adjuvant EBRT was independently and negatively associated with the vitality and physical and social well-being scale scores. The HRQOL scores of both treatment groups, however, were similar to those of an age-matched norm population. Conclusion: In general, the HRQOL of EC survivors is good. EC survivors treated with surgery alone had a better HRQOL than women treated with surgery and adjuvant EBRT, although for both groups, the HRQOL was in the range of the norm population.

  20. Modelling health, income and income inequality: the impact of income inequality on health and health inequality.

    PubMed

    Wildman, John

    2003-07-01

    A framework is developed to analyse the impact of the distribution of income on individual health and health inequality, with individual health modelled as a function of income and the distribution of income. It is demonstrated that the impact of income inequality can generate non-concave health production functions resulting in a non-concave health production possibility frontier. In this context, the impact of different health policies are considered and it is argued that if the distribution of income affects individual health, any policy aimed at equalising health, which does not account for income inequality, will lead to unequal distributions of health. This is an important development given current UK government attention to reducing health inequality.

  1. The impact of resistance respiratory muscle training with a SpiroTiger® device on lung function, exercise performance, and health-related quality of life in respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are studies demonstrating that respiratory muscles can be trained using proper stimulation. Positive effects have been achieved in patients with pulmonary diseases and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures using isocapnic hyperpnoea training with a SpiroTiger® device. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SpiroTiger® training has an impact on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), exercise performance, respiratory muscle fitness, and health-related quality of life. Material and methods Search phrases “spirotiger” and “spiro tiger” were entered into the search engines of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, Medline, Ebscohost, and PubMed. Results One article about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 4 articles about cystic fibrosis were found. Conclusions The positive effect of SpiroTiger® training on FEV1 cannot be unequivocally confirmed as it was found only in two of the five analysed studies. SpiroTiger® training has a positive impact on exercise performance measured with the six-minute walk test; it increases breathing muscle fitness in patients with COPD and in patients after thoracic surgery procedures, and it improves health-related quality of life. PMID:26855662

  2. Peer relations, adolescent behavior, and public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; McNeely, Clea

    2008-01-01

    Peer relations are central to adolescent life and, therefore, are crucial to understanding adolescents' engagement in various behaviors. In recent years, public health research has increasingly devoted attention to the implications of peer relations for the kinds of adolescent behaviors that have a direct impact on health. This article advocates for a continuation of this trend. With this aim, we highlight key themes in the rich literature on the general developmental significance of adolescent-peer relations, provide an overview of how these themes have been incorporated into public health research and practice, and suggest future avenues for peer-focused public health research that can inform adolescent health promotion in the United States.

  3. The Impact of Learning on Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona; Lavender, Peter

    A study was conducted of active adult learners in England to determine what impact, if any, there has been on their health as a result of learning. Data were obtained through a questionnaire mailed to 2,000 persons and 750 groups nominated for an Adult Learners' Week Award during 1998 and 1999. Provisions were made for sight-impaired respondents.…

  4. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  5. Global health impacts of policies: lessons from the UK

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    provide the “demand” for the assessments. Summary This paper uses the initial stages of a study on global health impact assessments to pose the wider question of incentives for policy-makers to improve global health. It highlights three lessons for successful development and implementation of global health impact assessments in relation to stewardship, resources, and delivery mechanisms. PMID:24612523

  6. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.

  7. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  8. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ‘models’ can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks – one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact – that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  9. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  10. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  11. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  12. Gout impacts on function and health-related quality of life beyond associated risk factors and medical conditions: results from the KING observational study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gout is the most prevalent arthritis and significantly impacts on function and quality of life. Given that gout associates with disabling comorbid conditions, it is not clear whether such a complex of diseases accounts for the increased disability or if gout may play a role by itself. This study aims to evaluate the specific influence of gout and disease-related features on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with gout followed in rheumatology clinics. Methods A random sample of patients was drawn from clinical registries of 30 rheumatology clinics across Italy. Sociodemographic, general health and gout-specific variables were collected. Functional disability and HRQoL were assessed by the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS) of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Crude and adjusted ordinal logistic and linear regression models were applied to investigate the specific contribution of different variables on HAQ and SF-36 scores. Results are presented as odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals. Results Out of 446 patients with gout, 90% were males with a mean age of 63.9 years and median disease duration of 3.8 years; the majority of patients were overweight or obese, and with several comorbidities; 21.1% showed at least moderate disability; the PCS score was significantly lower than expected age- and gender-matched samples in the general population, while MCS score was not. After adjusting for potential sociodemographic and general-health confounders, gout-specific variables significantly impacted on HAQ, including polyarticular involvement OR 3.82 (1.63, 8.95), presence of tophi OR 1.92 (1.07, 3.43) and recent attacks OR 2.20 (1.27, 3.81). Consistent results were found for PCS. The impairment of PCS compared to the general population was limited to patients with features of chronic gout. MCS was only affected by recent

  13. Health-related worries, perceived health status, and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Ren, A; Okubo, T; Takahashi, K

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the association of health-related worries (over cancers, diabetes, work-related stress, heart attack, obesity, general physical fitness, and/or other health conditions) and perceived health status (excellent, good, fair or poor) to the utilization of health care services for 19, 139 Japanese local public service employees. Data on health-related worries and health status were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire survey in 1988 and analyzed in relation to the subsequent 12-month utilization of health care. Results showed that perceived health status was associated with the utilization for almost all medical conditions and so was worry over a specific condition and the subsequent utilization of health care services. The implication of these findings is that measures targeting the relief of an employee's health-related worries, through either health consultation or other health programs, may contribute to the reduction of an employee's health care utilization and costs.

  14. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Development Project

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malekafzali, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) has emerged to identify those activities and policies likely to have major impacts on the health of a population. Method: In this research, qualitative method was applied to identifying health determinants that urban man made lake affect on them, formatting and weighing the hierarchy of the factors, calculating AHP, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method for decide and ranking alternatives. Results: According to the results of the study, from the structural determinants point of view, the most positive effect of man-made lake was on Recreational services by 89.5% and the most negative one was on housing. According to intermediary determinants and general average, the most positive effect of lake was on physical activity and quality of air by 88.9% and the most negative one was on noise pollution by 46.7%. Ultimately, considering the positive and negative effects of lake between constructing and not constructing the lake option, the construction option was selected. Conclusion: There is substantial potential to improve public health by bringing decision makers’ attention to the health consequences of their actions; city councilpersons, zoning commissioners, and other decision makers typically have little background in health. PMID:27157160

  15. Arms trade and its impact on global health.

    PubMed

    Mahmudi-Azer, Salahaddin

    2006-01-01

    The most obvious adverse impact of the arms trade on health is loss of life and maiming from the use of weapons in conflicts. Wealthy countries suffer damage to their health and human services when considerable resources are diverted to military expenditure. However, the relative impact of military expenditures and conflict on third world countries is much greater, and often devastating, by depriving a significant portion of the population of essential food, medicine, shelter, education, and economic opportunities. Further, the physical and psychological damage inflicted specifically on children is debilitating - through loss of (or separation from) families, loss of education, destruction of homes, exposure to murder and other violence, sexual abuse, abduction, torture, slavery, and forcible conscription as soldiers. This article outlines the socio-economic impact of the global arms trade in general and the damage done to human health and the environment, specifically.

  16. Impact of Health Disclosure Laws on Health Information Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Adjerid, Idris; Padman, Rema

    2011-01-01

    Health information exchanges (HIEs) are expected to facilitate data sharing between healthcare entities, thereby improving the efficiency and quality of care. Privacy concerns have been consistently cited as one of the primary challenges to HIE formation and success. Currently, it is unclear how privacy laws – in particular, legislation restricting the disclosure of health records – have shaped the development of HIEs. This preliminary study explores the landscape of state-level health privacy legislation and examines the impact of variations in such privacy and confidentiality laws on the progress of HIEs. We found that states with stronger privacy laws, limiting the disclosure of health information, had significantly more HIEs exchanging data and had fewer failed HIEs. We suggest that this counterintuitive finding may be explained by the more subtle benefits of such laws, such as increased confidence and trust of participants in an exchange. Other key contributors to this work are Alessandro Acquisti, Rahul Telang, and Julia Adler-Milstein PMID:22195054

  17. Medical legal partnership and health informatics impacting child health: Interprofessional innovations.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Downs, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic differences in health are closely related to degrees of social and economic disadvantage. Poverty-induced hardships such as food insecurity, utility shut-offs, and substandard housing, all have the potential to negatively impact the health of families. In an effort to better address social determinants of health in pediatric primary health care settings using the Medical Legal Partnership (MLP) model of health care delivery, an interprofessional team of investigators came together to design an innovative process for using computerized clinical decision support to identify health-harming legal and social needs, improve the delivery of appropriate physician counseling, and streamline access to legal and social service professionals when non-medical remedies are required. This article describes the interprofessional nature of the MLP model itself, illustrates the work that was done to craft this innovative health informatics approach to implementing MLP, and demonstrates how pediatricians, social workers and attorneys may work together to improve child health outcomes.

  18. Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule: the development of a condition-specific questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life in patients with chronic wounds of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Price, Patricia; Harding, Keith

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to measure the impact of chronic wounds (leg ulcers and diabetic foot ulcers) on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and identify areas of patient concern. The Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule (CWIS) was created following a three-stage process. Stage 1 included a focus group (n=10) and a series of semi-structured interviews (n=13) to generate items for the questionnaire. Stage 2 involved piloting the 28-item questionnaire on 124 patients (64.5% with leg ulceration and 35.5% with diabetic foot ulceration): data from this stage were analysed using factor analysis. The reliability, validity and reproducibility of the resulting scale were assessed in Stage 3, a 3-month follow-up study of 135 patients in which patients completed the CWIS and the SF-36. Factor analysis identified three domains of HRQoL: physical symptoms and daily living, social life and well-being. There were no significant differences in scores across the wound types. Internal consistency was good (alpha=0.77-0.96) as was reproducibility (P<0.001). The CWIS was able to discriminate between those with healed ulcers and active ulcers (P<0.01). Construct validity was demonstrated by strong correlations between related items on CWIS and SF-36 (P<0.01-P<0.0001). The data suggest that CWIS has high internal consistency and the ability to discriminate between health states and good reproducibility. CWIS is a valid tool for studying the impact of chronic wounds of the lower leg on HRQoL. CWIS allows clinicians to identify items of patient concern, which can then be used to negotiate options of care most suited to individual patients.

  19. A Survey of Health-Related Activities on Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Leslie; Wilson, Kumanan; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    show that behaviors from virtual worlds can translate to the real world. Our survey suggests that users are engaged in a range of health-related activities in Second Life which are potentially impacting real-life behaviors. Further research evaluating the impact of health-related activities on Second Life is warranted. PMID:19632971

  20. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  1. Australia's international health relations in 2003

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages. PMID:15720728

  2. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related

  3. Nanotechnology in elevation of the worldwide impact of obesity and obesity-related diseases: potential roles in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eldaw, Abdellatif

    2011-07-01

    Current worldwide data show epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes with no real solutions apart from continuous calls to changing lifestyle and food habits. Despite health messages that are communicated by health authorities, the epidemic is growing. More people are affected with health consequences that are usually frightening as more resources are wasted, especially in areas where health care and resources are lacking. Nanotechnology applications in food industry present practical approaches that help produce more tasty food with little calories, functional foods, and nutritional supplements and alter the fats and sugar contents of our foods with potential for many more applications. Consequently, this opens more windows to better control of many nutritional deficiencies as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among children and young adults who are addicted to fast food. With such potential, food producers, policy makers, health authorities, food scientists, and governments need to collaborate and make all possible efforts to fund and support research in different areas of food produced using nanotechnology. So far, consumers are not prepared to accept food produced using nanotechnology, mainly because information on the safety of such products are not enough. This issue needs to be addressed and researched well using suitable risk assessment methodologies. Consumers need to be assured, and involved as well, to avoid the "refusal state" that still exists against many safe products such as genetically modified organisms and irradiated food. There is the possibility that consumers could perceive that they will bear the potential risks posed by nanotechnology applications while the benefits will accrue mainly to others, such as food processors or farmers.

  4. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies’ key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs’ consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs’ impacts in several ways–by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies’ drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer’s drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines. PMID:26657064

  5. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  6. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal.

  7. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  8. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  9. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  10. On the measurement of relative and absolute income-related health inequality.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philip M; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Johannesson, Magnus; Bingefors, Kerstin; Smith, Len

    2002-12-01

    In recent work on international comparisons of income-related inequalities in health, the concentration index has been used as a measure of health inequality. A drawback of this measure is that it is sensitive to whether it is estimated with respect to health or morbidity. An alternative would be to use the generalized concentration index that is based on absolute rather than relative health differences. In this methodological paper, we explore the importance of the choice of health inequality measure by comparing the income-related inequality in health status and morbidity between Sweden and Australia. This involves estimating a concentration index and a generalized concentration index for the eight-scale health profile of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey. We then transform the scores for each scale into a measure of morbidity and show that whether the concentration index is estimated with respect to health or morbidity has an impact on the results. The ranking between the two countries is reversed for two of the eight dimensions of SF-36 and within both countries the ranking across the eight SF-36 scales is also affected. However, this change in ranking does not occur when the generalized concentration index is compared and we conclude with the implications of these results for reporting comparisons of income-related health inequality in different populations.

