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  1. Estrogen Alone and Joint Symptoms in the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Cirillo, Dominic J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Pettinger, Mary; Carbone, Laura D.; Johnson, Karen C.; Simon, Michael S; Woods, Nancy F.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While joint symptoms are commonly reported after menopause, observational studies examining exogenous estrogen influence on joint symptoms provide mixed results. Against this background, estrogen alone effects on joint symptoms were examined in post hoc analyses in the Women’s Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods 10,739 postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy were randomized to receive daily oral conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or matching placebo. The frequency and severity of joint pain and joint swelling were assessed by questionnaire at entry and year 1 from all participants and in a random 9.9% subsample (n=1062) following years 3 and 6. Logistic regression models were used to compare frequency and severity of symptoms by randomization group. Sensitivity analyses evaluated adherence influence on symptoms. Results At baseline, joint pain and swelling were closely comparable in the randomization groups (about 77% with joint pain and 40% with joint swelling). After one year, joint pain frequency was significantly lower in the estrogen alone compared to the placebo group (76.3% vs 79.2%, P=0.001) as was joint pain severity and the difference in pain between randomization groups persisted through year 3. However, joint swelling frequency was higher in the estrogen alone group (42.1% vs 39.7%, P=0.02). Adherence adjusted analyses strengthen the estrogen association with reduced joint pain but attenuated the estrogen association with increased joint swelling. Conclusions The current findings suggest that estrogen alone use in postmenopausal women results in a modest but sustained reduction in the frequency of joint pain. PMID:23511705

  2. Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on incident atrial fibrillation: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marco V; Wang, Paul J; Larson, Joseph C; Virnig, Beth A; Cochrane, Barbara; Curb, J David; Klein, Liviu; Manson, JoAnn E; Martin, Lisa W; Robinson, Jennifer; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2012-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is less prevalent in women versus men, but associated with higher risks of stroke and death in women. The role hormone therapy plays in AF is not well understood. The Women's Health Initiative randomized postmenopausal women to placebo or conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (2.5 mg/d) if they had a uterus (N=16 608) or to conjugated equine estrogens only if they had prior hysterectomy (N=10 739). Incident AF was identified by ECG and diagnosis codes from Medicare claims or hospitalization records. Hazard ratios for incident AF were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. After excluding participants with baseline AF, there were 611 incident AF cases over a mean of 5.6 years among 16 128 estrogen plus progestin participants, and 683 cases over a mean of 7.1 years among 10 251 conjugated equine estrogens alone participants. Incident AF was more frequent in the active groups of both trials, reaching statistical significance in the trial of conjugated equine estrogens alone in women with prior hysterectomy (hazard ratio, 1.17; CI, 1.00-1.36; P=0.045) and in the pooled analysis (hazard ratio, 1.12; CI, 1.00-1.24; P=0.05), but not in the estrogen plus progestin trial (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 0.91-1.25; P=0.44). These results were only minimally affected by adjustment for incident stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. Incident AF was modestly elevated in hysterectomized women randomized to postmenopausal E-alone, and in the pooled group randomized to E-alone or estrogen plus progestin. The trend in women with intact uterus receiving estrogen plus progestin, considered separately, was not statistically significant. ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00000611.

  3. Continuous Combined Estrogen Plus Progestin and Endometrial Cancer: The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. L.; Sarto, G. E.; Haque, R.; Runowicz, C. D.; Aragaki, A. K.; Thomson, C. A.; Howard, B. V.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Chen, C.; Rohan, T. E.; Simon, M. S.; Reed, S. D.; Manson, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: While progestin addition to estrogen mitigates endometrial cancer risk, the magnitude of the effect on incidence, specific endometrial cancer histologies, and endometrial cancer mortality remains unsettled. These issues were assessed by analyses after extended follow-up of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial evaluating continuous combined estrogen plus progestin use. Methods: The WHI enrolled 16 608 postmenopausal women into a randomly assigned, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women age 50 to 79 years with intact uteri with normal endometrial biopsy at entry were randomly assigned to once-daily 0.625mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 8506) as a single pill or matching placebo (n = 8102). Follow-up beyond the original trial completion date required reconsent, obtained from 12 788 (83%) of surviving participants. Analyses were by intent-to-treat. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: After 5.6 years’ median intervention and 13 years’ median cumulative follow-up, there were fewer endometrial cancers in the combined hormone therapy compared with the placebo group (66 vs 95 case patients, yearly incidence, 0.06% vs 0.10%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48 to 0.89, P = .007). While there were somewhat fewer endometrial cancers during intervention (25 vs 30, respectively; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.31), the difference became statistically significant postintervention (41 vs 65, respectively; HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.88, P = .008), but hazard ratios did not differ between phases (P difference = .46). There was a statistically nonsignificant reduction in deaths from endometrial cancer in the estrogen plus progestin group (5 vs 11 deaths, HR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.15 to 1.22). Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, continuous combined estrogen plus progestin decreases endometrial cancer incidence. PMID:26668177

  4. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Survival: The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stanford, Janet L.; Wu, LieLing; Shikany, James M.; Schoen, Robert E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Taylor, Vicky; Garland, Cedric; Frank, Gail; Lane, Dorothy; Mason, Ellen; McNeeley, S. Gene; Ascensao, Joao; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

    2010-01-01

    Background In separate Women’s Health Initiative randomized trials, combined hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin reduced colorectal cancer incidence but estrogen alone in women with hysterectomy did not. We now analyze features of the colorectal cancers that developed and examine survival of women following colorectal cancer diagnosis in the latter trial. Participants and Methods 10,739 postmenopausal women who were 50 to 79 years of age and had undergone hysterectomy were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg/day) or matching placebo. Colorectal cancer incidence was a component of the study’s monitoring global index but was not a primary study endpoint. Colorectal cancers were verified by central medical record and pathology report review. Bowel exam frequency was not protocol defined but information on their use was collected. Results After a median 7.1 years, there were 58 invasive colorectal cancers in the hormone group and 53 in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.77–1.63). Tumor size, stage, and grade were comparable in the two randomization groups. Bowel exam frequency was also comparable in the two groups. The cumulative mortality following colorectal cancer diagnosis among women in the conjugated equine estrogen group was 34 % compared to 30 % in the placebo group (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.58–3.19). Conclusions In contrast to the preponderance of observational studies, conjugated equine estrogens in a randomized clinical trial did not reduce colorectal cancer incidence nor improve survival after diagnosis. PMID:18829444

  5. Low-fat dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Van Horn, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia A; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Robinson, Jennifer; Snetselaar, Linda; Anderson, Garnet L; Manson, JoAnn E; Allison, Matthew A; Rossouw, Jacques E; Howard, Barbara V

    2017-07-01

    Background: The influence of a low-fat dietary pattern on the cardiovascular health of postmenopausal women continues to be of public health interest.Objective: This report evaluates low-fat dietary pattern influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality during the intervention and postintervention phases of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.Design: Participants comprised 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y; 40% were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention (target of 20% of energy from fat), and 60% were randomly assigned to a usual diet comparison group. The 8.3-y intervention period ended in March 2005, after which >80% of surviving participants consented to additional active follow-up through September 2010; all participants were followed for mortality through 2013. Breast and colorectal cancer were the primary trial outcomes, and coronary heart disease (CHD) and overall CVD were additional designated outcomes.Results: Incidence rates for CHD and total CVD did not differ between the intervention and comparison groups in either the intervention or postintervention period. However, CHD HRs comparing these groups varied strongly with baseline CVD and hypertension status. Participants without prior CVD had an intervention period CHD HR of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.87) or 1.04 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.19) if they were normotensive or hypertensive, respectively (P-interaction = 0.003). The CHD benefit among healthy normotensive women was partially offset by an increase in ischemic stroke risk. Corresponding HRs in the postintervention period were close to null. Participants with CVD at baseline (3.4%) had CHD HRs of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.93) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.55) in the intervention and postintervention periods, respectively. However, various lines of evidence suggest that results in women with CVD or hypertension at baseline are confounded by postrandomization use of cholesterol-lowering medications

  6. Prior hormone therapy and breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Garnet L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Rossouw, Jacques E; Rodabough, Rebecca J; McTiernan, Anne; Margolis, Karen L; Aggerwal, Anita; David Curb, J; Hendrix, Susan L; Allan Hubbell, F; Khandekar, Jamardan; Lane, Dorothy S; Lasser, Norman; Lopez, Ana Maria; Potter, JoNell; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2006-09-20

    To assess the extent to which prior hormone therapy modifies the breast cancer risk found with estrogen plus progestin (E+P) in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial. Subgroup analyses of prior hormone use on invasive breast cancer incidence in 16,608 postmenopausal women in the WHI randomized trial of E+P over an average 5.6 years of follow-up. Small but statistically significant differences were found between prior HT users and non-users for most breast cancer risk factors but Gail risk scores were similar. Duration of E+P use within the trial (mean 4.4 years, S.D. 2.0) did not vary by prior use. Among 4311 prior users, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for E+P versus placebo was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.27), significantly different (p=0.03) from that among 12,297 never users (HR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.77-1.36). The interaction between study arm and follow-up time was significant overall (p=0.01) and among never users (p=0.02) but not among prior users (p=0.10). The cumulative incidence over time for the E+P and placebo groups appeared to cross after about 3 years in prior users, and after about 5 years in women with no prior use. No interaction was found with duration (p=0.08) or recency of prior use (p=0.17). Prior hormone use significantly increased the E+P hazard ratio for larger, more advanced tumors. A safe interval for combined hormone use could not be reliably defined with these data. However, the significant increase in breast cancer risk in the trial overall after only 5.6 years of follow-up, initially concentrated in women with prior hormone exposure, but with increasing risk over time in women without prior exposure, suggests that durations only slightly longer than those in the WHI trial are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Longer-term exposure and follow-up data are needed.

  7. Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Breast Cancer Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Aragaki, Aaron K; Anderson, Garnet L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Manson, JoAnn E; Simon, Michael S; Howard, Barbara V; Rohan, Thomas E; Snetselar, Linda; Lane, Dorothy; Barrington, Wendy; Vitolins, Mara Z; Womack, Catherine; Qi, Lihong; Hou, Lifang; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Earlier Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial findings suggested that a low-fat eating pattern may reduce breast cancers with greater mortality. Therefore, as a primary outcome-related analysis from a randomized prevention trial, we examined the long-term influence of this intervention on deaths as a result of and after breast cancer during 8.5 years (median) of dietary intervention and cumulatively for all breast cancers diagnosed during 16.1 years (median) of follow-up. Patients and Methods The trial randomly assigned 48,835 postmenopausal women with normal mammograms and without prior breast cancer from 1993 to 1998 at 40 US clinical centers to a dietary intervention with goals of a reduction of fat intake to 20% of energy and an increased intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains (40%; n = 19,541) or to a usual diet comparison (60%; n = 29,294). Results In the dietary group, fat intake and body weight decreased (all P < .001). During the 8.5-year dietary intervention, with 1,764 incident breast cancers, fewer deaths occurred as a result of breast cancer in the dietary group, which was not statistically significant (27 deaths [0.016% per year] v 61 deaths [0.024% per year]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.06; P = .08). During the same period, deaths after breast cancer (n = 134) were significantly reduced (40 deaths [0.025% per year] v 94 deaths [0.038% per year]; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.94; P = .02) by the dietary intervention. During the 16.1-year follow-up, with 3,030 incident breast cancers, deaths after breast cancer also were significantly reduced (234 deaths [0.085% per year] v 443 deaths [0.11% per year]; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = .01) in the dietary group. Conclusion Compared with a usual diet comparison group, a low-fat dietary pattern led to a lower incidence of deaths after breast cancer.

  8. Telemedicine, the effect of nurse-initiated telephone follow up, on health status and health-care utilization in COPD patients: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Farida F; van den Berg, Jan W K; Uil, Steven M; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2015-02-01

    Telemedicine, care provided by electronic communication, may serve as an alternative or extension to traditional outpatient visits. This pilot study determined the effects of telemedicine on health-care utilization and health status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. One hundred and one patients were randomized, 52 patients received telemedicine care and 49 had traditional outpatient visits. The primary outcome was COPD-specific health status, measured with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Secondary outcomes included St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and resource use in primary and secondary care. The mean age of the participants was 68 ± 9 years and the mean per cent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 40.4 ± 12.5. The CCQ total score deteriorated by 0.14 ± 0.13 in the telemedicine group, and improved by -0.03 ± 0.14 in the control group (difference 0.17 ± 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21-0.55, P = 0.38). The CCQ symptom domain showed a significant and clinically relevant difference in favour of the control group, 0.52 ± 0.24 (95% CI: 0.04-0.10, P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the SGRQ, whereas results for SF-36 were inconsistent. Patients in the control group had significantly fewer visits to the pulmonologist in comparison to patients in the telemedicine group (P = 0.05). The same trend, although not significant, was found for exacerbations after 6 months. This telemedicine model of initiated phone calls by a health-care provider had a negative effect on health status and resource use in primary and secondary care, in comparison with usual care and therefore cannot be recommended in COPD patients in its current form. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. A large-scale cluster randomized trial to determine the effects of community-based dietary sodium reduction--the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing L; Niu, Wenyi; Labarthe, Darwin; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Chu, Hongling; Neiman, Andrea; Engelgau, Michael; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in China. High blood pressure caused by excess intake of dietary sodium is widespread and an effective sodium reduction program has potential to improve cardiovascular health. This study is a large-scale, cluster-randomized, trial done in five Northern Chinese provinces. Two counties have been selected from each province and 12 townships in each county making a total of 120 clusters. Within each township one village has been selected for participation with 1:1 randomization stratified by county. The sodium reduction intervention comprises community health education and a food supply strategy based upon providing access to salt substitute. Subsidization of the price of salt substitute was done in 30 intervention villages selected at random. Control villages continued usual practices. The primary outcome for the study is dietary sodium intake level estimated from assays of 24-hour urine. The trial recruited and randomized 120 townships in April 2011. The sodium reduction program was commenced in the 60 intervention villages between May and June of that year with outcome surveys scheduled for October to December 2012. Baseline data collection shows that randomisation achieved good balance across groups. The establishment of the China Rural Health Initiative has enabled the launch of this large-scale trial designed to identify a novel, scalable strategy for reduction of dietary sodium and control of blood pressure. If proved effective, the intervention could plausibly be implemented at low cost in large parts of China and other countries worldwide. © 2013.

  10. Newborn Infection Control and Care Initiative for health facilities to accelerate reduction of newborn mortality (NICCI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Var, Chivorn; Bazzano, Alessandra N; Srivastav, Sudesh K; Welty, James C; Ek, Navapol Iv; Oberhelman, Richard A

    2015-06-05

    Newborn health is a key issue in addressing the survival of children under five years old, particularly in low and middle income countries, and the evidence base for newborn health interventions continues to evolve. Over the last decade, maternal and under five-year-old mortality and morbidity rates have been successfully reduced in Cambodia, but newborn health has lagged behind. Evidence suggests that an important proportion of newborn mortality both globally and in Cambodia is attributable to infections and sepsis. While initiatives are being implemented to address some causes of newborn illness (related to pre-term birth and asphyxia), a country-level approach to reducing infections has not been formulated. The Newborn Infection Control and Care Initiative (NICCI) is a community and health facility linked intervention to improve health outcomes for newborns. The present study applies a cluster randomized trial, using a stepped wedge design, to assess the impact of a package intervention on newborn health. The intervention components include addressing infection control in the perinatal period in health facilities, promoting infection prevention and control practices in health center and home environments, and improving the timeliness of referrals for newborns with suspected infections to appropriate health facilities, by linking families to the medical system through a network of community based volunteers who will make home visits to families in the first week of a newborn's life. The NICCI trial is designed to complement and enhance the Cambodian Ministry of Health strategies and objectives for maternal and newborn care. Results of the study will help to inform policy and the possible scale-up of newborn health interventions in the country. This trial was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT02271737) on 5 October 2014.

  11. A LARGE-SCALE CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF COMMUNITY-BASED DIETARY SODIUM REDUCTION – THE CHINA RURAL HEALTH INITIATIVE SODIUM REDUCTION STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing L.; Niu, Wenyi; Labarthe, Darwin; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Chu, Hongling; Neiman, Andrea; Engelgau, Michael; Elliott, Paul; Wu, Yangfeng; Neal, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in China. High blood pressure caused by excess intake of dietary sodium is widespread and an effective sodium reduction program has potential to improve cardiovascular health. Design This study is a large-scale, cluster-randomized, trial done in five Northern Chinese provinces. Two counties have been selected from each province and 12 townships in each county making a total of 120 clusters. Within each township one village has been selected for participation with 1:1 randomization stratified by county. The sodium reduction intervention comprises community health education and a food supply strategy based upon providing access to salt substitute. Subsidization of the price of salt substitute was done in 30 intervention villages selected at random. Control villages continued usual practices. The primary outcome for the study is dietary sodium intake level estimated from assays of 24 hour urine. Trial status The trial recruited and randomized 120 townships in April 2011. The sodium reduction program was commenced in the 60 intervention villages between May and June of that year with outcome surveys scheduled for October to December 2012. Baseline data collection shows that randomisation achieved good balance across groups. Discussion The establishment of the China Rural Health Initiative has enabled the launch of this large-scale trial designed to identify a novel, scalable strategy for reduction of dietary sodium and control of blood pressure. If proved effective, the intervention could plausibly be implemented at low cost in large parts of China and other countries worldwide. PMID:24176436

  12. Overweight, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk: A Secondary Analysis of the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Prentice, Ross L; Manson, JoAnn E; Chlebowski, Rowan; Carty, Cara L; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Thomson, Cynthia A; Caan, Bette J; Tinker, Lesley F; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Knudtson, Jennifer; Anderson, Garnet L

    2015-08-01

    More than two-thirds of US women are overweight or obese, placing them at increased risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. To investigate in this secondary analysis the associations of overweight and obesity with risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer after extended follow-up in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. The WHI clinical trial protocol incorporated measured height and weight, baseline and annual or biennial mammography, and adjudicated breast cancer end points in 67 142 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years at 40 US clinical centers. The women were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 with a median of 13 years of follow-up through 2010; 3388 invasive breast cancers were observed. Height and weight were measured at baseline, and weight was measured annually thereafter. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, and personal habits (smoking, physical activity). Women underwent annual or biennial mammograms. Breast cancers were verified by medical records reviewed by physician adjudicators. Women who were overweight and obese had an increased invasive breast cancer risk vs women of normal weight. Risk was greatest for obesity grade 2 plus 3 (body mass index [BMI], calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, >35.0) (hazard ratio [HR] for invasive breast cancer, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.40-1.79). A BMI of 35.0 or higher was strongly associated with risk for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancers (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.60-2.17) but was not associated with estrogen receptor-negative cancers. Obesity grade 2 plus 3 was also associated with advanced disease, including larger tumor size (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.67-2.69; P = .02), positive lymph nodes (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.46-2.45; P = .06), regional and/or distant stage (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.52-2.47; P = .05), and deaths after breast cancer (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57-2.84; P < .001

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Multifaceted Outreach to Initiate Colorectal Cancer Screening in Community Health Centers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Shira N; Liss, David T; Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Buchanan, David R; Balsley, Kate; Cesan, Ana; Weil, Jordan; Garrity, Bridget H; Baker, David W

    2015-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among vulnerable populations. Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are one screening modality with few barriers. Studies have shown that outreach can improve CRC screening, but little is known about its effectiveness among individuals with no CRC screening history. We sought to determine whether outreach increases FIT uptake among patients with no CRC screening history compared to usual care. This study was a patient-level randomized controlled trial, including 420 patients who had never completed CRC screening and were eligible for FIT; 66% were female, 62.1% were Latino, and 70.7% were uninsured. The main outcome measure was FIT completion within 6 months of the randomization date. We assessed FIT completion at different time points corresponding to receipt of outreach components. All analyses were re-run with 12-month data. Patients who received outreach were more likely to complete FIT than those in usual care (36.7% vs. 14.8%; p < 0.001). FIT completion was more common among patients with increased clinic visits. The difference in FIT completion between the outreach and usual care groups decreased over time. The intervention improved FIT uptake among patients with no CRC screening history. However, the intervention was less effective than in a previous trial targeting patients due for repeat screening. Additional research is needed to determine the best methods for improving CRC screening among this hard-to-reach group.

  14. Impact of early initiation versus national standard of care of antiretroviral therapy in Swaziland's public sector health system: study protocol for a stepped-wedge randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona J; Bärnighausen, Till; Delva, Wim; Fleming, Yvette; Khumalo, Gavin; Lejeune, Charlotte L; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Mlambo, Charmaine Khudzie; Reis, Ria; Spiegelman, Donna; Zwane, Mandisa; Okello, Velephi

    2017-08-18

    There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics. The MaxART Early Access to ART for All (EAAA) implementation study was designed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes, affordability, and scalability of offering early antiretroviral treatment to all HIV-positive individuals in Swaziland's public sector health system. This is a three-year stepped-wedge randomized design with open enrollment for all adults aged 18 years and older across 14 government-managed health facilities in Swaziland's Hhohho Region. Primary endpoints are retention and viral suppression. Secondary endpoints include ART initiation, adherence, drug resistance, tuberculosis, HIV disease progression, patient satisfaction, and cost per patient per year. Sites are grouped to transition two at a time from the control (standard of care) to intervention (EAAA) stage at each four-month step. This design will result in approximately one half of the total observation time to accrue in the intervention arm and the other half in the control arm. Our estimated enrolment number, which is supported by conservative power calculations, is 4501 patients over the course of the 36-month study period. A multidisciplinary, mixed-methods approach will be adopted to supplement the randomized controlled trial and meet the study aims. Additional study components include implementation science, social science, economic evaluation, and predictive HIV incidence modeling. A

  15. Modelling population processes with random initial conditions.

    PubMed

    Pollett, P K; Dooley, A H; Ross, J V

    2010-02-01

    Population dynamics are almost inevitably associated with two predominant sources of variation: the first, demographic variability, a consequence of chance in progenitive and deleterious events; the second, initial state uncertainty, a consequence of partial observability and reporting delays and errors. Here we outline a general method for incorporating random initial conditions in population models where a deterministic model is sufficient to describe the dynamics of the population. Additionally, we show that for a large class of stochastic models the overall variation is the sum of variation due to random initial conditions and variation due to random dynamics, and thus we are able to quantify the variation not accounted for when random dynamics are ignored. Our results are illustrated with reference to both simulated and real data. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Calcium, Vitamin D, and Hormone Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Women's Health Initiative: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, Peter F; Jiang, Xuezhi; Aragaki, Aaron K; Nudy, Matthew; OʼSullivan, David M; Williams, Mark; LeBlanc, Erin S; Martin, Lisa W; Manson, JoAnn E; Shikany, James M; Johnson, Karen C; Stefanick, Marcia L; Payne, Martha E; Cauley, Jane A; Howard, Barbara V; Robbins, John

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the treatment effect of calcium+vitamin D supplementation, hormone therapy, both, and neither on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. The predefined primary outcome was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Between September 1993 and October 1998, a total of 68,132 women aged 50-79 years were recruited and randomized to the WHI-Dietary Modification (n=48,835) and WHI-Hormone Therapy trials (n=27,347). Subsequently, 36,282 women from WHI-Hormone Therapy (16,089) and WHI-Dietary Modification (n=25,210) trials were randomized in the WHI-Calcium+Vitamin D trial to 1,000 mg elemental calcium carbonate plus 400 international units vitamin D3 daily or placebo. Our study group included 1,521 women who participated in both the hormone therapy and calcium+vitamin D trials and were in the 6% subsample of trial participants with blood sample collections at baseline and years 1, 3, and 6. The average treatment effect with 95% confidence interval, for LDL-C, compared with placebo, was -1.6, (95% confidence interval [CI] -5.5 to 2.2) mg/dL for calcium+vitamin D alone, -9.0 (95% CI -13.0 to -5.1) mg/dL for hormone therapy alone, and -13.8 (95% CI -17.8 to -9.8) mg/dL for the combination. There was no evidence of a synergistic effect of calcium+vitamin D+hormone therapy on LDL-C (P value for interaction=.26) except in those with low total intakes of vitamin D, for whom there was a significant synergistic effect on LDL (P value for interaction=.03). Reductions in LDL-C were greater among women randomized to both calcium+vitamin D and hormone therapy than for those randomized to either intervention alone or to placebo. The treatment effect observed in the calcium+vitamin D+hormone therapy combination group may be additive rather than synergistic. For clinicians and patients deciding to begin calcium+vitamin D supplementation, current use

  17. Risk of Heart Failure Among Postmenopausal Women: A Secondary Analysis of the Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Plus Calcium of the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Donneyong, Macarius M.; Hornung, Carlton A.; Taylor, Kira C.; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Myers, John A.; Eaton, Charles B.; Gorodeski, Eiran Z.; Klein, Liviu; Martin, Lisa W.; Shikany, James M.; Song, Yiqing; Li, Wenjun; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive intervention to reduce heart failure (HF) incidence. However, there are insufficient data to support this hypothesis. This study evaluates whether vitamin D plus calcium (CaD) supplementation is associated with lower rates of HF in post-menopausal women and whether the effects differ between those at high versus low risk for HF. Methods and Results Analyses were restricted to 35,983 (of original 36,282) women aged 50 to 79 years old in the Women’s Health Initiative randomized trial of CaD supplementation who were randomized 1:1 in a double-blinded fashion to receive 1,000 mg/day of calcium plus 400 IU/day of vitamin D3 or placebo. Overall, 744 adjudicated incident HF cases (intervention, 363; control, 381) occurred during a median follow up of 7.1 (interquartile range, 1.6) years. CaD supplementation, compared to placebo, was not associated with reduced HF risk in the overall population, hazard ratio (HR), 0.95; P=0.46. However, CaD supplementation had differential effects (P-interaction=0.005) in subgroups stratified by baseline risk status of HF defined by the presence (high-risk=17,449) or absence (low-risk=18,534) of preexisting HF precursors including coronary heart diseases, diabetes, or hypertension: 37% (HR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46 to 0.87]) lower risk of HF in the low-risk versus HR, 1.06; P=0.51, in the high-risk subgroups. Conclusions CaD supplementation did not significantly reduce HF incidence in the overall cohort, however, it was beneficial among postmenopausal women without major HF precursors while of little value in high-risk subgroups. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these findings and investigate the underlying mechanism. PMID:25398967

  18. Risk of heart failure among postmenopausal women: a secondary analysis of the randomized trial of vitamin D plus calcium of the women's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Donneyong, Macarius M; Hornung, Carlton A; Taylor, Kira C; Baumgartner, Richard N; Myers, John A; Eaton, Charles B; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Klein, Liviu; Martin, Lisa W; Shikany, James M; Song, Yiqing; Li, Wenjun; Manson, JoAnn E

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive intervention to reduce heart failure (HF) incidence. However, there are insufficient data to support this hypothesis. This study evaluates whether vitamin D plus calcium (CaD) supplementation is associated with lower rates of HF in postmenopausal women and whether the effects differ between those at high versus low risk for HF. Analyses were restricted to 35 983 (of original 36 282) women aged 50 to 79 years old in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial of CaD supplementation who were randomized 1:1 in a double-blinded fashion to receive 1000 mg/d of calcium plus 400 IU/d of vitamin D3 or placebo. Overall, 744 adjudicated incident HF cases (intervention, 363; control, 381) occurred during a median follow-up of 7.1 (interquartile range, 1.6) years. CaD supplementation, compared with placebo, was not associated with reduced HF risk in the overall population, hazard ratio, 0.95; P=0.46. However, CaD supplementation had differential effects (P interaction=0.005) in subgroups stratified by baseline risk status of HF defined by the presence (high risk=17 449) or absence (low risk=18 534) of pre-existing HF precursors including coronary heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension: 37% (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.87]) lower risk of HF in the low-risk versus hazard ratio, 1.06; P=0.51, in the high-risk subgroups. CaD supplementation did not significantly reduce HF incidence in the overall cohort, however, it was beneficial among postmenopausal women without major HF precursors while of little value in high-risk subgroups. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these findings and investigate the underlying mechanism. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Long-term All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Rossouw, Jacques E; Anderson, Garnet L; Prentice, Ross L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Howard, Barbara V; Thomson, Cynthia A; Margolis, Karen L; Lewis, Cora E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Jackson, Rebecca D; Johnson, Karen C; Martin, Lisa W; Shumaker, Sally A; Espeland, Mark A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-09-12

    Health outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin and Estrogen-Alone Trials have been reported, but previous publications have generally not focused on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. To examine total and cause-specific cumulative mortality, including during the intervention and extended postintervention follow-up, of the 2 Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials. Observational follow-up of US multiethnic postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years enrolled in 2 randomized clinical trials between 1993 and 1998 and followed up through December 31, 2014. Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/d) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/d) (n = 8506) vs placebo (n = 8102) for 5.6 years (median) or CEE alone (n = 5310) vs placebo (n = 5429) for 7.2 years (median). All-cause mortality (primary outcome) and cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular disease mortality, cancer mortality, and other major causes of mortality) in the 2 trials pooled and in each trial individually, with prespecified analyses by 10-year age group based on age at time of randomization. Among 27 347 women who were randomized (baseline mean [SD] age, 63.4 [7.2] years; 80.6% white), mortality follow-up was available for more than 98%. During the cumulative 18-year follow-up, 7489 deaths occurred (1088 deaths during the intervention phase and 6401 deaths during postintervention follow-up). All-cause mortality was 27.1% in the hormone therapy group vs 27.6% in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.94-1.03]) in the overall pooled cohort; with CEE plus MPA, the HR was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96-1.08); and with CEE alone, the HR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01). In the pooled cohort for cardiovascular mortality, the HR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.92-1.08 [8.9 % with hormone therapy vs 9.0% with placebo]); for total cancer mortality, the HR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.95-1.12 [8.2 % with hormone therapy vs 8.0% with placebo]); and for other causes, the

  20. Internet 2 Health Sciences Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Internet 2 (I2) health sciences initiative (I2HSI) involves the formulation of applications and supporting technologies, and guidelines for their use in the health sciences. Key elements of I2HSI include use of visualization, collaboration, medical informatics, telemedicine, and educational tools that support the health sciences. Specific…

  1. Internet 2 Health Sciences Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Internet 2 (I2) health sciences initiative (I2HSI) involves the formulation of applications and supporting technologies, and guidelines for their use in the health sciences. Key elements of I2HSI include use of visualization, collaboration, medical informatics, telemedicine, and educational tools that support the health sciences. Specific…

  2. Effect of a Community Health Worker Intervention Among Latinos With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: The Miami Healthy Heart Initiative Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Olveen; Lebron, Cynthia; Alonzo, Yisel; Li, Hua; Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia

    2017-07-01

    Community health worker (CHW) intervention is a promising approach to address type 2 diabetes among Latinos. However, evidence from randomized clinical studies is limited. To compare a CHW intervention with enhanced usual care. This 52-week, single-blind, randomized clinical trial included 300 Latino adults aged 18 to 65 years who were treated in 2 public hospital outpatient clinics in Miami-Dade County, Florida, from July 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013. Eligible participants had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 8.0 or greater. Follow-up was completed January 31, 2015, and data were analyzed from March 10, 2015, to June 6, 2016. A 1-year CHW intervention consisted of home visits, telephone calls, and group-level activities. Primary outcomes included systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels, and HbA1c levels. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, medication regimen intensification, and self-reported measures of diet, physical activity, and medication regimen adherence. Of the 300 participants randomized (135 men [45%] and 165 women [55%]; mean [SD] age, 55.2 [7.0] years), we obtained follow-up data on 215 (71.7%). Participants in the CHW group received a median of 4 home visits and 20 telephone calls. After adjusting for baseline values and covariates, participants in the CHW group had an HbA1c level that was 0.51% lower (95% CI, -0.94% to -0.08%) than that of participants in the enhanced usual care group. The reduction in SBP of 4.62 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.01 to -0.24 mm Hg) did not meet the preplanned target of 8 mm Hg and was not statistically significant in unadjusted models. No significant differences in LDLC levels (mean difference, -8.2 mg/dL; 95% CI, -18.8 to 2.3 mg/dL) or any of the preplanned secondary outcomes were observed. Post hoc analyses suggest that the intervention may be more beneficial among those with worse control of their type 2 diabetes at baseline. Among Latinos with poorly controlled type 2

  3. Catholic Health Initiatives at 10.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joyce M

    2007-01-01

    The summer of 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of the formation of Denver-based Catholic Health Initiatives (CHI). Formed in 1996 as the result of the merger of three Catholic health care systems, and soon joined by a fourth, the system integrated a diverse collection of health care facilities previously sponsored by 12 different religious congregations. It was the first Catholic health system to give laity a sponsorship role in its facilities. CHI's facilities are sponsored by a public juridic person (PJP), the Catholic Health Care Federation (CHCF). The same people who sit on the system's board also constitute CHCF. They are thus responsible for both governance and sponsorship. CHI was the first Catholic health care system to give laypersons a sponsorship role in its facilities. Establishing the PJP was a long and complex task. Eventually, the church determined that CHI's PJP should be pontifical, accountable to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life in Rome. CHCF in 1991 became the first PJP in health care in the United States. CHI's staff, led by its first president and chief executive officer, Patricia Cahill, quickly took steps to help the new system begin to coalesce, establishing a single, systemwide pension plan, debt policy, and so forth. Also challenging was the creation of a systemwide new culture. An essential step in the development of CHI's culture was the involvement of employees in the identification of its core values: reverence, integrity, compassion, and excellence, The creation of CHI's Mission and Ministry Fund also helped give the system an identity. This fund provides grants to programs that take an innovative approach to building healthy communities, a goal expressed in CHI's mission and vision statements. The people who created CHI and nurtured it during its first decade give it high marks for faithful adherence to its mission. Even so, they acknowledge that there is always more work to be done.

  4. Health Care Provider Initiative Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This document lays out the strategy for achieving the goals and objectives of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative." The goal of NEETF's "Health Care Provider Initiative" is to incorporate environmental health into health professionals' education and practice in order to improve health care and public health, with a special emphasis on…

  5. Low-dose, non-supervised, health insurance initiated exercise for the treatment and prevention of chronic low back pain in employees. Results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Sven; Wiechmann, Klaus; Stein, Lothar; Kück, Momme; Smith, Andrea; Meineke, Stefan; Zirkelbach, Yvonne; Rodriguez Duarte, Samuel; Drupp, Michael; Tegtbur, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Objective Back pain is a major problem requiring pragmatic interventions, low in costs for health care providers and feasible for individuals to perform. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a low-dose 5-month exercise intervention with small personnel investment on low back strength and self-perceived pain. Methods Two hundred twenty-six employees (age: 42.7±10.2 years) from three mid-size companies were randomized to 5-month non-supervised training at home (3 times/week for 20 minutes) or wait-list-control. Health insurance professionals instructed the participants on trunk exercises at the start and then supervised participants once a month. Results Muscle strength for back extension increased after the 5-month intervention with a significant between-group difference (mean 27.4 Newton [95%CI 2.2; 60.3]) favoring the exercise group (p = 0.035). Low back pain was reduced more in subjects after exercise than control (mean difference –0.74 cm [95%CI –1.17; –0.27], p = 0.002). No between-group differences were observed for back pain related disability and work ability. After stratified analysis only subjects with preexisting chronic low back pain showed a between-group difference (exercise versus controls) after the intervention in their strength for back extension (mean 55.7 Newton [95%CI 2.8; 108.5], p = 0.039), self-perceived pain (mean –1.42 cm [95%CI –2.32; –0.51], p = 0.003) and work ability (mean 2.1 points [95%CI 0.2; 4.0], p = 0.032). Significant between-group differences were not observed in subjects without low back pain: strength for back extension (mean 23.4 Newton [95%CI –11.2; 58.1], p = 0.184), self-perceived pain (mean –0.48 cm [95%CI –0.99; 0.04], p = 0.067) and work ability (mean –0.1 points [95%CI –0.9; 0.9], p = 0.999). An interaction between low back pain subgroups and the study intervention (exercise versus control) was exclusively observed for the work ability index (p = 0.016). Conclusion In middle

  6. Low-dose, non-supervised, health insurance initiated exercise for the treatment and prevention of chronic low back pain in employees. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Sven; Wiechmann, Klaus; Stein, Lothar; Kück, Momme; Smith, Andrea; Meineke, Stefan; Zirkelbach, Yvonne; Rodriguez Duarte, Samuel; Drupp, Michael; Tegtbur, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Back pain is a major problem requiring pragmatic interventions, low in costs for health care providers and feasible for individuals to perform. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a low-dose 5-month exercise intervention with small personnel investment on low back strength and self-perceived pain. Two hundred twenty-six employees (age: 42.7±10.2 years) from three mid-size companies were randomized to 5-month non-supervised training at home (3 times/week for 20 minutes) or wait-list-control. Health insurance professionals instructed the participants on trunk exercises at the start and then supervised participants once a month. Muscle strength for back extension increased after the 5-month intervention with a significant between-group difference (mean 27.4 Newton [95%CI 2.2; 60.3]) favoring the exercise group (p = 0.035). Low back pain was reduced more in subjects after exercise than control (mean difference -0.74 cm [95%CI -1.17; -0.27], p = 0.002). No between-group differences were observed for back pain related disability and work ability. After stratified analysis only subjects with preexisting chronic low back pain showed a between-group difference (exercise versus controls) after the intervention in their strength for back extension (mean 55.7 Newton [95%CI 2.8; 108.5], p = 0.039), self-perceived pain (mean -1.42 cm [95%CI -2.32; -0.51], p = 0.003) and work ability (mean 2.1 points [95%CI 0.2; 4.0], p = 0.032). Significant between-group differences were not observed in subjects without low back pain: strength for back extension (mean 23.4 Newton [95%CI -11.2; 58.1], p = 0.184), self-perceived pain (mean -0.48 cm [95%CI -0.99; 0.04], p = 0.067) and work ability (mean -0.1 points [95%CI -0.9; 0.9], p = 0.999). An interaction between low back pain subgroups and the study intervention (exercise versus control) was exclusively observed for the work ability index (p = 0.016). In middle-aged employees a low-dose, non-supervised exercise program implemented

  7. The effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on the risk of venous thromboembolism. From the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Blondon, Marc; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Budrys, Nicole; Johnson, Karen C; Berger, Jeffrey S; Shikany, James M; Raiesdana, Azad; Heckbert, Susan R; Manson, JoAnn E; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Siscovick, David; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Smith, Nicholas L; de Boer, Ian H

    2015-05-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may be implicated in haemostatic regulations and influence the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral supplementation of vitamin D3 combined with calcium reduces the risk of VTE. In the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Women's Health Initiative Calcium Plus Vitamin D trial, 36,282 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years were randomised to receive 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate and 400 IU of vitamin D3 per day (n=18,176) or a matching placebo (n=18,106) during an average of seven years. This secondary analysis of the trial compared the incidence of VTE by treatment group using an intention-to-treat Cox regression analysis. The incidence of VTE did not differ between women randomised to calcium plus vitamin D and women randomised to placebo (320 vs 348 VTE events, respectively; hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.07). Results were not modified in an analysis using inverse-probability weights to take non-adherence into account (HR 0.94, 95 %CI 0.73-1.22) or in multiple subgroups. Whereas the risk of a non-idiopathic VTE was similar between groups, the risk of idiopathic VTE was lower in women randomised to calcium plus vitamin D (40 vs 65 events; HR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.42-0.92). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 1,000 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the overall incidence of VTE in generally healthy postmenopausal women. However, the observed reduced risk of idiopathic VTE in women randomised to calcium and vitamin D warrants further investigations.

  8. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of treated diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled dietary modification trial.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Lesley F; Bonds, Denise E; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E; Howard, Barbara V; Larson, Joseph; Perri, Michael G; Beresford, Shirley A A; Robinson, Jennifer G; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Safford, Monika M; Wenger, Nanette K; Stevens, Victor J; Parker, Linda M

    2008-07-28

    Decreased fat intake with weight loss and increased exercise may reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on incidence of treated diabetes among generally healthy postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at 40 US clinical centers from 1993 to 2005, including 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years. Women were randomly assigned to a usual-diet comparison group (n = 29,294 [60.0%]) or an intervention group with a 20% low-fat dietary pattern with increased vegetables, fruits, and grains (n = 19,541 [40.0%]). Self-reported incident diabetes treated with oral agents or insulin was assessed. Incident treated diabetes was reported by 1303 intervention participants (7.1%) and 2039 comparison participants (7.4%) (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.03; P = .25). Weight loss occurred in the intervention group, with a difference between intervention and comparison groups of 1.9 kg after 7.5 years (P < .001). Subgroup analysis suggested that greater decreases in percentage of energy from total fat reduced diabetes risk (P for trend = .04), which was not statistically significant after adjusting for weight loss. A low-fat dietary pattern among generally healthy postmenopausal women showed no evidence of reducing diabetes risk after 8.1 years. Trends toward reduced incidence were greater with greater decreases in total fat intake and weight loss. Weight loss, rather than macronutrient composition, may be the dominant predictor of reduced risk of diabetes.

  9. Initial Status in Growth Curve Modeling for Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Ping; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance; Pentz, MaryAnn; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2010-01-01

    The growth curve modeling (GCM) technique has been widely adopted in longitudinal studies to investigate progression over time. The simplest growth profile involves two growth factors, initial status (intercept) and growth trajectory (slope). Conventionally, all repeated measures of outcome are included as components of the growth profile, and the first measure is used to reflect the initial status. Selection of the initial status, however, can greatly influence study findings, especially for randomized trials. In this article, we propose an alternative GCM approach involving only post-intervention measures in the growth profile and treating the first wave after intervention as the initial status. We discuss and empirically illustrate how choices of initial status may influence study conclusions in addressing research questions in randomized trials using two longitudinal studies. Data from two randomized trials are used to illustrate that the alternative GCM approach proposed in this article offers better model fitting and more meaningful results. PMID:21572585

  10. Mobile access to virtual randomization for investigator-initiated trials.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Thomas M; Keszei, András P

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims Randomization is indispensable in clinical trials in order to provide unbiased treatment allocation and a valid statistical inference. Improper handling of allocation lists can be avoided using central systems, for example, human-based services. However, central systems are unaffordable for investigator-initiated trials and might be inaccessible from some places, where study subjects need allocations. We propose mobile access to virtual randomization, where the randomization lists are non-existent and the appropriate allocation is computed on demand. Methods The core of the system architecture is an electronic data capture system or a clinical trial management system, which is extended by an R interface connecting the R server using the Java R Interface. Mobile devices communicate via the representational state transfer web services. Furthermore, a simple web-based setup allows configuring the appropriate statistics by non-statisticians. Our comprehensive R script supports simple randomization, restricted randomization using a random allocation rule, block randomization, and stratified randomization for un-blinded, single-blinded, and double-blinded trials. For each trial, the electronic data capture system or the clinical trial management system stores the randomization parameters and the subject assignments. Results Apps are provided for iOS and Android and subjects are randomized using smartphones. After logging onto the system, the user selects the trial and the subject, and the allocation number and treatment arm are displayed instantaneously and stored in the core system. So far, 156 subjects have been allocated from mobile devices serving five investigator-initiated trials. Conclusion Transforming pre-printed allocation lists into virtual ones ensures the correct conduct of trials and guarantees a strictly sequential processing in all trial sites. Covering 88% of all randomization models that are used in recent trials, virtual randomization

  11. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation.

  12. Health information technology: strategic initiatives, real progress.

    PubMed

    Kolodner, Robert M; Cohn, Simon P; Friedman, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    We fully agree with Carol Diamond and Clay Shirky that deployment of health information technology (IT) is necessary but not sufficient for transforming U.S. health care. However, the recent work to advance health IT is far from an exercise in "magical thinking." It has been strategic thinking. To illustrate this, we highlight recent initiatives and progress under four focus areas: adoption, governance, privacy and security, and interoperability. In addition, solutions exist for health IT to advance rapidly without adversely affecting future policy choices. A broad national consensus is emerging in support of advancing health IT to enable the transformation of health and care.

  13. THE EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY ON MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RESULTS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Daichi; Wang, Lu; Lamonte, Michael J.; Allison, Matthew; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Martin, Lisa W.; Aragaki, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan D.; Swica, Yael; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of blood pressure in postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods Blood pressure was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials in which 10,739 and 16,608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results At the first annual visit (Year 1), mean systolic blood pressure was 1.04 mmHg (95% CI 0.58, 1.50) and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms respectively compared to corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after Year 1. CEE also increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.03, P<0.001), whereas CEE+MPA did not (ratio of VVV in CEE+MPA vs. placebo, 1.01, P=0.20). After accounting for study drug adherence, the effects of CEE and CEE+MPA on mean systolic blood pressure increased at Year 1, and the differences in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after Year 1. Further, both CEE and CEE+MPA significantly increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.04, P<0.001; ratio of VVV in CEE+MPA vs. placebo, 1.05, P<0.001). Conclusions Among postmenopausal women, CEE and CEE+MPA at conventional doses increased mean and VVV of systolic blood pressure. PMID:24991872

  14. Career development initiatives in biomedical health informatics.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of biomedical engineering and health informatics complement each other. These two scientific fields sometimes strive independently to deliver better health care services. The rapid evolution in data-intensive methods has made practitioners to think about reviewing the educational needs of the biomedical health informatics workforces. This paper discusses the changing skills requirements in biomedical health informatics discipline. The author reports on the challenges faced by IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBS) in the context of continuous career development of the EMBS members. This paper discusses Queensland chapter's initiative towards an integrated career development to address challenges faced by IEEE EMBS.

  15. Gender, health, and initiation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Limiñana-Gras, Rosa M; Sánchez-López, M Pilar; Ordoñana, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations of health, gender, and motherhood with the decisions about breastfeeding. The sample consisted of 265 pregnant women (mean age: 32.34, SD: 4.01 years) who were recruited in healthcare centers and hospitals in southeast Spain between 2010 and 2011. Mental health was measured by the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire and gender by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory. Women in our sample showed a higher conformity to gender norms than women surveyed in the adaptation of the inventory to the Spanish population (t = 11.25, p < 0.001, effect estimate (Cohen's d) = 0.59). After adjustment for covariates, women who exclusively breastfed did not differ significantly in their conformity to gender norms from those who used partial breastfeeding or bottle feeding. Although good, our expectant mothers had worse mental health than the women aged 15-44 years in the Spanish National Health Survey (t = 2.96, p < 0.001, d = 0.26). Those who partially breastfed had significantly better mental health values. Gender norms were modulators in a model of factors related to initiation of breastfeeding. This study provides information about health and social construction of gender norms.

  16. The invisibilization of health promotion in Australian public health initiatives.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret

    2016-07-19

    The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Quality Enhancement Research Initiative in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fischer, E P; Marder, S R; Smith, G R; Owen, R R; Rubenstein, L; Hedrick, S C; Curran, G M

    2000-06-01

    The Veterans Administration (VA) recently introduced its Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to facilitate the translation of best practices into usual clinical care. The Mental Health QUERI (MHQ) was charged with developing strategic plans for major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Twenty percent or more of VA service users are affected by 1 of these 2 disorders, disorders that often have a devastating impact on affected individuals. Despite the increasing availability of efficacious treatments for each disorder, substantial gaps remain between best practices and routine care. In this context, the MHQ identified steps critical to the success of a sustained process of rapid-cycle health care improvement for MDD and schizophrenia, including research initiatives to close gaps in knowledge of best treatment practices, demonstration projects to close gaps in practice and to expand understanding of effective strategies for implementing clinical guidelines, targeted enhancements of the VA information system, and research and dissemination initiatives to increase the availability of resources to support the accelerated incorporation of best practices into routine care. This article presents an overview of the elements in the initial MHQ strategic plans and the rationale behind them.

  18. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Executive Summary For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win–win for productivity and employees’ well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today’s U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor. PMID:24683279

  19. Designing Work, Family & Health Organizational Change Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, leaders and scholars have been advocating change efforts to improve work-life relationships. Yet most initiatives have lacked rigor and not been developed using scientific principles. This has created an evidence gap for employer support of work and personal life as a win-win for productivity and employees' well-being. This paper examines the approach used by the U.S. Work Family Health Network (WFRN) to develop an innovative workplace intervention to improve employee and family health. The change initiative was designed to reduce organizationally based work-family conflict in two contrasting contexts representative of major segments of today's U.S. workforce: health care employees and informational technology professionals. The WFRN Intervention (called STAR) had three theoretically based change elements. They were: 1) increase job control over work time and schedule; 2) increase supervisor social support for family and job effectiveness; and 3) improve organizational culture and job design processes to foster results orientation. Seven practical lessons for developing work-life interventions emerged from this groundbreaking endeavor.

  20. The Global Health Initiative and the health workforce.

    PubMed

    Middleberg, Maurice I

    2011-01-01

    The United States Government (USG) strategy for global health is embodied in the Global Health Initiative (GHI), announced by President Obama in 2009. The GHI addresses the array of US global health programs and concerns. There is laudable recognition of the health workforce crisis as a major barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and the USG's global health goals. Significant funding is provided to train health workers and conduct other activities that may be seen as addressing the health workforce crisis. Unfortunately, the USG approach to the health workforce is not guided by a coherent strategy. In sharp contrast to its approach to more traditional, disease-specific programs, the GHI fails to articulate objectives, technical approach, metrics, organization, staffing or resource allocation with regard to the health workforce. The result is a series of projects unguided by any framework. The article outlines a health workforce strategy for the GHI. It proposes objectives, a technical approach, key indicators of progress, structural reforms and resource requirements.

  1. UK Health Secretary launches family planning initiatives.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    British Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley and Family Planning Association (FPA) President Anna Ford recently announced some new initiatives to promote wider use of family planning (FP) and contraception which will be carried out by the FPA with a special grant from the Department of Health. The grant will finance 3 FPA projects: 1) the Growing Up project, 3 booklets providing information for parents, young people, and children; 2) an information project at the work place on FP and sexual health for women and men; and 3) a primary health care project to aid general practitioners (G)s) and nurses engaged in the improvement of FP services. 1 in 3 pregnancies is unplanned, and teenage pregnancy rates are rising, thus sex education and public information are vital. The FPA chose St. Valentines Day to introduce How Your Body Changes, its new pamphlet for teenagers. In the UK over 85% of FP services are provided by family doctors and 15% or less by special community FP clinics. those who oppose further closures that health authorities contemplate stress that the special clinics provide: an anonymous service for younger women, especially those aged 16 or under, a wider choice of methods (some GPs do not offer the IUD, the diaphragm, or free condoms), a better service (most GPs are too busy and have had no training in FP, and postgraduate training for nurses and doctors (more clinic closures will impair FP education). Better FP education is crucial, especially for the age group 12-16 in view of over 180,000 legal abortions occurring each year in the UK.

  2. Can the Canadian Heart Health Initiative inform the population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada?

    PubMed

    Riley, Barbara L; Stachenko, Sylvie; Wilson, Elinor; Harvey, Dexter; Cameron, Roy; Farquharson, Jane; Donovan, Catherine; Taylor, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada (PHIRIC) is to build capacity to increase the quantity, quality and use of population health intervention research. But what capacity is required, and how should capacity be created? There may be relevant lessons from the Canadian Heart Health Initiative (CHHI), a 20-year initiative (1986-2006) that was groundbreaking in its attempt to bring together researchers and public health leaders (from government and non-government organizations) to jointly plan, conduct and act on relevant evidence. The present study focused on what enabled and constrained the ability to fund, conduct and use science in the CHHI. Guided by a provisional capacity-building framework, a two-step methodology was used: a CHHI document analysis followed by consultation with CHHI leaders to refine and confirm emerging findings. A few well-positioned, visionary people conceived of the CHHI as a long-term, coherent initiative that would have impact, and they then created an environment to enable this to become reality. To achieve the vision, capacity was needed to a) align science (research and evaluation) with public health policy and program priorities, including the capacity to study "natural experiments" and b) build meaningful partnerships within and across sectors. There is now an opportunity to apply lessons from the CHHI in planning PHIRIC.

  3. Self-propulsion and crossing statistics under random initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, M.; Labousse, M.; Perrard, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240401] who studied the interaction between a drop propelled by its accompanying wave field and a submarine obstacle. This wave particle entity can overcome potential barrier, suggesting the existence of a "macroscopic tunneling effect." We show that the effect of self-propulsion is sufficiently strong to generate crossing of the high-energy barrier. By assuming a random distribution of initial angles, we define a probability distribution to cross the potential barrier that matches with the data of Eddi et al. This probability is similar to the one encountered in statistical physics for Hamiltonian systems, i.e., a Boltzmann exponential law.

  4. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Family Health History My Family Health Portrait Tool English Web Tool Printable Versions Source Code ... your family's health history. My Family Health History Portrait Tool Find out about this web-based tool ...

  5. Experiments on the rarefaction wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability initiated with a random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    Experiments are presented in which a diffuse interface between two gases is accelerated to become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable. The initially flat interface is generated by the opposing flow of two test gases at matched volumetric flow rates exiting through small holes in the test section. A random, three-dimensional interface perturbation is forced using a loudspeaker. The interface is then accelerated by an expansion wave which is generated by the rupturing of a diaphragm separating the heavy gas from a vacuum tank evacuated to ~0.01 atm. The expansion wave generates a large (of order 1000 g), non-constant acceleration acting on the interface causing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to develop. Planar Mie scattering is employed to visualize the flow using a planar laser sheet generated at the top of the apparatus, which illuminates smoke particles seeded in the heavy gas. The scattered light is then recorded using a CMOS camera operating at 12 kHz. The mixing layer width is obtained from an ensemble of experiments and the turbulent growth parameter α is extracted and compared with previous experiments and simulations.

  6. Kids into health careers: a rural initiative.

    PubMed

    Lauver, Lori S; Swan, Beth Ann; West, Margaret Mary; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Powell, Mary; Frisby, Tony; Neyhard, Sue; Marsella, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    To describe a project that introduces middle school and high school students living in Pennsylvania's rural geographic regions to nursing careers through outreach extended to students regardless of gender, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. The authors employed many strategies to inform students about careers in nursing. The methods included: working with guidance counselors, participating in community health fairs, taking part in school health career fairs, collaborating with Area Health Education Centers, serving on volunteer local education advisory boards, developing a health careers resource guide, and establishing a rural health advisory board. Developing developmentally appropriate programs may have the potential to pique interest in nursing careers in children of all ages, preschool through high school. Publicity is needed to alert the community of kids into health care career programs. Timing is essential when planning visits to discuss health care professions opportunities with middle and high school students. It is important to increase the number of high school student contacts during the fall months. Targeting high school seniors is particularly important as they begin the college applications process and determine which school will best meet their educational goals. Outcome measures to determine the success of health career programs for students in preschool through high school are needed. Evaluation methods will be continued over the coming years to assess effectiveness. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Some Initial Thoughts on Salinger v. Random House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, T. Barton

    The legal action brought by author J. D. Salinger against Random House Publishers to prevent certain letters--now the property of various university libraries--from being published in a biography illustrates how the long-standing accommodation between the Copyright Act and the First Amendment can occasionally break down. Although the biographer…

  8. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  9. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  10. Recent health policy initiatives in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Saltman, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Health care systems in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark are in the midst of substantial organizational reconfiguration. Although retaining their tax-based single source financing arrangements, they have begun experiments that introduce a limited measure of competitive behavior in the delivery of health services. The emphasis has been on restructuring public operated hospitals and health centers into various forms of public firms, rather than on the privatization of ownership of institutions. If successful, the reforms will enable these Nordic countries to combine their existing macroeconomic controls with enhanced microeconomic efficiency, effectiveness, and responsiveness to patients. PMID:10122003

  11. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    PubMed

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention.

  12. Annual Initiative Review: Report of Health Care Delivery Initiative. California Community Colleges Economic Development Program Annual Initiative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comins, James L.; Krozek, Charles

    This 1999-2000 report addresses the objectives and impact of California's Health Care Delivery Initiative (HCDI), which is comprised of a network of Regional Health Occupations Resource Centers (RHORCs) and their community college and health care industry partners. The HCDI identifies needed workers, develops/modifies community college curricula,…

  13. A randomized, controlled trial of early versus late initiation of dialysis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bruce A; Branley, Pauline; Bulfone, Liliana; Collins, John F; Craig, Jonathan C; Fraenkel, Margaret B; Harris, Anthony; Johnson, David W; Kesselhut, Joan; Li, Jing Jing; Luxton, Grant; Pilmore, Andrew; Tiller, David J; Harris, David C; Pollock, Carol A

    2010-08-12

    In clinical practice, there is considerable variation in the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis for patients with stage V chronic kidney disease, with a worldwide trend toward early initiation. In this study, conducted at 32 centers in Australia and New Zealand, we examined whether the timing of the initiation of maintenance dialysis influenced survival among patients with chronic kidney disease. We randomly assigned patients 18 years of age or older with progressive chronic kidney disease and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between 10.0 and 15.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area (calculated with the use of the Cockcroft-Gault equation) to planned initiation of dialysis when the estimated GFR was 10.0 to 14.0 ml per minute (early start) or when the estimated GFR was 5.0 to 7.0 ml per minute (late start). The primary outcome was death from any cause. Between July 2000 and November 2008, a total of 828 adults (mean age, 60.4 years; 542 men and 286 women; 355 with diabetes) underwent randomization, with a median time to the initiation of dialysis of 1.80 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 2.23) in the early-start group and 7.40 months (95% CI, 6.23 to 8.27) in the late-start group. A total of 75.9% of the patients in the late-start group initiated dialysis when the estimated GFR was above the target of 7.0 ml per minute, owing to the development of symptoms. During a median follow-up period of 3.59 years, 152 of 404 patients in the early-start group (37.6%) and 155 of 424 in the late-start group (36.6%) died (hazard ratio with early initiation, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.30; P=0.75). There was no significant difference between the groups in the frequency of adverse events (cardiovascular events, infections, or complications of dialysis). In this study, planned early initiation of dialysis in patients with stage V chronic kidney disease was not associated with an improvement in survival or clinical outcomes. (Funded by

  14. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  15. Initial Validation of the Mental Health Provider Stigma Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Abell, Neil; Mennicke, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an initial validation of the mental health provider stigma inventory (MHPSI). The MHPSI assesses stigma within the service provider--client relationship on three domains--namely, attitudes, behaviors, and coworker influence. Methods: Initial validation of the MHPSI was conducted with a sample of 212 mental health employees…

  16. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  17. Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Background and Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic diseases are the major causes of death, disability and frailty in older women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds. This multi- ... CDC), and the National Institutes of Health. Eight University-based Prevention ... encouraged women of all races and socioeconomic backgrounds to adopt ...

  18. Global health initiative investments and health systems strengthening: a content analysis of global fund investments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities – through conventional ‘vertical-programming’ approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. Methods We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). Results According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. Conclusions This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund’s Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced

  19. How chaosity and randomness control human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Yulmetyeva, Dinara; Gafarov, Fail M.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the fundamental role that chaosity and randomness play in the determination of quality and efficiency of medical treatment. The statistical parameter of non-Markovity from non-equilibrium statistical physics of condensed matters is offered as a quantitative information measure of chaosity and randomness. The role of chaosity and randomness is determined by the phenomenological property, which includes quantitative informational measures of chaosity and randomness and pathology (disease) in a covariant form. Manifestations of the statistical informational behavior of chaosity and randomness are examined while analyzing the chaotic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's, the electric signals of a human muscle's tremor of legs in a normal state and at Parkinson disease, the electric potentials of the human brain core from EEG's during epileptic seizure and a human hand finger tremor in Parkinson's disease. The existence of the above stated informational measure allows to introduce the quantitative factor of the quality of treatment. The above-stated examples confirm the existence of new phenomenological property, which is important not only for the decision of medical problems, but also for the analysis of the wide range of problems of physics of complex systems of life and lifeless nature.

  20. Initial state randomness improves sequence learning in a model hippocampal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, A. P.; Wu X.; Sullivan, D. W.; Levy, W. B.