  11. The impact of an integrated population health enhancement and disease management program on employee health risk, health conditions, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Loeppke, Ron; Nicholson, Sean; Taitel, Michael; Sweeney, Matthew; Haufle, Vince; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an integrated population health enhancement program on employee health risks, health conditions, and productivity. Specifically, we analyzed changes in these measures among a cohort of 543 employees who completed a health risk assessment in both 2003 and 2005. We compared these findings with 2 different sets of employees who were not offered health enhancement programming. We found that the DIRECTV cohort showed a significant reduction in health risks after exposure to the program. Relative to a matched comparison group, the proportion of low-risk employees at DIRECTV in 2005 was 8.2 percentage points higher; the proportion of medium-risk employees was 7.1 percentage points lower; and the proportion of high-risk employees was 1.1 percentage points lower (p < 0.001). The most noticeable changes in health risk were a reduction in the proportion of employees with high cholesterol; an improvement in diet; a reduction of heavy drinking; management of high blood pressure; improved stress management; increased exercise; fewer smokers; and a drop in obesity rates. We also found that a majority of employees who improved their risk levels from 2003 to 2005 maintained their gains in 2006. Employees who improved their risks levels also demonstrated relative improvement in absenteeism. Overall, this study provides additional evidence that integrated population health enhancement positively impacts employees' health risk and productivity; it also reinforces the view that "good health is good business."

  12. Toward measuring the impact of ecological disintegrity on human health.

    PubMed

    Sieswerda, L E; Soskolne, C L; Newman, S C; Schopflocher, D; Smoyer, K E

    2001-01-01

    Ecological integrity refers to the ability of environmental life-support systems to sustain themselves in the face of human-induced impacts. We used a correlational, aggregate-data study design to explore whether life expectancy, as a general measure of population health, is linked to large-scale declines in ecological integrity. Most of the data were obtained from World Resources Institute publications. Selected surrogate measures of ecological integrity and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (as a socioeconomic confounder) were modeled, for the first time, using linear regression techniques with life expectancy as the health outcome. We found a modest relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy, but the direction of the association was inconsistent. When GDP per capita was controlled, the relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy was lost. GDP per capita was the overwhelming predictor of health. Any relation between ecological integrity and health may be mediated by socioeconomic factors. The effect of declines in ecological integrity may be cushioned by the exploitation of ecological capital, preventing a direct association between measures of exposure and outcome. In addition, life expectancy may be too insensitive a measure of health impacts related to ecological decline, and more sensitive measures may need to be developed.

  13. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. PMID:26574072

  14. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-11-14

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline.

  15. Why and how should we assess occupational health impacts in integrated product policy?

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Patrick; Norris, Gregory A

    2003-05-15

    Integrated product policy (IPP) and life cycle assessment (LCA), one of the analytic tools used in IPP, focus traditionally on environmental impacts. However, in an attempt to consider other sustainability criteria and to avoid a shift from environmental health impacts to occupational health impacts one may want to include occupational health in IPP. Should and can occupational health impacts be included in LCA and IPP? Using published and unpublished occupational health data for injuries and illnesses and an economic input-output model of the United States, we provide attributional occupational health impacts measured in disability adjusted life years per dollars output for 491 industry sectors including supply chain impacts. Estimates for the "true" number of United States occupational health impacts suggest that this initial analysis underestimates the total impact 3-7-fold. A comparison suggests that United States occupational health impacts are about 10 times smaller than environmental health impacts and are, relatively speaking, important only for sectors with hazardous working environments but low environmental impacts. A consequential rather than attributional view suggests that a method to assess true consequences on long-term health impacts by product policies needs to be able to predict effects from present-day work place exposure and to account for likely changes in the labor market, including changes in unemployment rates and other substitution mechanisms. PMID:12785504

  16. Why and how should we assess occupational health impacts in integrated product policy?

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Patrick; Norris, Gregory A

    2003-05-15

    Integrated product policy (IPP) and life cycle assessment (LCA), one of the analytic tools used in IPP, focus traditionally on environmental impacts. However, in an attempt to consider other sustainability criteria and to avoid a shift from environmental health impacts to occupational health impacts one may want to include occupational health in IPP. Should and can occupational health impacts be included in LCA and IPP? Using published and unpublished occupational health data for injuries and illnesses and an economic input-output model of the United States, we provide attributional occupational health impacts measured in disability adjusted life years per dollars output for 491 industry sectors including supply chain impacts. Estimates for the "true" number of United States occupational health impacts suggest that this initial analysis underestimates the total impact 3-7-fold. A comparison suggests that United States occupational health impacts are about 10 times smaller than environmental health impacts and are, relatively speaking, important only for sectors with hazardous working environments but low environmental impacts. A consequential rather than attributional view suggests that a method to assess true consequences on long-term health impacts by product policies needs to be able to predict effects from present-day work place exposure and to account for likely changes in the labor market, including changes in unemployment rates and other substitution mechanisms.

  17. A systematic review of outcome and impact of Master’s in health and health care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ‘human resources for health’ crisis has highlighted the need for more health (care) professionals and led to an increased interest in health professional education, including master’s degree programmes. The number of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is increasing, but questions have been raised regarding their relevance, outcome and impact. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the outcomes and impact of health-related master’s degree programmes. Methods We searched the databases Scopus, Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, Psychinfo and Cochrane (1999 - November 2011) and selected websites. All papers describing outcomes and impact of health-related Master programmes were included. Three reviewers, two for each article, extracted data independently. The articles were categorised by type of programme, country, defined outcomes and impact, study methods used and level of evidence, and classified according to outcomes: competencies used in practice, graduates’ career progression and impact on graduates’ workplaces and sector/society. Results Of the 33 articles included in the review, most originated from the US and the UK, and only one from a low-income country. The programmes studied were in public health (8), nursing (8), physiotherapy (5), family practice (4) and other topics (8). Outcomes were defined in less than one third of the articles, and impact was not defined at all. Outcomes and impact were measured by self-reported alumni surveys and qualitative methods. Most articles reported that competencies learned during the programme were applied in the workplace and alumni reported career progression or specific job changes. Some articles reported difficulties in using newly gained competencies in the workplace. There was limited evidence of impact on the workplace. Only two articles reported impact on the sector. Most studies described learning approaches, but very few described a mechanism to ensure outcome

  18. How Obamacare will impact reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Paul R; Shah, Anish A; Myers, Evan R; Huang, Andy; DeCherney, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    For many years, health care delivery in the United States was accomplished through a complicated and evolving series of publicly and privately available insurance programs. In recent years, the increasing cost of health care as well as the relatively large number of individuals without any health care insurance coverage has prompted repeated attempts to modify or overhaul the current health care delivery paradigm. The largest legislative change to this system occurred on March 23, 2010, when President Barack Obama signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).The PPACA is a multifaceted and sweeping piece of legislation. The law introduces a myriad number of changes into both public and private health insurance. Understanding the law, its implications, and how to navigate through these changes is essential to provide high-quality health care to patients. Although the law or parts of it are still at risk of being modified either through judicial or political action, it is important to recognize the current aspects of the law to understand any future modifications. Providing health care coverage in the United States is sure to be as it has always been: a constantly changing and evolving set of private and public policies that carry with them significant complexities and challenges. Health care providers must constantly strive to maximize access to and quality of medical care in whatever paradigm evolves in the future. PMID:23609149

  19. Health promoting schools and children’s oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objective was to compare children’s oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in schools with 6 years of implementation of a health promoting school model in Malaysia, i.e. the Doktor Muda Programme (DMP) and in schools without the DMP. Methods This report was part of a larger study to evaluate the DMP impact on schoolchildren’s oral health knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, caries progression and OHRQoL. It was conducted in Negri Sembilan state. The sample comprised 3455, Year 6 (11–12 year old) children; 1282 from DMP (intervention) and 2173 from non-DMP (control) schools. The Malay Child-OIDP index was used to evaluate children’s levels of oral impacts on 8 daily performances after 6 years of DMP implementation (2006–2011). Prevalence, score, impact intensity, causes and extent of impacts were compared. Chi-square and Mann–Whitney tests were used in the data analysis. Results Overall response rate was 95.1%. Prevalence of overall impacts was 57.8% and 60.8% (mean total impact score was 7.10 and 7.77) in the intervention and control group, respectively. The three most frequently affected performances in both groups were eating, cleaning teeth and emotional stability. Significantly less DMP children had oral impact on cleaning teeth (p = 0.034). The majority of children with impacts in both groups reported ‘very little’ to ‘moderate’ levels of impact intensity. Significantly more DMP children reported having ‘very little’ and ‘little’ levels of impact intensity on cleaning teeth (p = 0.037) and emotional stability (p = 0.020), respectively. Significantly less DMP children reported having ‘very severe’ level of impact intensity on speaking (p = 0.038). The most prevalent cause of impacts in both groups was toothache. Significantly less DMP children reported bleeding gums (p = 0.016) and presence of plaque/calculus as causes of impacts (p = 0.032). About 75% of children with impacts in both groups reported having

  20. Impact of group nutrition education and surplus value of Prochaska-based stage-matched information on health-related cognitions and on Mediterranean nutrition behavior.

    PubMed

    Siero, F W; Broer, J; Bemelmans, W J; Meyboom-de Jong, B M

    2000-10-01

    This study compares the effect of two interventions focussed on the promotion of Mediterranean nutrition behavior. The target groups are persons with three risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease. The study region is a socio-economically deprived area in the Netherlands. The first intervention consisted of three meetings in which the positive health effects of a Mediterranean diet were discussed in group sessions. In the additional intervention stage-matched information based on the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change was given. Both intervention groups were compared with a control group, which received only a printed leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines. At baseline the three subgroups were comparable and after 16 weeks both intervention strategies resulted in significant changes in comparison with the control condition. For fish consumption, both strategies resulted in more positive attitudes, social norms, stronger intentions, more progress in stage of change and better nutritional intake. For fruit/vegetables consumption, the effects of both strategies were limited to stage of change and nutritional intake. Additional individually stage-matched tailored letters did not result in more progress on any of the dependent variables. We conclude that substantial nutritional behavior change can be achieved by interactive group education in socio-economically deprived population groups. PMID:11184222

  1. The impact of health on Kentucky's economy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A

    2008-07-01

    All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work

  2. The impact of climate change and aeroallergens on children's health.

    PubMed

    Schmier, Jordana K; Ebi, Kristie L

    2009-01-01

    There are unequivocal data that climate change is occurring and that there are resulting health impacts. Climate change can affect the prevalence and severity of allergic and respiratory disorders through projected increases in the temporal and spatial distribution and concentrations of some aeroallergens. This study was designed to critique and summarize existing knowledge on asthma-related impacts of aeroallergen exposure on children in the United States and to provide suggestions about reducing the negative impacts of climate change through increasing education, adapting current management strategies, and modifying distribution channels. A review and synthesis of published literature was performed. Five studies identified evaluated the relationship between aeroallergens and particular symptoms and six evaluated use of the emergency department and hospital care for asthma. Little is known about the relationship between aeroallergens and particular asthma symptoms. However, overall, there appears to be evidence that weed pollen is significantly associated with asthma exacerbations and use of emergency and hospital services. Activities that can help mitigate the impact of additional climate change-induced respiratory disease include continued research, physician and patient education, optimizing production and distribution, and actively considering the budgetary impact of increased prevalence and severity of respiratory disease. Although more research is needed on aeroallergens and respiratory disease, existing studies suggest that it will be essential to consider the health impacts on children. Strategies to reduce the impacts should be developed and implemented now.

  3. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  4. Exploring the impact of paternal imprisonment on infant mental health.

    PubMed

    Waldegrave, Kathryn; Woodall, James

    2015-06-01

    This paper draws from a study, which explored paternal absence through imprisonment and the impact of this on infant emotional wellbeing and mental health. Little evidence exists to demonstrate the impact of a father's imprisonment on infant involvement, attachment relationships and the consequences of such separation for both infant and father. A scoping study, synthesising literature gathered from a range of academic sources, allowed for exploration of key concepts and clarification of pertinent themes in this relatively under-studied area. Findings suggest that maintaining father involvement while in prison is vital in promoting and maintaining positive infant mental health and that the health visitor is well placed to play a pivotal role in supporting the families of those within the criminal justice system. PMID:26373006

  5. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions.

  6. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  7. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  8. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  9. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Wagner, Glenn J; Nehme, Simon; Aunon, Frances; Khouri, Danielle; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia.

  10. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. PMID:25063193

  11. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand.

  12. Perceived health status and health insurance status: protective factors against health-related debt?

    PubMed

    Christy, Kameri; Hampton-Stover, Elena; Shobe, Marcia; Hammig, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Current health care debate has largely focused on the need for health insurance coverage rather than quality coverage. Yet the economic downturn has resulted in an increasing number of individuals who are uninsured or underinsured, and consequently face financial hardships. Multivariate analyses were used with 95 adults to examine relationships between health insurance, health status, and health debt. Controlling for demographics, and human and financial capital, findings suggest that health debt is not related to health insurance or health status. However, individuals with post-secondary education and non-homeowners appear to be more at risk for accumulating health debt.

  13. Forms of Safety and Their Impact on Health: An Exploration of HIV/AIDS-Related Risk and Resilience Among Trans Women in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, RACHEL L.; WAGNER, GLENN J.; NEHME, SIMON; AUNON, FRANCES; KHOURI, DANIELLE; MOKHBAT, JACQUES

    2016-01-01

    Using minority stress theory, the authors investigated risk behaviors of transgender women (trans women) in Lebanon. Using semistructured interviews, the authors explored six areas: relationships with family and friends; openness about gender and sexuality; experiences with stigma; sexual behavior; attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV testing; and perceived HIV-related norms among transgender peers. Participants voiced the importance of different forms of safety: social/emotional, physical, sexual, and financial. Strategies for obtaining safety were negotiated differently depending on social, behavioral, and structural factors in the environment. In this article, we provide study findings from the perspectives of trans women, their exposure to stigma, and the necessary navigation of environments characterized by transphobia. PMID:24588138

  14. The impact of health insurance on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, a number of low- and middle-income country governments have introduced health insurance schemes. Yet not a great deal is known about the impact of such policy shifts. Vietnam's recent health insurance experience including a health insurance scheme for the poor in 2003 and a compulsory scheme that provides health insurance to all children under six years of age combined with Vietnam's commitment to universal coverage calls for research that examines the impact of health insurance. Taking advantage of Vietnam's unique policy environment, data from the 2002, 2004 and 2006 waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey and single-difference and difference-in-differences approaches are used to assess whether access to health insurance--for the poor, for children and for students--impacts on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam. For the poor and for students, results suggest health insurance increased the use of inpatient services but not of outpatient services or health outcomes. For young children, results suggest health insurance increased the use of outpatient services (including the use of preventive health services such as vaccination and check-up) but not of inpatient services.