    2002-03-01

    Randomness can be a useful component of computation. Using a computationally minimal, but still biologically based model of the hippocampus, we evaluate the effects of initial state randomization on learning a cognitive problem that requires this brain structure. Greater randomness of initial states leads to more robust performance in simulations of the cognitive task called transverse patterning, a context-dependent discrimination task that we code as a sequence prediction problem. At the conclusion of training, greater initial randomness during training trials also correlates with increased, repetitive firing of select individual neurons, previously named local context neurons. In essence, such repetitively firing neurons recognize subsequences, and previously their presence has been correlated with solving the transverse patterning problem. A more detailed analysis of the simulations across training trials reveals more about initial state randomization. The beneficial effects of initial state randomization derive from enhanced variation, across training trials, of the sequential states of a network. This greater variation is not uniformly present during training; it is largely restricted to the beginning of training and when novel sequences are introduced. Little such variation occurs after extensive or even moderate amounts of training. We explain why variation is high early in training, but not later. This automatic modulation of the initial-state-driven random variation through state space is reminiscent of simulated annealing where modulated randomization encourages a selectively broad search through state space. In contrast to an annealing schedule, the selective occurrence of such a random search here is an emergent property, and the critical randomization occurs during training rather than testing.

  1. A preliminary randomized controlled trial of a distress tolerance treatment for opioid dependent persons initiating buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael D; Herman, Debra S; Moitra, Ethan; Hecht, Jacki; Lopez, Rosalie; Anderson, Bradley J; Brown, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    Buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has established efficacy for treating opioid dependency but early relapse rates are high and are often associated with withdrawal-related or emotional distress. To determine whether a novel distress tolerance (DT) intervention during buprenorphine initiation decreases opioid relapse, we conducted a preliminary randomized controlled trial with opioid-dependent outpatients. Participants received buprenorphine-naloxone induction and 3-months of maintenance buprenorphine plus seven, 50-min manualized, individual sessions (DT vs. health education (HE) control) over a 28-day period, linked to clinician medication dosing visits, and beginning 2 days prior to buprenorphine induction. Primary outcomes included use of illicit opioids (positive defined as any self-reported use in the prior 28 days or detected by urine toxicology) and treatment drop out. Among 49 participants, the mean age was 41 years, 65.3% were male. Persons randomized to DT had lower rates of opioid use at all three monthly assessments, and at 3-months, 72% of HE participants were opioid positive compared with 62.5% of DT participants. Rates of dropout were 24% and 25% in the HE and DT arms, respectively. This distress tolerance treatment produced a small, but not statistically significant reduction in opioid use during the first three months of treatment although no differences were found in drop-out rates between conditions. If replicated in a larger study, DT could offer clinicians a useful behavioral treatment to complement the effects of buprenorphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher education initiatives for disaster and emergency health in iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran's health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013-4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3-5 years from initiation.

  3. Higher Education Initiatives for Disaster and Emergency Health in Iran

    PubMed Central

    ARDALAN, Ali; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; MASOUMI, Gholamreza; HOLAKOUIE NAIENI, Kourosh; AHMADNEZHAD, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran’s health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013–4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3–5 years from initiation. PMID:23967432

  4. [Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Americas].

    PubMed

    Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ortega, Diana Patricia

    2005-01-01

    In Latin America, comprehensive health promotion programmes and activities are being implemented in the school setting, which take into account the conceptual framework of the Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). These programmes help to strengthen the working relationships between the health and education sectors. The Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative, officially launched by PAHO/WHO in 1995, aims to form future generations to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills necessary for promoting and caring for their health and that of their family and community, as well as to create and maintain healthy environments and communities. The Initiative focuses on three main components: comprehensive health education, the creation and maintenance of healthy physical and psychosocial environments, and the access to health and nutrition services, mental health, and active life. In 2001, PAHO conducted a survey in 19 Latin American countries to assess the status and trends of Health-Promoting Schools in the Region, for the appropriate regional, subregional, and national planning of pertinent health promotion and health education programmes and activities. The results of this survey provided information about policies and national plans, multisectoral coordination mechanisms for the support of health promotion in the school settings, the formation and participation in national and international networks of Health-Promoting Schools and about the level of dissemination of the strategy. For the successful development of Health-Promoting Schools is essential to involve the society as a whole, in order to mobilise human resources and materials necessary for implementing health promotion in the school settings. Thus, the constitution and consolidation of networks has been a facilitating mechanism for the exchange of ideas, resources and experiences to strengthen

  5. Short-term functional health and well-being after marital separation: does initiator status make a difference?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Belinda; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    The authors investigated the health consequences of marital separation and whether the partners who initiated the separation had better health than those who did not. The data came from the Households, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) panel study (2001-2007), comprising an analytic sample of 1,786 men and 2,068 women who were in their first marriages in 2001. For participants who separated, the authors distinguished between self-initiated, partner-initiated, and jointly initiated separations. Using linear random-intercept models, they examined scores on the 8 physical and mental health dimensions of Short Form 36, with scale scores ranging from 0 to 100. The results indicated that in general, men who separated had a decline in health, although this was more pronounced for mental dimensions than for physical dimensions. Among separated men, those whose partner initiated the separation had poorer mental health than those for whom the separation was self-initiated or jointly initiated (-4.61). Women's physical health improved with separation, but their mental health declined. For separated women, those whose partner initiated the separation had lower scores on the general health (-5.39), role-emotional (-11.08), and mental health (-7.18) scales than women who self-initiated separation. The health consequences of separation were less severe for self- or jointly initiated separations, suggesting that not all marital dissolutions are equally bad for health.

  6. Physical restraint initiation in nursing homes and subsequent resident health.

    PubMed

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental health. We used all nursing homes (N = 740) in Pennsylvania in 2001, with 12,820 residents. We used the Minimum Data Set data; Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data; and the Area Resource File as data sources. We restricted our sample to newly admitted nursing home residents who were not restrained in the first two quarters of their residency. We examined which facility and individual characteristics during those first two quarters were associated with restraint initiation during the third quarter. We then examined the association of third-quarter restraint initiation with fourth-quarter health outcomes, using regressions that controlled for first- and second-quarter health status as well as other resident, facility, and market characteristics. The physical health outcomes examined consisted of falls, walking dependence, activities of daily living (ADLs), pressure ulcers, and contractures. Mental health outcomes examined consisted of cognitive performance, depression, and behavior problems. The initiation of restraint use was associated with a previous fall (p <.01), psychoactive medication use (p <.05), low cognition (p <.01), ADL scores (p <.01), and the absence of pressure ulcers (p <.10), as well as a variety of facility characteristics. Subsequent to restraint initiation, we found an association with lower cognitive performance (p <.01), lower ADL performance (p <.01), and higher walking dependence (p <.01). We found that an association between restraint initiation and subsequent adverse health consequences exists and is substantial. Moreover, these results would appear to have practical as well as statistical

  7. "Razoo Health": a community-based nursing education initiative.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Marjorie B; Morgan, Connie M; Matteson, Peggy S

    2003-07-01

    When statistics depicted a health crisis for people of all ages living in Louisiana, and New Orleans in particular, school of nursing faculty designed and instituted a neighborhood-based initiative to "Razoo Health." This initiative facilitated a paradigm shift from exclusively illness management to include health promotion and disease prevention. "Razoo," a local colloquialism used to claim an opponent's marble during game play, means to snatch or claim. Appropriately, Razoo Health refers to the intent of Louisiana citizens to reclaim and take back the health of the people in the cities' neighborhoods. Working with four inner-city parochial schools and churches as hubs, nursing faculty and students mobilize neighborhood assets, talents, and capacities to form partnerships for healthy change. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Coordinated School Health Model is employed within each neighborhood school to provide health care access, decrease absenteeism, raise test scores, and deliver worksite health programming to faculty and staff and to neighbors and parishioners. Nursing students work with citizens and students of other health care professions to learn community assessment skills and deliver primary, secondary, and tertiary services to individuals, families, and the community. Citizens wear crowns of empowered sovereignty as they take back, or razoo, what is rightfully theirs--health.

  8. Fostering innovation, advancing patient safety: the kidney health initiative.

    PubMed

    Archdeacon, Patrick; Shaffer, Rachel N; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Falk, Ronald J; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

    2013-09-01

    To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative-a public-private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals.

  9. Effects of Naltrexone on Adolescent Alcohol Cue Reactivity and Sensitivity: An Initial Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Ray, Lara; Blanchard, Alexander; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Monti, Peter M.; Chun, Thomas; Justus, Alicia; Swift, Robert M.; Tidey, Jennifer; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Ramirez, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is associated with myriad adverse consequences and contributes to the leading causes of mortality among youth. Despite the magnitude of this public health problem, evidenced-based treatment initiatives for alcohol use disorders in youth remain inadequate. Identifying promising pharmacological approaches may improve treatment options. Naltrexone is an opiate receptor antagonist that is efficacious for reducing drinking in adults by attenuating craving and the rewarding effects of alcohol. Implications of these findings for adolescents are unclear, however, given that randomized trials of naltrexone with youth are nonexistent. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, comparing naltrexone (50 mg/daily) and placebo in 22 adolescent problem drinkers aged 15 – 19 years (M = 18.36, SD = 0.95; 12 females). The primary outcome measures were alcohol use, subjective responses to alcohol consumption, and alcohol-cue-elicited craving assessed in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods, and craving and physiological reactivity assessed using standard alcohol cue reactivity procedures. Results showed that naltrexone reduced the likelihood of drinking and heavy drinking (p’s ≤ .03), blunted craving in the laboratory and in the natural environment (p’s ≤ .04), and altered subjective responses to alcohol consumption (p’s ≤ .01). Naltrexone was generally well tolerated by participants. This study provides the first experimentally controlled evidence that naltrexone reduces drinking and craving, and alters subjective responses to alcohol in a sample of adolescent problem drinkers, and suggests larger clinical trials with long-term follow ups are warranted. PMID:23489253

  10. A randomized controlled trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine: prison outcomes and community treatment entry.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vocci, Frank J

    2014-09-01

    Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3-9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (p<.001) more likely to complete than men (85.7% vs. 52.7%). There was a significant main effect (p=.012) for community treatment entry, favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of a Distress Tolerance Treatment for Opioid Dependent Persons Initiating Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Herman, Debra S.; Moitra, Ethan; Hecht, Jacki; Lopez, Rosalie; Anderson, Bradley J; Brown, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine opioid agonist treatment (OAT) has established efficacy for treating opioid dependency but early relapse rates are high and are often associated with withdrawal-related or emotional distress. Methods To determine whether a novel distress tolerance (DT) intervention during buprenorphine initiation decreases opioid relapse, we conducted a preliminary randomized controlled trial with opioid-dependent outpatients. Participants received buprenorphine-naloxone induction and 3-months of maintenance buprenorphine plus seven, 50-minute manualized, individual sessions (DT vs. Health Education (HE) control) over a 28-day period, linked to clinician medication dosing visits, and beginning 2 days prior to buprenorphine induction. Primary outcomes included use of illicit opioids (positive defined as any self-reported use in the prior 28 days or detected by urine toxicology) and treatment drop out. Results Among 49 participants, the mean age was 41 years, 65.3% were male. Persons randomized to DT had lower rates of opioid use at all three monthly assessments, and at 3-months, 72% of HE participants were opioid positive compared with 62.5% of DT participants. Rates of dropout were 24% and 25% in the HE and DT arms, respectively. Conclusions This distress tolerance treatment produced a small, but not statistically significant reduction in opioid use during the first three months of treatment although no differences were found in drop-out rates between conditions. If replicated in a larger study, DT could offer clinicians a useful behavioral treatment to complement the effects of buprenorphine. Trial registered at clinicaltrials.org. Trial number NCT01556087. PMID:25510307

  12. Effects of naltrexone on adolescent alcohol cue reactivity and sensitivity: an initial randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robert; Ray, Lara; Blanchard, Alexander; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Monti, Peter M; Chun, Thomas; Justus, Alicia; Swift, Robert M; Tidey, Jennifer; Gwaltney, Chad J; Ramirez, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is associated with myriad adverse consequences and contributes to the leading causes of mortality among youth. Despite the magnitude of this public health problem, evidenced-based treatment initiatives for alcohol use disorders in youth remain inadequate. Identifying promising pharmacological approaches may improve treatment options. Naltrexone is an opiate receptor antagonist that is efficacious for reducing drinking in adults by attenuating craving and the rewarding effects of alcohol. Implications of these findings for adolescents are unclear; however, given that randomized trials of naltrexone with youth are non-existent. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study, comparing naltrexone (50 mg/daily) and placebo in 22 adolescent problem drinkers aged 15-19 years (M = 18.36, standard deviation = 0.95; 12 women). The primary outcome measures were alcohol use, subjective responses to alcohol consumption, and alcohol-cue-elicited craving assessed in the natural environment using ecological momentary assessment methods, and craving and physiological reactivity assessed using standard alcohol cue reactivity procedures. Results showed that naltrexone reduced the likelihood of drinking and heavy drinking (P's ≤ 0.03), blunted craving in the laboratory and in the natural environment (P's ≤ 0.04), and altered subjective responses to alcohol consumption (P's ≤ 0.01). Naltrexone was generally well tolerated by participants. This study provides the first experimentally controlled evidence that naltrexone reduces drinking and craving, and alters subjective responses to alcohol in a sample of adolescent problem drinkers, and suggests larger clinical trials with long-term follow-ups are warranted.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Prison-Initiated Buprenorphine: Prison Outcomes and Community Treatment Entry

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vocci, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. Methods This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3–9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. Results There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (p<.001) more likely to complete than men (85.7% vs. 52.7%). There was a significant main effect (p=.012) for community treatment entry, favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. PMID:24962326

  14. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers.

  15. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  16. An Interactive Computer Session to Initiate Physical Activity in Sedentary Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah SK; Xu, Stanley; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) improves many facets of health. Despite this, the majority of American adults are insufficiently active. Adults who visit a physician complaining of chest pain and related cardiovascular symptoms are often referred for further testing. However, when this testing does not reveal an underlying disease or pathology, patients typically receive no additional standard care services. A PA intervention delivered within the clinic setting may be an effective strategy for improving the health of this population at a time when they may be motivated to take preventive action. Objective Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a tailored, computer-based, interactive personal action planning session to initiate PA among a group of sedentary cardiac patients following exercise treadmill testing (ETT). Methods This study was part of a larger 2x2 randomized controlled trial to determine the impact of environmental and social-cognitive intervention approaches on the initiation and maintenance of weekly PA for patients post ETT. Participants who were referred to an ETT center but had a negative-test (ie, stress tests results indicated no apparent cardiac issues) were randomized to one of four treatment arms: (1) increased environmental accessibility to PA resources via the provision of a free voucher to a fitness facility in close proximity to their home or workplace (ENV), (2) a tailored social cognitive intervention (SC) using a “5 As”-based (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) personal action planning tool, (3) combined intervention of both ENV and SC approaches (COMBO), or (4) a matched contact nutrition control (CON). Each intervention was delivered using a computer-based interactive session. A general linear model for repeated measures was conducted with change in PA behavior from baseline to 1-month post interactive computer session as the primary outcome. Results Sedentary participants (n=452; 34.7% participation rate) without

  17. An Interactive Computer Session to Initiate Physical Activity in Sedentary Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio A; Smith-Ray, Renae L; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E; Lee, Rebecca E; Thomas, Deborah S K; Xu, Stanley; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-08-24

    Physical activity (PA) improves many facets of health. Despite this, the majority of American adults are insufficiently active. Adults who visit a physician complaining of chest pain and related cardiovascular symptoms are often referred for further testing. However, when this testing does not reveal an underlying disease or pathology, patients typically receive no additional standard care services. A PA intervention delivered within the clinic setting may be an effective strategy for improving the health of this population at a time when they may be motivated to take preventive action. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a tailored, computer-based, interactive personal action planning session to initiate PA among a group of sedentary cardiac patients following exercise treadmill testing (ETT). This study was part of a larger 2x2 randomized controlled trial to determine the impact of environmental and social-cognitive intervention approaches on the initiation and maintenance of weekly PA for patients post ETT. Participants who were referred to an ETT center but had a negative-test (ie, stress tests results indicated no apparent cardiac issues) were randomized to one of four treatment arms: (1) increased environmental accessibility to PA resources via the provision of a free voucher to a fitness facility in close proximity to their home or workplace (ENV), (2) a tailored social cognitive intervention (SC) using a "5 As"-based (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) personal action planning tool, (3) combined intervention of both ENV and SC approaches (COMBO), or (4) a matched contact nutrition control (CON). Each intervention was delivered using a computer-based interactive session. A general linear model for repeated measures was conducted with change in PA behavior from baseline to 1-month post interactive computer session as the primary outcome. Sedentary participants (n=452; 34.7% participation rate) without a gym membership (mean age 58.57 years

  18. Sierra Health Foundation's Positive Youth Justice Initiative. Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In December 2011, the Sierra Health Foundation board of directors approved a framework for a new youth development initiative. The framework built upon the foundation's recently concluded REACH Youth Development Program and incorporated findings and recommendations from the highly regarded "Healthy Youth/Healthy Regions" and…

  19. Building school health programs through public health initiatives: the first three years of the Healthy Hawaii Initiative partnership for school health.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Beth; Irvin, Lola H; Shoji, Lynn; Serna, Kuulei

    2004-01-01

    The Healthy Hawaii Initiative, funded through the Hawaii tobacco settlement, allocates funds from the Hawaii Department of Health to the Hawaii Department of Education for school programs that promote health and reduce the burden of chronic disease. This article outlines progress, challenges, and insights from the first 3 years of the Hawaii Partnership for Standards-based School Health Education (the Partnership). The Hawaii Department of Education added health education as a content area to the Hawaii Content and Performance Standards in 1999. The American Cancer Society, Hawaii Pacific, Inc., convened a Comprehensive School Health Education Committee that initiated a school health professional development program for teachers. During the 2000-2001 academic year, new Healthy Hawaii Initiative funding began for school health programs. Healthy Hawaii Initiative (HHI) funding has been used to provide new state and district resource teacher positions, professional development workshops for educators, tuition waivers and materials for graduate-level summer institutes for educators, annual statewide school health conferences, and pilot school implementation of coordinated school health programs. Schools across Hawaii demonstrate clear progress in implementing standards-based school health education and coordinated school health programs. The funding has led to increased support from other sources to build school health programs. The ultimate beneficiaries of school health programs are the children and families of Hawaii. This health and education partnership continues to work toward improved health outcomes for young people as the future leaders and citizens of Hawaii.

  20. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  1. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  2. Fostering Innovation, Advancing Patient Safety: The Kidney Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Archdeacon, Patrick; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Falk, Ronald J.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir

    2013-01-01

    Summary To respond to the serious and underrecognized epidemic of kidney disease in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Society of Nephrology have founded the Kidney Health Initiative—a public–private partnership designed to create a collaborative environment in which the US Food and Drug Administration and the greater kidney community can interact to optimize the evaluation of drugs, devices, biologics, and food products. The Kidney Health Initiative will bring together all the necessary stakeholders, including patients, regulators, industry, health care providers, academics, and other governmental agencies, to improve patient safety and foster innovation. This initiative is intended to enable the kidney community as a whole to provide the right drug, device, or biologic for administration to the right patient at the right time by fostering partnerships that will facilitate development and delivery of those products and addressing challenges that currently impede these goals. PMID:23744001

  3. Electronic health record project initiation and early planning in a community health center.

    PubMed

    Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Noblin, Alice; Martin, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Community health centers exist to help their constituents become proactive in addressing their own health care needs and to improve the overall well-being of the community. However, they pose a different set of challenges when implementing an electronic health record system. This article applies 2 project management principles, initiation and early planning, to the electronic health record implementation in a community health center. Issues such as planning, financial considerations, and quality improvement are discussed.

  4. Tennessee smiles: the UT grassroots oral health outreach initiative.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maurice W; Wasson, Waletha; Scarbecz, Mark; Aubertin, Mary A; Woods, Marjorie; Himel, Van T

    2011-01-01

    Access to and awareness of oral healthcare in the United States have been highlighted in the mass media and discussed among diverse populations. The current surge to provide access to oral healthcare for citizens springs from this quagmire of oral healthcare issues which affects global to local (grassroots) communities. Publications by the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All and the United States' Healthy People have set into motion an agenda by which institutions, healthcare professionals and governments can develop action plans to foster and nurture grassroots organizations to address these issues. An initiative has been undertaken by members of the faculty, student doctors and staff of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Dentistry (UTHSC CoD) and its partners. This cadre of volunteers has implemented grassroots efforts for the citizens of western Tennessee to date as the flagship of Tennessee Smiles: UT Grassroots Oral Health Outreach Initiative (Tennessee Smiles). By participation in health fairs, school programs and other cultural events, these volunteers have made a difference in the lives of thousands of Tennessee citizens who need exposure to information regarding their oral health care needs. The authors discuss the basis for the Tennessee Smiles organization, their successes and challenges. Future plans and the need for support of the organization are emphasized.

  5. Tales from the Miami Healthy Heart Initiative: the experiences of two community health workers.

    PubMed

    Lebron, Cynthia N; Reyes-Arrechea, Ernesto; Castillo, Andrea; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Kenya, Sonjia

    2015-05-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have been bridging the gap between under-served populations and health care systems for centuries; however, their experiences are rarely recounted. The Miami Healthy Heart Initiative is a randomized control trial designed to examine the effectiveness of CHWs on reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease among Hispanics with poorly controlled diabetes in South Florida. This manuscript, told from the perspective of CHWs, is a summary of cases that were successful and some that did not achieve optimal outcomes. These case summaries include anecdotal data and clinical variables that demonstrate each patient's progress during the intervention.

  6. Effectiveness of acupuncture for the initiation of labour at term: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Laura M; Dyzak, Randal; Aung, Steven K H; Smith, Graeme N

    2008-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for the initiation of labour in women at term. A prospective pilot randomized control trial was undertaken, in which 16 pregnant women at term were randomly assigned to receive acupuncture either at sites reported to cause onset of labour or at nearby sham sites. The primary outcome assessed was the interval from initial acupuncture treatment to delivery. There was a difference in intervention to delivery interval of 62 hours in favour of the treatment group. Furthermore, women in this group had shorter labours by a mean of 2 hours and 20 minutes. The interesting results of this pilot trial warrant further investigation into the use of acupuncture for the initiation of labour in women at term.

  7. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    PubMed

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  9. Effectiveness of health and wellness initiatives for seniors.

    PubMed

    Coberley, Carter; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Pope, James E

    2011-02-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and lifestyle-related chronic diseases in the United States and abroad, senior wellness initiatives have emerged as a means to stem the troubling trends that threaten the well-being and the economy of many nations. Seniors are an important demographic for such programs because this age group is growing, both as a proportion of the overall population and as a contributor to health care cost escalation. The goal of senior wellness programs is to improve the overall health of seniors through a variety of approaches, including increased physical activity, better nutrition, smoking cessation, and support of other healthy behaviors. Outcome metrics of particular interest are the effects of participation in these programs on health care utilization and expenditures. This review describes several studies that demonstrate reduced inpatient admissions and health care costs, as well as improved health-related quality of life as a direct result of participation in large-scale senior wellness programs. Programs that effectively engage seniors in, and change behavior as a direct result of, participation provide strong evidence that health improvements and decreased health care expenditures can be achieved. However, solutions to the challenges of broader enrollment and sustained participation in these programs would increase the impact of their outcomes and health-related benefits.

  10. Foundation's consumer advocacy health reform initiative strengthened groups' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Strong, Debra; Lipson, Debra; Honeycutt, Todd; Kim, Jung

    2011-09-01

    Private foundations may hesitate to fund consumer advocacy for enacting and implementing health reform because the effects are hard to measure, and because they are concerned that funds will be used for lobbying activities that are prohibited by federal tax rules governing private philanthropy. Mathematica Policy Research evaluated a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative supporting state consumer health advocacy networks. During the three-year grant period, most networks coalesced and improved their ability to advocate effectively. A majority of state policy makers reported that consumers became more involved and effective in shaping health policy, and many wanted consumer advocates to remain involved in public debates on implementing federal health reform. The evaluation shows that targeted investments by foundations to strengthen consumer groups' ability to advocate effectively can help ensure that their voice is heard in critical policy debates.

  11. Effects of acupuncture for initiation of labor: a double-blind randomized sham-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ajori, Ladan; Nazari, Leila; Eliaspour, Dariush

    2013-05-01

    This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether use of acupuncture could initiate labor at term and thus reduce post-term induction. Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 80 women at 38 weeks of gestation or greater were randomized to acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. Acupuncture points LI4, SP6 and BL67 were needled bilaterally. The primary outcome was initiation of labor. The time from acupuncture to delivery, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcome and Apgar scores were recorded. The trial is registered at irct.ir, number IRCT201111218151N1. Eighty women were randomized and 75 women completed the study procedure. Age, BMI, parity and gestational age were similar in both groups. Spontaneous labor was initiated in 94.7 % of acupuncture group and 89.2 % of sham acupuncture group (p = 0.430). There were no statistically significant difference between groups for time from enrollment to delivery (p = 0.06). According to this study, it seems that acupuncture was not effective in labor initiation compared to sham acupuncture.

  12. Buckling of stiffened shells with random initial imperfections, thickness and boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, I.; Arbocz, J.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to predict the buckling load of stiffened, composite shells reliably, where besides the randomness of the initial geometric imperfections also a random variation of the wall thickness and the uncertainty of the precise edge conditions is included in the analysis. The introduction of the variability in the thickness from shell to shell, in an ensemble of nominally identical shells, produced by the same manufacturing procedure is motivated by the growing realization of the importance of thickness variations by composite shells. The probabilistic treatment of the boundary conditions is dictated by the fact that 'true', deterministically specified boundary conditions are unlikely to be realizable in practice.

  13. Using systems thinking in state health policymaking: an educational initiative.

    PubMed

    Minyard, Karen J; Ferencik, Rachel; Ann Phillips, Mary; Soderquist, Chris

    2014-06-01

    In response to limited examples of opportunities for state policymakers to learn about and productively discuss the difficult, adaptive challenges of our health system, the Georgia Health Policy Center developed an educational initiative that applies systems thinking to health policymaking. We created the Legislative Health Policy Certificate Program - an in-depth, multi-session series for lawmakers and their staff - concentrating on building systems thinking competencies and health content knowledge by applying a range of systems thinking tools: behavior over time graphs, stock and flow maps, and a system dynamics-based learning lab (a simulatable model of childhood obesity). Legislators were taught to approach policy issues from the big picture, consider changing dynamics, and explore higher-leverage interventions to address Georgia's most intractable health challenges. Our aim was to determine how we could improve the policymaking process by providing a systems thinking-focused educational program for legislators. Over 3 years, the training program resulted in policymakers' who are able to think more broadly about difficult health issues. The program has yielded valuable insights into the design and delivery of policymaker education that could be applied to various disciplines outside the legislative process.

  14. Rural health network development: public policy issues and state initiatives.

    PubMed

    Casey, M M; Wellever, A; Moscovice, I

    1997-02-01

    Rural health networks are a potential way for rural health care systems to improve access to care, reduce costs, and enhance quality of care. Networks provide a means for rural providers to contract with managed care organizations, develop their own managed care entities, share resources, and structure practice opportunities to support recruitment and retention of rural physicians and other health care professionals. The results of early network development initiatives indicate a need for state officials and others interested in encouraging network development to agree on common rural health network definitions, to identify clearly the goals of network development programs, and to document and analyze program outcomes. Future network development efforts need to be much more comprehensive if they are to have a significant impact on rural health care. This article analyzes public policy issues related to integrated rural health network development, discusses current efforts to encourage network development in rural areas, and suggests actions that states may take if they desire to support rural health network development. These actions include adopting a formal rural health network definition, providing networks with alternatives to certain regulatory requirements, and providing incentives such as matching grants, loans, or technical assistance. Without public sector support for networks, managed care options may continue to be unavailable in many less densely populated rural areas of the country, and locally controlled rural health networks are unlikely to develop as an alternative to the dominant pattern of managed care expansion by large urban entities. Implementation of Medicare reform legislation could provide significant incentives for the development of rural health networks, depending on the reimbursement provisions, financial solvency standards, and antitrust exemptions for provider-sponsored networks in the final legislation and federal regulations.