  15. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry.

  16. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    PubMed

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  17. Impact of dental fear on oral health-related quality of life among school going and non-school going children in Udaipur city: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Akanksha; Sharma, Ashish; Gaur, Tarun; Singh, Jaspal; Pachori, Yashpal; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Chhabra, Chaya

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of dental fear on different domains of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among school going and non-school going children in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 279 school children and 257 non-school going children thus making a total sample of 536 children. The sampling frame comprised of 12-15-year-old children attending two upper primary public schools and non-school going children working at shops or not working in Udaipur city, India. Information on dental fear and OHRQoL was obtained by personal interviews by a single trained and calibrated examiner through a structured questionnaire. Intercooled STATA version 9.2 was employed to perform statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Mean dental fear scores among school going (35.41 [11.79]) and non-school going (47.59 [3.80]) children revealed that dental fear was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher among non-school going than among school going children. In school going children, the likelihood of having poor oral symptoms, functional limitation and poorer social and emotional well being were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lesser as compared with non-school going children. Conclusions: Fear has a significant impact on different domains of OHRQoL, except emotional well being, among non-school going children. PMID:24808694

  18. Hypertension Education: Impact on Parent Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry

    This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…

  19. Income related inequalities in mental health in Great Britain: analysing the causes of health inequality over time.

    PubMed

    Wildman, John

    2003-03-01

    Using regression techniques this paper estimates the level of income related health inequality in GB in 1992 and 1998. Inequality is decomposed to investigate which socio-demographic factors are important contributors to health differences. The paper includes a range of measured and subjective income variables to control for absolute income. A relative deprivation measure is included to test the impact of income inequality on health inequality. It is found that subjective financial status is a major determinant of ill-health and makes a major contribution to income related inequalities in health. Relative deprivation is an important contributor for women but not for men.

  20. Integrating Human Health into Environmental Impact Assessment: An Unrealized Opportunity for Environmental Health and Justice

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. Data sources We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. Data synthesis We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. Conclusions The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice. PMID:18709140

  1. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-12-10

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools.

  2. Impact of regulations on health care costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Susan

    1995-10-01

    It's clear to all of us, including the FDA, that regulation does affect cost. It adds cost on top of the development of products, it adds cost on top of the use of products, and, therefore, it has an impact on the cost of health care and health care delivery in this country. This paper quickly runs through where those costs are, and, honestly, to balance them a bit with benefits. I am constantly asked, particularly this year, to re-examine the way we regulate medical devices, and look at a safety only model. My answer to that is I don't know how to look at safety only without looking at some effectiveness. I also don't know how to do risk only and not look at risk benefit. That is the type of work we at FDA do.

  3. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  4. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-11-21

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  5. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  6. The public health impact of hurricanes and major flooding.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the public health impact of hurricanes and major flooding are hampered by the absence of a dose-response relationship between hurricane-associated flooding and human health and the imprecise, often conflicting, meteorological models of climate change and hurricane landfall. Flooding is now the most common type of disaster worldwide, and flash flooding, usually associated with tropical storms, is the leading cause of weather-related deaths in the United States. As a result of climate changes and more frequently alternating ocean oscillations, hurricanes of category 3 or greater now strike the continental US approximately every 18 months. Public health officials are obligated to educate policymakers and the public about the significant threats posed to population health and quality of life by the inexorable progression of global climate change, including more water-centered disasters, such as tropical storms and hurricanes.

  7. Use of Electronic Health-Related Datasets in Nursing and Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Aloush, Sami; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp

    2015-07-01

    Datasets of gigabyte size are common in medical sciences. There is increasing consensus that significant untapped knowledge lies hidden in these large datasets. This review article aims to discuss Electronic Health-Related Datasets (EHRDs) in terms of types, features, advantages, limitations, and possible use in nursing and health-related research. Major scientific databases, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, were searched for studies or review articles regarding using EHRDs in research. A total number of 442 articles were located. After application of study inclusion criteria, 113 articles were included in the final review. EHRDs were categorized into Electronic Administrative Health-Related Datasets and Electronic Clinical Health-Related Datasets. Subcategories of each major category were identified. EHRDs are invaluable assets for nursing the health-related research. Advanced research skills such as using analytical softwares, advanced statistical procedures, dealing with missing data and missing variables will maximize the efficient utilization of EHRDs in research.

  8. Assessing Health Impacts within Environmental Impact Assessments: An Opportunity for Public Health Globally Which Must Not Remain Missed

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick; Viliani, Francesca; Spickett, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Within the member states of the United Nations 190 of 193 have regulated Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) which is a systematic process to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental impacts of industry development projects before these occur. However, the routine and comprehensive assessment of health impacts within EIAs remains underdeveloped. Focusing, as an example, on the risks to global health from the global shift in the mining industry towards Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC), this viewpoint details why connecting with EIA is an essential task for the health system. Although existing knowledge is out of date in relation to global practice we identify how health has been included, to some extent, in High Income Country EIAs and the institutional requirements for doing so. Using arguments identified by industry themselves about requiring a ‘social license to operate’, we conclude that EIA regulations provide the best current mechanism to ensure health protection is a core aspect in the decision making process to approve projects. PMID:25608592

  9. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here. PMID:12363179

  10. The impact of biotechnology on agricultural worker safety and health.

    PubMed

    Shutske, J M; Jenkins, S M

    2002-08-01

    Biotechnology applications such as the use and production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been widely promoted, adopted, and employed by agricultural producers throughout the world. Yet, little research exists that examines the implications of agricultural biotechnology on the health and safety of workers involved in agricultural production and processing. Regulatory frameworks do exist to examine key issues related to food safety and environmental protection in GMO applications. However, based on the lack of research and regulatory oversight, it would appear that the potential impact on the safety and health of workers is of limited interest. This article examines some of the known worker health and safety implications related to the use and production of GMOs using the host, agent, and environment framework. The characteristics of employers, workers, inputs, production practices, and socio-economic environments in which future agricultural workers perform various tasks is likely to change based on the research summarized here.

  11. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  12. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  13. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed.

  14. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    PubMed Central

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  15. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  16. Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. PMID:24049611

  17. Potential health impacts of hard water.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-08-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents.

  18. Assessment of oral health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Allen, P Finbarr

    2003-01-01

    In Dentistry, as in other branches of Medicine, it has been recognised that objective measures of disease provide little insight into the impact of oral disorders on daily living and quality of life. A significant body of development work has been undertaken to provide health status measures for use as outcome measures in dentistry. In descriptive population studies, poor oral health related quality of life is associated with tooth loss. There is a less extensive literature of longitudinal clinical trials, and measurement of change and interpretation of change scores continues to pose a challenge. This paper reviews the literature regarding the development and use of these oral health related QoL measures and includes an appraisal of future research needs in this area. PMID:14514355

  19. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  20. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety.

  1. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Eckelman, Matthew J.; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation’s pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003–2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1–2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000–98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  2. Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Wilkins, Donele; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-12-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) inform policy and decision making by providing information regarding future health concerns, and quantitative HIAs now are being used for local and urban-scale projects. HIA results can be expressed using a variety of metrics that differ in meaningful ways, and guidance is lacking with respect to best practices for the development and use of HIA metrics. This study reviews HIA metrics pertaining to air quality management and presents evaluative criteria for their selection and use. These are illustrated in a case study where PM2.5 concentrations are lowered from 10 to 8μg/m(3) in an urban area of 1.8 million people. Health impact functions are used to estimate the number of premature deaths, unscheduled hospitalizations and other morbidity outcomes. The most common metric in recent quantitative HIAs has been the number of cases of adverse outcomes avoided. Other metrics include time-based measures, e.g., disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), monetized impacts, functional-unit based measures, e.g., benefits per ton of emissions reduced, and other economic indicators, e.g., cost-benefit ratios. These metrics are evaluated by considering their comprehensiveness, the spatial and temporal resolution of the analysis, how equity considerations are facilitated, and the analysis and presentation of uncertainty. In the case study, the greatest number of avoided cases occurs for low severity morbidity outcomes, e.g., asthma exacerbations (n=28,000) and minor-restricted activity days (n=37,000); while DALYs and monetized impacts are driven by the severity, duration and value assigned to a relatively low number of premature deaths (n=190 to 230 per year). The selection of appropriate metrics depends on the problem context and boundaries, the severity of impacts, and community values regarding health. The number of avoided cases provides an estimate of the number of people affected, and monetized impacts facilitate additional economic analyses

  3. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases.

  4. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  5. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  6. Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-11-14

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure.

  7. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  8. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  9. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  10. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  11. Health impact assessment of traffic noise in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tobías, Aurelio; Recio, Alberto; Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between environmental noise and health has been examined in depth. In view of the sheer number of persons exposed, attention should be focused on road traffic noise. The city of Madrid (Spain) is a densely populated metropolitan area in which 80% of all environmental noise exposure is attributed to traffic. The aim of this study was to quantify avoidable deaths resulting from reducing the impact of equivalent diurnal noise levels (LeqD) on daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality among people aged ≥65 years in Madrid. A health impact assessment of (average 24h) LeqD and PM2.5 levels was conducted by using previously reported risk estimates of mortality rates for the period 2003-2005: For cardiovascular causes: LeqD 1.048 (1.005, 1.092) and PM2.5 1.041(1.020, 1.062) and for respiratory causes: LeqD 1.060 (1.000, 1.123) and PM2.5 1.030 (1.000, 1.062). The association found between LeqD exposure and mortality for both causes suggests an important health effect. A reduction of 1dB(A) in LeqD implies an avoidable annual mortality of 284 (31, 523) cardiovascular- and 184 (0, 190) respiratory-related deaths in the study population. The magnitude of the health impact is similar to reducing average PM2.5 levels by 10µg/m(3). Regardless of air pollution, exposure to traffic noise should be considered an important environmental factor having a significant impact on health.

  12. Standardized Curricula for Allied Health and Related Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational and technical programs in Mississippi: allied health and related technology I (health cluster I) and allied health and related technology II (health cluster II). Introductory materials include the philosophy and aims of allied health and related technology in…

  13. Extraarticular manifestations in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: impact of EAMs on the health-related quality of life in terms of disease activity, functional status, severity of pain, and social and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Eser, Filiz; Garip, Yeşim; Bodur, Hatice

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate extraarticular manifestations (EAMs) in Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and also assess the impact of EAMs on various health-related quality of life (HRQoL) domains, including physical, social, emotional, mental functioning, and bodily pain. A total of 150 patients were included in the study. EAMs were identified clinically. Pulmonary involvement was confirmed by using pulmonary function tests (PFT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), atlantoaxial subluxation by cervical spine X-rays. Peripheral neuropathy, rheumatoid nodules, and Sicca symptoms were picked up on clinical examination. Peripheral neuropathy was also confirmed by electroneurophysiologic studies. Patients were evaluated by Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL), and Short form-36 (SF36). The quadrivariate Disease Activity Score- 28 (DAS28) was used for measuring disease activity. Functional status was evaluated by using the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The severity of pain was documented by using 10-cm Visual Analog Scale-Pain (VAS-pain). EAMs were observed in 50 patients (33.3%). These were pulmonary involvement (28.7%), rheumatoid nodules (14.7%), Sicca Syndrome (8%), peripheral neuropathy (2.7%), and atlantoaxial subluxation (0.7%), respectively. It was not recorded any statistically significant difference in HAQ, DAS28, VAS-pain, and RAQoL scores between the patient groups with and without EAMs. Patients with EAMs scored significantly lower in physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional subgroups of SF36 (P < 0.01). Presence of EAMs is not directly associated with disease activity and functional status, but influences negatively HRQoL including physical and emotional functioning.

  14. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Groopman, John D; Pestka, James J

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure. PMID:24422587

  15. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Groopman, John D; Pestka, James J

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure.

  16. [Toxocariasis: spread and impact on reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, T A

    2003-01-01

    To study the prevalence of toxocariasis and its impact on the reproductive health of inhabitants in the Saratov Region, enzyme immunoassay was used to examine 1404 patients, including 210 children, 912 females, and 282 males. Toxocariasis was shown to be a risk factor of male (oligoasthenozoospermia) and female (tuboperitoneal) infertility. The high incidence of toxocariasis in females with reproductive dysfunction (recurrent abortion) and an aggravated obstetric history complicated by chronic renal diseases is indicative of the existence of the urogenital form of toxocariasis. Toxocariasis greatly increases a risk of giving birth to a baby with clinical manifestations of intrauterine infection (IUI), promotes homeostatic disorder and the formation of long-term pathology in babies with IUI. At the same time, there was a significant relationship of abnormal cardiotocograms to toxocariasis and to the presence of Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:14727482

  17. Coeliac disease and the gluten-free diet: a review of the burdens; factors associated with adherence and impact on health-related quality of life, with specific focus on adolescence.

    PubMed

    White, L E; Bannerman, E; Gillett, P M

    2016-10-01

    Adherence and non-adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) may impact negatively on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Understanding the factors that influence compliance could help inform management and also guide support. With a particular focus on adolescence, this narrative review critiques current literature on the burdens associated with following a GFD and the factors associated with adherence. Studies highlight a variety of burdens faced by individuals with coeliac disease, including the cost, access and availability of gluten-free (GF) foods, as well as the dilemmas experienced when eating out, travelling and socialising with friends. A number of studies report that adolescents face stigmatisation and feel isolated in social situations and at school. Additional burdens that are highlighted are a lack of knowledge regarding CD and GFD difficulties in interpreting food labels, as well as dissatisfaction with the organoleptic properties of GF foods. Factors associated with poor adherence in adolescence include older age, an absence of immediate symptoms, difficulties eating out and poor palatability of GF foods. Conversely, better emotional support and stronger organisation skills have been associated with superior adherence. Significant associations have been reported between HRQoL measures and adherence, although the findings are inconsistent. Limitations in research methodologies exist and data are restricted to just a few countries. Further research specific to adolescence is required to identify independent predictors of adherence.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life in HIV-infected and at-risk Women: The Impact of Illicit Drug Use and Hepatitis C on a Community Preference Weighted Measure*

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Brandon; Nosyk, Bohdan; Wittenberg, Eve; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of illicit drug use and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with HIV or at-risk for HIV infection. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Women's Interagency Health Study (WIHS) of women with HIV (n=2508) and at high risk of HIV infection (n=889) in the US. A Short-Form-6D (SF-6D) HRQoL measure derived from the Medical Outcomes Study–HIV (MOS-HIV) questionnaire, HIV infection status, CD4 cell count (a measure of immune status), antiretroviral treatment, current illicit drug use (heroin and/or cocaine), and HCV status were assessed at a recent study visit. We developed multivariate linear regression models adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, and testing for interactions. Results HIV-infected women with ≤200 CD4 cells/uL had lower mean HRQoL scores (0.69) than either HIV-infected women with >200 CD4 cells/uL (0.78) or HIV-uninfected women (0.80) (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, illicit drug use, chronic HCV, and low CD4 count were independently associated with lower HRQoL. There was a differential effect of HCV and illicit drug use for HIV-infected women depending on CD4 cell count: HIV-infected women with >200 CD4 cells/uL had a significantly greater reduction in HRQoL associated with illicit drug use (−0.063) and chronic HCV (−0.036) than women with ≤200 CD4 cells/uL (−0.017, −0.005 respectively). Conclusion Poorly-controlled HIV, illicit drug use, and chronic HCV are associated with lower HRQoL. Illicit drug use and chronic HCV have greater HRQoL impacts for HIV-infected women with well-controlled HIV versus those with poorly-controlled HIV, which may affect clinical and policy priorities. PMID:24106234

  19. A toolbox for health risk related decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.

  20. Health and economic impacts of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, S D; Solomon, S L; Blake, P A

    1987-01-01

    For comparison of the impacts of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria with those of infections due to antimicrobial-susceptible strains of the same bacteria, data were evaluated from 175 published and unpublished reports of investigations of nosocomial and community-acquired infections with selected bacteria. The evaluation of outcomes of hospital-acquired infections with resistant organisms was often confounded by risk factors also associated with poor outcomes. Nevertheless, for both nosocomial and community-acquired infections, the mortality, the likelihood of hospitalization, and the length of hospital stay were usually at least twice as great for patients infected with drug-resistant strains as for those infected with drug-susceptible strains of the same bacteria. Poor outcomes could be attributed both to the expected effects of ineffective antimicrobial therapy and to the unexpected occurrence of drug-resistant infections complicated by prior antimicrobial therapy for other medical problems. Although the adverse economic and health effects of drug-resistant bacterial infections can only be roughly quantified, it is concluded that antimicrobial resistance is an important health problem and an economic burden to society. PMID:3321356

  1. The health impact of economic sanctions.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R; Devin, J; Fausey, J

    1995-01-01

    Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists. PMID:10101382

  2. Health Literacy and Women's Health-Related Behaviors in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.

    2012-01-01

    Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…

  3. The public health impact of obesity.

    PubMed

    Visscher, T L; Seidell, J C

    2001-01-01

    The increase in obesity worldwide will have an important impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, osteoarthritis, work disability, and sleep apnea. Obesity has a more pronounced impact on morbidity than on mortality. Disability due to obesity-related cardiovascular diseases will increase particularly in industrialized countries, as patients survive cardiovascular diseases in these countries more often than in nonindustrialized countries. Disability due to obesity-related type 2 diabetes will increase particularly in industrializing countries, as insulin supply is usually insufficient in these countries. As a result, in these countries, an increase in disabling nephropathy, arteriosclerosis, neuropathy, and retinopathy is expected. Increases in the prevalence of obesity will potentially lead to an increase in the number of years that subjects suffer from obesity-related morbidity and disability. A 1% increase in the prevalence of obesity in such countries as India and China leads to 20 million additional cases of obesity. Prevention programs will stem the obesity epidemic more efficiently than weight-loss programs. However, only a few prevention programs have been developed or implemented, and the success rates reported to date have been low. Obesity prevention programs should be high on the scientific and political agenda in both industrialized and industrializing countries. PMID:11274526

  4. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  5. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Erlanger, Tobias E. Krieger, Gary R. Singer, Burton H. Utzinger, Juerg

    2008-05-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient.

  6. Health Impact Assessment as a Student Service Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…

  7. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie; McGregor, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health, as well as studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and the impacts of these changes on morbidity/mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty are the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given the uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, increasing morbidity/mortality. There are few projections for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, because few studies have been conducted. More research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts.

  8. The respiratory health impact of a large urban fire.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Waller, K; Shusterman, D; Thollaug, S; Brunner, W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In July 1988, a fire destroyed a huge supermarket warehouse in Richmond, Calif, sending smoke into residential neighborhoods for nearly a week. There was no organized public health response. To evaluate the respiratory health impact on the general population, a survey of emergency room visits and hospital admissions to the two acute-care hospitals serving the population downwind was conducted. METHODS. Medical records of 489 patients meeting specified diagnostic criteria during the week of the fire and several reference periods were abstracted. Ratios of proportions for respiratory diagnoses (i.e., emergency room visits for a given diagnosis/total emergency room visits) were calculated, comparing the fire week with the reference periods, and 1988 mortality data for the area were reviewed. RESULTS. Ratios of proportions for emergency room visits for asthma and all lower respiratory conditions increased significantly during the fire. Respiratory-related hospitalizations also increased. However, there was no observable increase in respiratory mortality. CONCLUSIONS. This fire was found to have had a moderate impact on the respiratory health of local residents. Public health intervention is indicated to prevent respiratory morbidity when extended exposure to structural fire smoke is predictable. PMID:8129061

  9. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  10. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  11. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  12. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular

  13. Measuring health related quality of life in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Adam C.; Dewitt, E. Morgan; Seid, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric researchers and clinicians increasingly recognize the importance of measuring the impact of childhood disease across many aspects of a child’s life. In this review, we describe four measures of health related quality of life (HRQOL) designed specifically for children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). HRQOL generally refers to how an individual feels about aspects of their life in relation to their health. The World Health Organization originally described HRQOL as minimally including: physical, mental, and social health dimensions.1 Subsequent HRQOL definitions, while varied, have incorporated the notion that individuals have an important and distinct viewpoint regarding their disease and the quality of their life.2 They have also often emphasized HRQOL’s subjective nature.2 These features present unique challenges when measuring HRQOL in children. Cognizant of these issues, we review the development and psychometric properties of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Rheumatology Module 3.0, the Juvenile Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JAQQ), the Paediatric Rheumatology Quality of Life Scale (PRQL), and the Childhood Arthritis Health Profile (CAHP). PMID:22588764

  14. The impact of smoking on women's health.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Tim; Burnette, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Despite half a century of public health efforts, smoking remains the single largest cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, killing 480,000 people a year and inflicting chronic disease on 16 million. Since the early part of the 20th century, tobacco companies' success in aggressively marketing their products to women has resulted in steady increases in smoking-related disease risk for women. Today, women smokers have caught up with their male counterparts and are just as likely to die from lung cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as are men who smoke. Women's risk for developing smoking-related heart disease or dying from COPD now exceeds men's risk.

  15. Impacts of mobility disability and high and increasing body mass index on health-related quality of life and participation in society: a population-based cohort study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing obesity in adults with mobility disability has become a considerable health problem, similar to the increasing trend of obesity in the general population. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of mobility disability with overweight status and obesity in a large population-based Swedish cohort of adults, and to investigate whether mobility disability, high body mass index (BMI), and increasing BMI over time are predictors of health-related quality of life and participation in society after 8 years of follow-up. Methods The study cohort included 13,549 individuals aged 18–64 years who answered questions about mobility disability, weight, height, health-related quality of life and participation in society in the Stockholm Public Health Survey 2002 and 2010. The cohort was randomly selected from the population of Stockholm County, and divided into six subgroups based on data for mobility disability and overweight status. Multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the likelihood for low health-related quality of life and lack of participation. Results Respondents with mobility disability had a higher mean BMI than those without mobility disability. Respondents both with and without mobility disability increased in BMI, but with no significant difference in the longitudinal changes (mean difference: 0.078; 95% CI: -0.16 - 0.32). Presence of mobility disability increased the risk of low health-related quality of life and lack of participation in 2010, irrespective of low health-related quality of life and lack of participation in 2002. The risk of pain and low general health (parts of health-related quality of life) increased for every 5 units of higher BMI reported in 2010. In respondents without low general health at baseline, the risk of obtaining low general health increased for every 5 units of higher BMI in 2010 (OR:1.60; CI: 1.47 - 1.74). Conclusions The greatest risk of low general health

  16. Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health…

  17. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  18. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  19. Promoting Oral Health Using Social Media Platforms: Seeking Arabic Online Oral Health Related Information (OHRI).

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Alabdulatif, Norah; Bahkaly, Ahlam; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    Access to oral health care services around the world is limited by a lack of universal coverage. The internet and social media can be an important source for patients to access supplementary oral health related information (OHRI). Online OHRI presents an opportunity to enhance dental public health education about innumerable oral health issues and promote dental self-care. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of social media users among the Saudi population and identify the preferred social media platform for seeking Arabic OHRI and its impact on seekers' knowledge, attitude, and behavior. A total of 2652 Twitter followers were surveyed, using a web-based self-administered questionnaire to collect data on demographic characteristics and online OHRI seeking behavior More than two thirds, 67.7% (n= 1796), of the participants reported they were seeking Arabic online OHRI, while 41.1% of the participants reported they had no preference for using a specific social media platform. These results emphasize the need and importance of supporting the content of social media with trusted and high quality online OHRI resources to promote a high level of public awareness about oral health and dental health services. Further studies in this regard are highly recommended on a larger scale of nationalities to explore the role of social media platform preference in promoting health promotion and dental public health awareness. PMID:27350526

  20. Health Related Aspects of Artificial Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansler, Richard; Kubulins, Vilnis; Carome, Edward

    2011-04-01

    It was long thought that the "sleep hormone," melatonin, is produced by the pineal gland only when the eyes are in darkness. Thus, in developed countries, due to the use of electric lighting after dark, melatonin production usually occurs only when one is asleep. For most people, this is substantially less than the 9 to 10 hour production time capability of the pineal gland. However, in 2001 it was discovered that not all light, but mainly a band of wavelengths in the blue portion of the spectrum, below 530nm, suppresses melatonin production. On learning this, and that melatonin is a very active cancer fighting antioxidant and has many other health promoting properties, it was decided to make available lighting products that can enhance melatonin production. Included are lamps that do not emit the offending blue wavelengths and eyeglasses that filter out the blue portion of the spectrum. These and other related products are meant to be used for several hours in the evening, before retiring, thus maximizing the pineal gland's production time. The effects of their use on sleep and several other health related conditions are discussed.

  1. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-09-15

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  2. Economic Evidence on the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In responding to the health impacts of climate change, economic evidence and tools inform decision makers of the efficiency of alternative health policies and interventions. In a time when sweeping budget cuts are affecting all tiers of government, economic evidence on health protection from climate change spending enables comparison with other public spending. METHODS The review included 53 countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Literature was obtained using a Medline and Internet search of key terms in published reports and peer-reviewed literature, and from institutions working on health and climate change. Articles were included if they provided economic estimation of the health impacts of climate change or adaptation measures to protect health from climate change in the WHO European Region. Economic studies are classified under health impact cost, health adaptation cost, and health economic evaluation (comparing both costs and impacts). RESULTS A total of 40 relevant studies from Europe were identified, covering the health damage or adaptation costs related to the health effects of climate change and response measures to climate-sensitive diseases. No economic evaluation studies were identified of response measures specific to the impacts of climate change. Existing studies vary in terms of the economic outcomes measured and the methods for evaluation of health benefits. The lack of robust health impact data underlying economic studies significantly affects the availability and precision of economic studies. CONCLUSIONS Economic evidence in European countries on the costs of and response to climate-sensitive diseases is extremely limited and fragmented. Further studies are urgently needed that examine health impacts and the costs and efficiency of alternative responses to climate-sensitive health conditions, in particular extreme weather events (other than heat) and potential emerging diseases and other conditions

  3. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  4. Health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with ankylosing spondylitis: impact of peripheral involvement on quality of life in terms of disease activity, functional status, severity of pain, and social and emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Ozlem; Tutoğlu, Ahmet; Garip, Yeşim; Ozcan, Esra; Bodur, Hatice

    2013-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) affects sacroiliac joints at early stages and may involve the axial skeleton at later stages of disease. Peripheral involvement usually occurs in lower extremities. When it develops early in the disease course, it is a predictor of more aggressive disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in AS and to assess the impact of peripheral involvement on HRQoL domains in terms of disease activity, functional status, pain, and social and emotional functioning. Seventy-four AS patients were included. Peripheral involvement was present in 51.35 % of the patients. In 65.79 % of these cases the hips, in 31.58 % the knees, in 18.42 % the shoulders and in 13.16 % the ankles were affected. Patients were evaluated by Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). ASQoL was strongly correlated with ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), severity of total pain, night pain, fatigue, morning stiffness and ESR. ASDAS and BASDAI showed the strongest correlation with ASQoL. Severity of total pain, functional status and severity of night pain followed it, respectively. Patients with peripheral involvement scored significantly lower in all subgroups of SF36 and significantly higher in ASDAS, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI and ASQoL scores and levels of pain, night pain, fatigue and morning stiffness. Peripheral involvement is associated with more active disease and functional disability and has a negative influence on HRQoL including physical, social and emotional functioning.