  15. Advancing newborn health: The Saving Newborn Lives initiative

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, A.; Parker, R.; Lord, D.; Grear, K.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, newborn health was virtually absent from the global health agenda. Now, assistance agencies, national governments and non-governmental organisations are increasingly addressing this previously neglected issue of close to four million newborns dying every year. The experience of the Saving Newborn Lives initiative documents some of the progress that has been made and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Since the start of the initiative in 2000, targeted research, focused on overcoming the key barriers to improved newborn survival, has demonstrated low-cost, community-based interventions and strategies that can significantly reduce newborn mortality. Building on what has been learned from this and other efforts to date, the challenge now is to reach the millions of newborns still at risk. PMID:19851911

  16. HealthLinks Randomized Controlled Trial: Design and Baseline Results

    PubMed Central

    Hammerback, Kristen; Allen, Claire L.; Parrish, Amanda T.; Chan, K. Gary; Kohn, Marlana J.; Teague, Sara; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Helfrich, Christian D.; Harris, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Small employers, especially those in low-wage industries, frequently lack the capacity and resources to implement evidence-based health promotion interventions without support and assistance. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe the intervention design and study protocol of the HealthLinks Trial and (b) report baseline findings. This study is a three-arm randomized controlled trial testing the impact of the HealthLinks intervention on worksites’ adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions. Group 1 will receive HealthLinks, Group 2 will receive HealthLinks plus wellness committees, and Group 3 will be a delayed control group. Seventy-eight employers are participating in the study; 3302 employees across the worksites participated in baseline data collection. Employers and employees will participate in follow-up surveys at one and two years after baseline to measure implementation (one year) and maintenance (two years) of HealthLinks interventions. Study outcomes will determine whether HealthLinks is an effective approach to increasing evidence-based health promotion in small, low-wage worksites and whether wellness committees are a capacity-building tool that increases HealthLinks’ effectiveness. PMID:26946121

  17. Impact of Point-of-Care Xpert MTB/RIF on Tuberculosis Treatment Initiation. A Cluster-randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lessells, Richard J; Cooke, Graham S; McGrath, Nuala; Nicol, Mark P; Newell, Marie-Louise; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics have the potential to reduce pretreatment loss to follow-up and delays to initiation of appropriate tuberculosis (TB) treatment. To evaluate the effect of a POC diagnostic strategy on initiation of appropriate TB treatment. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of adults with cough who were HIV positive and/or at high risk of drug-resistant TB. Two-week time blocks were randomized to two strategies: (1) Xpert MTB/RIF test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) performed at a district hospital laboratory or (2) POC Xpert MTB/RIF test performed at a primary health care clinic. All participants provided two sputum specimens: one for the Xpert test and the other for culture as a reference standard. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) initiated on appropriate TB treatment within 30 days. Between August 22, 2011, and March 1, 2013, 36 two-week blocks were randomized, and 1,297 individuals were enrolled (646 in the laboratory arm, 651 in the POC arm), 159 (12.4%) of whom had culture-positive PTB. The proportions of participants with culture-positive PTB initiated on appropriate TB treatment within 30 days were 76.5% in the laboratory arm and 79.5% in the POC arm (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.53; P = 0.76; risk difference, 3.1%; 95% confidence interval, -16.2 to 10.1). The median time to initiation of appropriate treatment was 7 days (laboratory) versus 1 day (POC). POC positioning of the Xpert test led to more rapid initiation of appropriate TB treatment. Achieving one-stop diagnosis and treatment for all people with TB will require simpler, more sensitive diagnostics and broader strengthening of health systems. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 18642314) and www.sanctr.gov.za (DOH-27-0711-3568).

  18. Private sector initiatives to improve health in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Howard; Classen, Peter; Bourgeois, Shaun

    2006-01-01

    In a presentation made to the Nigerian Chapter of IHF in Lagos in September 2006, Howard Lyons described an analytical approach developed with his colleagues in PA Consulting, Peter Classen and Shaun Bourgeois, to capture large volumes of internationally available data to reflect, at a macro-economic level, the attractiveness or otherwise of African countries for investment in health care. He then reported at a micro-economic level on initiatives and business propositions developed by African health care professionals living overseas who are seeking funding to implement their schemes in their native countries. He concludes that, as a way of improving health outcomes in Africa, private sector investment should be given more serious attention with particular reference to exploiting the talents and commitment of the African diaspora.

  19. Feminist initiatives on women's health in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L

    1984-04-01

    In the 1960s the Dutch Women's Liberation organization "Dolle Mina" carried out a campaign in Holland to promote the use of oral contraceptives and tried to generate political support in the home and through street demonstrations. What was needed was an adequate abortion service with a corresponding abortion law, a free and adequate supply of contraceptives, and a non-sexist approach to and treatment of women in the field of sexuality, birth control, and medical servicces in general. About 15 years later, the Netherlands now has a flourishing women's health movement, including efforts in information provision, guidance, research, reference, schooling, and contact-building. The basic principles of the women's movement are; 1) the woman herself is the stardard; 2) problems women have with regard to their health are not to be observed in isolation from their social l ife and position; 3) women's acquaintance with feelings about the functioning of their own bodies form the basis of all therapies to improve women's health; 4) women must be offered the choice of existing methods of treatment and help procedures; 5) women should help each other with their common ailments, and heirarchical divisions such as helper-patient, and expert-nonexpert, should be removed; and 6) as often as possible help should be given to women in their own surroundings. Women's health centers have begun to take on a number of women's physical and psychosomatic complaints; 5 centers now operate in 5 different cities, and others are being developed. The Women's Health Center in Amsterdam was initiated in 1976 and caters to gynecological questions, breast examination problems, eating disorders, and drug addiction. Contracts between feminist health groups and the traditional health system are varied, and individuals involved in family planning groups are often also active in the feminist health acctiities. There is resistance to feminist initiatives, mainly from those working in traditional health

  20. Patient Engagement Programs for Recognition and Initial Treatment of Depression in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Franks, Peter; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Slee, Christina A.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Bell, Robert A.; Jackson-Triche, Maga; Paterniti, Debora A.; Cipri, Camille; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Olson, Sarah; Kelly-Reif, Steven; Hudnut, Andrew; Dvorak, Simon; Turner, Charles; Jerant, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Importance Interventions encouraging primary care patients’ engagement with their clinicians to address depression could improve outcomes but foster unnecessary treatment. Objective Determine whether a depression engagement video (DEV) or a tailored interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) improves initial depression care without increasing unnecessary anti-depressant prescribing. Design Randomized controlled trial comparing three interventions (DEV, IMCP, and control) conducted in two patients groups (depressed, defined by a Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9 score ≥5, and non-depressed [PHQ-9<5]) conducted between June 2010 and March 2012. Setting Primary care offices at 7 sites in 2 cities. Participants Depressed (N=559) and non-depressed (N=308) adult patients of 135 primary care clinicians. Intervention(s) DEV targeted to gender and income; IMCP tailored to individual patient characteristics; a sleep hygiene video (control). Main Outcome Measure(s) Depressed patients: composite measure of antidepressant recommendation and/or mental health referral (primary outcome); 12-week mental health, measured by the PHQ-8 (secondary outcome). Non- depressed patients: clinician-reported prescribing and patient-reported antidepressant recommendation (primary outcomes, pre-specified 3.5% non-inferiority margins). Results Depressed patients: composite care outcome rates were 18%, 26%, and 16% respectively in the DEV, IMCP, and control groups (cluster-adjusted DEV-control difference = 1.1% [95% CI −6.7 to 8.9, P=.79]; IMCP-control = 9.9% [95% CI 1.6 to 18.2, P=.02]). Twelve-week PHQ-8 effects were not significant: DEV- control = −0.2 points (95% CI −1.2 to 0.8); IMCP – control = 0.9 (95% CI −0.1 to 1.9). Non-depressed patients: clinician-reported antidepressant prescribing in the DEV and IMCP groups was non-inferior to control (DEV-control = −2.2%, 90% CI −8.0 to 3.498, non-inferiority (NI) P=.0499; IMCP-control = −3.3%, 90% CI −9.1 to 2.4, NI P

  1. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  2. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  3. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth

  4. The Exercise is Medicine Global Health Initiative: a 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Lobelo, Felipe; Stoutenberg, Mark; Hutber, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    A third of the world's population does not engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA), leading to substantial health and economic burdens. The healthcare sector offers a variety of resources that can help counsel, refer and deliver PA promotion programmes for purposes of primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Substantial evidence already exists in support of multipronged PA counselling, prescription and referral strategies, in particular those linking healthcare and community-based resources. The Exercise is Medicine (EIM) initiative was introduced in 2007 to advance the implementation of evidence-based strategies to elevate the status of PA in healthcare. In this article, we describe the evolution and global expansion of the EIM initiative, its components, their implementation, an evaluation framework and future initiative activities. Until now, EIM has a presence in 39 countries with EIM Regional Centers established in North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Australasia. The EIM Global Health Initiative is transitioning from its initial phase of infrastructure and awareness building to a phase of programme implementation, with an emphasis in low-to-middle income countries, where 80% of deaths due to non-communicable diseases already occur, but where a large gap in research and implementation of PA strategies exists. Broad implementation of PA counselling and referral systems, as clinical practice standard of care, has the potential to improve PA at the population level by complementing and leveraging other efforts and to contribute to achieving global targets for the reduction of inactivity and related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Ghana randomized air pollution and health study (GRAPHS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jack, Darby W; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Wylie, Blair J; Chillrud, Steve N; Whyatt, Robin M; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A; Quinn, Ashlinn K; Yawson, Abena Konadu; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Agyei, Oscar; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Kaali, Seyram; Kinney, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-09-22

    Household air pollution exposure is a major health risk, but validated interventions remain elusive. The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is a cluster-randomized trial that evaluates the efficacy of clean fuels (liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG) and efficient biomass cookstoves in the Brong-Ahafo region of central Ghana. We recruit pregnant women into LPG, efficient cookstove, and control arms and track birth weight and physician-assessed severe pneumonia incidence in the first year of life. A woman is eligible to participate if she is in the first or second trimester of pregnancy and carrying a live singleton fetus, if she is the primary cook, and if she does not smoke. We hypothesize that babies born to intervention mothers will weigh more and will have fewer cases of physician-assessed severe pneumonia in the first year of life. Additionally, an extensive personal air pollution exposure monitoring effort opens the way for exposure-response analyses, which we will present alongside intention-to-treat analyses. Major funding was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Thrasher Research Fund, and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. Household air pollution exposure is a major health risk that requires well-tested interventions. GRAPHS will provide important new evidence on the efficacy of both efficient biomass cookstoves and LPG, and will thus help inform health and energy policies in developing countries. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov on 13 April 2011 with the identifier NCT01335490 .

  6. Integrating mental health into primary health care: local initiatives from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ovuga, Emilio; Boardman, Jed; Wasserman, Danuta

    2007-02-01

    Uganda has passed through political and bloody civil strife stretching over 40 years. Since 1987 the HIV/AIDS pandemic has compounded the problems of the country. The present paper describes some initiatives to develop mental health services in one district of the country. A bottom-up approach in the district resulted in the formation of a community-led mental health program with strong support from two self-help groups, district political leaders and district representatives in parliament. Primary health care providers at all levels of health care in the district were trained in order to make services accessible to the rural population. Further plans based on initial exploratory discussions aim to involve the education department, the welfare and probation office, prisons and police, the military, church and cultural leaders and traditional healers. These initiatives show that it is possible to empower communities to participate in the development of mental health programs in a low-income country.

  7. Community Health Center Use After Oregon's Randomized Medicaid Experiment.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Marino, Miguel; Gold, Rachel; Hoopes, Megan J; Cowburn, Stuart; O'Malley, Jean P; Heintzman, John; Gallia, Charles; McConnell, K John; Nelson, Christine A; Huguet, Nathalie; Bailey, Steffani R

    2015-01-01

    There is debate about whether community health centers (CHCs) will experience increased demand from patients gaining coverage through Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions. To better understand the effect of new Medicaid coverage on CHC use over time, we studied Oregon's 2008 randomized Medicaid expansion (the "Oregon Experiment"). We probabilistically matched demographic data from adults (aged 19-64 years) participating in the Oregon Experiment to electronic health record data from 108 Oregon CHCs within the OCHIN community health information network (originally the Oregon Community Health Information Network) (N = 34,849). We performed intent-to-treat analyses using zero-inflated Poisson regression models to compare 36-month (2008-2011) usage rates among those selected to apply for Medicaid vs not selected, and instrumental variable analyses to estimate the effect of gaining Medicaid coverage on use. Use outcomes included primary care visits, behavioral/mental health visits, laboratory tests, referrals, immunizations, and imaging. The intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically significant differences in rates of behavioral/mental health visits, referrals, and imaging between patients randomly selected to apply for Medicaid vs those not selected. In instrumental variable analyses, gaining Medicaid coverage significantly increased the rate of primary care visits, laboratory tests, referrals, and imaging; rate ratios ranged from 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05-1.55) for laboratory tests to 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.28) for referrals. Our results suggest that use of many different types of CHC services will increase as patients gain Medicaid through Affordable Care Act expansions. To maximize access to critical health services, it will be important to ensure that the health care system can support increasing demands by providing more resources to CHCs and other primary care settings. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Health promotion initiatives: An experience of a Well Women's Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Puja; Singh, Amarjeet; Jindal, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Army Medical Corps provides comprehensive health care services to troops and their dependents. This approach is in consonance with the concept of Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) initiative introduced by WHO in 1986. However, the concept is still at an infancy stage in civil health care system in India. This article describes the experiences and advantages of establishing a Well Women's Clinic (WWC) in a station of North India. Methods A system analysis approach was followed for analyzing input, process and output of the WWC during 2007–2009. Inputs included manpower and material i.e public health expert, non medical attendant and a nursing officer charts, poster, models, Television with Compact Disc (CD) player and CDs etc. Health promotion activities were conducted in the form of lectures, demonstrations, workshops, training, screening of movies, quiz, essay writing and declamation contests etc. Results Overall 385 lectures, 12 competitions, 07 training capsules were conducted. Coverage of target population was 92%. First aid training workshop trained 300 women. Six percent of the counseled women opted for tubectomy. Twelve new cases of diabetes and four new cases of hypertension were detected through screening. Seventy-two women were referred for dental treatment after a dental screening camp. Conclusion Establishment of WWC using HPH approach was quite cost effective. PMID:24623950

  9. The Obesity Epidemic: Challenges, Health Initiatives, and Implications for Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Ryan T.; Kulisek, Christopher; Buchanan, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the next major epidemiologic challenge facing today's doctors, with the annual allocation of healthcare resources for the disease and related comorbidities projected to exceed $150 billion in the United States. The incidence of obesity has risen in the United States over the past 30 years; 60% of adults are currently either obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with a higher incidence of a number of diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Consumption of fast food, trans fatty acids (TFAs), and fructose—combined with increasing portion sizes and decreased physical activity—has been implicated as a potential contributing factor in the obesity crisis. The use of body mass index (BMI) alone is of limited utility for predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the utility of this measure may be strengthened when combined with waist circumference and other anthropomorphic measurements. Certain public health initiatives have helped to identify and reduce some of the factors contributing to obesity. In New York City and Denmark, for example, such initiatives have succeeded in passing legislation to reduce or remove TFAs from residents' diets. The obesity epidemic will likely change practice for gastroenterologists, as shifts will be seen in the incidence of obesity-related gastrointestinal disorders, disease severity, and the nature of comorbidities. The experience gained with previous epidemiologic problems such as smoking should help involved parties to expand needed health initiatives and increase the likelihood of preventing future generations from suffering the consequences of obesity. PMID:21301632

  10. Feasibility and effectiveness of the baby friendly community initiative in rural Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Kimiywe, Judith; Kabue, Mark; Wekesah, Frederick; Matiri, Evelyn; Muhia, Nelson; Wanjohi, Milka; Muriuki, Peterrock; Samburu, Betty; Kanyuira, James N; Young, Sera L; Griffiths, Paula L; Madise, Nyovani J; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2015-09-28

    Interventions promoting optimal infant and young child nutrition could prevent a fifth of under-5 deaths in countries with high mortality. Poor infant and young child feeding practices are widely documented in Kenya, with potential detrimental effects on child growth, health and survival. Effective strategies to improve these practices are needed. This study aims to pilot implementation of the Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI), a global initiative aimed at promoting optimal infant and young child feeding practices, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness with regards to infant feeding practices, nutrition and health outcomes in a rural setting in Kenya. The study, employing a cluster-randomized trial design, will be conducted in rural Kenya. A total of 12 clusters, constituting community units within the government's Community Health Strategy, will be randomized, with half allocated to the intervention and the other half to the control arm. A total of 812 pregnant women and their respective children will be recruited into the study. The mother-child pairs will be followed up until the child is 6 months old. Recruitment will last approximately 1 year from January 2015, and the study will run for 3 years, from 2014 to 2016. The intervention will involve regular counseling and support of mothers by trained community health workers and health professionals on maternal, infant and young child nutrition. Regular assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices on maternal, infant and young child nutrition will be done, coupled with assessment of nutritional status of the mother-child pairs and morbidity for the children. Statistical methods will include analysis of covariance, multinomial logistic regression and multilevel modeling. The study is funded by the NIH and USAID through the Program for Enhanced Research (PEER) Health. Findings from the study outlined in this protocol will inform potential feasibility and effectiveness of a community

  11. Self-Efficacy, Risk-Taking Behavior and Mental Health as Predictors of Personal Growth Initiative among University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Ajibola O.; Mabekoje, Sesan Ola

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study sought to determine the combined and relative efficacy of self-efficacy, risk-taking behaviour and mental health on personal growth initiative of university undergraduates. Method: The expo-facto research design was used to conduct the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 425 participants from 6…

  12. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1. PMID:24073411

  13. Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV at a Patient’s First Clinic Visit: The RapIT Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Sydney; Maskew, Mhairi; Fox, Matthew P.; Nyoni, Cynthia; Mongwenyana, Constance; Sanne, Ian; Sauls, Celeste; Long, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of patient attrition from care between HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have been documented in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to persistently low CD4 cell counts at treatment initiation. One reason for this is that starting ART in many countries is a lengthy and burdensome process, imposing long waits and multiple clinic visits on patients. We estimated the effect on uptake of ART and viral suppression of an accelerated initiation algorithm that allowed treatment-eligible patients to be dispensed their first supply of antiretroviral medications on the day of their first HIV-related clinic visit. Methods and Findings RapIT (Rapid Initiation of Treatment) was an unblinded randomized controlled trial of single-visit ART initiation in two public sector clinics in South Africa, a primary health clinic (PHC) and a hospital-based HIV clinic. Adult (≥18 y old), non-pregnant patients receiving a positive HIV test or first treatment-eligible CD4 count were randomized to standard or rapid initiation. Patients in the rapid-initiation arm of the study (“rapid arm”) received a point-of-care (POC) CD4 count if needed; those who were ART-eligible received a POC tuberculosis (TB) test if symptomatic, POC blood tests, physical exam, education, counseling, and antiretroviral (ARV) dispensing. Patients in the standard-initiation arm of the study (“standard arm”) followed standard clinic procedures (three to five additional clinic visits over 2–4 wk prior to ARV dispensing). Follow up was by record review only. The primary outcome was viral suppression, defined as initiated, retained in care, and suppressed (≤400 copies/ml) within 10 mo of study enrollment. Secondary outcomes included initiation of ART ≤90 d of study enrollment, retention in care, time to ART initiation, patient-level predictors of primary outcomes, prevalence of TB symptoms, and the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. A survival analysis

  14. Evaluation of stability of k-means cluster ensembles with respect to random initialization.

    PubMed

    Kuncheva, Ludmila I; Vetrov, Dmitry P

    2006-11-01

    Many clustering algorithms, including cluster ensembles, rely on a random component. Stability of the results across different runs is considered to be an asset of the algorithm. The cluster ensembles considered here are based on k-means clusterers. Each clusterer is assigned a random target number of clusters, k and is started from a random initialization. Here, we use 10 artificial and 10 real data sets to study ensemble stability with respect to random k, and random initialization. The data sets were chosen to have a small number of clusters (two to seven) and a moderate number of data points (up to a few hundred). Pairwise stability is defined as the adjusted Rand index between pairs of clusterers in the ensemble, averaged across all pairs. Nonpairwise stability is defined as the entropy of the consensus matrix of the ensemble. An experimental comparison with the stability of the standard k-means algorithm was carried out for k from 2 to 20. The results revealed that ensembles are generally more stable, markedly so for larger k. To establish whether stability can serve as a cluster validity index, we first looked at the relationship between stability and accuracy with respect to the number of clusters, k. We found that such a relationship strongly depends on the data set, varying from almost perfect positive correlation (0.97, for the glass data) to almost perfect negative correlation (-0.93, for the crabs data). We propose a new combined stability index to be the sum of the pairwise individual and ensemble stabilities. This index was found to correlate better with the ensemble accuracy. Following the hypothesis that a point of stability of a clustering algorithm corresponds to a structure found in the data, we used the stability measures to pick the number of clusters. The combined stability index gave best results.

  15. Factors in health initiative success: learning from Nepal's newborn survival initiative.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L; Neupane, Shailes

    2011-02-01

    What shapes the level of political priority for alleviation of significant health problems in low-income countries? We investigate this question in the context of the significantly increasing political priority for newborn survival in Nepal since 2000. We use a process-tracing methodology to investigate causes of this shift, drawing on twenty-nine interviews with individuals close to newborn health policymaking in Nepal and extensive document analysis. Shifts in the political context (commitments to the child health MDG), the strength of concerned actors (emergence of collective action, leadership, resources) and the power of ideas (problem status, existence of contextually relevant solutions, agreement on these points) surrounding the issue have been instrumental in elevating priority for newborn survival, if not institutionalizing that priority to ensure long-term support. The findings highlight the significance of political fragmentation in war-torn areas for impeding priority generation. Additionally, theories of social construction provide important insights to the roles of ideas in shaping health initiative success. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control.

  17. Transdisciplinary research and evaluation for community health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Neubauer, Leah C; Bangi, Audrey K; Francisco, Vincent T

    2008-10-01

    Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members' diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members' perspectives are significant in strengthening a project's infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed.

  18. Transdisciplinary Research and Evaluation for Community Health Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Neubauer, Leah C.; Bangi, Audrey K.; Francisco, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    Transdisciplinary research and evaluation projects provide valuable opportunities to collaborate on interventions to improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Given team members’ diverse backgrounds and roles or responsibilities in such projects, members’ perspectives are significant in strengthening a project’s infrastructure and improving its organizational functioning. This article presents an evaluation mechanism that allows team members to express the successes and challenges incurred throughout their involvement in a multisite transdisciplinary research project. Furthermore, their feedback is used to promote future sustainability and growth. Guided by a framework known as organizational development, the evaluative process was conducted by a neutral entity, the Quality Assurance Team. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to garner feedback and clarify how the research project goals could be achieved more effectively and efficiently. The multiple benefits gained by those involved in this evaluation and implications for utilizing transdisciplinary research and evaluation teams for health initiatives are detailed. PMID:18936267

  19. SMILE: Simple, Mental Health, Initiative in Learning and Education.

    PubMed

    Ward, L J

    2011-12-01

    SMILE is a Simple, Mental health, Initiative in Learning and Education. SMILE was a pilot project introduced into an undergraduate clinical nursing program, Southern Cross University, Australia 2010. The program aimed to improve the knowledge and skills of third-year nursing students participating in their first clinical placement in mental healthcare. Complementary to the clinical nursing program and the university curriculum, SMILE provided further training and support for student learning in mental healthcare. The SMILE project was a structured 15-day education program that covered the following topics: suicide prevention; psychosis; drugs and alcohol education; mental state exam; families and carers in mental health; and the Mental Health Act. The education sessions were one hour in duration. The educational material and resources were created from current research, literature and health service policy. A problem-based learning approach was used to support this education project. The dynamic factor related to SMILE was that it was based in the field. SMILE enabled the students to bridge a theory-practice gap and expand upon their current knowledge base as well as participate in ward activity. Twenty students attending their first clinical placement in mental healthcare participated in SMILE and were asked to complete a pre- and post- evaluation questionnaire before starting and upon completion of the 15-day project. The students participating in SMILE reported a greater understanding of mental healthcare issues and expressed a developing knowledge base and improved practical skill level. SMILE was a positive initiative that provided valuable feedback and opportunity to improve on clinical education in mental healthcare.

  20. [Chuzhen therapy for sub-health: a randomized controlled study].

    PubMed

    Hu, You-Ping; Xu, Zhen-Jie; Wu, Jia; Xing, Lin; Zhang, Lei-Xiao; Zhang, Jin-Xing; Tan, Hui; Mao, Shi-Zhi; Zhou, Cong-Quan

    2012-11-01

    To observe the effect on intervention of sub-health with pestle needle (Chuzhen). Randomized controlled trail was adopted for this research. One hundred and fifty-three cases were randomly divided into two groups of a Chuzhen group (79 cases) and a massage group (74 cases). Acupoint of Bazhen (Baihui Bazhen, Shendao Bazhen, Zhiyang Bazhen, Mingmen Bazhen, Yaoyangguan Bazhen), Hechelu on the head, the neck and the lumbar area were adopted in Chuzhen group. While regular whole-body massage was applied in the massage group. The human sub-health score, the cornell medical index (CMI) and thermal texture maps system (TTM) technology of the two groups before and after the intervention were observed. 1) After treatment, sub-health condition score, the CMI score, the M-R score and the TTM index were all increased in both groups (all P<0.01) 2) Comparison of D-value of the two groups before and after the intervention: the level of the sub-health score, the total score of CMI, and the index of sleep, pressure, Governor Vessel, Hukou (first web), blood lipid, viscosity of blood, microcirculation of TTM index of the Chuzhen group changed more obvious (all P<0.01), but there was no statistic significances in the M-R score and blood sugar of the TTM (both P>0.05). 3) The sub-health condition score in Chuzhen group was higher than that in the massage group (P<0.01). Chuzhen therapy has definite effect on intervention of sub-health, which is better than regular general massage.

  1. The women's health initiative reports in perspective: facts or fallacies?

    PubMed

    Gambrell, R Don

    2004-09-01

    There are no new data in the Women's Health Initiative. The Collaborative Study of Hormone Factors in breast cancer showed a non-significant increased risk after 5 years. HERS showed an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HT users with previous heart disease. The Cache County study indicated that estrogen therapy initiated after age 60 increased the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. The daily progestogen in the HT users decreased the estrogen receptors in the coronary arteries and minimized the beneficial direct effect of estrogen. It also decreased progesterone receptors in the endometrium, thus making it less endometrial-protective. The WHI was contrary to previous studies of estrogen therapy because women with specific menopausal symptoms were excluded, were older, had never used estrogen and had long-term estrogen deficiency. It takes healthy tissue to allow an effective response to estrogen and maintenance of health. Maximal benefit of HT may require early onset of treatment, near the time of menopause. However, it is never too late to arrest the progression of osteoporosis and decrease the risk of fracture.

  2. Florida public health nurse workforce initiative: opportunity through crisis.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    The National Public Health Leadership Institute (NPHLI), a partnership between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill invites public health professionals to participate in a 2 year leadership program. Three Florida nurses participated in the NPHLI along with a cadre of 40 to 50 participants from the United States and foreign countries. Part of the commitment involved implementing a leadership project. This team chose to address the nursing shortage by developing and piloting mentorship program. Baseline research included a basic review of the literature and involvement in several work groups addressing various aspects of employing and retaining qualified public health nurses in Florida. During their NPHLI scholar year, team members sought input from a variety of professional sources on the reasons for the shortage of public health nurses in Florida. Based on responses from nurses, professional association members, and employees in the Florida Department of Health, team members developed a nursing mentorship project designed to address public health nursing retention and education. The goal was to develop a two-pronged mentorship program, which supported the attainment of clinical competence and workplace confidence while also improving the public health theoretical knowledge base of more experienced nurses. Nursing leadership at both the state and local levels agreed and embraced the concept. The Florida Team developed a Mentorship Handbook, which contains recruitment criteria, baseline, midterm and end of project assessment tools, and numerous other documents. The Team gained endorsement for the project and a commitment to see it through from the Department of Health's Nursing Office. The Florida Nurses Association partnered with the team to initiate the kickoff and involve team members in important discussion groups. In effecting change it is vital to have engaged and included the targeted "community" in

  3. Motherhood Preconceived: The Emergence of the Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Miranda R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, maternal and child health experts have sought to redefine maternity care to include the period prior to pregnancy, essentially by expanding the concept of prenatal care to encompass the time before conception. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention endorsed and promoted this new definition when it launched the Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative. In arguing that prenatal care was often too little too late, a group of maternal and child health experts in the United States attempted to spur improvements in population health and address systemic problems in health care access and health disparities. By changing the terms of pregnancy risk and by using maternalism as a social policy strategy, the preconception health and health care paradigm promoted an ethic of anticipatory motherhood and conflated women’s health with maternal health, sparking public debate about the potential social and clinical consequences of preconception care. This article tracks the construction of this policy idea and its ultimate potential utility in health and health policy discussions. PMID:23262764

  4. Initial conditions for slow-roll inflation in a random Gaussian landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Ali; Vilenkin, Alexander; Yamada, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    In the landscape perspective, our Universe begins with a quantum tunneling from an eternally-inflating parent vacuum, followed by a period of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the tunneling process and calculate the probability distribution for the initial conditions and for the number of e-folds of slow-roll inflation, modeling the landscape by a small-field one-dimensional random Gaussian potential. We find that such a landscape is fully consistent with observations, but the probability for future detection of spatial curvature is rather low, P ~ 10-3.

  5. Reducing the variability in random-phase initialized Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado-Remacha, Francisco Javier

    2016-11-01

    Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm is a common tool for designing Computer Generated Holograms. There exist some standard functions for evaluating the quality of the final results. However, the use of randomized initial guess leads to different results, increasing the variability of the evaluation functions values. This fact is especially detrimental when the computing time is elevated. In this work, a new tool is presented, able to describe the fidelity of the results with a notably reduced variability after multiple attempts of the Gerchberg-Saxton Algorithm. This new tool results very helpful for topical fields such as 3D digital holography.

  6. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Allison, Matthew A; Carr, J Jeffrey; Langer, Robert D; Cochrane, Barbara B; Hendrix, Susan L; Hsia, Judith; Hunt, Julie R; Lewis, Cora E; Margolis, Karen L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Thomas, Asha M

    2010-07-01

    Coronary artery calcified plaque is a marker for atheromatous plaque burden and predicts future risk of cardiovascular events. The relationship between calcium plus vitamin D (calcium/D) supplementation and coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been previously assessed in a randomized trial setting. We compared CAC scores after trial completion between women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation and women randomized to placebo. In an ancillary substudy of women randomized to calcium carbonate (1,000 mg of elemental calcium daily) plus vitamin D3 (400 IU daily) or placebo, nested within the Women's Health Initiative trial of estrogen among women who underwent hysterectomy, we measured CAC with cardiac CT in 754 women aged 50 to 59 years at randomization. Imaging for CAC was performed at 28 of 40 centers after a mean of 7 years of treatment, and scans were read centrally. CAC scores were measured by a central reading center with masking to randomization assignments. Posttrial CAC measurements were similar in women randomized to calcium/D supplementation and those receiving placebo. The mean CAC score was 91.6 for women receiving calcium/D and 100.5 for women receiving placebo (rank test P value = 0.74). After adjustment for coronary risk factors, multivariate odds ratios for increasing CAC score cutpoints (CAC >0, > or =10, and > or =100) for calcium/D versus placebo were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.64-1.34), 1.29 (0.88-1.87), and 0.90 (0.56-1.44), respectively. Corresponding odds ratios among women with a 50% or higher adherence to study pills and for higher levels of CAC (>300) were similar. Treatment with moderate doses of calcium plus vitamin D3 did not seem to alter coronary artery calcified plaque burden among postmenopausal women. Whether higher or lower doses would affect this outcome remains uncertain.