  5. Development of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion: part 2 – cross-sectional validation

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Philip E.; Cunningham, Susan J.; Shah, Nahush; Gilchrist, Fiona; Baker, Sarah R.; Hodges, Samantha J.; Marshman, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the items, identified through qualitative inquiry that might form the basis of a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of young people with malocclusion. Methods: Piloting with 13 young people reduced the number of items from 37 to 28. Cross-sectional testing involved a convenience sample aged 10–16 years, attending the Orthodontic Department of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield. The fit and function of the initial MIQ questions were examined using item response theory. Results: 184 participants (113 females; 71 males) completed a questionnaire (response 85%), seven participants were excluded due to missing responses. The mean age of participants was 12·9 years (SD 1·4) and they had a wide range of malocclusions. The majority were White British (67·4%). Data from 47 participants were used to analyse test–retest reliability. Rasch analysis was undertaken, which further reduced the number of items in the questionnaire from 28 to 17. Unidimensionality of the scale was confirmed. The analysis also identified that the original 5-point response scale could be reduced to three points. The new measure demonstrated good criterion validity (r = 0·751; P < 0·001) and construct validity with the two global questions (‘Overall bother’ ρ = 0·733 and ‘Life overall’ ρ = 0·701). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0·906) and test–retest reliability Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0·78; 95% CI 0·61–0·88) were also good. Conclusion: Cross-sectional testing has shown the new MIQ to be both valid and reliable. Further evaluation is required to confirm the generalisability as well as the ability of the new measure to detect change over time (responsiveness). PMID:26745783

  6. Health-related quality of life and perceived need for mental health services in adolescent solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Loiselle, Kristin A; Devine, Katie A; Simons, Laura E; Mee, Laura L; Blount, Ronald L

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to assess interest in mental health services among parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients and the relationship between parent perceived need for mental health services and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Sixty-three parents rated interest in receiving 10 mental health services, and patient HRQOL ratings were gathered from adolescent transplant recipients and their parents. Ninety-four percent of parents expressed some level of interest in at least one of the proposed services, with over 40 % indicating maximum interest. Parents' perceived need for mental health services was inversely related to adolescent and parent reports of HRQOL on the behavior, mental health, family cohesion, and parental impact-emotional domains. Results suggest that parents of adolescent solid organ transplant recipients are interested in receiving mental health services for their families. Assessment of need for mental health services and HRQOL may inform the medical team of families requiring intervention.

  7. Climate Change, Tropospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Kristie L.; McGregor, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    Objective Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. Data sources We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Data synthesis Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Conclusions Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution–related health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations. PMID:19057695

  8. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming. PMID:25582074

  9. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.

  10. The impact of signing a memorandum of understanding on reproductive health with the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Leke, Robert J I; Njotang, Nana P; Shearon, Azong B; Wankah, Charlotte A

    2014-10-01

    Health statistics relating to Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 are poor for most low-resource countries. Professional societies can assist governments to improve these health indicators. For an effective collaboration, the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians Cameroon (SOGOC) and the Ministry of Public Health signed a memorandum of understanding on reproductive health. A major consequence of this collaboration was the ease of transfer of competence associated with SOGOC adopting a monitoring and evaluation role, which has improved quality of care. The impact of this collaboration for the Society has been significant; SOGOC is recognized as a partner and has an opportunity to play a leadership role in issues concerning reproductive health.

  11. Health impacts of domestic coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    . Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.

  12. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  13. [Certification of health-related websites in France].

    PubMed

    Nabarette, Hervé; Romaneix, François; Boyer, Célia; Darmoni, Stéphan Jacques; Rémy, Pierre-Louis; Caniard, Etienne

    2009-10-01

    The 2004 statute that created the French National Authority for Health (HAS, Haute Autorité de Santé) required it to establish a procedure for the certification of health-related web sites. The HAS established a procedure based on the HONcode certification scheme set up by the Health On the Net Foundation, with which HAS has a partnership agreement. The HONcode includes eight principles that govern the quality of online heath information and its presentation (quality of the production process). The collaboration between HAS and HON has already led to improvements in a large number of web sites in France and to their certification. The main advantages of certification for site publishers are better site quality and enhanced credibility rather than a larger audience. Quality certification has little impact on the choice of site by Internet users as they tend to use search engines to find health-related information. Future development of the procedure should work to increase the value of certification both by improving the quality of sites and in signaling quality to Internet users.

  14. Oral health related quality of life in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants' knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  15. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research. PMID:26468242

  16. Managing the health impacts of drought in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil's Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability.

  17. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  18. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T J; Visser, M E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A; Denlinger, D L; Dominoni, D; Ebling, F J; Elton, S; Evans, N; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M; Haydon, D T; Hazlerigg, D G; Heideman, P; Hopcraft, J G C; Jonsson, N N; Kronfeld-Schor, N; Kumar, V; Lincoln, G A; MacLeod, R; Martin, S A M; Martinez-Bakker, M; Nelson, R J; Reed, T; Robinson, J E; Rock, D; Schwartz, W J; Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tauber, E; Thackeray, S J; Umstatter, C; Yoshimura, T; Helm, B

    2015-10-22

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research.

  19. Managing the health impacts of drought in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil's Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  20. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T J; Visser, M E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A; Denlinger, D L; Dominoni, D; Ebling, F J; Elton, S; Evans, N; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M; Haydon, D T; Hazlerigg, D G; Heideman, P; Hopcraft, J G C; Jonsson, N N; Kronfeld-Schor, N; Kumar, V; Lincoln, G A; MacLeod, R; Martin, S A M; Martinez-Bakker, M; Nelson, R J; Reed, T; Robinson, J E; Rock, D; Schwartz, W J; Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tauber, E; Thackeray, S J; Umstatter, C; Yoshimura, T; Helm, B

    2015-10-22

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research. PMID:26468242

  1. Identification of Vehicle Health Assurance Related Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Leone, Karen M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Trend analysis in aviation as related to vehicle health management (VHM) was performed by reviewing the most current statistical and prognostics data available from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident, and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident datasets. In addition, future directions in aviation technology related to VHM research areas were assessed through the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementations (SERFIs), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Most-Wanted List and recent open safety recommendations, the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, and the Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) areas of change. Future research direction in the VHM research areas is evidently strong as seen from recent research solicitations from the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), and VHM-related technologies actively being developed by aviation industry leaders, including GE, Boeing, Airbus, and UTC Aerospace Systems. Given the highly complex VHM systems, modifications can be made in the future so that the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project (VSST) technical challenges address inadequate maintenance crew's trainings and skills, and the certification methods of such systems as recommended by the NTSB, NRC, and FAST areas of change.

  2. Sorghum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Awika, Joseph M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2004-05-01

    Sorghum is a rich source of various phytochemicals including tannins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, phytosterols and policosanols. These phytochemicals have potential to significantly impact human health. Sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals or fruits. These fractions may offer similar health benefits commonly associated with fruits. Available epidemiological evidence suggests that sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of cancer in humans compared to other cereals. The high concentration of phytochemicals in sorghum may be partly responsible. Sorghums containing tannins are widely reported to reduce caloric availability and hence weight gain in animals. This property is potentially useful in helping reduce obesity in humans. Sorghum phytochemicals also promote cardiovascular health in animals. Such properties have not been reported in humans and require investigation, since cardiovascular disease is currently the leading killer in the developed world. This paper reviews available information on sorghum phytochemicals, how the information relates to current phytonutrient research and how it has potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  3. Health Impacts of Air Pollution Under a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, P. L.; Knowlton, K.; Rosenthal, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2003-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution remains a serious public health problem in cities throughout the world. In the US, despite considerable progress in reducing emissions over the past 30 years, as many as 50,000 premature deaths each year have been attributed to airborne particulate matter alone. Tropospheric ozone has been associated with increased daily mortality and hospitalization rates, and with a variety of related respiratory problems. Weather plays an important role in the transport and transformation of air pollution. In particular, a warming climate is likely to promote the atmospheric reactions that are responsible for ozone and secondary aerosol production, as well as increasing emissions of many of their volatile precursors. Increasingly, efforts to address urban air pollution problems throughout the world will be complicated by trends and variability in climate. The New York Climate and Health Project (NYCHP) is developing and applying tools for integrated assessment of health impacts from air pollution and heat associated with climate and land-use changes in the New York City metropolitan region. Global climate change is modeled over the 21st century based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global Atmosphere-Ocean Model (GCM). Meteorological fields are downscaled to a 36 km grid over the eastern US using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale meteorological model. MM5 results are then used as input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for simulating air quality, with emissions based on the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE). To date, simulations have been performed for five summer seasons each during the 1990s and the 2050s. An evaluation of the present-day climate and air quality predictions indicates that the modeling system largely captures the observed climate-ozone system. Analysis of future-year predictions

  4. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  6. Health Impact Modelling of Active Travel Visions for England and Wales Using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM)

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Givoni, Moshe; Morgan, Andrei Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving health benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport offers a potential policy win-win; the magnitude of potential benefits, however, is likely to vary. This study uses an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling tool (ITHIM) to evaluate the health and environmental impacts of high walking and cycling transport scenarios for English and Welsh urban areas outside London. Methods Three scenarios with increased walking and cycling and lower car use were generated based upon the Visions 2030 Walking and Cycling project. Changes to carbon dioxide emissions were estimated by environmental modelling. Health impact assessment modelling was used to estimate changes in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) resulting from changes in exposure to air pollution, road traffic injury risk, and physical activity. We compare the findings of the model with results generated using the World Health Organization's Health Economic Assessment of Transport (HEAT) tools. Results This study found considerable reductions in disease burden under all three scenarios, with the largest health benefits attributed to reductions in ischemic heart disease. The pathways that produced the largest benefits were, in order, physical activity, road traffic injuries, and air pollution. The choice of dose response relationship for physical activity had a large impact on the size of the benefits. Modelling the impact on all-cause mortality rather than through individual diseases suggested larger benefits. Using the best available evidence we found fewer road traffic injuries for all scenarios compared with baseline but alternative assumptions suggested potential increases. Conclusions Methods to estimate the health impacts from transport related physical activity and injury risk are in their infancy; this study has demonstrated an integration of transport and health impact modelling approaches. The findings add to the case for a move from car transport to

  7. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in Tanzania: a review.

    PubMed

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Mayala, Benjamin K; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2011-12-01

    Climate change (CC) has a number of immediate and long-term impacts on the fundamental determinants of human health. A number of potential human health effects have been associated either directly or indirectly with global climate change. Vulnerability to the risks associated with CC may exacerbate ongoing socio-economic challenges. The objective of this review was to analyse the potential risk and vulnerability in the context of climate-sensitive human diseases and health system in Tanzania. Climate sensitive vector- and waterborne diseases and other health related problems and the policies on climate adaptation in Tanzania during the past 50 years are reviewed. The review has shown that a number of climate-associated infectious disease epidemics have been reported in various areas of the country; mostly being associated with increase in precipitation and temperature. Although, there is no single policy document that specifically addresses issues of CC in the country, the National Environmental Management Act of 1997 recognizes the importance of CC and calls for the government to put up measures to address the phenomenon. A number of strategies and action plans related to CC are also in place. These include the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the National Action Programme, and the National Bio-safety Framework. The government has put in place a National Climate Change Steering Committee and the National Climate Change Technical Committee to oversee and guide the implementation of CC activities in the country. Recognizing the adverse impacts of natural disasters and calamities, the government established a Disaster Management Division under the Prime Minister's Office. Epidemic Preparedness and Response Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for emergency preparedness, mostly disease outbreaks. However, specific climate changes associated with human health issues are poorly addressed in the MoHSW strategies and the national

  8. Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

    2008-08-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia.

  9. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  10. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  11. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  12. Social impact bonds and their application to preventive health.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John L

    2013-05-01

    Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their

  13. Predicted health impacts of urban air quality management

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, J; Joffe, M

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: The 1995 UK Environment Act required local authorities to review air quality and, where UK National Air Quality Strategy objectives (except ozone) are likely to be exceeded in 2005, to declare local air quality management areas and prepare action plans. This study modelled the impacts on health of reductions from current levels of PM10 to these objectives. Design: The framework for conducting quantified health impact assessment assessed causality, then, if appropriate, examined the shape and magnitude of the exposure-response relations. The study modelled declines in pollution to achieve the objectives, then modelled the numbers of deaths and admissions affected if air pollution declined from existing levels to meet the objectives, using routine data. Setting: Westminster, central London. Main results: Attaining the 2004 PM10 24 hour objective in Westminster results in 1–21 lives no longer shortened in one year (annual deaths 1363). Reducing exceedences from 35 to seven almost doubles the estimates. The 2009 objective for the annual mean requires a substantial reduction in PM10, which would delay 8–20 deaths. About 20 respiratory and 14–20 circulatory admissions would be affected and around 5% of emergency hospital attendances for asthma by attaining the lower annual mean target. The effects of long term exposure to particulates may be an order of magnitude higher: models predict about 24 deaths are delayed by reaching the 2004 annual target (40 µg/m3[gravimetric]) and a hundred deaths by reducing annual mean PM10 to 20 µg/m3[gravimetric]. Conclusions: Modelling can be used to estimate the potential health impacts of air quality management programmes. PMID:14729886

  14. A study of the spatiotemporal health impacts of ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Christakos, G; Kolovos, A

    1999-01-01

    Exposure analysis and mapping of spatiotemporal pollutants in relation to their health effects are important challenges facing environmental health scientists and integrated assessment modellers. In this work, a methodological framework is discussed to study the impact of spatiotemporal ozone (O3) exposure distributions on the health of human populations. The framework, however, is very general and can be used to study various other pollutants. The spatiotemporal analysis starts with exposure distributions producing the input to pollutokinetic (or toxicokinetic) laws which are linked to effect models which, in turn, are integrated with relationships that describe how effects are distributed across populations. Important characteristics of the environmental health framework are holisticity and stochasticity. Holisticity emphasizes the functional relationships between composite space/time O3 maps, pollutokinetic models of burden on target organs and tissues, and health effects. These relationships offer a meaningful physical interpretation of the exposure and biological processes that affect human exposure. Stochasticity involves the rigorous representation of natural uncertainties and biological variations in terms of spatiotemporal random fields. The stochastic perspective introduces a deeper epistemological understanding in the development of improved models of spatiotemporal human exposure analysis and mapping. Also, it explicitly determines the knowledge bases available and develops logically plausible rules and standards for data processing and human exposure map construction. The proposed approach allows the horizontal integration among sciences related to the human exposure problem that leads to accurate and informative spatiotemporal maps of O3 exposure and effect distributions and an integrative analysis of the whole risk case. By processing a variety of knowledge bases, the spatiotemporal analysis can bring together several sciences which are all relevant

  15. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    SciTech Connect

    Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  16. The Impact of War on the Mental Health of Children: A Salvadoran Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Joan Riley; Nuttall, Ronald L.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    1997-01-01

    A study of 54 Salvadoran children (age 12), born in the Salvadoran Civil War, found the personal/social impact of the war was more important than family togetherness or war intensity in determining the mental health of the children. Children's intelligence was highly related to surviving with greater mental health. (Author/CR)

  17. Workplace aesthetics: Impact of environments upon employee health?

    PubMed

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Associations between self-reported need for aesthetic improvements in the workplace and the need for ergonomic improvement and health factors were investigated to determine the possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance. The need for aesthetic improvements were compared with the need for ergonomic improvements. All employees at a Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in this cross sectional study. Of those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria the participation rate was 74% (1961/2641). Demographic data was obtained from company files and pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collections from the participants. additional questions on needs for improvement were developed, tested for repeatability, and demonstrated to be within acceptable limits. Differences between 'high rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic needs and ergonomic needs were correlated to set ups of demographic, work environmental and organisational and health variables.The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (p<0.001). Aesthetic needs were more frequently reported than ergonomic needs. There was no significant gender related difference in response distribution of aesthetic or ergonomic needs, whereas differences between occupational groups were shown (0.006 and 0.003). 'High rank' needs for aesthetic improvement were associated to psychologically demanding work, negative work stress, sleep disturbances, problems at work, musculoskeletal pain and lower age. Gender and physical training did not differ between 'high and low rank' responders regarding neither aesthetic nor ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The independently tested associations with aesthetic needs were similar to, but fewer than those for ergonomic needs with regard to the variable set ups. Sixteen studied factors out of 24, showed significant difference between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, and 21/24 of

  18. A Health Impact Assessment of California’s Proposed Cap-and-Trade Regulations

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul; Rudolph, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To identify unintended health effects of California’s controversial cap-and-trade regulations and establish health-promoting policy recommendations, we performed a health impact assessment. Methods. We used literature reviews, public data, and local health surveys to qualitatively assess potential health risks and benefits related to changes in employment and income, energy costs, effects of emission offset projects, and cobenefits from the allocation of program revenue. We examined case studies from various communities to find existing social, economic, and environmental health conditions. Results. We found that policy implementation will minimally impact job creation (< 0.1% change) and that health effects from job sector shifts are unlikely. Fuel prices may increase (0%–11%), and minor negative health effects could accrue for some low-income households. Conclusions. Offset projects would likely benefit environmental health, but more research is needed. Allocating some program revenue for climate change adaptation and mitigation would have substantial health benefits. Health impact assessment is a useful tool for health agencies to engage in policy discussions that typically fall outside public health. Our results can inform emission reduction strategies and cap-and-trade policy at the federal level. PMID:22742062

  19. The Impact of Learning upon Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter; Aldridge, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    In a British survey receiving 473 individual and 47 group responses, 87% reported physical health benefits from participation in learning; 89% cited emotional or mental health benefits. Most reported "disbenefits" at some time, but usually accompanied by significant benefits in other areas that provided motivation to continue learning. (SK)

  20. Health impacts of workplace heat exposure: an epidemiological review.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-01-01

    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All published epidemiological studies in the field of health impacts of workplace heat exposure for the period of January 1997 to April 2012 were reviewed. Finally, 55 original articles were identified. Manual workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress, especially those in low-middle income countries in tropical regions. At risk workers include farmers, construction workers, fire-fighters, miners, soldiers, and manufacturing workers working around process-generated heat. The potential impacts of workplace heat exposure are to some extent underestimated due to the underreporting of heat illnesses. More studies are needed to quantify the extent to which high-risk manual workers are physiologically and psychologically affected by or behaviourally adapt to workplace heat exposure exacerbated by climate change.

  1. Health Impacts of Workplace Heat Exposure: An Epidemiological Review

    PubMed Central

    XIANG, Jianjun; BI, Peng; PISANIELLO, Dino; HANSEN, Alana

    2013-01-01

    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All published epidemiological studies in the field of health impacts of workplace heat exposure for the period of January 1997 to April 2012 were reviewed. Finally, 55 original articles were identified. Manual workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress, especially those in low-middle income countries in tropical regions. At risk workers include farmers, construction workers, fire-fighters, miners, soldiers, and manufacturing workers working around process-generated heat. The potential impacts of workplace heat exposure are to some extent underestimated due to the underreporting of heat illnesses. More studies are needed to quantify the extent to which high-risk manual workers are physiologically and psychologically affected by or behaviourally adapt to workplace heat exposure exacerbated by climate change. PMID:24366537

  2. Health impacts of workplace heat exposure: an epidemiological review.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-01-01

    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All published epidemiological studies in the field of health impacts of workplace heat exposure for the period of January 1997 to April 2012 were reviewed. Finally, 55 original articles were identified. Manual workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress, especially those in low-middle income countries in tropical regions. At risk workers include farmers, construction workers, fire-fighters, miners, soldiers, and manufacturing workers working around process-generated heat. The potential impacts of workplace heat exposure are to some extent underestimated due to the underreporting of heat illnesses. More studies are needed to quantify the extent to which high-risk manual workers are physiologically and psychologically affected by or behaviourally adapt to workplace heat exposure exacerbated by climate change. PMID:24366537

  3. Assessment of the health impacts of climate change in Kiribati.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Kiribati-a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation-is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  4. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  5. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  6. [Health impact assessment of building and investment projects].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    2003-02-01

    For regional planning and approval procedures for building projects of a certain order of magnitude and power rating according to the German Federal Act on the Prevention of Emissions with Integrated Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the German public health departments, acting as public authorities, increasingly perform health impact assessments (HIA). The amended Act on Environmental Impact Assessment, the Decree on industrial plants which require approval (4th Federal Decree on Emission Prevention) and the Health Service Acts of the Federal States of Germany form the legal basis for the assessment of health issues with regard to approval procedures for building and investment projects. In the framework of the "Action Programme for the Environment and Health", the present article aims at making this process binding and to ensure responsibility and general involvement of the Public Health departments in all German Federal States. Future criteria, basic principles and procedures for single-case testing as well as assessment standards should meet these requirements. The Federal Ministry for the Environment and the Federal Ministry for Health should agree on Health Impact Assessment (HIA ) as well as on the relaxant stipulations in their procedures and general administrative regulations for implementing the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA). Current EIA procedures focus on urban development and road construction, industrial investment projects, intensive animal husbandry plants, waste incineration plants, and wind energy farms. This paper illustrates examples meeting with varying degrees of public acceptance. However, being involved in the regional planning procedure for the project "Extension of the federal motorway A 14 from Magdeburg to Schwerin", the Public Health Service also shares global responsibility for health and climate protection. Demands for shortest routing conflict with objectives of environmental protection which should be given long

  7. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  8. The impact of a health campaign on health social capital.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Esther; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2004-01-01

    Referring to literature in sociology, mass communication, and public health, we conceptualize and operationally define "health social capital" and "individual health social capital" and then posit and test a model for its development in response to a public health media campaign. The campaign evaluated here was designed to stimulate behaviors that would provide a more supportive social environment for children and youth, an environment which we consider to be richer in aggregate health social capital. The association model of advertising was employed to explain the development of individual health social capital measures of awareness, attitude, and behavior. With cross-sectional data (1998, n = 614; 1999, n = 1087; 2000, n = 1388), we examine the results for changes in awareness, attitude, and behavior over time and the significant links between these dependent variables and media campaign exposure. The results show significant increases in awareness and attitude, but not in behavior. Structural equation modeling revealed different patterns of influence for newspaper and TV campaign exposure. PMID:15360032

  9. Impact of Conditional Cash Transfers on Maternal and Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Denizhan; Fleisher, Lisa; Singer, Daniel; Sturke, Rachel; Angeles, Gustavo; Charles, Jodi; Emrey, Bob; Gleason, Joanne; Mwebsa, Winnie; Saldana, Kelly; Yarrow, Kristina; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and newborn health (MNH) is a high priority for global health and is included among the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the slow decline in maternal and newborn mortality jeopardizes achievements of the targets of MDGs. According to UNICEF, 60 million women give birth outside of health facilities, and family planning needs are satisfied for only 50%. Further, skilled birth attendance and the use of antenatal care are most inequitably distributed in maternal and newborn health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been shown to increase health service utilization among the poorest but little is written on the effects of such programmes on maternal and newborn health. We carried out a systematic review of studies on CCT that report maternal and newborn health outcomes, including studies from 8 countries. The CCT programmes have increased antenatal visits, skilled attendance at birth, delivery at a health facility, and tetanus toxoid vaccination for mothers and reduced the incidence of low birthweight. The programmes have not had a significant impact on fertility while the impact on maternal and newborn mortality has not been well-documented thus far. Given these positive effects, we make the case for further investment in CCT programmes for maternal and newborn health, noting gaps in knowledge and providing recommendations for better design and evaluation of such programmes. We recommend more rigorous impact evaluations that document impact pathways and take factors, such as cost-effectiveness, into account.

  10. Climate Impact Reporter: A New Tool for Archiving and Displaying Climate-related Impacts to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umphlett, N.; Shulski, M.; Lahowetz, J.; Sorensen, W.

    2014-12-01

    The High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) has been providing users with custom climate services for over 25 years. Stakeholder needs in the High Plains Region have evolved over time from simple data requests to inquiries about the impacts of various climate-related events. At this time, climate impacts may be reported in numerous locations such as newspapers, scholarly journals, and extension articles. In order to meet the increasing demand for climate impact information, HPRCC is beta-testing an online tool which synthesizes, archives, and displays impacts related to extreme climate events from multiple sources. The tool is intended to fulfill the needs of two general types of users - those who need a place to archive climate impact information and those seeking such information. As such, there are two main components to the tool: 1) a back-end interface where an impact information database is populated and 2) a front-end interface where users may browse the impacts. On the front-end, users can select an area (i.e. river basin, state, county warning area) and search for climate-related impacts within that area. Key impacts include the following sectors: agriculture, ecosystems, energy, human health, society, transportation, and water resources. In this regard, information can also be useful for future National Climate Assessment activities. Ultimately, an understanding of impacts to extreme events by sector will provide critical information for improved decision-making and adaptation strategies.

  11. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S. K.; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  12. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  13. Public health impact of plastics: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Neeti; Pradhan, S K; Singh, Ritesh

    2011-09-01

    Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today's industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future. PMID:22412286

  14. Oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers and related factors.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghian, S; Taghva, M; Abduo, J; Bagheri, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of removable partial denture (RPD) wearers in Shiraz (Iran), using the Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Two hundred removable partial denture wearers had completed a questionnaire regarding patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors. In addition, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was filled out by interviewing the patients. Two measures of interpreting the OHIP-14 scales were utilised: OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence. The relationship of the patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors, with their OHRQoL was investigated. The mean OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of RPD wearers were 13·80 (±10·08) and 44·5%, respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were physical disability and physical pain. Twenty-seven percentage and 24% of participants had reported meal interruption and eating discomfort, respectively. OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were found to be significantly associated with factors representing RPD wearer's oral health such as self-reported oral health and frequency of denture cleaning. Furthermore, OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were significantly associated with factors related to frequency of denture use such as hours of wearing the denture during the day and wearing the denture while eating and sleeping. Therefore, it can be concluded that the OHRQoL of the patients of the study was generally not optimal and found to be strongly associated with oral health.

  15. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  16. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  17. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  18. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  19. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education.

  20. Improving the view of Scotland's health: the impact of a public health observatory upon health improvement policy, action and monitoring in a devolved nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D S; Fischbacher, C; Stockton, D

    2010-05-01

    The Scottish Public Health Observatory (ScotPHO) is a collaboration of the observatory sections/functions of several organizations. It operates within a small country, part of the UK, with devolved legislative and executive powers in health and in many areas relating to wider social determinants of health. The short-term impact of ScotPHO on health improvement action, policy and monitoring is described. A key factor in ScotPHO's impact is the directness of its contact with Scottish government policy and analysis leadership. The context and organization of ScotPHO differentiates it from other PHOs in the UK and Ireland, but many of the health and information challenges faced are similar and the Association of Public Health Observatories enables experience and expertise to be shared.