  7. In utero Repair of Myelomeningocele: Rationale, Initial Clinical Experience and a Randomized Controlled Prospective Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, Enrico; Flake, Alan W.

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele (MMC), one of the most common congenital malformations, can result in severe lifelong disabilities, including paraplegia, hydrocephalus, Arnold-Chiari II malformation, incontinence, sexual dysfunction, skeletal deformations, and mental impairment. MMC was the first nonlethal anomaly to be treated by fetal surgery. Studies in animals provide compelling evidence that the primary cause of the neurological deficit associated with MMC is not simply incomplete neurulation but rather chronic mechanical injury and amniotic-fluid-induced chemical trauma that progressively damage the exposed neural tissue during gestation. Initial results suggest that the surgical repair of MMC before 25 weeks of gestation may preserve neurological function, reverse the hindbrain herniation of the Arnold-Chiari II malformation, and obviate the need for postnatal placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. As it is currently unknown whether fetal surgery for MMC is truly beneficial compared to standard postnatal care, a randomized, controlled clinical trial has been initiated within the United States. PMID:22479081

  8. Vital Directions for Health and Health Care: Priorities From a National Academy of Medicine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Dzau, Victor J; McClellan, Mark B; McGinnis, J Michael; Burke, Sheila P; Coye, Molly J; Diaz, Angela; Daschle, Thomas A; Frist, William H; Gaines, Martha; Hamburg, Margaret A; Henney, Jane E; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Leavitt, Michael O; Parker, Ruth M; Sandy, Lewis G; Schaeffer, Leonard D; Steele, Glenn D; Thompson, Pamela; Zerhouni, Elias

    2017-04-11

    Recent discussion has focused on questions related to the repeal and replacement of portions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). However, issues central to the future of health and health care in the United States transcend the ACA provisions receiving the greatest attention. Initiatives directed to certain strategic and infrastructure priorities are vital to achieve better health at lower cost. To review the most salient health challenges and opportunities facing the United States, to identify practical and achievable priorities essential to health progress, and to present policy initiatives critical to the nation's health and fiscal integrity. Qualitative synthesis of 19 National Academy of Medicine-commissioned white papers, with supplemental review and analysis of publicly available data and published research findings. The US health system faces major challenges. Health care costs remain high at $3.2 trillion spent annually, of which an estimated 30% is related to waste, inefficiencies, and excessive prices; health disparities are persistent and worsening; and the health and financial burdens of chronic illness and disability are straining families and communities. Concurrently, promising opportunities and knowledge to achieve change exist. Across the 19 discussion papers examined, 8 crosscutting policy directions were identified as vital to the nation's health and fiscal future, including 4 action priorities and 4 essential infrastructure needs. The action priorities-pay for value, empower people, activate communities, and connect care-recurred across the articles as direct and strategic opportunities to advance a more efficient, equitable, and patient- and community-focused health system. The essential infrastructure needs-measure what matters most, modernize skills, accelerate real-world evidence, and advance science-were the most commonly cited foundational elements to ensure progress. The action priorities and essential infrastructure needs represent major

  9. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  10. Investigating causality in associations between smoking initiation and schizophrenia using Mendelian randomization

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Suzanne H.; Jones, Hannah J.; Taylor, Amy E.; Burgess, Stephen; Zammit, Stanley; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is strongly associated with schizophrenia. Although it has been widely assumed that this reflects self-medication, recent studies suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. We performed two-sample bi-directional Mendelian randomization using summary level genomewide association data from the Tobacco And Genetics Consortium and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Variants associated with smoking initiation and schizophrenia were combined using an inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects approach. We found evidence consistent with a causal effect of smoking initiation on schizophrenia risk (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30–2.25, p < 0.001). However, after relaxing the p-value threshold to include variants from more than one gene and minimize the potential impact of pleiotropy, the association was attenuated (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.97–1.09, p = 0.32). There was little evidence in support of a causal effect of schizophrenia on smoking initiation (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98–1.04, p = 0.32). MR Egger regression sensitivity analysis indicated no evidence for pleiotropy in the effect of schizophrenia on smoking initiation (intercept OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99–1.02, p = 0.49). Our findings provide little evidence of a causal association between smoking initiation and schizophrenia, in either direction. However, we cannot rule out a causal effect of smoking on schizophrenia related to heavier, lifetime exposure, rather than initiation. PMID:28102331

  11. Assessing regression to the mean effects in health care initiatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting individuals classified as “high-risk” have become common-place in health care. High-risk may represent outlier values on utilization, cost, or clinical measures. Typically, such individuals are invited to participate in an intervention intended to reduce their level of risk, and after a period of time, a follow-up measurement is taken. However, individuals initially identified by their outlier values will likely have lower values on re-measurement in the absence of an intervention. This statistical phenomenon is known as “regression to the mean” (RTM) and often leads to an inaccurate conclusion that the intervention caused the effect. Concerns about RTM are rarely raised in connection with most health care interventions, and it is uncommon to find evaluators who estimate its effect. This may be due to lack of awareness, cognitive biases that may cause people to systematically misinterpret RTM effects by creating (erroneous) explanations to account for it, or by design. Methods In this paper, the author fully describes the RTM phenomenon, and tests the accuracy of the traditional approach in calculating RTM assuming normality, using normally distributed data from a Monte Carlo simulation and skewed data from a control group in a pre-post evaluation of a health intervention. Confidence intervals are generated around the traditional RTM calculation to provide more insight into the potential magnitude of the bias introduced by RTM. Finally, suggestions are offered for designing interventions and evaluations to mitigate the effects of RTM. Results On multivariate normal data, the calculated RTM estimates are identical to true estimates. As expected, when using skewed data the calculated method underestimated the true RTM effect. Confidence intervals provide helpful guidance on the magnitude of the RTM effect. Conclusion Decision-makers should always consider RTM to be a viable explanation of the observed change in an outcome in

  12. Fasting versus gradual initiation of the ketogenic diet: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, A G Christina; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Cnaan, Avital; Stallings, Virginia A

    2005-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a 90% fat diet that is an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy. Rapid initiation of the KD requires hospital admission because of the complexity of the protocol and frequent mild and moderate adverse events. The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of a gradual KD initiation with the standard KD initiation preceded by a 24- to 48-h fast. Children ages 1 to 14 years with intractable epilepsy were randomized to a fasting initiation (FAST-KD) or gradual initiation (GRAD-KD). Baseline seizure activity was recorded daily for 28 days before admission and continued for the 3-month duration of the study. Effectiveness was measured in two ways: (a) the proportion of subjects with >50% reduction in target seizure type from baseline to 3-month evaluation, and (b) percentage reduction in the frequency of the target seizure type from baseline to 3-month evaluation. Blood glucose was assessed q4 to 6h, and weights, electrolytes, hydration status, vomiting, acid balance, need for interventions (citric acid and sodium citrates (Bicitra) and IV fluids) were assessed daily. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine the association between protocol and occurrence of adverse events, and longitudinal mixed-effects models were used to look for trends in tolerability data over time. Forty-eight subjects, 24 in each arm, were randomized. In the FAST-KD protocol, 58% of the children had >50% reduction in the target seizure type at 3 months, and 21% were seizure free. In the GRAD-KD protocol, 67% had a >50% reduction at 3 months, and 21% were seizure free. The two protocols were equivalent in efficacy (p = 0.033). At 3 months, the FAST-KD median percentage seizure reduction rate was 78% (ranging from 100% reduction to 73% increase in seizures per week) and was 94% (ranging from 100% reduction to 161% increase in seizures per week) for the GRAD-KD protocol. By using a logarithmic transformed percentage reduction rate and an equivalence limit

  13. An assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems.

    PubMed

    Samb, Badara; Evans, Tim; Dybul, Mark; Atun, Rifat; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Nishtar, Sania; Wright, Anna; Celletti, Francesca; Hsu, Justine; Kim, Jim Yong; Brugha, Ruairi; Russell, Asia; Etienne, Carissa

    2009-06-20

    Since 2000, the emergence of several large disease-specific global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the way in which international donors provide assistance for public health. Some critics have claimed that these initiatives burden health systems that are already fragile in countries with few resources, whereas others have asserted that weak health systems prevent progress in meeting disease-specific targets. So far, most of the evidence for this debate has been provided by speculation and anecdotes. We use a review and analysis of existing data, and 15 new studies that were submitted to WHO for the purpose of writing this Report to describe the complex nature of the interplay between country health systems and GHIs. We suggest that this Report provides the most detailed compilation of published and emerging evidence so far, and provides a basis for identification of the ways in which GHIs and health systems can interact to mutually reinforce their effects. On the basis of the findings, we make some general recommendations and identify a series of action points for international partners, governments, and other stakeholders that will help ensure that investments in GHIs and country health systems can fulfil their potential to produce comprehensive and lasting results in disease-specific work, and advance the general public health agenda. The target date for achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals is drawing close, and the economic downturn threatens to undermine the improvements in health outcomes that have been achieved in the past few years. If adjustments to the interactions between GHIs and country health systems will improve efficiency, equity, value for money, and outcomes in global public health, then these opportunities should not be missed.

  14. Derivation of proposed human health and wildlife bioaccumulation factors for the Great Lakes initiative. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    The publication is divided into two sections: Comparison of Proposed Human Health and Bioaccumulation Factors (HHBAFs) for the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) and Derivation of Proposed Human Health and Wildlife Bioaccumulation Factors for the Great Lakes Initiative.

  15. Internal migration and health: premarital sexual initiation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna; White, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The high rates of youth migration to urban and economic centers, in the context of persistent poverty and devastating HIV/AIDS burden, have raised intricate social policy challenges in developing countries. Using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and discrete-time hazard regression models, this study examines the patterns of internal migration and sexual initiation among never-married Nigerian youth aged 15-24. We find that migrants generally show stronger association than non-migrants, and urban-rural and rural-rural migrants particularly show the strongest independent association with premarital sexual initiation. Other significant covariates are age, religion, ethnic origin, educational attainment, independent living arrangement, formal employment and exposure to the mass media. The findings highlight the direct importance of youth migration in understanding and addressing the challenges of premarital sexual behavior and the need for behavior change policies and programs to be sensitive to the complex contextual nuances across youth groups in one country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical Safety Training of World Health Organization Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Toll, Edward C; Cole, Matthew; Smith, Frank C T; Stark, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate training in surgical safety is essential to maximize patient safety. This national review quantified undergraduate surgical safety training. Training of 2 international safety initiatives was quantified: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for Safe Surgery" and (2) Department of Health (DoH) "Principles of the Productive Operating Theatre." Also, 13 additional safety skills were quantified. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. In all, 23 universities entered the study (71.9% response). Safety skills from WHO and DoH documents were formally taught in 4 UK medical schools (17.4%). Individual components of the documents were taught more frequently (47.6%). Half (50.9%) of the additional safety skills identified were taught. Surgical societies supplemented safety training, although the total amount of training provided was less than that in university curricula (P < .0001). Surgical safety training is inadequate in UK medical schools. To protect patients and maximize safety, a national undergraduate safety curriculum is recommended.

  17. Initial external validation of REGRESS in public health graduate students.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Enders, Felicity B

    2014-12-01

    Linear regression is typically taught as a second and potentially last required (bio)statistics course for Public Health and Clinical and Translational Science students. There has been much research on the attitudes of students toward basic biostatistics, but there has not been much assessing students' understanding of critical regression topics. The REGRESS (REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS) quiz developed at Mayo Clinic utilizes 27 questions to assess understanding for simple and multiple linear regression. We performed an initial external validation of this tool with 117 University of Michigan public health students. We compare the results of pre- and postcourse quiz scores from the Michigan cohort to scores of Mayo medical students and professional statisticians. University of Michigan students performed higher than Mayo students on the precourse quiz due to previous related coursework, but did not perform as high postcourse indicating the need for course modification. In the Michigan cohort, REGRESS scores improved by a mean (standard deviation) of 4.6 (3.4), p < 0.0001. Our results support the use of the REGRESS quiz as a learning tool for students and an evaluation tool to identify topics for curricular improvement for teachers, while we highlight future directions of research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  19. Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medical therapy as initial treatment of glaucoma: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Katz, L Jay; Steinmann, William C; Kabir, Azad; Molineaux, Jeanne; Wizov, Sheryl S; Marcellino, George

    2012-09-01

    To compare outcomes of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) with drug therapy for glaucoma patients in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Sixty-nine patients (127 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to SLT or medical therapy. Target intraocular pressure (IOP) was determined using the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study formula. Patients were treated with SLT (100 applications 360 degrees) or medical therapy (prostaglandin analog). Six visits over 1 year followed initial treatment. If target IOP range was not attained with SLT, additional SLT was the next step, or in the medical arm additional medications were added. IOP; secondary: number of steps. Sixty-nine patients were treated. Data collection terminated with 54 patients reaching 9 to 12-months follow-up. Twenty-nine patients were in the SLT group, 25 patients in the medical group. Baseline mean IOP for all eyes was 24.5 mm Hg in the SLT group, 24.7 mm Hg in the medical group. Mean IOP (both eyes) at last follow-up was 18.2 mm Hg (6.3 mm Hg reduction) in the SLT arm, 17.7 mm Hg (7.0 mm Hg reduction) in the medical arm. By last follow-up, 11% of eyes received additional SLT, 27% required additional medication. There was not a statistically significant difference between the SLT and medication groups. IOP reduction was similar in both arms after 9 to 12-months follow-up. More treatment steps were necessary to maintain target IOP in the medication group, although there was not a statistically significant difference between groups. These results support the option of SLT as a safe and effective initial therapy in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  20. The effect of acupressure on the initiation of labor: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Torkzahrani, Shahnaz; Mahmoudikohani, Fatemeh; Saatchi, Kiarash; Sefidkar, Reyhaneh; Banaei, Mojdeh

    2017-02-01

    Induction of labor is a common obstetric procedure. Acupressure is a natural method that is used for inducing uterine contractions. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the impact of acupressure on the induction of labor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupressure on the initiation of labor. In this randomized clinical trial, 162 nulliparous pregnant women were admitted to the hospital. They were categorized into 3 groups; acupressure, sham acupressure and control. Acupressure points SP6, BL 60 and BL 32 were pressured bilaterally. The intervention was done by the researcher every other day between 9 am and 11 am. The intervention was carried out on women in the afternoon and the following day. Subjects were examined to determine the initiation of labor symptoms48 and 96h after the start of intervention and at the time of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests (p<0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups for spontaneous initiation of labor within 48h (P=0.464), and 49-96h after beginning the intervention (P=0.111) and 97h after beginning the intervention to the time of hospitalization for the spontaneous initiation of labor (P=0.897). There were no significant differences in the secondary outcomes between the groups. According to the finding of this study, it seems that acupressure treatment was not effective in initiating labor as compared with the sham acupressure and the routine care groups. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers. Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just ‘business as normal’. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis. PMID:25797469

  2. Pramipexole vs levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson disease: a 4-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Robert G; Shoulson, Ira; Fahn, Stanley; Kieburtz, Karl; Lang, Anthony; Marek, Kenneth; McDermott, Michael; Seibyl, John; Weiner, William; Musch, Bruno; Kamp, Cornelia; Welsh, Mickie; Shinaman, Aileen; Pahwa, Rajesh; Barclay, Lynn; Hubble, Jean; LeWitt, Peter; Miyasaki, Janis; Suchowersky, Oksana; Stacy, Mark; Russell, David S; Ford, Blair; Hammerstad, John; Riley, David; Standaert, David; Wooten, Frederick; Factor, Stewart; Jankovic, Joseph; Atassi, Farah; Kurlan, Roger; Panisset, Michel; Rajput, Ali; Rodnitzky, Robert; Shults, Cliff; Petsinger, Giselle; Waters, Cheryl; Pfeiffer, Ronald; Biglan, Kevin; Borchert, Leona; Montgomery, Amy; Sutherland, Laura; Weeks, Carolyn; DeAngelis, Maryan; Sime, Elspeth; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Harrigan, Mary; Fussell, Barbara; Dillon, Sandra; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Rainey, Pamela; Tennis, Marsha; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Berry, Debra; Hall, Jean; Shirley, Theresa; Dobson, Judith; Fontaine, Deborah; Pfeiffer, Brenda; Brocht, Alicia; Bennett, Susan; Daigneault, Susan; Hodgeman, Karen; O'Connell, Carolynn; Ross, Tori; Richard, Karen; Watts, Arthur

    2004-07-01

    The best way to initiate dopaminergic therapy for early Parkinson disease remains unclear. To compare initial treatment with pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease, followed by levodopa supplementation, with respect to the development of dopaminergic motor complications, other adverse events, and functional and quality-of-life outcomes. Multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Academic movement disorders clinics at 22 sites in the United States and Canada. Patients with early Parkinson disease (N = 301) who required dopaminergic therapy to treat emerging disability, enrolled between October 1996 and August 1997 and observed until August 2001. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg of pramipexole 3 times per day with levodopa placebo (n = 151) or 25/100 mg of carbidopa/levodopa 3 times per day with pramipexole placebo (n = 150). Dosage was escalated during the first 10 weeks for patients with ongoing disability. Thereafter, investigators were permitted to add open-label levodopa or other antiparkinsonian medications to treat ongoing or emerging disability. Time to the first occurrence of dopaminergic complications: wearing off, dyskinesias, on-off fluctuations, and freezing; changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and quality-of-life scales; and adverse events. Initial pramipexole treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of developing dyskinesias (24.5% vs 54%; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.56; P<.001) and wearing off (47% vs 62.7%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.63; P =.02). Initial levodopa treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of freezing (25.3% vs 37.1%; hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.11-2.59; P =.01). By 48 months, the occurrence of disabling dyskinesias was uncommon and did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The mean improvement in the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score from baseline to 48 months

  3. Global health initiatives in Africa - governance, priorities, harmonisation and alignment.

    PubMed

    Mwisongo, Aziza; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    The advent of global health initiatives (GHIs) has changed the landscape and architecture of health financing in low and middle income countries, particularly in Africa. Over the last decade, the African Region has realised improvements in health outcomes as a result of interventions implemented by both governments and development partners. However, alignment and harmonisation of partnerships and GHIs are still difficult in the African countries with inadequate capacity for their effective coordination. Both published and grey literature was reviewed to understand the governance, priorities, harmonisation and alignment of GHIs in the African Region; to synthesise the knowledge and highlight the persistent challenges; and to identify gaps for future research. GHI governance structures are often separate from those of the countries in which they operate. Their divergent funding channels and modalities may have contributed to the failure of governments to track their resources. There is also evidence that basically, earmarking and donor conditions drive funding allocations regardless of countries' priorities. Although studies cite the lack of harmonisation of GHI priorities with national strategies, evidence shows improvements in that area over time. GHIs have used several strategies and mechanisms to involve the private sector. These have widened the pool of health service policy-makers and providers to include groups such as civil society organisations (CSOs), with both positive and negative implications. GHI strategies such as co-financing by countries as a condition for support have been positive in achieving sustainability of interventions. GHI approaches have not changed substantially over the years but there has been evolution in terms of donor funding and conditions. GHIs still largely operate in a vertical manner, bypassing country systems; they compete for the limited human resources; they influence country policies; and they are not always harmonised with

  4. Using global health initiatives to strengthen health systems: a civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jennifer; Russell, Asia; Baker, Brook; Kayongo, Alice; Wanjiku, Esther; Davis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research into the effects of global health initiatives (GHIs) on health systems has largely left out the viewpoints and contributions of civil society. This study details civil society's perspective regarding the effects of two GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), on country health systems and the added value of civil society interacting with GHIs to strengthen health systems. The study employed qualitative data collection methods using semi-structured interviews administered during focus groups and key informant interviews. A range of health system stakeholders were interviewed in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia. Data were coded and analysed for themes and sub-themes. In total, 2910 civil society participants provided information individually or in focus groups. Respondents reported that GHIs have contributed to dramatic health benefits within and outside of a disease-specific focus, including health systems strengthening efforts. However, opportunities for synergy between GHIs and health systems have been missed, and GHIs have not worked sufficiently to close capacity gaps of grassroots civil society organisations. Despite some governance innovations, civil society's opportunities to participate meaningfully in GHI priority setting efforts are limited. Recommendations are included on how to best use GHIs to strengthen health systems by partnering with civil society.

  5. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-06-24

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.

  6. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381 PMID:20576158

  7. Complications of initial prostate biopsy in a European randomized screening trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Suzanne; Loeb, Stacy; Zhu, Xiaoye; Verhagen, Paul CMS; Schröder, Fritz H; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transrectal prostate needle biopsy (PNB) is a standard procedure for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. We recently found an increasing frequency of hospitalization with infectious complications associated with PNB over time. Objective: To perform an updated analysis of overall complication rates in a large screening population over the past 18 years and to examine possible predictors of complications on initial PNB. Design, Setting and Participants: From 1993-2011, 7216 men underwent initial lateralized sextant PNB in European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Rotterdam. After 2 weeks a questionnaire was administered to 6962 men regarding PNB-related complications. Outcome Measurements & Statistical Analysis: Overall complication rates as well as specific complications (hematuria for >3 days, hematospermia, significant pain after biopsy, fever, and hospitalizations) were prospectively recorded. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to assess the relationship between age, comorbidities, and prostate volume with specific complications. Results and Limitations: A total of 4674 (67.1%) men reported any sequelae after initial PNB, with hematospermia as the most frequent (53.8%), followed by hematuria (24.3%). Significant pain (4.8%), fever (4.1%), and hospital admission (0.7%) were reported less frequently. Hematospermia was significantly more likely in younger men with fewer comorbidities and smaller prostate volume; whereas hematuria was significantly more frequent among men with increasing comorbidities and prostate volume. In addition, pain was inversely associated with age and was also reported less frequently during later years of biopsy. Limitations of our study include the use of sextant biopsies and a relatively healthy population, while strengths include the large sample size and data on patient-specific covariates. Conclusion: Many men experience minor complications after initial PNB, although the

  8. Osteoporosis in the Women's Health Initiative: Another Treatment Gap?

    PubMed

    Sattari, Maryam; Cauley, Jane A; Garvan, Cynthia; Johnson, Karen C; LaMonte, Michael J; Li, Wenjun; Limacher, Marian; Manini, Todd; Sarto, Gloria E; Sullivan, Shannon D; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Beyth, Rebecca J

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials data to assess osteoporosis treatment and identify participant characteristics associated with utilization of osteoporosis medication(s) after new diagnoses of osteoporosis or fracture. Information from visits prior to and immediately subsequent to the first fracture event or osteoporosis diagnosis were evaluated for medication use. A full logistic regression model was used to identify factors predictive of osteoporosis medication use after a fracture or a diagnosis of osteoporosis. The median length of follow-up from enrollment to the last WHI clinic visit for the study cohort was 13.9 years. Among the 13,990 women who reported new diagnoses of osteoporosis or fracture between enrollment and their final WHI visit, and also had medication data available, 21.6% reported taking an osteoporosis medication other than estrogen. Higher daily calcium intake, diagnosis of osteoporosis alone or both osteoporosis and fracture (compared with diagnosis of fracture alone), Asian or Pacific Islander race/ethnicity (compared with White/Caucasian), higher income, and hormone therapy use (past or present) were associated with significantly higher likelihood of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy. Women with Black/African American race/ethnicity (compared with White/Caucasian), body mass index ≥30 (compared with body mass index of 18.5-24.9), current tobacco use (compared with past use or lifetime nonusers), and history of arthritis were less likely to use osteoporosis treatment. Despite well-established treatment guidelines in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or history of fractures, pharmacotherapy use was suboptimal in this study. Initiation of osteoporosis treatment after fragility fracture may represent an opportunity to improve later outcomes in these high-risk women. Specific attention needs to be paid to

  9. Does the private finance initiative promote innovation in health care? The case of the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Petratos, Pythagoras

    2005-12-01

    The Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is a specific example of health care privatization within the British National Health Service. In this essay, I critically assess the ways in which various Private Finance Initiatives have increased health care efficiency and effectiveness, as well as encouraged medical innovation. Indeed, as the analysis will demonstrate, significant empirical evidence supports the conclusion that Private Finance Initiatives are a driving force of innovation within the British Health Care System.

  10. 75 FR 3237 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Women's Health... (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection Title: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI... older women by developing and following a large cohort of postmenopausal women and relating...

  11. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A W; Pilkington, R; Montgomerie, A; Feist, H

    2016-04-21

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. The worksites (n = 218) of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Smaller businesses (<20 employees) had less current health promotion activies (mean 1.0) compared to medium size businesses (20-200 employees - mean 2.4) and large businesses (200+ employees - mean 2.9). Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 %) to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses) although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses). In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses). Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. This study found that smaller workplaces had many barriers

  12. Association of initial hemodialysis vascular access with patient-reported health status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Wasse, Haimanot; Kutner, Nancy; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian

    2007-07-01

    Although the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the recommended form of vascular access for patients with ESRD, its impact on patient perception of health status, quality of life (QOL), or satisfaction is unknown. This study compared patient-reported health status and QOL scores and vascular access type among a national random sample of 1563 patients at dialysis initiation and day 60 of ESRD during 1996 to 1997. Patients were stratified into five categories: AVF at first dialysis and day 60 of ESRD, arteriovenous graft (AVG) at first dialysis and day 60, central venous catheter (CVC) at first dialysis and AVF at day 60, CVC at first dialysis and AVG at day 60, and CVC at first dialysis and day 60. Ten percent (n = 154) of patients had an AVF, 21% (n = 326) had an AVG, and 69% (n = 1083) had a CVC at dialysis initiation; those who were most likely to use an AVF were white and male. After statistical adjustment, patients with persistent AVF use reported greater physical activity and energy, better emotional and social well-being, fewer symptoms, less effect of dialysis and burden of kidney disease, and better sleep compared with patients with persistent CVC use, whereas measures such as cognitive and sexual function did not differ by access type. Compared with persistent CVC use, early persistent AVF use is associated with the perception of improved health status and QOL among patients with ESRD. Future longitudinal studies may help to clarify further the association between QOL and vascular access.

  13. Moxifloxacin in the Initial Therapy of Tuberculosis: A Randomized, Phase 2 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Marcus B.; Efron, Anne; Loredo, Carla; Muzy De Souza, Gilvan R.; Graça, Nadja P.; Cezar, Michelle C.; Ram, Malathi; Chaudhary, Mohammad A.; Bishai, William R.; Kritski, Afranio L.; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background New therapies are needed to shorten the time required to cure tuberculosis and to treat drug-resistant strains. The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin is a promising new agent that may have additive activity to existing antituberculosis agents. We conducted a Phase 2 clinical trial to determine the activity and safety of moxifloxacin in the initial stage of tuberculosis treatment. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of a moxifloxacin-containing regimen in patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis in Brazil. All participants received isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide at standard doses and were randomized to receive either moxifloxacin or ethambutol and matching placebos five days per week for eight weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients whose sputum culture converted to negative by Week 8. Clinical trial identifier: NCT00082173. Results One hundred seventy patients were enrolled, and 146 met all study eligibility criteria. In an intention to treat analysis where missing results were considered treatment failures, 59 patients (80%) assigned to moxifloxacin converted their 8-week sputum culture to negative vs. 45 (63%) of those assigned to ethambutol (p=0.03). Among patients with available cultures at Week 8, conversion rates were 92% (59/64) for moxifloxacin vs. 72% (45/61) for ethambutol (p=0.006). No differences in toxicity were observed. In a multivariate analysis, younger age (odds ratio 0.98, p=0.05), heavy baseline sputum smear positivity (OR 0.45, p <0.001) and treatment with moxifloxacin (OR 1.88, p<0.001) were significantly associated with sputum culture conversion. Conclusion Moxifloxacin significantly improves culture conversion in the initial phase of tuberculosis treatment. Trials to assess whether moxifloxacin can be used to shorten the duration of tuberculosis therapy are justified. PMID:19345831

  14. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  15. Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative: A Successful Model for Integrating Environmental Health into Pediatric Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Bonnie; McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Slavin, Katie; Grubb, Kimberly; Roberts, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pediatric medical and nursing education lack the environmental health content needed to properly prepare health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental exposure–related diseases. The need for improvements in health care professionals’ environmental health knowledge has been expressed by leading institutions. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of programs that incorporate pediatric environmental health (PEH) into curricula and practice. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of the National Environmental Education Foundation’s (NEEF) Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative, which is designed to build environmental health capacity among pediatric health care professionals. Methods Twenty-eight pediatric health care professionals participated in a train-the-trainer workshop, in which they were educated to train other health care professionals in PEH and integrate identified PEH competencies into medical and nursing practice and curricula. We evaluated the program using a workshop evaluation tool, action plan, pre- and posttests, baseline and progress assessments, and telephone interviews. Results During the 12 months following the workshop, the faculty champions’ average pretest score of 52% was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) to 65.5% on the first posttest and to 71.5% on the second posttest, showing an increase and retention of environmental health knowledge. Faculty champions trained 1,559 health care professionals in PEH, exceeding the goal of 280 health care professionals trained. Ninety percent of faculty champions reported that PEH had been integrated into the curricula at their institution. Conclusion The initiative was highly effective in achieving its goal of building environmental health capacity among health care professionals. The faculty champions model is a successful method and can be replicated in other arenas. PMID:19478972

  16. Current initiatives in One Health: consolidating the One Health Global Network.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, A; Welburn, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Global Response to Avian Influenza has led to a longer-term One Health movement, which addresses risks, including zoonoses, at the human-animal- environment interface, and requires the development of innovative partnerships at the political, institutional and technical levels. One Health is a sustainable and rational option when the cumulative effects of health hazards on food and economic security are considered, but demands long-term financial investment. Projections of growth in the demand for livestock production and consumption in Asia and Africa also call for effective One Health responses. However, an effective response also requires validated evidence of the socio-economic value that the One Health approach can provide. Implementing the One Health approach depends on forging strong links between human and animal health services, the environment and public policy. The authors present a list of some of the national and transnational partnerships established since 2006. Political support, good governance and effective policies and networks are crucial building blocks for One Health sustainability. The Global Response to Avian Influenza was initially established under the joint leadership of the European Union, the United States and the United Nations System Influenza Coordination Office. Since then it has supported numerous initiatives, including the World Health Organization (WHO)/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Global Early Warning System (GLEWS). Indeed, the Global Response to Avian Influenza paved the way for an unprecedented WHO/FAO/OIE tripartite partnership, which promoted the integration of foodborne, neglected zoonotic and tropical diseases within the One Health movement and led to the tripartite High-Level Technical Meeting of 2011 in Mexico. The One Health Global Network, which began as a proposition at an Expert Consultation in Winnipeg, Canada, in 2009, is now a reality

  17. Adaptive Designs for Randomized Trials in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Have, Thomas R. Ten; Jo, Booil; Dagne, Getachew; Wyman, Peter A.; Muthén, Bengt; Gibbons, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a discussion of two general ways in which the traditional randomized trial can be modified or adapted in response to the data being collected. We use the term adaptive design to refer to a trial in which characteristics of the study itself, such as the proportion assigned to active intervention versus control, change during the trial in response to data being collected. The term adaptive sequence of trials refers to a decision-making process that fundamentally informs the conceptualization and conduct of each new trial with the results of previous trials. Our discussion below investigates the utility of these two types of adaptations for public health evaluations. Examples are provided to illustrate how adaptation can be used in practice. From these case studies, we discuss whether such evaluations can or should be analyzed as if they were formal randomized trials, and we discuss practical as well as ethical issues arising in the conduct of these new-generation trials. PMID:19296774

  18. Mobile health, exercise and metabolic risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Stuckey, Melanie I; Shapiro, Sheree; Gill, Dawn P

    2014-10-18

    It was hypothesized that a mobile health (mHealth) intervention would elicit greater improvements in systolic blood pressure and other cardiometabolic risk factors at 12 weeks, which would be better maintained over 52 weeks, compared to the active control intervention. Eligible participants (≥2 metabolic syndrome risk factors) were randomized to the mHealth intervention (n = 75) or the active control group (n = 74). Blood pressure and other cardiometabolic risk factors were measured at baseline and at 12, 24 and 52 weeks. Both groups received an individualized exercise prescription and the intervention group additionally received a technology kit for home monitoring of biometrics and physical activity. Analyses were conducted on 67 participants in the intervention group (aged 56.7 ± 9.7 years; 71.6% female) and 60 participants in the active control group (aged 59.1 ± 8.4 years; 76.7% female). At 12 weeks, baseline adjusted mean change in systolic blood pressure (primary outcome) was greater in the active control group compared to the intervention group (-5.68 mmHg; 95% CI -10.86 to -0.50 mmHg; p = 0.03), but there were no differences between groups in mean change for secondary outcomes. Over 52-weeks, the difference in mean change for systolic blood pressure was no longer apparent between groups, but remained significant across the entire population (time: p < 0.001). In participants with increased cardiometabolic risk, exercise prescription alone had greater short-term improvements in systolic blood pressure compared to the mHealth intervention, though over 52 weeks, improvements were equal between interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov http://NCT01944124.

  19. Experiments on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with an imposed, random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Krivets, V. V.; Tsiklashvili, V.; Likhachev, O. A.

    2013-07-01

    A vertical shock tube is used to perform experiments on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with a three-dimensional random initial perturbation. A membraneless flat interface is formed by opposed gas flows in which the light and heavy gases enter the shock tube from the top and from the bottom of the shock tube driven section. An air/SF6 gas combination is used and a Mach number M = 1.2 incident shock wave impulsively accelerates the interface. Initial perturbations on the interface are created by vertically oscillating the gas column within the shock tube to produce Faraday waves on the interface resulting in a short wavelength, three-dimensional perturbation. Planar Mie scattering is used to visualize the flow in which light from a laser sheet is scattered by smoke seeded in the air, and image sequences are captured using three high-speed video cameras. Measurements of the integral penetration depth prior to reshock show two growth behaviors, both having power law growth with growth exponents in the range found in previous experiments and simulations. Following reshock, all experiments show very consistent linear growth with a growth rate in good agreement with those found in previous studies.

  20. Early myeloid lineage choice is not initiated by random PU.1 to GATA1 protein ratios.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Philipp S; Schwarzfischer, Michael; Loeffler, Dirk; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Moritz, Nadine; Endele, Max; Filipczyk, Adam; Gambardella, Adriana; Ahmed, Nouraiz; Etzrodt, Martin; Coutu, Daniel L; Rieger, Michael A; Marr, Carsten; Strasser, Michael K; Schauberger, Bernhard; Burtscher, Ingo; Ermakova, Olga; Bürger, Antje; Lickert, Heiko; Nerlov, Claus; Theis, Fabian J; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-07-14

    The mechanisms underlying haematopoietic lineage decisions remain disputed. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors with the capacity for lineage reprogramming, positive auto-regulation and mutual inhibition have been described as being expressed in uncommitted cell populations. This led to the assumption that lineage choice is cell-intrinsically initiated and determined by stochastic switches of randomly fluctuating cross-antagonistic transcription factors. However, this hypothesis was developed on the basis of RNA expression data from snapshot and/or population-averaged analyses. Alternative models of lineage choice therefore cannot be excluded. Here we use novel reporter mouse lines and live imaging for continuous single-cell long-term quantification of the transcription factors GATA1 and PU.1 (also known as SPI1). We analyse individual haematopoietic stem cells throughout differentiation into megakaryocytic-erythroid and granulocytic-monocytic lineages. The observed expression dynamics are incompatible with the assumption that stochastic switching between PU.1 and GATA1 precedes and initiates megakaryocytic-erythroid versus granulocytic-monocytic lineage decision-making. Rather, our findings suggest that these transcription factors are only executing and reinforcing lineage choice once made. These results challenge the current prevailing model of early myeloid lineage choice.

  1. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served.

  2. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of the MyFamilyPlan Online Preconception Health Education Tool.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priya; Mangione, Carol M; Cheng, Eric; Steers, W Neil; Nguyen, Tina A; Bell, Douglas; Kuo, Alice A; Gregory, Kimberly D

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to MyFamilyPlan-a web-based preconception health education module-changes the proportion of women discussing reproductive health with providers at well-woman visits. Cluster randomized controlled trial. One hundred thirty participants per arm distributed among 34 clusters (physicians) required to detect a 20% change in the primary outcome. Urban academic medical center (California). Eligible women were 18 to 45 years old, were English speaking, were nonpregnant, were able to access the Internet, and had an upcoming well-woman visit. E-mail and phone recruitment between September 2015 and May 2016; 292 enrollees randomized. Intervention participants completed the MyFamilyPlan module online 7 to 10 days before a scheduled well-woman visit; control participants reviewed standard online preconception health education materials. The primary outcome was self-reported discussion of reproductive health with the physician at the well-woman visit. Self-reported secondary outcomes were folic acid use, contraceptive method initiation/change, and self-efficacy score. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression. After adjusting for covariates and cluster, exposure to MyFamilyPlan was the only variable significantly associated with an increase in the proportion of women discussing reproductive health with providers (odds ratio: 1.97, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-3.19). Prespecified secondary outcomes were unaffected. MyFamilyPlan exposure was associated with a significant increase in the proportion of women who reported discussing reproductive health with providers and may promote preconception health awareness; more work is needed to affect associated behaviors.

  3. Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin for initial therapy of tuberculosis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qiaoling; Liu, Qihui; Sun, Feng; Shao, Lingyun; Jin, Jialin; Yu, Shenglei; Ai, Jingwen; Zhang, Bingyan; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-02-24

    Moxifloxacin (MOX) and gatifloxacin (GAT) have exhibited promising mycobactericidal activity, and a number of clinical trials have been conducted in recent decades to compare the treatment efficacy of MOX-containing and/or GAT-containing regimens with the standard regimen. The aim of this meta-analysis for clinical trials of MOX- or GAT-containing regimens was to evaluate their treatment efficacy and safety in initial therapy for drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB). Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, and nine studies with 6980 patients were included. We found that fluoroquinolone substitution for isoniazid or ethambutol in short-course regimens might result in more frequent unfavorable treatment outcomes compared with the standard regimen-in particular, an increased incidence of relapse. In a per-protocol analysis, MOX-containing regimens had slightly higher rates of sputum culture conversion at two months than the standard regimen (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P <0.001); there was no significant difference in the rate of sputum conversion between the GAT-containing regimens and the standard regimen (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.96-1.33, P = 0.13). There were no significant differences in the incidence of death from any cause, including TB, nor were there serious adverse events between the MOX- or GAT-containing regimens and the standard regimen. In conclusion, MOX or GAT might not have the ability to shorten treatment duration in the initial therapy for tuberculosis despite the non-inferiority or even slightly better efficacy in the early phase of treatment compared with the standard regimen. Furthermore, it is safe to include MOX or GAT in initial TB treatment.

  4. Membrane sweeping at initiation of formal labor induction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Jacob, Reena; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2006-03-01

    To determine the benefit of membrane sweeping at initiation of labor induction in conjunction with formal methods of labor induction. Two hundred seventy-four women at term with a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation and intact membranes were randomly assigned to receive membrane sweeping or no membrane sweeping at initiation of formal labor induction with either dinoprostone pessary or amniotomy. Outcome measures included mode of delivery, induction-to-delivery interval, dinosprostone dose, any oxytocin use and duration of oxytocin use in labor, visual analog score for pain associated with sweeping, and visual analog score for satisfaction with the birth process. Two hundred sixty-four women (136 sweep and 128 no sweep) had their data analyzed. Ten women (4 sweep and 6 no sweep) were excluded because of exclusion criteria infringements. Swept women had higher spontaneous vaginal delivery rate (69% compared with 56%, P = .041), shorter induction to delivery interval (mean 14 compared with 19 hours, P = .003), fewer that required oxytocin use (46% compared with 59%, P = .037), shorter duration of oxytocin infusion (mean 2.6 compared with 4.3 hours, P = .001) and improved visual analog score for birth process satisfaction (mean 4.0 compared with 4.7, P = .015). The reduction in dinoprostone dose used (mean 1.2 compared with 1.3, P = .082) was not significant. Postsweeping visual analog score for pain (mean 4.7 compared with 3.5, P < .001) was significantly increased. Membrane sweeping at initiation of labor induction increased the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate, reduced oxytocic drug use, shortened induction to delivery interval, and improved patient satisfaction. I.

  5. Worksite intervention effects on physical health: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Chow, Chin-Moi; Kirby, Adrienne; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2006-09-01

    Overweight and physical inactivity are risk factors for increased disease burden and health care expenditure. Well-designed studies are still needed to determine the treatment efficacy of worksite interventions targeting such risk factors. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one of Australia's casinos in 2002-2003, to investigate the effects of a comprehensive exercise and lifestyle intervention on physical fitness. Only 6.4% of the workforce expressed interest in being study participants. Seventy-three employees (aged 32 +/- 8 years, 51% overweight/obese, 73% shift workers and 52% women) were recruited and randomized to treatment or wait-list control groups for 24 weeks, 44 of whom completed the intervention. Components of the intervention include supervised moderate-to-high intensity exercise including combined aerobic (at least 20 min duration 3 days/week) and weight-training (for an estimated 30 min completed 2-3 days/week), and dietary/health education (delivered via group seminars, one-on-one counselling and literature through the provision of a worksite manual). ANCOVA, by intention-to-treat and of study completers, found significant between-group differences in the mean waist circumference and predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), favouring the intervention, but effects were concentrated in one subject. For study completers, between-group differences in the mean waist circumference (82.3 +/- 9.2 versus 90.5 +/- 17.8 cm, p = 0.01) and predicted VO2max (47 versus 41 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001) remained significant without the outlier, favouring the intervention. Higher intervention compliance predicted greater improvements in physical fitness. No significant effects on body mass or body mass index were found. This worksite intervention significantly improved waist circumference and aerobic fitness in healthy but sedentary employees, most of whom were shift workers. Worksite interventions have the potential to counter the increasing burden of

  6. Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART), while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas

  7. Building coherence and synergy among global health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Fabio; Faid, Miriam; Reeder, John; Aslanyan, Garry

    2015-12-09

    The fast growth of global health initiatives (GHIs) has raised concerns regarding achievement of coherence and synergy among distinct, complementary and sometimes competing activities. Herein, we propose an approach to compare GHIs with regard to their main purpose and operational aspects, using the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR/WHO) as a case study. The overall goal is to identify synergies and optimize efforts to provide solutions to reduce the burden of diseases. Twenty-six long-established GHIs were identified from among initiatives previously associated/partnered with TDR/WHO. All GHIs had working streams that would benefit from linking to the capacity building or implementation research focus of TDR. Individual profiles were created using a common template to collect information on relevant parameters. For analytical purposes, GHIs were simultaneously clustered in five and eight groups according to their 'intended outcome' and 'operational framework', respectively. A set of specific questions was defined to assess coherence/alignment against a TDR reference profile by attributing a score, which was subsequently averaged per GHI cluster. GHI alignment scores for intended outcome were plotted against scores for operational framework; based on the analysis of coherence/alignment with TDR functions and operations, a risk level (high, medium or low) of engagement was attributed to each GHI. The process allowed a bi-dimensional ranking of GHIs with regards to how adequately they fit with or match TDR features and perspectives. Overall, more consistence was observed with regard to the GHIs' main goals and expected outcomes than with their operational aspects, reflecting the diversity of GHI business models. Analysis of coherence indicated an increasing common trend for enhancing the engagement of developing country stakeholders, building research capacity and optimization of knowledge management platforms in support of

  8. Sodium Intake and Osteoporosis. Findings From the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen C.; Huang, Ying; Pettinger, Mary; Thomas, Fridjtof; Cauley, Jane; Crandall, Carolyn; Tinker, Lesley; LeBoff, Meryl Susan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Bethel, Monique; Li, Wenjun; Prentice, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship of sodium intake to changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women has not been established, and no study to date has examined its relationship with fracture risk. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study including 69 735 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative during an average of 11.4 years of followup to examine whether sodium intake is associated with changes in BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total body and with incident fractures and whether this relationship is modified by potassium and/or calcium intake. Results: In adjusted models, there was no association of calibrated sodium intake with changes in BMD at the hip or lumbar spine from baseline to 3 or 6 years (P ≥ .06). Higher sodium intakes were associated with greater increases in total body BMD from baseline to 3 years (P = .00) with a trend from baseline to 6 years (P = .08) and with reduced hip fractures (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.67–0.97). In sensitivity analyses that included body mass index as an additional covariate in the models, there was no association of sodium intake with changes in BMD at any skeletal site (P ≥ .32) or with incident fractures (P > .28). There was no association of sodium intake with incident fractures after adjusting for potassium intake (P ≥ .30). Calcium intake did not modify the association between sodium intake and incident fractures (P ≥ .20). Levels of sodium intake above or below currently recommended guidelines for cardiovascular disease (≤ 2300 mg/d) were not associated with changes in BMD at any skeletal site from baseline to 3 (P ≥ .66) or 6 years (P ≥ .74) or with incident fractures (P ≥ .70). Conclusion: Current population-based recommendations for sodium intake are unlikely to significantly affect osteoporosis. PMID:26863423

  9. Optimism and diet quality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Tindle, Hilary A; Tinker, Lesley; Seguin, Rebecca A; Rosal, Milagros C; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2014-07-01

    Diet quality has not been well studied in relation to positive psychological traits. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between optimism and diet quality in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study (OS) and clinical trials (CTs), and to determine whether optimism was associated with diet change after a 1-year dietary intervention. Diet quality was scored with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and optimism assessed with the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Baseline characteristics were compared across AHEI quintiles or optimism tertiles using regression models with each variable of interest as a function of quintiles or tertiles (OS, n=87,630; CT, n=65,360). Association between optimism and baseline AHEI and change in AHEI over 1 year were tested using multivariate linear regression (CT, n=13,645). Potential interaction between optimism and trial arm and demographic/lifestyle factors on AHEI change was tested using likelihood ratio test (CT intervention, n=13,645; CT control, n=20,242). Women reporting high AHEI were non-Hispanic white, educated, physically active, past or never smokers, hormone therapy users, had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and were less likely to have chronic conditions. In the CT intervention, higher optimism was associated with higher AHEI at baseline and with greater change over 1 year (P=0.001). Effect modification by intervention status was observed (P=0.014), whereas control participants with highest optimism achieved threefold greater AHEI increase compared with those with the lowest optimism. These data support a relationship between optimism and dietary quality score in postmenopausal women at baseline and over 1 year.

  10. Phenylephrine versus norepinephrine for initial hemodynamic support of patients with septic shock: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Andrea; Ertmer, Christian; Rehberg, Sebastian; Lange, Matthias; Orecchioni, Alessandra; Laderchi, Amalia; Bachetoni, Alessandra; D'Alessandro, Mariadomenica; Van Aken, Hugo; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Westphal, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Previous findings suggest that a delayed administration of phenylephrine replacing norepinephrine in septic shock patients causes a more pronounced hepatosplanchnic vasoconstriction as compared with norepinephrine. Nevertheless, a direct comparison between the two study drugs has not yet been performed. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of a first-line therapy with either phenylephrine or norepinephrine on systemic and regional hemodynamics in patients with septic shock. Methods We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in a university hospital. We enrolled septic shock patients (n = 32) with a mean arterial pressure below 65 mmHg despite adequate volume resuscitation. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with either norepinephrine or phenylephrine infusion (n = 16 each) titrated to achieve a mean arterial pressure between 65 and 75 mmHg. Data from right heart catheterization, a thermodye dilution catheter, gastric tonometry, acid-base homeostasis, as well as creatinine clearance and cardiac troponin were obtained at baseline and after 12 hours. Differences within and between groups were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements with group and time as factors. Time-independent variables were compared with one-way analysis of variance. Results No differences were found in any of the investigated parameters. Conclusions The present study suggests there are no differences in terms of cardiopulmonary performance, global oxygen transport, and regional hemodynamics when phenylephrine was administered instead of norepinephrine in the initial hemodynamic support of septic shock. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00639015 PMID:19017409

  11. Using Vascular Quality Initiative as a Platform for Organizing Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trials: OVERPAR Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Mohammad H.; Doros, Gheorghe; Goodney, Philip P.; Elderup-Jorgenson, Jens; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Malikova, Marina; Farber, Alik

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the organization of a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial comparing the effectiveness of open popliteal artery aneurysm repair (OPAR) and endovascular popliteal artery aneurysm repair (EPAR) of asymptomatic popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) as an example for how to use the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) framework. Given that many centers participate in the VQI, this model can be used to perform multicenters’ prospective trials on very modest budget. Methods VQI prospectively collects data on many vascular procedures. These data include many important perioperative, intraoperative, and postoperative details regarding both patients and their procedures. We describe a study where minimal changes to the collected data by participating centers can provide level-1 evidence regarding a significant clinical question. Data will be collected using modified VQI forms within the existing VQI data reporting structure. We plan to enroll 148 patients with asymptomatic PAAs into the open and endovascular surgery cohorts. Patients from participating VQI centers will be randomized 1:1 to either OPAR or EPAR and will be followed for an average of 2.5 years. Our primary hypothesis is that major adverse limb event–free survival is lower in the EPAR cohort and that EPAR is associated with more secondary interventions, improved quality of life, and decreased length of stay. The budget for this trial is fixed at $10,000/year for the course of the study, and the trial is judged to be feasible because of the functionality of the VQI platform. Conclusions Using the existing VQI infrastructure, Open versus Endovascular Repair of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm will provide level 1 data for PAA treatment on a modest budget. The proposed trial has an adequately powered comparative design that will use objective performance goals to describe limb-related morbidity and procedural reintervention rates. PMID:25311746

  12. Randomized Trial of Continuing Care Enhancements for Cocaine Dependent Patients Following Initial Engagement

    PubMed Central

    McKay, James R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Coviello, Donna; Morrison, Rebecca; Cary, Mark S.; Skalina, Lauren; Plebani, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effects of cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP), contingency management (CM), and their combination (CM+RP) were evaluated in a randomized trial with 100 cocaine dependent patients (58% female, 89% African American) who were engaged in treatment for at least two weeks and had an average of 44 days of abstinence at baseline. Method The participants were from intensive outpatient programs (IOPs), which provide 10 hours per week of group counseling. The CM protocol provided gift certificates (maximum value of $1,150; mean received= $740) for cocaine-free urines over 12 weeks using an escalating reinforcement schedule, and weekly individual RP sessions were offered for up to 20 weeks. Average number of RP sessions attended was 3 in RP and 13 in CM+RP. Results GEE analyses over 18 months post-randomization showed significant effects for CM (but not RP) on urine toxicology and self-reported cocaine use (p=.05), with no significant CM × RP interactions. Secondary analyses indicated CM+RP produced better cocaine urine toxicology outcomes at 6 months than TAU [OR=3.96 (1.33,11.80), p< .01] and RP [OR=4.89 (1.51,15.86), p< .01), and better cocaine urine toxicology outcomes at 9 months than TAU [OR=4.21 (1.37,12.88), p< .01] and RP [OR=4.24 (1.32,13.65), p< .01). Trends also favored CM+RP over CM at 6 [OR=2.93 (0.94,9.07), p= .06] and 9 [OR=2.93 (0.94,9.10), p= .06) months. Differences between the conditions were not significant after 9 months. Conclusions These results suggest CM can improve outcomes in cocaine dependent IOP patients who have achieved initial engagement, particularly when combined with relapse prevention. PMID:20099956

  13. Experiments on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with an imposed, random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklashvili, Vladimer

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is studied in vertical shock tube experiment. The instability is initiated by the passage of an incident shock wave over an interface between two dissimilar gases. The interface is formed by opposed gas flows in which air and SF6 enter the shock tube from the top and from the bottom of the shock tube driven section. The gases exit the test section through a series of small holes in the test section side walls, leaving behind a flat, diffuse membrane-free interface at that location. Random three-dimensional perturbations are imposed on the interface by oscillating the column of gases in the vertical direction, using two loud speakers mounted in the shock tube wall. The development of the turbulent mixing is observed as a result of the shock-interface interaction. The flow is visualized using planar Mie scattering in which the light from a laser sheet is scattered by smoke particles seeded in one of the experimental gases and image sequences are captured using high-speed CMOS cameras. The primary interest of the study is the determination of the growth rate of the turbulent mixing layer that develops after an impulsive acceleration of the perturbed interface between the two gases (air/SF6) by a weak M=1.2 incident shock wave. Measurements of the mixing layer width following the initial shock interaction show a power law growth h˜ tthetasimilar to the those observed in previous experiments and simulations with theta ≈ 0.40. The experiments reveal that the growth rate of the mixing width significantly varies from one experiment to another. This is attributed to the influence of initial perturbations imposed on the interface. However, better consistency for the mixing layer growth rate is obtained from the mixing generated by the reflected shock wave. A novel approach that is based on mass and linear momentum conservation laws in the moving reference frame leads to a new definition of the spike and bubble mixing layer widths, which

  14. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  15. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707.

  16. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  17. Healthy Kids! State Initiatives To Improve Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Martha P.

    Millions of American children and youth, especially low-income and minority children, lack health insurance and access to appropriate health care services. This publication addresses several major public policy topics related to improving children's health, and is designed to serve as a resource for policymakers who want to improve access to…

  18. Teaching Medical Students about Health Literacy: 2 Chicago Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William; Cook, Sandy; Makoul, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop medical students' skills in interacting with individuals who have limited health literacy. Methods: Described are 2 novel approaches to health literacy curriculum design. Efforts at both schools have been implemented to improve medical student awareness of health literacy, as well as specific skills in clear communication and…

  19. Teaching Medical Students about Health Literacy: 2 Chicago Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, William; Cook, Sandy; Makoul, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop medical students' skills in interacting with individuals who have limited health literacy. Methods: Described are 2 novel approaches to health literacy curriculum design. Efforts at both schools have been implemented to improve medical student awareness of health literacy, as well as specific skills in clear communication and…

  20. Time to Treatment Initiation in People With Alzheimer Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Hirai, Hoyee W; Chan, Joyce Y C; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a global health problem which afflicts millions of old age population worldwide. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are recognized drug treatments with limited clinical efficacy. It is uncertain if earlier initiation of these drugs will result in better outcomes in the longer term. To evaluate the benefit of early treatment among people with AD. Prospective randomized controlled trials were systematically searched from the OVID databases. The trials were eligible if study participants diagnosed with AD and were randomized to have early or late treatment. Any clinical assessment scales on cognitive function, physical function, behavioral problems, and the overall clinical status were the primary outcomes, and any reported adverse events were the secondary outcomes. Ten randomized trials were identified between 2000 and 2010. A total of 3092 participants with AD with mean age 75.8 years were randomly assigned to receive early treatment or treatment delayed by placebo intervention for around 6 months. Compared with late treatment, early AD drug treatment showed no significant benefit on cognitive function [mean difference (MD) of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Subscale = -0.49, 95% CI = -1.67 to 0.69], physical function (MD of Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory = 0.47, 95% CI = -1.44 to 2.39), behavioral problems (MD of Neuropsychiatric Inventory = -0.26, 95% CI = -2.70 to 2.18), and clinical status (MD of Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.23 to 0.27). Nausea was the most common adverse events in acetylcholinesterase inhibitor users, while memantine did not result in more side effects than the placebo group. For both drugs, early treatment had comparable adverse events when compared with late treatment. Earlier AD drug treatment by around 6 months did not result in significant difference in cognitive function, physical

  1. Calcium, vitamin D supplementation, and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Robert L; Cochrane, Barbara; Jackson, Rebecca D; Larson, Joseph; Lewis, Cora; Limacher, Marian; Rosal, Milagros; Shumaker, Sally; Wallace, Robert

    2008-09-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial of calcium/vitamin D supplementation found reduced bone loss with active treatment compared to placebo. Now we examine whether the treatment affected self-reported physical functioning and objective measures of physical functioning. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 1,000 mg calcium carbonate plus 400 IU vitamin D(3) per day or matching placebo pills. The study included 33,067 women (50 to 79 years old) at 40 US study centers. Physical functioning was assessed by questionnaire at enrollment in WHI, 1 year prior to calcium/vitamin D trial randomization and at study close-out (average follow-up 7.1 years). Objective physical performance and self-reported exercise measures were collected at WHI baseline (1 year prior to calcium/vitamin D enrollment) and 2 years and 4 years after calcium/vitamin D trial enrollment in a subsample (n=3,137). Calcium/vitamin D effects were tested in unadjusted and interaction linear models for each of the physical function measures. Covariates were baseline total calcium intake, fracture risk score, treatment arm in the hormone therapy and dietary modification trials (ie, active drug or placebo, low-fat diet intervention or usual diet, respectively) and age. Neither intention to treat nor high adherence analyses produced substantial effects of calcium/vitamin D compared to placebo on physical functioning or performance. The interaction analyses also did not result in differences because of calcium/vitamin D. As the first long-term randomized trial to examine the effectiveness of calcium and vitamin D in protecting against decline of physical functioning in older women, the results did not support benefit.

  2. Personal health records and hypertension control: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peggy J; Dias, James; Howard, Shalon; Kintziger, Kristina W; Hudson, Matthew F; Seol, Yoon-Ho; Sodomka, Pat

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of a personal health record (PHR) in patients with hypertension measured by changes in biological outcomes, patient empowerment, patient perception of quality of care, and use of medical services. A cluster-randomized effectiveness trial with PHR and no PHR groups was conducted in two ambulatory clinics. 453 of 1686 (26.4%) patients approached were included in the analyses. A PHR tethered to the patient's electronic medical record (EMR) was the primary intervention and included security measures, patient control of access, limited transmission of EMR data, blood pressure (BP) tracking, and appointment assistance. BP was the main outcome measure. Patient empowerment was assessed using the Patient Activation Measure and Patient Empowerment Scale. Quality of care was assessed using the Clinician and Group Assessment Score (CAHPS) and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care. Frequency of use of medical services was self-reported. No impact of the PHR was observed on BP, patient activation, patient perceived quality, or medical utilization in the intention-to-treat analysis. Sub-analysis of intervention patients self-identified as active PHR users (25.7% of those with available information) showed a 5.25-point reduction in diastolic BP. Younger age, self-reported computer skills, and more positive provider communication ratings were associated with frequency of PHR use. Few patients provided with a PHR actually used the PHR with any frequency. Thus simply providing a PHR may have limited impact on patient BP, empowerment, satisfaction with care, or use of health services without additional education or clinical intervention designed to increase PHR use. http://ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01317537.

  3. Impact of global health governance on country health systems: the case of HIV initiatives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chima, Charles Chikodili; Homedes, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Background Three global health initiatives (GHIs) – the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank Multi–Country HIV/AIDS Program – finance most HIV services in Nigeria. Critics assert that GHIs burden fragile health systems in resource–poor countries and that health system limitations in these countries constrain the achievement of the objectives of GHIs. This study analyzed interactions between HIV GHIs and the Nigerian Health System and explored how the impact of the GHIs could be optimized. Methods A country case study was conducted using qualitative methods, including: semi–structured interviews, direct observation, and archival review. Semi–structured interviews were held with key informants selected to reach a broad range of stakeholders including policymakers, program managers, service providers, representatives of donor agencies and their implementing partners; the WHO country office in Nigeria; independent consultants; and civil society organizations involved in HIV work. The fieldwork was conducted between June and August 2013. Findings HIV GHIs have had a mixed impact on the health system. They have enhanced availability of and access to HIV services, improved quality of services, and strengthened health information systems and the role of non–state actors in health care. On the negative end, HIV donor funding has increased dependency on foreign aid, widened disparities in access to HIV services, done little to address the sustainability of the services, crowded out non–HIV health services, and led to the development of a parallel supply management system. They have also not invested significantly in the production of new health workers and have not addressed maldistribution problems, but have rather contributed to internal brain drain by luring health workers from the public sector to non–governmental organizations and have increased workload for

  4. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R.