  1. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  2. Health-related quality of life for chronically ill children.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Kelly, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 43% of children in the United States (32 million) are currently living with at least 1 of 20 common chronic childhood illnesses. The most common chronic childhood illnesses are asthma, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, obesity, malnutrition, developmental disabilities, cerebral palsy, consequences of low birthweight, and mental illness. For all chronically ill pediatric populations, the outcome of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is particularly important because many of these children have not and will not be cured, and will continue to manage their chronic illness into adulthood. Advances in biomedical science and technology continue to improve efficacy of treatments and care for chronically ill children, adolescents, and their families, which highlight the importance measurement of HRQOL as a treatment and health status outcome. The construct of HRQOL is subjective, multidimensional, dynamic, and unique to each individual. It includes aspects of physical, psychological, social function, and goal attainment. Outcomes of HRQOL now include the financial implications for these children and their families, as well as financial and organizational consequences for healthcare planning and delivery of services.This article reviews the importance of HRQOL as a health outcome for chronically ill children. A historical overview and synthesis of the conceptualization and measurement of HRQOL for the chronically ill pediatric population is provided. Current research investigations that have measured health outcomes using individual scales tailored to children's specific symptoms health outcomes, such as PROMIS®-Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-are reviewed. The clinical applications of HRQOL outcomes research include facilitation of patient-healthcare provider communication, improved patient satisfaction, identification of hidden morbidities, a positive impact on clinical decision making, and improvement of patient outcomes over time

  3. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes. PMID:22508644

  4. The impact of shift and night work on health.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    1996-02-01

    Shift work, in particular night work, can have a negative impact on health and well-being of workers as it can cause: (a) disturbances of the normal circadian rhythms of the psychophysiological functions, beginning with the sleep/wake cycle; (b) interferences with work performance and efficiency over the 24 hour span, with consequent errors and accidents; (c) difficulties in maintaining the usual relationships both at family and social level, with consequent negative influences on marital relations, care of children and social contacts; (d) deterioration of health that can be manifested in disturbances of sleeping and eating habits and, in the long run, in more severe disorders that deal prevalently with the gastrointestinal (colitis, gastroduodenitis and peptic ulcer), neuro-psychic (chronic fatigue, anxiety, depression) and, probably, cardiovascular (hypertension, ischemic heart diseases) functions. Besides, shift and night work may have more specific adverse effects on women's health both in relation to their particular hormonal and reproductive function, and their family roles. It has been estimated that about 20% of all workers have to leave shift work in a very short time because of serious disturbances; those remaining in shift work show different levels of (mal)adaptation and (in)tolerance, that can become more or less manifest in different times, and with different intensity. In fact, the effects of such stress condition can vary widely among the shift workers in relation to many 'intervening variables' concerning both individual factors (e.g. age, personality traits, physiological characteristics), as well as working situations (e.g. work loads, shift schedules) and social conditions (e.g. number and age of children, housing, commuting).

  5. Financial impact of population health management programs: reevaluating the literature.

    PubMed

    Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Anderson, David R; Wright, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Although many employers offer some components of worksite-based population health management (PHM), most do not yet invest in comprehensive programs. This hesitation to invest in comprehensive programs may be attributed to numerous factors, such as other more pressing business priorities, reluctance to intervene in the personal health choices of employees, or insufficient funds for employee health. Many decision makers also remain skeptical about whether investment in comprehensive programs will produce a financial return on investment (ROI). Most peer-reviewed studies assessing the financial impact of PHM were published before 2000 and include a broad array of program and study designs. Many of these studies have also included indirect productivity savings in their assessment of financial outcomes. In contrast, this review includes only peer-reviewed studies of the direct health care cost impact of comprehensive PHM programs that meet rigorous methodological criteria. A systematic search of health sciences databases identified only 5 studies with program designs and study methods meeting these selection criteria published after 2007. This focused review found that comprehensive PHM programs can yield a positive ROI based on their impact on direct health care costs, but the level of ROI achieved was lower than that reported by literature reviews with less focused and restrictive qualifying criteria. To yield substantial short-term health care cost savings, the longer term financial return that can credibly be associated with a comprehensive, prevention-oriented population health program must be augmented by other financial impact strategies.

  6. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  7. The Impact of Student Pharmacists at Health Fair Events

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielian, Christine; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate student pharmacists’ impact on health fair participant knowledge of selected disease states and to evaluate the intent of health fair participants with abnormal screening results to seek follow-up care within 1 month of screening. Methods. Health fair participants were assessed for changes in their knowledge of specific diseases before and after screenings. Participants’ intent to seek health care was assessed through a survey instrument developed using Rosenstock’s Health Belief Model. Results. Increases in participant knowledge of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and body mass index were significant, and 78% of participants with abnormal results intended to contact a provider. Conclusions. Student pharmacists’ had a positive impact on health fair participants’ disease knowledge and intent to follow up with a provider. PMID:23129848

  8. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  9. Coal utilization in China: environmental impacts and human health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guijian; Kang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhou, Chuncai; Wu, Dun

    2014-08-01

    Coal is one of the major energy resources in China, accounting for approximately 70 % of primary energy consumption. Many environmental problems and human health risks arise during coal exploitation, utilization, and waste disposal, especially in the remote mountainous areas of western China (e.g., eastern Yunnan, western Guizhou and Hubei, and southern Shaanxi). In this paper, we report a thorough review of the environmental and human health impacts related to coal utilization in China. The abundance of the toxic trace elements such as F, As, Se, and Hg in Chinese coals is summarized. The environmental problems (i.e., water, soil, and air pollution) that are related to coal utilization are outlined. The provenance, distributions, typical symptoms, sources, and possible pathways of endemic fluorosis, arsenism, and selenosis due to improper coal usage (briquettes mixed with high-F clay, mineralized As-rich coal, and Se-rich stone coal) are discussed in detail. In 2010, 14.8, 1.9 million, and 16,000 Chinese people suffered from dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and arsenism, respectively. Finally, several suggestions are proposed for the prevention and treatment for endemic problems caused by coal utilization. PMID:24390733

  10. Coal utilization in China: environmental impacts and human health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guijian; Kang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhou, Chuncai; Wu, Dun

    2014-08-01

    Coal is one of the major energy resources in China, accounting for approximately 70 % of primary energy consumption. Many environmental problems and human health risks arise during coal exploitation, utilization, and waste disposal, especially in the remote mountainous areas of western China (e.g., eastern Yunnan, western Guizhou and Hubei, and southern Shaanxi). In this paper, we report a thorough review of the environmental and human health impacts related to coal utilization in China. The abundance of the toxic trace elements such as F, As, Se, and Hg in Chinese coals is summarized. The environmental problems (i.e., water, soil, and air pollution) that are related to coal utilization are outlined. The provenance, distributions, typical symptoms, sources, and possible pathways of endemic fluorosis, arsenism, and selenosis due to improper coal usage (briquettes mixed with high-F clay, mineralized As-rich coal, and Se-rich stone coal) are discussed in detail. In 2010, 14.8, 1.9 million, and 16,000 Chinese people suffered from dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and arsenism, respectively. Finally, several suggestions are proposed for the prevention and treatment for endemic problems caused by coal utilization.

  11. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  12. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  13. Setting an Example: The Health, Medical Care, and Health-Related Behavior of American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas

    This report details a national survey study of parents, age 54 or younger, living with children under age 18. The study examined parents' physical health status, stress levels and negative feelings, health habits, and access to health care. Findings indicated that one in eight parents reported health problems, with health related to education,…

  14. Impact of social media on the health of children and young people.

    PubMed

    Richards, Deborah; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Go, Henry

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Relevant papers were identified from Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. The studies identified that the health impact of social media on children and young people was greatest on mental health and specifically in the areas of self-esteem and well-being, with related issues around cyberbullying and 'Facebook Depression', with an association between the use of social media and self-esteem and body image. However, it is difficult to determine the cause and effect, which is likely to be related to the nature of the young person. There is little work on the impact of social media on younger children. More research is needed to identify those most at risk of harm from social media and risk mitigation strategies to assist health-care professionals to provide essential education for parents and young people.

  15. Impact of social media on the health of children and young people.

    PubMed

    Richards, Deborah; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Go, Henry

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Relevant papers were identified from Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. The studies identified that the health impact of social media on children and young people was greatest on mental health and specifically in the areas of self-esteem and well-being, with related issues around cyberbullying and 'Facebook Depression', with an association between the use of social media and self-esteem and body image. However, it is difficult to determine the cause and effect, which is likely to be related to the nature of the young person. There is little work on the impact of social media on younger children. More research is needed to identify those most at risk of harm from social media and risk mitigation strategies to assist health-care professionals to provide essential education for parents and young people. PMID:26607861

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  17. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also...

  18. The effect of education on health among US residents in relation to country of birth.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bosu; Senauer, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the impact of education on health in relation to an individual's country of birth using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2001-2004. We analyze health equations that relate health to education and other variables. Health is measured in terms of self-reported overall health, an index of biological risk factors, and body mass index. The primary hypothesis tested is whether education has a greater impact on immigrants' productive and allocative efficiency, because of their need to learn about how to remain healthy and access appropriate health care in a new environment. The empirical results indicate that for US residents, who were foreign-born, education is associated with a greater beneficial effect on every health outcome compared to those born in the United States. More education is related to an even greater positive effect on health for immigrants from Mexico, the origin of most immigrants, than from other countries. These results provide additional support for the portions of the 2007 Immigration Reform Act rejected by the US Congress, which placed a higher priority on education and job skills than current law. Since increased education and improved health are associated, such policy reform would help reduce the demands on the US health-care system.

  19. Health and Health Related Career Exploration: Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    The manual contains secondary level materials designed to integrate career education concepts into the Roosevelt High school (Portland, Oregon) health education curriculum. The materials are divided into three sections. The first concerns self-concepts and presents: short-term activities designed to encourage students to begin thinking about…

  20. System impact research – increasing public health and health care system performance

    PubMed Central

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  1. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  2. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  3. Health surveillance and agribusiness: the impact of pesticides on health and the environment. Danger ahead!

    PubMed

    Nasrala Neto, Elias; Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro; Pignati, Wanderlei Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are abundantly used in agribusiness and can be damaging to health and the environment. Society in general and agricultural, environmental and health institutions in particular have a legal and statutory duty to supervise their use. To identify and analyze these actions, interviews were conducted with managers of the municipal offices and union leaders representing the workers and farmers. Managers and rural producers were of the opinion that pesticides are essential to productivity and do not generate any impact on health and the environment. No policies or institutional relations monitoring pesticide use were identified or being considered. Rural workers' unions do not take any political initiatives to benefit the health of the workers themselves, their families and that of society in general. The conclusion draws is the pressing need to develop a model for sustainable agriculture, healthy and free of pesticides and that organized society and responsible institutions must undertake actions that meet the needs of the people who working on the farms or consume the agricultural products harvested there, especially controlling risks and consequences that can and must be avoided.

  4. The Increasing Use of Remote Sensing Data in Studying the Climatological Impacts on Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Benedict, Karl; Ceccato, Pietro; Golden, Meredith; Maxwell, Susan; Morian, Stan; Soebiyanto, Radina; Tong, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    One of the more fortunate outcomes of the capture and transformation of remote sensing data into applied information is their usefulness and impacts to better understanding climatological impacts on public health. Today, with petabytes of remote sensing data providing global coverage of climatological parameters, public health research and policy decision makers have an unprecedented (and growing) data record that relates the effects of climatic parameters, such as rainfall, heat, soil moisture, etc. to incidences and spread of disease, as well as predictive modeling. In addition, tools and services that specifically serve public health researchers and respondents have grown in response to needs of the these information users.

  5. The relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja; Hong, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Yang Chool

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mental health and health-related physical fitness of university students. For this study, 228 university students were participated in this experiment (male 91, female 137). We tested health-related physical fitness and mental health with questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and liner regression. In the present results, there was significant difference according to gender in mental health and health-related physical fitness. The correlation between physical fitness and mental health was also observed. PMID:24409433

  6. Impact of Ambient Humidity on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413

  7. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  8. Indoor moisture and mold-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2004-05-01

    Moisture, microbial and in particular mold related indoor exposure and health problems in homes, offices, and public buildings (Kindergartens, schools, library, and hospitals) have been gaining recognition as one of the most common indoor environmental health issues. Proper recognition of microbial related health problems and the differential diagnosis of sick building syndrome (SBS) or building related illness (BRI) are important for early and effective exposure intervention, treatment, referral and prevention of more serious illness. PMID:15206571

  9. Health Related Legal Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.

    This monograph analyzes health and safety issues in education in terms of relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. Chapter 1, an introduction, summarizes Fourteenth Amendment equal protection and due process clauses and defines "handicapped" under the Rehabilitation Act. State assistance and student eligibility under the Education for All…

  10. Health information technology impact on productivity.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Managers work to achieve the greatest output for the least input effort, better balancing all factors of delivery to achieve the most with the smallest resource effort. Documentation of actual health information technology (HIT) cost savings has been elusive. Information technology and linear programming help to control hospital costs without harming service quality or staff morale. This study presents production function results from a study of hospital output during the period 2008-2011. The results suggest that productivity varies widely among the 58 hospitals as a function of staffing patterns, methods of organization, and the degree of reliance on information support systems. Financial incentives help to enhance productivity. Incentive pay for staff based on actual productivity gains is associated with improved productivity. HIT can enhance the marginal value product of nurses and staff, so that they concentrate their workday around patient care activities. The implementation of electronic health records (EHR) was associated with a 1.6 percent improvement in productivity.

  11. Mechanisms of Prebiotic Impact on Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, H.; Macfarlane, S.

    Prebiotics were originally defined as non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activities of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, thereby improving host health (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). However, a more recent definition is that “A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host wellbeing and health” (Gibson et al., 2004). The principal concept associated with both of these definitions is that the prebiotic has a selective effect on the microbiota that results in an improvement in the health of the host. Common prebiotics in use include inulins, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), soya-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, pyrodextrins, isomalto-oligosaccharides and lactulose. The majority of studies carried out to date have focused on inulin, FOS and GOS (Macfarlane et al., 2008).