    2012-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA. PMID:23034804

  5. Demethylation initiated by ROS1 glycosylase involves random sliding along DNA.

    PubMed

    Ponferrada-Marín, María Isabel; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Ariza, Rafael R

    2012-12-01

    Active DNA demethylation processes play a critical role in shaping methylation patterns, yet our understanding of the mechanisms involved is still fragmented and incomplete. REPRESSOR OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) is a prototype member of a family of plant 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases that initiate active DNA demethylation through a base excision repair pathway. As ROS1 binds DNA non-specifically, we have critically tested the hypothesis that facilitated diffusion along DNA may contribute to target location by the enzyme. We have found that dissociation of ROS1 from DNA is severely restricted when access to both ends is obstructed by tetraloops obstacles. Unblocking any end facilitates protein dissociation, suggesting that random surface sliding is the main route to a specific target site. We also found that removal of the basic N-terminal domain of ROS1 significantly impairs the sliding capacity of the protein. Finally, we show that sliding increases the catalytic efficiency of ROS1 on 5-meC:G pairs, but not on T:G mispairs, thus suggesting that the enzyme achieves recognition and excision of its two substrate bases by different means. A model is proposed to explain how ROS1 finds its potential targets on DNA.

  6. The impact of global health initiatives on the health system in Angola.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Isabel; Dussault, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs) on the health care system of Angola, as a contribution to documenting how GHIs, such as the Global Fund, GAVI and PEPFAR, influence the planning and delivery of health services in low-income countries and how national systems respond. We collected the views of national and sub-national key informants through 42 semi-structured interviews between April 2009 and May 2011 (12 at the national level and 30 at the sub-national level). We used a snowball technique to identify respondents from government, donors and non-governmental organisations. GHIs stimulated the formulation of a health policy and of plans and strategies, but the country has yet to decide on its priorities for health. At the regional level, managers lack knowledge of how GHIs' function, but they assess the effects of external funds as positive as they increased training opportunities, and augment the number of workers engaged in HIV or other specific disease programmes. However, GHIs did not address the challenge of attraction and retention of qualified personnel in provinces. Since Angola is not entirely dependent on external funding, national strategic programmes and the interventions of GHIs co-habit well, in contrast to countries such as Mozambique, which heavily depend on external aid.

  7. Rainbows: a primary health care initiative for primary schools.

    PubMed

    Munns, Ailsa; Forde, Karen A; Krouzecky, Miriam; Shields, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Within the current Australian health system is the understanding of a need to change from the predominate biomedical model to incorporate a comprehensive primary health care centred approach, embracing the social contexts of health and wellbeing. Recent research investigated the benefits of the primary health care philosophy and strategies in relation to the Rainbows programme which addresses grief and loss in primary school aged students in Western Australia. A multidisciplinary collaboration between the Western Australian Departments of Health and Education enabled community school health nurse coordinators to train teacher facilitators in the implementation of Rainbows, enabling support for students and their parents. The results of this qualitative study indicate that all participants regard Rainbows as effective, with many perceived benefits to students and their families.

  8. Assessing the feasibility of eHealth and mHealth: a systematic review and analysis of initiatives implemented in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Martin; Zurovac, Dejan; Ogara, Esther A A; Chuma, Jane; Kirigia, Doris

    2017-02-10

    The growth of Information and Communication Technology in Kenya has facilitated implementation of a large number of eHealth projects in a bid to cost-effectively address health and health system challenges. This systematic review aims to provide a situational analysis of eHealth initiatives being implemented in Kenya, including an assessment of the areas of focus and geographic distribution of the health projects. The search strategy involved peer and non-peer reviewed sources of relevant information relating to projects under implementation in Kenya. The projects were examined based on strategic area of implementation, health purpose and focus, geographic location, evaluation status and thematic area. A total of 114 citations comprising 69 eHealth projects fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The eHealth projects included 47 mHealth projects, 9 health information system projects, 8 eLearning projects and 5 telemedicine projects. In terms of projects geographical distribution, 24 were executed in Nairobi whilst 15 were designed to have a national coverage but only 3 were scaled up. In terms of health focus, 19 projects were mainly on primary care, 17 on HIV/AIDS and 11 on maternal and child health (MNCH). Only 8 projects were rigorously evaluated under randomized control trials. This review discovered that there is a myriad of eHealth projects being implemented in Kenya, mainly in the mHealth strategic area and focusing mostly on primary care and HIV/AIDs. Based on our analysis, most of the projects were rarely evaluated. In addition, few projects are implemented in marginalised areas and least urbanized counties with more health care needs, notwithstanding the fact that adoption of information and communication technology should aim to improve health equity (i.e. improve access to health care particularly in remote parts of the country in order to reduce geographical inequities) and contribute to overall health systems strengthening.

  9. A Comprehensive Lifestyle Randomized Clinical Trial: Design and Initial Patient Experience.

    PubMed

    Arun, Banu; Austin, Taylor; Babiera, Gildy V; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Carmack, Cindy L; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo; Connelly, Lisa; Haddad, Robin; Harrison, Carol; Li, Yisheng; Mallaiah, Smitha; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Parker, Patricia A; Perkins, George H; Reuben, James M; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Spelman, Amy; Sood, Anil; Yang, Peiying; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2017-03-01

    Although epidemiological research demonstrates that there is an association between lifestyle factors and risk of breast cancer recurrence, progression of disease, and mortality, no comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trials have been conducted to determine if changing multiple risk factors leads to changes in biobehavioral processes and clinical outcomes in women with breast cancer. This article describes the design, feasibility, adherence to the intervention and data collection, and patient experience of a comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trial (CompLife). CompLife is a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-behavior intervention focusing on diet, exercise, and mind-body practice along with behavioral counseling to support change. The initial exposure to the intervention takes place during the 4 to 6 weeks of radiotherapy (XRT) for women with stage III breast cancer and then across the subsequent 12 months. The intervention group will have 42 hours of in-person lifestyle counseling during XRT (7-10 hours a week) followed by up to 30 hours of counseling via video connection for the subsequent 12 months (weekly sessions for 6 months and then monthly for 6 months). The primary outcome is disease-free survival. Multiple secondary outcomes are being evaluated, including: (1) biological pathways; (2) overall survival; (3) patient-reported outcomes; (4) dietary patterns/fitness levels, anthropometrics, and body composition; and (5) economic outcomes. Qualitative data of the patient experience in the trial is collected from exit interviews, concluding remarks, direct email correspondences, and web postings from patients. Fifty-five patients have been recruited and randomized to the trial to date. Accrual of eligible patients is high (72%) and dropout rates extremely low (5%). Attendance to the in-person sessions is high (95% attending greater than 80% of sessions) as well as to the 30 hours of video counseling (88% attending more than 70% of sessions

  10. Health Care of Incarcerated Youth: State Programs & Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda S.; Sheahan, Paula M.

    This report presents the analysis and results of a survey of states' progress in meeting the goals and objectives of their state action plans on the health care of incarcerated youth. The survey questioned 48 juvenile justice professionals, health care professionals, and university faculty from across the nation concerning state progress toward…

  11. "Razoo Health:" A Community-Based Nursing Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Marjorie B.; Morgan, Connie M.; Matteson, Peggy S.

    2003-01-01

    In New Orleans, nursing faculty and students partnered with inner-city schools and churches to mobilize neighborhood assets and improve health care. Students learned community assessment skills and worked with empowered citizens who reclaimed their health resources. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  12. "Razoo Health:" A Community-Based Nursing Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Marjorie B.; Morgan, Connie M.; Matteson, Peggy S.

    2003-01-01

    In New Orleans, nursing faculty and students partnered with inner-city schools and churches to mobilize neighborhood assets and improve health care. Students learned community assessment skills and worked with empowered citizens who reclaimed their health resources. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  13. Licensed Practical Nurses in Occupational Health. An Initial Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jane A.; And Others

    The study, conducted in 1971, assessed characteristics of licensed practical nurses (LPN's) who worked in occupational health nursing. The survey instrument, a questionnaire, was returned by 591 LPN's in occupational health and provided data related to: personal characteristics, work and setting, administrative and professional functioning,…

  14. Health care reform: initial implications for continuing education in nursing.

    PubMed

    Camin, L R

    1995-01-01

    Continuing education coordinators and interested others met statewide to consider the educational needs of nurses emerging with health care reform. It was agreed that continuing nursing education must aggressively pursue its mission and activities to lead, promote, and enhance the education of our profession on health care reform.

  15. Early Surgery versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients with Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STITCH[Trauma]): The First Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Mendelow, A David; Gregson, Barbara A; Rowan, Elise N; Francis, Richard; McColl, Elaine; McNamee, Paul; Chambers, Iain R; Unterberg, Andreas; Boyers, Dwayne; Mitchell, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Intraparenchymal hemorrhages occur in a proportion of severe traumatic brain injury TBI patients, but the role of surgery in their treatment is unclear. This international multi-center, patient-randomized, parallel-group trial compared early surgery (hematoma evacuation within 12 h of randomization) with initial conservative treatment (subsequent evacuation allowed if deemed necessary). Patients were randomized using an independent randomization service within 48 h of TBI. Patients were eligible if they had no more than two intraparenchymal hemorrhages of 10 mL or more and did not have an extradural or subdural hematoma that required surgery. The primary outcome measure was the traditional dichotomous split of the Glasgow Outcome Scale obtained by postal questionnaires sent directly to patients at 6 months. The trial was halted early by the UK funding agency (NIHR HTA) for failure to recruit sufficient patients from the UK (trial registration: ISRCTN19321911). A total of 170 patients were randomized from 31 of 59 registered centers worldwide. Of 82 patients randomized to early surgery with complete follow-up, 30 (37%) had an unfavorable outcome. Of 85 patients randomized to initial conservative treatment with complete follow-up, 40 (47%) had an unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.35, 1.21; p=0.17), with an absolute benefit of 10.5% (CI, -4.4-25.3%). There were significantly more deaths in the first 6 months in the initial conservative treatment group (33% vs. 15%; p=0.006). The 10.5% absolute benefit with early surgery was consistent with the initial power calculation. However, with the low sample size resulting from the premature termination, we cannot exclude the possibility that this could be a chance finding. A further trial is required urgently to assess whether this encouraging signal can be confirmed.

  16. Early Surgery versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients with Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STITCH[Trauma]): The First Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mendelow, A. David; Rowan, Elise N.; Francis, Richard; McColl, Elaine; McNamee, Paul; Chambers, Iain R.; Unterberg, Andreas; Boyers, Dwayne; Mitchell, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intraparenchymal hemorrhages occur in a proportion of severe traumatic brain injury TBI patients, but the role of surgery in their treatment is unclear. This international multi-center, patient-randomized, parallel-group trial compared early surgery (hematoma evacuation within 12 h of randomization) with initial conservative treatment (subsequent evacuation allowed if deemed necessary). Patients were randomized using an independent randomization service within 48 h of TBI. Patients were eligible if they had no more than two intraparenchymal hemorrhages of 10 mL or more and did not have an extradural or subdural hematoma that required surgery. The primary outcome measure was the traditional dichotomous split of the Glasgow Outcome Scale obtained by postal questionnaires sent directly to patients at 6 months. The trial was halted early by the UK funding agency (NIHR HTA) for failure to recruit sufficient patients from the UK (trial registration: ISRCTN19321911). A total of 170 patients were randomized from 31 of 59 registered centers worldwide. Of 82 patients randomized to early surgery with complete follow-up, 30 (37%) had an unfavorable outcome. Of 85 patients randomized to initial conservative treatment with complete follow-up, 40 (47%) had an unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.35, 1.21; p=0.17), with an absolute benefit of 10.5% (CI, −4.4–25.3%). There were significantly more deaths in the first 6 months in the initial conservative treatment group (33% vs. 15%; p=0.006). The 10.5% absolute benefit with early surgery was consistent with the initial power calculation. However, with the low sample size resulting from the premature termination, we cannot exclude the possibility that this could be a chance finding. A further trial is required urgently to assess whether this encouraging signal can be confirmed. PMID:25738794

  17. Veterans Affairs Health System Enrollment and Health Care Utilization After the Affordable Care Act: Initial Insights.

    PubMed

    Silva, Abigail; Tarlov, Elizabeth; French, Dustin D; Huo, Zhiping; Martinez, Rachael N; Stroupe, Kevin T

    2016-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law in 2010 and its individual mandate and expanded health care coverage options were implemented in 2014. These provisions may affect Veterans Affairs (VA) enrollment and health care utilization. Using data from two VA regional networks, we examined recent patterns in the number of new VA enrollees and their primary care use. Trends were assessed by enrollment priority group (based on the veteran's severity of service-connected disabilities, exposures, and income level) and a state's Medicaid expansion status. Compared to the same time period in the previous year, the number of new enrollees from low-income priority groups was higher during the open enrollment period and the increase was sharper in Medicaid non-expansion states (25-42%) than in expansion states (20-32%). In addition, low-income patients with a copay requirement who enrolled in the VA during the ACA open enrollment had a lower average number of primary care visits than counterparts who had enrolled in prior time periods (1.73 versus 1.87, p < 0.0001). Although this study is an initial step, more research is required to better understand veterans' decision making and behavior in regard to health care coverage through the ACA and related impacts on VA and non-VA health care utilization and care coordination. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Child Health and Neighborhood Conditions: Results from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson, Jane G.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Moving to Opportunity randomized housing voucher experiment, we estimate the direct effects of housing and neighborhood quality on child health. We show that, five years after random assignment, housing mobility has little impact on overall health status, asthma, injuries, and body mass index. The few effects that we observe…

  19. Child Health and Neighborhood Conditions: Results from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson, Jane G.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Moving to Opportunity randomized housing voucher experiment, we estimate the direct effects of housing and neighborhood quality on child health. We show that, five years after random assignment, housing mobility has little impact on overall health status, asthma, injuries, and body mass index. The few effects that we observe…

  20. Pain reduction after initial archwire placement in orthodontic patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Alizadeh, Sanaz; Ahrari, Farzaneh

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen, viscoelastic bite wafers, and chewing gum in reducing orthodontic pain. This randomized clinical trial included 50 girls between the ages of 13 and 18 years classified into 5 groups of 10 each: placebo, ibuprofen (400 mg), chewing gum, soft viscoelastic wafer, and hard viscoelastic wafer. The patients in each group received 1 method immediately after placement of the initial archwires and every 8 hours if they experienced pain. Pain perception was recorded by the patients while chewing, biting, fitting front teeth, and fitting posterior teeth at 2 hours, 6 hours, bedtime, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, and 7 days after archwire placement, using a visual analog scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used for data analysis. There were significant differences in pain perception of chewing function between the placebo group and the chewing-gum group at 24 hours and 7 days, and between the placebo group and the hard-viscoelastic group on the day 7 (P <0.05). Also, there were significant differences between the placebo group and the soft-viscoelastic group, and between the placebo group and the hard-viscoelastic group in pain severity when fitting posterior teeth at 6 hours (P <0.05). At other times and with other functions, no significant differences were recorded. Both chewing gum and viscoelastic bite wafers are effective for pain reduction in orthodontic patients and can be recommended as suitable substitutes for ibuprofen. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  2. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katie; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients’ sexual health functioning is important for physicians in all fields of medicine to consider; however, this topic is lacking from almost half of U.S. medical school curricula. Aims This study aims to develop, implement, and assess the feasibility of a preliminary sexual health curriculum for medical students. Methods This Sexual Health Selective (SHS) was developed and implemented by a student and faculty champion for first year medical students. Its design incorporated a number of the guiding principles and recommendations from the 2012 Summit on Medical School Education in Sexual Health. Main Outcome Measures Feasibility was measured by limited-efficacy testing and participant acceptability of the SHS. Limited-efficacy testing was accomplished by conducting descriptive comparisons of responses to a sexual health attitudes and knowledge survey. These responses were compared between (i) participants vs. nonparticipants prior to the SHS, (ii) participants immediately after vs. participants prior to the SHS, (iii) participants 3 months after vs. participants prior to the SHS, and (iv) participants 3 months after vs. participants immediately after the SHS. Participant acceptability was assessed by asking qualitatively and quantitatively whether students enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Results Immediately after the SHS and 3 months later, participants reported increased comfort and open-mindedness in their attitudes toward sexual health and demonstrated an increase in accurate knowledge about sexual health issues compared with baseline. Objective follow-up also revealed that most participants enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Conclusions The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward

  3. A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Analysis of the Implementation Integrity of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, J. Stephen; Horner, Robert H.; Algozzine, Bob; Todd, Anne W.; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Members of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) teams from 34 elementary schools participated in a Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Workshop and follow-up technical assistance. Within the context of a randomized wait-list controlled trial, team members who were the first recipients of the TIPS intervention demonstrated greater…

  4. A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Analysis of the Implementation Integrity of Team-Initiated Problem Solving Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, J. Stephen; Horner, Robert H.; Algozzine, Bob; Todd, Anne W.; Algozzine, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Members of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) teams from 34 elementary schools participated in a Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Workshop and follow-up technical assistance. Within the context of a randomized wait-list controlled trial, team members who were the first recipients of the TIPS intervention demonstrated greater…

  5. Evaluation of a Randomized Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Fifth-Graders Followed through the Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Yao, Qing; Jenkins, Renee R.; Anderson, Karen M.; Davis, Maurice; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    US adolescents initiate sex at increasingly younger ages, yet few pregnancy prevention interventions for children as young as 10-12 years old have been evaluated. Sixteen Washington, DC schools were randomly assigned to intervention versus control conditions. Beginning in 2001/02 with fifth-grade students and continuing during the sixth grade,…

  6. Evaluation of a Randomized Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Fifth-Graders Followed through the Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Yao, Qing; Jenkins, Renee R.; Anderson, Karen M.; Davis, Maurice; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    US adolescents initiate sex at increasingly younger ages, yet few pregnancy prevention interventions for children as young as 10-12 years old have been evaluated. Sixteen Washington, DC schools were randomly assigned to intervention versus control conditions. Beginning in 2001/02 with fifth-grade students and continuing during the sixth grade,…

  7. Ethical and regulatory issues of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in contemporary health systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique L; Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Cluster randomized trials randomly assign groups of individuals to examine research questions or test interventions and measure their effects on individuals. Recent emphasis on quality improvement, comparative effectiveness, and learning health systems has prompted expanded use of pragmatic cluster randomized trials in routine health-care settings, which in turn poses practical and ethical challenges that current oversight frameworks may not adequately address. The 2012 Ottawa Statement provides a basis for considering many issues related to pragmatic cluster randomized trials but challenges remain, including some arising from the current US research and health-care regulations. In order to examine the ethical, regulatory, and practical questions facing pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings, the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory convened a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, in July 2013. Attendees included experts in clinical trials, patient advocacy, research ethics, and research regulations from academia, industry, the National Institutes of Health Collaboratory, and other federal agencies. Workshop participants identified substantial barriers to implementing these types of cluster randomized trials, including issues related to research design, gatekeepers and governance in health systems, consent, institutional review boards, data monitoring, privacy, and special populations. We describe these barriers and suggest means for understanding and overcoming them to facilitate pragmatic cluster randomized trials in health-care settings.

  8. [Cost-effectiveness of public health practices: a literature review of public health interventions from the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Danese-dlSantos, Laura G; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Aracena-Genao, Belkis

    2011-01-01

    Present and analyze cost-effectiveness information of public health interventions proposed by the Mesoamerican Health Initiative in child nutrition, vaccination, malaria, dengue, and maternal, neonatal, and reproductive health. A systematic literature review was conducted on cost-effectiveness studies published between January 2000 and August 2009 on interventions related to the health areas previously mentioned. Studies were included if they measured effectiveness in terms of Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or death averted. Child nutrition and maternal and neonatal health interventions were found to be highly cost-effective (most of them below US$200 per DALY averted for nutritional interventions and US$100 for maternal and neonatal health). For dengue, information on cost-effectiveness was found just for application of larvicides, which resulted in a cost per DALY averted ranking from US$40.79 to US$345.06. Malarial interventions were found to be cost-effective (below US$150 per DALY averted or US$4,000 per death averted within Africa). In the case of pneumococcus and rotavirus vaccination, cost-effectiveness estimates were always above one GDP per capita per DALY averted. In Mesoamerica there are still important challenges in child nutrition, vaccination, malaria, dengue and maternal, neonatal, and reproductive health, challenges that could be addressed by scaling-up technically feasible and cost-effective interventions.

  9. Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials: Interaction of calcium plus vitamin D and Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John A; Aragaki, Aaron; Crandall, Carolyn J; Manson, Joann E; Carbone, Laura; Jackson, Rebecca; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sarto, Gloria; Stefanick, Marcia L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the added value of Calcium and vitamin D (CaD) for fracture prevention among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods A prospective, partial-factorial design, randomized controlled double blind trial amongst Women’s Health Initiative post-menopausal participants, ages 50–79, at 40 centers in the US, with 7.1 years average follow-up. 27,347 women were randomized to HT (conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg alone, or CEE 0.625 mg daily plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5mg) and 36,282 women randomized to either 1000mg elemental calcium (carbonate) plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily each compared to placebo. A total of 16,089 women were in both arms. The predefined outcomes were adjudicated hip fractures and measured bone mineral density. Results Interaction between HT and CaD on hip fracture (P-interaction = 0.01) was shown. The effect of CaD was stronger among women assigned to HT (HR, 0.59; 95%CI, 0.38–0.93) than placebo (HR, 1.20; 95%CI, 0.85, 1.69). The effect of HT on hip fracture was stronger among women assigned to active CaD (HR, 0.43; 0.28–0.66) than placebo (HR, 0.87; 95%CI, 0.60–1.26). CaD supplementation enhanced the anti-fracture effect of the HT at all levels of personal calcium intake. There was no interaction of HT and CaD on change in hip or spine BMD. Conclusions Postmenopausal women at normal risk of hip fracture on HT, supplementation with CaD significantly reduced incident hip fracture beyond HT alone; at all levels of personal baseline total calcium intake. PMID:23799356

  10. [Immunization and equity in the Regional Initiative of the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    National immunization rates indicate high vaccine coverage in Mesoamerica, but there is growing evidence that the most vulnerable groups are not being reached by immunization programs. Therefore, there is likely low effective vaccine coverage in the region, leading to persistent and growing health inequity. The planning phase of this project was from June to December 2009. The project will be conducted in the target populations which includes children under five, pregnant women, and women of child-bearing age from the most vulnerable populations within countries of the Mesoamerican region, as indicated geographically by a low human development index (HDI) and/or high prevalence of poverty at the municipal level and through the use of participatory methods to define poverty and vulnerability in local contexts. We defined three lines of action for vaccine-preventable disease interventions: 1) pilot projects to fill gaps in knowledge; 2) strengthening immunization policy; and 3) implementation of evidence-based practices. Health system strengthening through health equity is the central regional objective of the immunization workgroup. We hope to have a transformational impact on health systems so as to improve effective coverage, including vaccine and other integrated primary healthcare services.

  11. Health and Safety Initiative in the New Orleans Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garibaldi, Antoine; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between suspensions and expulsions of African American students, teacher effectiveness, and school safety in New Orleans (Louisiana) public schools. Preliminary evaluations for the 1995-96 school year are presented. The initial phase of data collection focused on focus group interviews…

  12. UNICEF and New Initiatives in Child Health and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyi, Nyi

    The four sections of this paper outline changes in UNICEF programs from their inception in 1946 to recent initiatives circa 1983. The first section delineates shifts in program emphasis, showing how the organization's focus has moved from meeting the emergency needs of post-World War II European children toward addressing the long-term needs of…

  13. Improving Diabetes Care and Health Measures among Hispanics Using Community Health Workers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babamoto, Kenneth S.; Sey, Kwa A.; Camilleri, Angela J.; Karlan, Vicki J.; Catalasan, Joana; Morisky, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity, growing health disparities, and shortage of bilingual and culturally trained health care professionals underscore the role of trained community health workers (CHWs) to provide economically sustainable and culturally relevant services. This prospective randomized design evaluated the relative…

  14. Improving Diabetes Care and Health Measures among Hispanics Using Community Health Workers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babamoto, Kenneth S.; Sey, Kwa A.; Camilleri, Angela J.; Karlan, Vicki J.; Catalasan, Joana; Morisky, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity, growing health disparities, and shortage of bilingual and culturally trained health care professionals underscore the role of trained community health workers (CHWs) to provide economically sustainable and culturally relevant services. This prospective randomized design evaluated the relative…

  15. The Incredible Year Teacher Classroom Management Program: Initial Findings from a Group Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Dong, Nianbo

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of children in schools have mental health problems (World Health Organization, 2004). If children receive any type of mental health services, the vast majority receive these supports at school (Rones & Hoagwood, 2000). Mental health needs in children often manifest as emotional dysregulation, social incompetence, and…

  16. Impact of maternal and neonatal health initiatives on inequity in maternal health care utilization in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Rahman, Mohammad Masudur; Moinuddin, Md; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Ahmed, Shakil; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization. Two surveys were carried out in four districts in Bangladesh- baseline in 2008 and end-line in 2013. The baseline survey collected data from 13,206 women giving birth in the preceding year and in end-line 7,177 women were interviewed. Inequity in maternal healthcare utilization was calculated pre and post-MNHIB using rich-to-poor ratio and concentration index. Mean age of respondents were 23.9 and 24.6 years in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Utilization of pregnancy-related care increased for all socioeconomic strata between these two surveys. The concentration indices (CI) for various maternal health service utilization in 2013 were found to be lower than the indices in 2008. However, in comparison to contemporary BDHS data in nearby districts, MNHIB was successful in reducing inequity in receiving ANC from a trained provider (CI: 0.337 and 0.272), institutional delivery (CI: 0.435 in 2008 to 0.362 in 2013), and delivery by skilled personnel (CI: 0.396 and 0.370). Overall use of maternal health care services increased in post-MNHIB year compared to pre-MNHIB year and inequity in maternal service utilization declined for three indicators out of six considered in the paper. The reductions in CI values for select maternal care indicators imply that the program has been successful not only in improving utilization of maternal health services but also in lowering inequality of service utilization across socioeconomic groups

  17. Private and Public Initiatives: Working Together for Health and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaag, Jacques van der

    The World Bank helps countries to arrive at whatever combination of public and private control is best for their particular economic circumstances. This booklet describes that work and summarizes examples of private-sector involvement in health and education provision in the developing world today. The examples also illustrate what the World Bank…

  18. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  19. School-Based Health Promotion Initiative Increases Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluss, Patricia; Lorigan, Devin; Kinsky, Suzanne; Nikolajski, Cara; McDermott, Anne; Bhat, Kiran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity increases health risk, and modest physical activity can impact that risk. Schools have an opportunity to help children become more active. Purpose: This study implemented a program offering extra school-day activity opportunities in a rural school district where 37% of students were obese or overweight in 2005 and…

  20. Adolescents Initiating Cannabis Use: Cultural Opposition or Poor Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Willy

    1990-01-01

    Investigated possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health, and the use of cannabis in prospective longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescents (n=1,311). Findings indicated that the group that experimented with cannabis was mainly characterized by political and normative "oppositional" engagement, but heavy…

  1. Hemodialysis catheter care strategies: a cluster-randomized quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alex; Wang, Weiling; Ball, Lynda K; Latham, Carolyn; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of central venous catheters (CVCs) for hemodialysis remains high and, despite infection-control protocols, predisposes to bloodstream infections (BSIs). Stratified, cluster-randomized, quality improvement initiative. All in-center patients with a CVC within 211 facility pairs matched by region, facility size, and rate of positive blood cultures (January to March 2011) at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. Incorporate the use of 2% chlorhexidine with 70% alcohol swab sticks for exit-site care and 70% alcohol pads to perform "scrub the hubs" in dialysis-related CVC care procedures compared to usual care. The primary outcome was positive blood cultures for estimating BSI rates. Comparison of 3-month baseline period from April 1 to June 30 and follow-up period from August 1 to October 30, 2011. Baseline BSI rates were similar (0.85 vs 0.86/1,000 CVC-days), but follow-up rates differed at 0.81/1,000 CVC-days in intervention facilities versus 1.04/1,000 CVC-days in controls (P = 0.02). Intravenous antibiotic starts during the follow-up period also were lower, at 2.53/1,000 CVC-days versus 3.15/1,000 CVC-days in controls (P < 0.001). Cluster-adjusted Poisson regression confirmed 21%-22% reductions in both (P < 0.001). Extended follow-up for 3 successive quarters demonstrated a sustained reduction of bacteremia rates for patients in intervention facilities, at 0.50/1,000 CVC-days (41% reduction; P < 0.001). Hospitalizations due to sepsis during 1-year extended follow-up were 0.19/1,000 CVC-days (0.069/CVC-year) versus 0.26/1,000 CVC-days (0.095/CVC-year) in controls (∼27% difference; P < 0.05). Inability to capture results from blood cultures sent to external laboratories, underestimation of sepsis-specific hospitalizations, and potential crossover adoption of the intervention protocol in control facilities. Adoption of the new catheter care procedure (consistent with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations

  2. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana's health insurance.

    PubMed

    Seddoh, Anthony; Akor, Samuel Akortey

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. This paper has examined the policy environment and the

  3. Policy initiation and political levers in health policy: lessons from Ghana’s health insurance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health policy formulation process over the years has focused on the content of policy to the neglect of context. This had led to several policy initiatives having a still birth or ineffective policy choices with sub-optimal outcomes when implemented. Sometimes, the difficulty has been finding congruence between different values and interests of the various stakeholders. How can policy initiators leverage the various subtle mechanisms that various players draw on to leverage their interests during policy formulation. This paper attempts to conceptualise these levers of policy formulation to enhance an understanding of this field of work based on lived experience. Methodology This is a qualitative participant observation case study based on retrospective recollection of the policy process and political levers involved in developing the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. The study uses a four-concept framework which is agenda setting, symbols manipulation, constituency preservation and coalition building to capture the various issues, negotiations and nuanced approaches used in arriving at desired outcomes. Results Technical experts, civil society, academicians and politicians all had significant influence on setting the health insurance agenda. Each of these various stakeholders carefully engaged in ways that preserved their constituency interests through explicit manoeuvres and subtle engagements. Where proposals lend themselves to various interpretations, stakeholders were quick to latch on the contentious issues to preserve their constituency and will manipulate the symbols that arise from the proposals to their advantage. Where interests are contested and the price of losing out will leave government worse off which will favour its political opponent, it will push for divergent interests outside parliamentary politics through intense negotiations to build coalitions so a particular policy may pass. Conclusions This paper has

  4. The soil health tool - theory and initial broad-scale application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil health has traditionally been judged in terms of production; however, it recently has gained a wider focus with a global audience, as soil condition is becoming an environmental quality, human health, and political issue. A crucial initial step in evaluating soil health is properly assessing t...