  12. Aging, Obsolescence, Impact, Growth, and Utilization: Definitions and Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Examines the notions of aging, obsolescence, impact, growth, utilization, and related concepts in information science. Illustrates the influence of growth on aging, how aging rates can be corrected for growth, and the relation with impact measures. Presents mathematical results, practical calculations, and examples of these concepts. Gives a brief…

  13. Impact of rare diseases in oral health

    PubMed Central

    Molina-García, Ana; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Posada-de la Paz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Material and Methods Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with “oral health”. The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Results Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. Conclusions The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia. Key words:Rare diseases, oral health. PMID:27475682

  14. Health-related internet habits and health anxiety in university students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmpaul; Brown, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (r(s) = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (r(s) = .200), time spent online for health purposes (r(s) = .166), and number of searches for both illness (r(s) = .453) and wellness (r(s) = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (r(s) = .183), heightened tension (r(s) = .364) and relief (r(s) = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (r(s) = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (r(s) = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (r(s) range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278

  15. ERISA preemption and its impact on behavioral health services.

    PubMed

    Simmons, P

    1997-06-01

    Recently, mental health parity provisions were passed and incorporated retroactively into the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (PL 104-191). Although limited, these provisions were instrumental in focusing national attention and debate on people's need for and right to behavioral health services. A handful of states have also passed parity provisions, but their full impact on the insurance market cannot be assessed. This is because a majority of plans are preempted from compliance with many state insurance mandates by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). ERISA is the primary obstacle to state behavioral health mandates, and it threatens the inclusion of behavioral health providers and settings in managed care plans integrating public and private healthcare systems. This article provides basic information on ERISA, its preemption clauses, and its impact on behavioral healthcare services.

  16. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    PubMed

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed.

  17. The Impact of Online Social Networks on Health and Health Systems: A Scoping Review and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Frances; Dobermann, Tim; Cave, Jonathan A. K.; Thorogood, Margaret; Johnson, Samantha; Salamatian, Kavé; Gomez Olive, Francis X.; Goudge, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Interaction through online social networks potentially results in the contestation of prevailing ideas about health and health care, and to mass protest where health is put at risk or health care provision is wanting. Through a review of the academic literature and case studies of four social networking health sites (PatientsLikeMe, Mumsnet, Treatment Action Campaign, and My Pro Ana), we establish the extent to which this phenomenon is documented, seek evidence of the prevalence and character of health‐related networks, and explore their structure, function, participants, and impact, seeking to understand how they came into being and how they sustain themselves. Results indicate mass protest is not arising from these established health‐related networking platforms. There is evidence of changes in policy following campaigning activity prompted by experiences shared through social networking such as improved National Health Service care for miscarriage (a Mumsnet campaign). Platform owners and managers have considerable power to shape these campaigns. Social networking is also influencing health policy indirectly through increasing awareness and so demand for health care. Transient social networking about health on platforms such as Twitter were not included as case studies but may be where the most radical or destabilizing influence on health care policy might arise. PMID:27134699

  18. College Students' Health Information Activities on Facebook: Investigating the Impacts of Health Topic Sensitivity, Information Sources, and Demographics.

    PubMed

    Syn, Sue Yeon; Kim, Sung Un

    2016-07-01

    College students tend to lack access to health information. Because social networking sites (SNSs) are popularly adopted by college students, SNSs are considered to be good media channels for college students to obtain health-related information. This study examines the factors that influence college students' health information-seeking and -sharing activities on Facebook. An online survey was distributed to college students between the ages of 18 and 29 to determine intentions pertaining to health information activities according to the factors identified for the study. The factors included both contextual factors (such as health topic sensitivity and health information sources) as well as user factors (such as demographics). Our findings showed that college students are willing to read and post health-related information on Facebook when the health topic is not sensitive. In addition, there are clear differences in preferences between professional sources and personal sources as health information sources. It was found that most user factors, except gender, have no influence on health information activities. The impacts of SNS contexts, awareness of information sources, types of interlocutors, and privacy concerns are further discussed. PMID:27220029

  19. Possible human health impacts of a global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S.

    1995-03-01

    Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

  20. Student Reception, Sources, and Believability of Health-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Lowe, David; Taman, Sara; Faulkner, Guy E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the health topics students received information about, how students obtained health-related information, and perceived believability of those sources. Participants and Methods: Students (N = 1202) were surveyed using the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) of the American College Health…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews several current approaches to the assessment of health outcomes in cardiovascular disease, including health-related quality of life. Offers a general health policy model as a method for comparing program options in cardiovascular disease that may have very different objectives. Uses examples from hypertension screening and treatment, heart…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Ron D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The structure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was studied in 205 symptomatic adults. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model of HRQOL, with physical and mental health dimensions. Correlations of HRQOL with other aspects of health and support are discussed. (SLD)

  3. Radiation impacts on human health: certain, fuzzy, and unknown.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2014-02-01

    The atomic bomb and other studies have established with certainty that moderate-to-high doses of radiation cause many types of solid cancer and leukemia. Moving down the dose range to the vicinity of 100-200 mSv, the risks become fuzzy and then unknown at low doses on the order of 10-20 mSv. Nor have low-dose experimental studies provided definitive answers: some have suggested there may be adverse biological effects in the range of 5-50 mSv, while others support a "no risk" interpretation. Epidemiologic data contain intrinsic "noise" (variation by known and unknown factors related to genetics, lifestyle, other environmental exposures, sociodemographics, diagnostic accuracy, etc.) so are generally too insensitive to provide compelling answers in the low-dose range. However, there have been recent provocative reports regarding risk from relatively low-dose occupational and medical radiation exposures that warrant careful consideration. Summaries of the largest studies with low-dose or low dose-rate radiation exposure provide suggestive evidence of risk for solid cancer and stronger evidence for leukemia risk. Recently, interest in health endpoints other than cancer also has risen sharply, in particular the degree of cardiovascular and cataract risk following doses under 1 Sv. Data regarding cardiovascular disease are limited and fuzzy, with suggestions of inconsistencies, and the risk at low doses is essentially unknown. The evidence of cataract risk after low dose-rate exposures among those conducting interventional medical radiological procedures is becoming strong. The magnitude of radiation impacts on human health requires fuller documentation, especially for low-dose or low dose-rate exposures. From the epidemiologic vantage point, this will require longer observation of existing irradiated cohorts and development of new informative cohorts, improved accuracy in dose assessments, more attention to confounding variables, and more biosamples from irradiated

  4. Decomposition of sources of income-related health inequality applied on SF-36 summary scores: a Danish health survey

    PubMed Central

    Gundgaard, Jens; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Background If the SF-36 summary scores are used as health status measures for the purpose of measuring health inequality it is relevant to be informed about the sources of the inequality in order to be able to target the specific aspects of health with the largest impact. Methods Data were from a Danish health survey on health status, health behaviour and socio-economic background. Decompositions of concentration indices were carried out to examine the sources of income-related inequality in physical and mental health, using the physical and mental health summary scores from SF-36. Results The analyses show how the different subscales from SF-36 and various explanatory variables contribute to overall inequality in physical and mental health. The decompositions contribute with information about the importance of the different aspects of health and off-setting effects that would otherwise be missed in the aggregate summary scores. However, the complicated scoring mechanism of the summary scores with negative coefficients makes it difficult to interpret the contributions and to draw policy implications. Conclusion Decomposition techniques provide insights to how subscales contribute to income-related inequality when SF-36 summary scores are used. PMID:16925801

  5. Motoneuron diseases: impact on health professionals.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Ferrario, Silvia Rossi

    2016-01-01

    The approach to patients affected by motor neuron disease (MND) and their caregivers requires specific training for the care-team. In fact, the progression of the disease, with the decline of physical--and sometimes cognitive--function, the increasing difficulties in speaking, breathing, and swallowing and the need of invasive choices, as the artificial nutrition and tracheostomy, constitute a challenge for the health professionals, often generating distress. For this reason, their cohesion and sharing abilities are fundamental. Psychologist assumes a strategic role in supporting and facilitating the analysis of clinical cases and of the team's intra/interpersonal dynamics. For this aim, he/she needs specific training and instruments. We here present a semi-structured interview--the Motor Neuron Disease-Psychological Interview (MoNeDi-PI)--which may guide in the psychological assessment of patients affected by MNDs and their caregivers. It can also be a handy reference tool for other members of the healthcare team providing necessary information about the patient and caregiver in order to optimize clinical decision making about which health interventions to apply. PMID:27459838

  6. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union

    PubMed Central

    Lock, K.; McKee, M.

    2005-01-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  7. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  8. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-05-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts.

  9. Effectiveness of Health Impact Assessments: A Synthesis of Data From Five Impact Evaluation Reports

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since the 1990s, the use of health impact assessments (HIAs) has grown for considering the potential health impacts of proposed policies, plans, programs, and projects in various sectors. Evaluation of HIA impacts is needed for understanding the value of HIAs, improving the methods involved in HIAs, and potentially expanding their application. Impact evaluations examine whether HIAs affect decisions and lead to other effects. Methods I reviewed HIA impact evaluations identified by literature review and professional networking. I abstracted and synthesized data on key findings, success factors, and challenges from 5 large evaluations conducted in the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand and published from 2006 through 2015. These studies analyzed impacts of approximately 200 individual HIAs. Results Major impacts of HIAs were directly influencing some decisions, improving collaboration among stakeholders, increasing awareness of health issues among decision makers, and giving community members a stronger voice in local decisions. Factors that contributed to successful HIAs included engaging stakeholders, timeliness, policy and systems support for conducting HIAs, having people with appropriate skills on the HIA team, obtaining the support of decision makers, and providing clearly articulated, feasible recommendations. Challenges that may have reduced HIA success were poor timeliness, underestimation of time and resources needed, difficulty in accessing relevant data, use of jargon in HIA reports, difficulty in involving decision makers in the HIA process, and absence of a requirement to conduct HIAs. Conclusion HIAs can be useful to promote health and mitigate adverse impacts of decisions made outside of the health sector. Stakeholder interactions and community engagement may be as important as direct impacts of HIAs. Multiple factors are required for HIA success. Further work could strengthen the role of HIAs in promoting equity, examine

  10. Impact of climate change on elder health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Bruce A; Staats, David; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-09-01

    Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States. PMID:24158763

  11. Impact of climate change on elder health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Bruce A; Staats, David; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-09-01

    Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States.

  12. Impact of Microbiome on Ocular Health.

    PubMed

    Kugadas, Abirami; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    The ocular surface is continuously exposed to the environment and, therefore, it is surprising that it harbors only few commensals with low degree of diversity. This unique aspect of the ocular surface physiology prompts the question whether there are core ocular commensal communities and how they affect ocular immunity. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about the ocular surface commensals in health and disease and what we would like to learn in the near future. In addition, we discuss how microbiota at sites other than the eye may influence ocular immune responses. The information discussed in the review has been gathered using PubMed searches for literature published from January 1982 to December 2015.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Elder Health

    PubMed Central

    Staats, David; Willcox, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States. PMID:24158763

  14. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  15. Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequality.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Paul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the characterisation and measurement of income-related health inequality using longitudinal data. The paper elucidates the nature of the Jones and López Nicolás (2004) index of "health-related income mobility" and explains the negative values of the index that have been reported in all the empirical applications to date. The paper further presents an alternative approach to the analysis of longitudinal data that brings out complementary aspects of the evolution of income-related health inequalities over time. In particular, we propose a new index of "income-related health mobility" that measures whether the pattern of health changes is biased in favour of those with initially high or low incomes. We illustrate our work by investigating mobility in the General Health Questionnaire measure of psychological well-being over the first nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 1999.

  16. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  17. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  18. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  19. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  20. The impact of social support networks on adult health.

    PubMed

    Asher, C C

    1984-04-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of adult health offers important implications for planning policy that may affect the overall level of health and thus the costs of health care. One potentially important factor that has not been incorporated in previous research is the amount of information individuals have concerning health care or methods of preventive care. This study uses the number of social support networks and the degree of contact individuals have with them as an alternative measure of information. This measure of information is incorporated into an economic model based partly on Becker's Human Capital framework. Social support networks are found to have virtually no impact in explaining health outcomes for illnesses over which the individual has little control. However, when a broader range of illnesses is considered, social support networks do play a role in producing better health.

  1. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  2. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  3. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  4. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

    PubMed

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values. PMID:23790265

  5. Financial crisis and austerity measures in Greece: their impact on health promotion policies and public health care.

    PubMed

    Ifanti, Amalia A; Argyriou, Andreas A; Kalofonou, Foteini H; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2013-11-01

    This review study explores the available data relating to the impact of financial crisis and subsequently applied austerity measures on the health care, social services and health promotion policies in Greece. It is evident that Greece is affected more than any other European country by the financial crisis. Unemployment, job insecurity, income reduction, poverty and increase of mental disorders are among the most serious consequences of crisis in the socioeconomic life. The health system is particularly affected by the severe austerity measures. The drastic curtailing of government spending has significantly affected the structure and functioning of public hospitals that cope with understaffing, deficits, drug shortage and basic medical supplies. Moreover, health promotion policies are constrained, inhibiting thus the relevant initiatives toward disease prevention and health promotion education practices. Overall, the current economic situation in Greece and its impact on real life and health care is quite concerning. Policy makers should not disregard the implications that austerity and fiscal policies have on the health sector. Greater attention is needed in order to ensure that individuals would continue getting public health care and having access to preventive and social support services. To face the economic hardship, policy makers are expected to implement human-centered approaches, safeguarding the human dignity and the moral values.

  6. Quantitative estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Seto, Edmund

    2011-04-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers multiple effects on health of policies, programs, plans and projects and thus requires the use of diverse analytic tools and sources of evidence. Quantitative estimation has desirable properties for the purpose of HIA but adequate tools for quantification exist currently for a limited number of health impacts and decision settings; furthermore, quantitative estimation generates thorny questions about the precision of estimates and the validity of methodological assumptions. In the United States, HIA has only recently emerged as an independent practice apart from integrated EIA, and this article aims to synthesize the experience with quantitative health effects estimation within that practice. We use examples identified through a scan of available identified instances of quantitative estimation in the U.S. practice experience to illustrate methods applied in different policy settings along with their strengths and limitations. We then discuss opportunity areas and practical considerations for the use of quantitative estimation in HIA.

  7. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

  8. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  9. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  10. The impact of economic crisis on health-care consumption in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, B M; Prescott, N; Bae, E Y

    2001-12-01

    This study uses urban household income-expenditure survey data, national health insurance claims data, and public health centre surveys to examine the impact of economic crisis on the consumption of health services in Korea. The analysis shows that the health-car