  5. An Innovative Behavioral Health Workforce Initiative: Keeping Pace with an Emerging Model of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Sankar, Suzanne; Harriman, Kim K.; O'Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Robinson, David Stanton; Hecker, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Recent policy shifts in health care have created opportunities for social workers to provide services in integrated primary care and behavioral health settings. However, traditionally prepared social workers may not have the skill set necessary to meet practice demands. This article describes a behavioral health workforce initiative that trains…

  6. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  7. Random assignment in clinical trials: issues in planning (Infant Health and Development Program).

    PubMed

    Kraemer, H C; Fendt, K H

    1990-01-01

    Various options available for the randomization of subjects into groups in a clinical trial are discussed, emphasizing the issues of logistics given less focus in more mathematical treatments. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of total randomization, of Zelen-type randomization procedures, of Efron-type procedures vs more classical blocking procedures to control the balance between groups, and of Simon-Pocock-type procedures vs more classical stratification for controlling possible biases in prognostic factors. Finally, we discuss issues related to choice and implementation of randomization procedures. The discussion is illustrated with the processes of decision-making in a national collaborative randomized clinical trial, the Infant Health and Development Program.

  8. [Research on zoonoses: central element of the "One Health" initiative].

    PubMed

    Wieler, Lothar H; Antão, Esther-Maria; Semmler, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The idea of "Comparative Medicine" was founded by distinguished scientists in the 1900s, in which context the name of Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow always comes into the limelight. This discipline was practiced thoroughly with the study of every infective disease transmitted naturally from vertebrates to man, namely the zoonoses. The following article will highlight the concept of "Comparative Medicine" with the example of tuberculosis research carried out during the second half of the 19th century. After the discipline took an interesting turn toward increasing specialization in the field, particularly after the Second World War, infection research in veterinary and human medicine developed and progressed in different directions. Since the 1990s, this development has contradicted the awareness, that a great number of diseases can be successfully combated through interdisciplinary efforts only, which has now led to the concept of "One health". In view of this, functional molecular epidemiology will play an invaluable role in the future in recognizing associations between host and pathogen-genotypes, particularly in research pertaining to emerging and re-emerging infections, which include the zoonoses. Zoonotic research is the crux of such a concept; hence, this article will portray some of the developments in Germany over the last few years, by virtue of which the "One health" dogma brings zoonotic research to life.

  9. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  10. Cardiovascular Health and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Foraker, Randi E.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Kuller, Lewis H.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Van Horn, Linda; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Safford, Monika M.; Wallace, Robert B.; Kucharska-Newton, Anna M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Martin, Lisa W.; Agha, Golareh; Hou, Lifang; Allen, Norrina B.; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The American Heart Association's “Simple 7” offers a practical public health conceptualization of cardiovascular health (CVH). CVH predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in younger populations, but has not been studied in a large, diverse population of aging postmenopausal women. The extent to which CVH predicts cancer in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods Multivariable Cox regression estimated hazard ratios and 95% CIs for the association between CVH and incident CVD, any cancer, and cancer subtypes (lung, colorectal, and breast) among 161,809 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants followed from 1993 through 2010. Data were analyzed in 2013. CVH score was characterized as the number (0 [worst] to 7 [best]) of the American Heart Association's ideal CVH behaviors and factors at baseline: smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose. Results Median follow-up was approximately 13 years. Fewer minorities and less educated women achieved ideal CVH, a common benchmark. In adjusted models, compared with women with the highest (best) CVH scores, those with the lowest (worst) CVH scores had nearly seven times the hazard of incident CVD (6.83, 95% CI=5.83, 8.00), and 52% greater risk of incident cancer (1.52, 95% CI=1.35, 1.72). Ideal CVH was most strongly inversely associated with lung cancer, then colorectal cancer, and then breast cancer. Conclusions Lower ideal CVH is more common among minority and less educated postmenopausal women, and predicts increased risk of CVD and cancer in this population, emphasizing the importance of prevention efforts among vulnerable older adults. PMID:26456876

  11. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  12. Initiation of treatment for incident diabetes: evidence from the electronic health records in an ambulatory care setting.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Zhao, Beinan; Lauderdale, Diane; Linde, Randolph; Stafford, Randall; Palaniappan, Latha

    2015-02-01

    We examined patterns and predictors of initiation of treatment for incident diabetes in an ambulatory care setting in the US. Data were extracted from electronic health records (EHR) for active patients ≥ 35 years in a multispecialty, multiclinic ambulatory care organization with 1000 providers. New onset type 2 diabetes and subsequent treatment were identified using lab, diagnosis, medication prescription, and service use data. Time from the first evidence of diabetes until initial treatment, either medication or education/counseling, was examined using a Kaplan-Meier hazards curve. Potential predictors of initial treatment were examined using multinomial logistic models accounting for physician random effects. Of 2258 patients with incident diabetes, 55% received either medication or education/counseling (20% received both) during the first year. Of the treated patients, 68% received a treatment within the first four weeks, and 13% after initial 16 weeks. Strong positive predictors (P < 0.01) of combined treatment were younger age, higher fasting glucose at diagnosis, obesity, and visits with an endocrinologist. Among insured patients who have a primary care provider in a multispecialty health care system, incident diabetes is treated only half the time. Improved algorithms for identifying incident diabetes from the EHR and team approach for monitoring may help treatment initiation. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional and psychosocial effects of health qigong in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng, Bobby H P; Tsang, Hector W H; Jones, Alice Y M; So, C T; Mok, Thomas Y W

    2011-03-01

    The initial gain from a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program (PRP) among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) begins to fade away 6 months after the completion of a rehabilitation program. One possible reason may be due to the poor compliance of the patients to the existing forms of home exercise program (e.g., walking, weight training activities, etc.). This study tested the efficacy of health qigong (HQG), a traditional Chinese exercise, as an adjunct home exercise program in optimizing the gains obtained from PRP until 6 months after discharge. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on a mind-body exercise intervention. Eighty (80) patients with COPD receiving conventional PRP pulmonary rehabilitation program were randomized to the HQG intervention group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40). Assessments were undertaken by blinded assessors at baseline, discharge from training, and follow-up (FU) at 3 and 6 months. Primary outcomes involved functional capacity scales and secondary outcomes involved quality-of-life scales. Intention-to-treat analysis identified trends of improvement in all outcome measures in the HQG group, whereas lesser improvement and trends of deteriorations were identified in the control group. Ancillary analysis using a per-protocol method, however, identified significantly better improvements in functional capacity measures among the HQG at the 6-month FU. This RCT provided some evidence to support the positive effect of HQG as an adjunct home exercise for rehabilitation among people with COPD and to support further related research.

  14. Promoting Physical Activity With the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Kenney, Erica L; deBlois, Madeleine E; Thayer, Julie C; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    Millions of children attend after-school programs in the United States. Increasing physical activity levels of program participants could have a broad effect on children's health. To test the effectiveness of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) Initiative in increasing children's physical activity levels in existing after-school programs. Cluster-randomized controlled trial with matched program pairs. Baseline data were collected September 27 through November 12, 2010, with follow-up data collected April 25 through May 27, 2011. The dates of our analysis were March 11, 2014, through August 18, 2015. The setting was 20 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts. All children 5 to 12 years old in participating programs were eligible for study inclusion. Ten programs participated in a series of three 3-hour learning collaborative workshops, with additional optional opportunities for training and technical assistance. Change in number of minutes and bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and sedentary activity and change in total accelerometer counts between baseline and follow-up. Participants with complete data were 402 racially/ethnically diverse children, with a mean age of 7.7 years. Change in the duration of physical activity opportunities offered to children during program time did not differ between conditions (-1.2 minutes; 95% CI, -14.2 to 12.4 minutes; P = .87). Change in moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes accumulated by children during program time did not differ significantly by intervention status (-1.0; 95% CI, -3.3 to 1.3; P = .40). Total minutes per day of vigorous physical activity (3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-4.7; P < .001), vigorous physical activity minutes in bouts (4.1; 95% CI, 2.7-5.6; P < .001), and total accelerometer counts per day (16,894; 95% CI, 5101-28,686; P = .01) increased significantly during program time among intervention participants compared with control

  15. Impact of targeted programs on health systems: a case study of the polio eradication initiative.

    PubMed

    Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Aylward, Bruce; Steinglass, Robert; Ogden, Ellyn; Goodman, Tracey; Melgaard, Bjorn

    2002-01-01

    The results of 2 large field studies on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on health systems and 3 supplementary reports were presented at a December 1999 meeting convened by the World Health Organization. All of these studies concluded that positive synergies exist between polio eradication and health systems but that these synergies have not been vigorously exploited. The eradication of polio has probably improved health systems worldwide by broadening distribution of vitamin A supplements, improving cooperation among enterovirus laboratories, and facilitating linkages between health workers and their communities. The results of these studies also show that eliminating polio did not cause a diminution of funding for immunization against other illnesses. Relatively little is known about the opportunity costs of polio eradication. Improved planning in disease eradication initiatives can minimize disruptions in the delivery of other services. Future initiatives should include indicators and baseline data for monitoring effects on health systems development.

  16. Impact of Targeted Programs on Health Systems: A Case Study of the Polio Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Aylward, Bruce; Steinglass, Robert; Ogden, Ellyn; Goodman, Tracey; Melgaard, Bjorn

    2002-01-01

    The results of 2 large field studies on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on health systems and 3 supplementary reports were presented at a December 1999 meeting convened by the World Health Organization. All of these studies concluded that positive synergies exist between polio eradication and health systems but that these synergies have not been vigorously exploited. The eradication of polio has probably improved health systems worldwide by broadening distribution of vitamin A supplements, improving cooperation among enterovirus laboratories, and facilitating linkages between health workers and their communities. The results of these studies also show that eliminating polio did not cause a diminution of funding for immunization against other illnesses. Relatively little is known about the opportunity costs of polio eradication. Improved planning in disease eradication initiatives can minimize disruptions in the delivery of other services. Future initiatives should include indicators and baseline data for monitoring effects on health systems development. PMID:11772750

  17. Quantum Hamiltonians with Weak Random Abstract Perturbation. I. Initial Length Scale Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Denis; Golovina, Anastasia; Veselić, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We study random Hamiltonians on finite-size cubes and waveguide segments of increasing diameter. The number of random parameters determining the operator is proportional to the volume of the cube. In the asymptotic regime where the cube size, and consequently the number of parameters as well, tends to infinity, we derive deterministic and probabilistic variational bounds on the lowest eigenvalue, i.e. the spectral minimum, as well as exponential off-diagonal decay of the Green function at energies above, but close to the overall spectral bottom.

  18. Relationship Between Marital Transitions, Health Behaviors, and Health Indicators of Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kutob, Randa M; Yuan, Nicole P; Wertheim, Betsy C; Sbarra, David A; Loucks, Eric B; Nassir, Rami; Bareh, Gihan; Kim, Mimi M; Snetselaar, Linda G; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-04-01

    Historically, marital status has been associated with lower mortality and transitions into marriage were generally accompanied by improved health status. Conversely, divorce has been associated with increased mortality, possibly mediated by changes in health behaviors. This study uses data from a prospective cohort of 79,094 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) to examine the relationship between marital transition and health indicators (blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]) as well as health behaviors (diet pattern, alcohol use, physical activity, and smoking) in a sample of relatively healthy and employed women. Linear and logistic regression modeling were used to test associations, controlling for confounding factors. Women's transitions into marriage/marriage-like relationship after menopause were associated with greater increase in BMI (β = 0.22; confidence interval (95% CI), 0.11-0.33) and alcohol intake (β = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.04-0.11) relative to remaining unmarried. Divorce/separation was associated with a reduction in BMI and waist circumference, changes that were accompanied by improvements in diet quality (β = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.10-1.47) and physical activity (β = 0.98, 95% CI, 0.12-1.85), relative to women who remained married. Contrary to earlier literature, these findings among well-educated, predominantly non-Hispanic white women suggest that marital transitions after menopause are accompanied by modifiable health outcomes/behaviors that are more favorable for women experiencing divorce/separation than those entering a new marriage.

  19. [Health initiatives in Latin America: a historical assessment from the inception of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Santos Preciado, José Ignacio; Franco Paredes, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Latin America has undergone gradual transformations in public health influenced by historical events locally or at a global level. These epidemiologic transitions have also occurred through the implementation of interventions by public institutions such as the Pan-American Health Organization, by philanthropic foundations, non-governmental organizations, and bilateral or multilateral international donor organizations. These public health initiatives have produced substantial improvements in the heath status of many populations in Latin America. Overall, human development and health have advanced over the past century. However, these public health benefits have not been shared equally among all areas of Latin America. The Mesoamerican Region -the area encompassing from Southern Mexico to Panama- continues to experience profound social inequities focalized to indigenous communities and groups of African-descent living in urban, periurban, or rural areas. The Mesoamerican Health Initiative is a private-public partnership that attempts to close the gap of health inequalities affecting the most vulnerable populations in this region of Latin America.

  20. The universe formation by space reduction cascades with random initial parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Sergei; Zinger, Alexey

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the creation of our universe using the idea of extra dimensions. The initial, multidimensional Lagrangian contains only metric tensor. We have found many sets of the numerical values of the Lagrangian parameters corresponding to the observed low-energy physics of our Universe. Different initial parameters can lead to the same values of fundamental constants by the appropriate choice of a dimensional reduction cascade. This result diminishes the significance of the search for the `unique' initial Lagrangian. We also have obtained a large number of low-energy vacua, which is known as `landscape' in the string theory.

  1. [Public Health initiative for improved vaccination for asylum seekers].

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Stefan O; Wjst, Stephanie; Zelmer, Ursula; Carollo, Stefanie; Schmid, Mirjam; Roller, Gottfried; Eichner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The number of asylum seekers in Germany has increased dramatically in 2015. Their medical care includes the officially recommended vaccinations; yet, no detailed information on this is yet available in Germany. In light of the rising number of asylum seekers, we have developed a concept to facilitate their vaccination. This concept includes the coordination of different partners, the supply of vaccines and other materials through the local health office, and the cooperation with the local physicians' association. To evaluate and accelerate progress, we compared the number of vaccinations conducted by physicians independently of the vaccination concept with those conducted within the new concept. For the period of investigation, 2,256 new asylum seekers were temporarily accommodated in the facilities. The vaccination concept was applied in only some of the facilities. Twenty-eight percent of all asylum seekers (642) were vaccinated at least once; 89 % of the vaccinees (571) were vaccinated within the newly developed concept. In the facilities that were not included in this concept, only 6 % of the refugees were vaccinated, whereas in the facilities that were included up to 58 % were vaccinated. Even though the new concept has started successfully, further innovations are required to reach sufficient vaccination coverage among asylum seekers. In view of the large number of new asylum seekers expected, the adjustment and expansion of the new concept requires professional planning and coordination. Furthermore, additional resources are required.

  2. The Effect of Expanded Mental Health Benefits on Treatment Initiation and Specialist Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2005-01-01

    Objective To measure the effects of a mental health benefit design change on treatment initiation for psychiatric disorders of employees of a large U.S.-based company. Data Sources Mental health treatment administrative claims data plus eligibility information provided by the company for the years 1995–1998. Study Design We measure the effect of a change in mental health benefits consisting of three major elements: a company-wide effort to destigmatize mental illness; reduced copayments for mental health treatment; and an effort to increase access to specialty mental health providers. Data Extraction Methods We identified the subsample of employees that were continuously enrolled in the company's health plan over the period 1995–1998, were between the ages of 18 and 65, and were actively employed. Principal Findings Our results suggest that the combined effect of destigmatization and reduced copayments led to an 18 percent increase (p<.01) in the probability of initiating mental health treatment. The results suggest that the effort to increase access to specialty providers was effective, but only for nonphysician providers: initiation at nonphysician mental health providers increased nearly 90 percent (p<.01) relative to nonspecialty providers, while use of psychiatrists declined by nearly 40 percent (p<.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that the benefit change increased initiation for mental health treatment overall and encouraged the use of nonphysician specialty mental health providers. PMID:16033494

  3. Randomized Trial of Continuing Care Enhancements for Cocaine-Dependent Patients following Initial Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Coviello, Donna; Morrison, Rebecca; Cary, Mark S.; Skalina, Lauren; Plebani, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The effects of cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP), contingency management (CM), and their combination (CM + RP) were evaluated in a randomized trial with 100 cocaine-dependent patients (58% female, 89% African American) who were engaged in treatment for at least 2 weeks and had an average of 44 days of abstinence at baseline.…

  4. Randomized Trial of Continuing Care Enhancements for Cocaine-Dependent Patients following Initial Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Coviello, Donna; Morrison, Rebecca; Cary, Mark S.; Skalina, Lauren; Plebani, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The effects of cognitive-behavioral relapse prevention (RP), contingency management (CM), and their combination (CM + RP) were evaluated in a randomized trial with 100 cocaine-dependent patients (58% female, 89% African American) who were engaged in treatment for at least 2 weeks and had an average of 44 days of abstinence at baseline.…

  5. Patient-initiated electronic health record amendment requests

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A; Preib, Rebecca; Zheng, Kai; Choi, Sung W

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Providing patients access to their medical records offers many potential benefits including identification and correction of errors. The process by which patients ask for changes to be made to their records is called an ‘amendment request’. Little is known about the nature of such amendment requests and whether they result in modifications to the chart. Methods We conducted a qualitative content analysis of all patient-initiated amendment requests that our institution received over a 7-year period. Recurring themes were identified along three analytic dimensions: (1) clinical/documentation area, (2) patient motivation for making the request, and (3) outcome of the request. Results The dataset consisted of 818 distinct requests submitted by 181 patients. The majority of these requests (n=636, 77.8%) were made to rectify incorrect information and 49.7% of all requests were ultimately approved. In 6.6% of the requests, patients wanted valid information removed from their record, 27.8% of which were approved. Among all of the patients requesting a copy of their chart, only a very small percentage (approximately 0.2%) submitted an amendment request. Conclusions The low number of amendment requests may be due to inadequate awareness by patients about how to make changes to their records. To make this approach effective, it will be important to inform patients of their right to view and amend records and about the process for doing so. Increasing patient access to medical records could encourage patient participation in improving the accuracy of medical records; however, caution should be used. PMID:24863430

  6. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  7. Making a distinction between the effect of initial stock and investment in health determinants.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Esther Lafuente; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Ana; Shmarev, Andrey Shmarev

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to propose a health production model that distinguishes between the initial stock of health determinants and the subsequent investment in them, with a view to providing information to policy-makers regarding the effects of determinant-aimed policies. In this sense, the main contributions of the paper stem from the development of a theoretical and empirical model that distinguishes between the effect of the initial stock and that of investment in health determinants. To do this, we estimated the health production function using a stochastic frontier model. We present an empirical example using data for the years 2002 and 2008. The results support our decision to analyse the effects of the initial values attributable to health determinants separately from those arising following investment in the period. Concretely, we find significant differences for the determinants EMPLOY, SOCIALCLASS and NON-DRINKER. The results seem to indicate that, for variables labelled with the behavioural aspects of health such as NON-DRINKER, the effect over time of a change in investment in health is significantly greater than that resulting from a variation in initial values. In contrast, for socioeconomic variables such as SOCIAL CLASS or EMPLOY, for which effects on health tend to be more long-term in nature, the opposite occurs, with the effect of the investment during the time period proving significantly lower than the effect of the initial provision.

  8. Disabled patients and oral health in Rome, Italy: long-term evaluation of educational initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Avenali, Laura; Guerra, Fabrizio; Cipriano, Luigi; Corridore, Denise; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study is concerned with the educational intervention layout proposed as a possible answer for the disparities in healthcare services for disabled persons. Material and methods The data sampling was performed on individuals in Rome, affected by psychophysical disabilities, living in residential care facilities. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: Study and Control Group, consisting of patients who did or did not participate in the Educational Phase. All the caregivers participated in an educational course. Screening period: September 2008 – March 2009. Examinations were performed using Visible Plaque Index (VPI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Microbiological Analysis. Results The total number of patients utilized for the study was 36 (18 in each group). The final sample amounted to 70% (14/20) in the Study Group and to 75% (15/20) in the Control Group. In both examined groups Oral Hygiene, Gingival Health State and Microbiological Analysis show an overall improvement of the indices, compared with the initial status, mostly at a follow-up after 4 weeks. However, Study Group show a significantly better improvement. Conversely, after 6 months the overall clinical indices worsened again. Conclusion The difference in the significant improvements of the groups, even if only over a short-time evaluation, endorses that the participation of the patients as well as tutors in the educational phase is an effective strategy for the short-term. PMID:22545186

  9. A Randomized Trial of Pocket-Echocardiography Integrated Mobile Health Device Assessments in Modern Structural Heart Disease Clinics.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, Sanjeev P; Sola, Srikanth; Adams, David; Venkateshvaran, Ashwin; Dash, P K; Sengupta, Partho P

    2017-09-09

    This study sought to determine whether mobile health (mHealth) device assessments used as clinical decision support tools at the point-of-care can reduce the time to treatment and improve long-term outcomes among patients with rheumatic and structural heart diseases (SHD). Newly developed smartphone-connected mHealth devices represent promising methods to diagnose common diseases in resource-limited areas; however, the impact of technology-based care on long-term outcomes has not been rigorously evaluated. A total of 253 patients with SHD were randomized to an initial diagnostic assessment with wireless devices in mHealth clinics (n = 139) or to standard-care (n = 114) in India. mHealth clinics were equipped with point-of-care devices including pocket-echocardiography, smartphone-connected-electrocardiogram blood pressure and oxygen measurements, activity monitoring, and portable brain natriuretic peptide laboratory testing. All individuals underwent comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography to assess the severity of SHD. The primary endpoint was the time to referral for therapy with percutaneous valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement. Secondary endpoints included the probability of a cardiovascular hospitalization and/or death over 1-year. An initial mHealth assessment was associated with a shorter time to referral for valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement (83 ± 79 days vs. 180 ± 101 days, p <0.001) and was associated with an increased probability for valvuloplasty/valve replacement compared to standard-care (34% vs. 32%; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96 to 2.47, p = 0.07). Patients randomized to mHealth were associated with a lower risk of a hospitalization and/or death on follow-up (15% vs. 28%, adjusted hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.83; p = 0.013). An initial mHealth diagnostic strategy was associated with a shorter time to definitive therapy among patients with SHD in a resource-limited area and was associated with improved

  10. A Randomized Trial of Initial Trophic versus Full-Energy Enteral Nutrition in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Todd W.; Mogan, Susan; Hays, Margaret A.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Jensen, Gordon L.; Wheeler, Arthur P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Enteral nutrition is provided to mechanically ventilated patients who cannot eat normally, yet the amount of support needed is unknown. We conducted this randomized, open-label study to test the hypothesis that initial low-volume (i.e. trophic) enteral nutrition would decrease episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance/complications and improve outcomes as compared to initial full-energy enteral nutrition in patients with acute respiratory failure. Design Randomized, open-label study Patients 200 Patients with acute respiratory failure expected to require mechanical ventilation for at least 72 hours Interventions Patients were randomized to receive either initial trophic (10 ml/hr) or full-energy enteral nutrition for the initial 6 days of ventilation. Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome measure was ventilator-free days to day 28. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 98 patients randomized to trophic and the 102 patients randomized to full-energy nutrition. At enrollment, patients had a mean APACHE II score of 26.9, PaO2/FiO2 of 182 and 38% were in shock. Both groups received similar duration of enteral nutrition (5.5 vs. 5.1 days; P=0.51). The trophic group received an average of 15 ± 11% of goal calories daily through day 6 compared to 74.8 ± 38.5% (P<0.001) for the full-energy group. Both groups had a median of 23.0 ventilator-free (P=0.90) and 21.0 ICU-free days (P=0.64). Mortality to hospital discharge was 22.4% for trophic vs. 19.6% for full-energy (P=0.62). In the first 6 days, the trophic group had trends for less diarrhea (19 vs. 24% of feeding days; P=0.08) and significantly fewer episodes of elevated gastric residual volumes (2 vs. 8% of feeding days; P<0.001). Conclusions Initial trophic enteral nutrition resulted in similar clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure as early full-energy enteral nutrition but with fewer episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance. PMID:21242788

  11. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in labor: does it increase the risk of cesarean section? A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ohel, Gonen; Gonen, Roni; Vaida, Sonia; Barak, Shlomi; Gaitini, Luis

    2006-03-01

    To determine whether early initiation of epidural analgesia in nulliparous women affects the rate of cesarean sections and other obstetric outcome measures. A randomized trial in which 449 at term nulliparous women in early labor, at less than 3 cm of cervical dilatation, were assigned to either immediate initiation of epidural analgesia at first request (221 women), or delay of epidural until the cervix dilated to at least 4 cm (228 women). At initiation of the epidural the mean cervical dilatation was 2.4 cm in the early epidural group and 4.6 cm in the late group (P < 0.0001). The rates of cesarean section were not significantly different between the groups--13% and 11% in the early and late groups, respectively (P = 0.77). The mean duration from randomization to full dilatation was significantly shorter in the early compared to the late epidural group--5.9 hours and 6.6 hours respectively (P = 0.04). When questioned after delivery regarding their next labor, the women indicated a preference for early epidural. Initiation of epidural analgesia in early labor, following the first request for epidural, did not result in increased cesarean deliveries, instrumental vaginal deliveries, and other adverse effects; furthermore, it was associated with shorter duration of the first stage of labor and was clearly preferred by the women.

  12. Interprofessional education: an overview of six initiatives across the schools of health at a single university.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, Molly; Bair, Aaron; Bakerjian, Debra; Eidson, Suzanne; Murray-Garcia, Jann; Herbert, Penelope; Himmerick, Kristine; Mongoven, Jennifer; Robinson, Mark; Ward, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    The benefits of interprofessional education (IPE) amongst health professionals are well documented, however, the implementation of interprofessional initiatives across the USA is inconsistent. This report describes the development and content of a number of IPE initiatives that are in the early stages of development and implementation at the University of California, Davis, USA. The article describes several important factors that were found to be necessary for the initial implementation of these IPE initiatives. Evaluation data from these initiatives, which is providing a range of positive outcomes, are also presented and discussed in relation to the wider IPE literature.

  13. What cell biologists should know about the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative.

    PubMed

    Insel, Thomas R; Koroshetz, Walter

    2015-12-15

    The BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative is an ambitious project to develop innovative tools for a deeper understanding of how the brain functions in health and disease. Early programs in the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative focus on tools for next-generation imaging and recording, studies of cell diversity and cell census, and integrative approaches to circuit function. In all of these efforts, cell biologists can play a leading role.

  14. When They Call, Will They Come? A Contextually Responsive Approach for Engaging Multistressed Families in an Urban Child Mental Health Center: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan B.; Walsh, Margaret; Mercado, Micaela; Levene, Kathryn; Pepler, Debra J.; Carr, Ashley; Heppell, Allison; Lowe, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the effect of an ecological and contextually responsive approach, during initial intake call, on engagement for multistressed families seeking child mental health services in an urban setting. Methods: Using a randomized design, parents were allocated to phone Intake As Usual (IAU) or Enhanced Engagement Phone Intake…

  15. When They Call, Will They Come? A Contextually Responsive Approach for Engaging Multistressed Families in an Urban Child Mental Health Center: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan B.; Walsh, Margaret; Mercado, Micaela; Levene, Kathryn; Pepler, Debra J.; Carr, Ashley; Heppell, Allison; Lowe, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the effect of an ecological and contextually responsive approach, during initial intake call, on engagement for multistressed families seeking child mental health services in an urban setting. Methods: Using a randomized design, parents were allocated to phone Intake As Usual (IAU) or Enhanced Engagement Phone Intake…

  16. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  17. The Ghana community-based health planning and services initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation.

    PubMed

    Nyonator, Frank K; Awoonor-Williams, J Koku; Phillips, James F; Jones, Tanya C; Miller, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Research projects demonstrating ways to improve health services often fail to have an impact on what national health programmes actually do. An approach to evidence-based policy development has been launched in Ghana which bridges the gap between research and programme implementation. After nearly two decades of national debate and investigation into appropriate strategies for service delivery at the periphery, the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Initiative has employed strategies tested in the successful Navrongo experiment to guide national health reforms that mobilize volunteerism, resources and cultural institutions for supporting community-based primary health care. Over a 2-year period, 104 out of the 110 districts in Ghana started CHPS. This paper reviews the development of the CHPS initiative, describes the processes of implementation and relates the initiative to the principles of scaling up organizational change which it embraces. Evidence from the national monitoring and evaluation programme provides insights into CHPS' success and identifies constraints on future progress.

  18. Physical impairment and body weight history in postmenopausal women: The Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Sourdet, Sandrine S.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Waring, Molly E.; Nassir, Rami; Garcia, Lorena; Bea, Jennifer W.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Limacher, Marian; Manini, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether weight history and weight transitions over adult lifespan contribute to physical impairment among postmenopausal women. DESIGN Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) categories were calculated among postmenopausal women who reported their weight and height at age 18. Multiple-variable logistic regression was used to determine the association between BMI at age 18 and BMI transitions over adulthood on severe physical impairment (SPI), defined as scoring < 60 on the Physical Functioning Subscale of the Random 36-Item Healthy Survey. SETTING Participants were part of the Women's Health Initiative Observational study (WHI OS), where participants’ health were followed over time via questionnaires and clinical assessments. SUBJECTS Postmenopausal women (n=76,016; 63.5 ± 7.3 years) RESULTS Women with overweight (BMI=25.0-29.9) or obesity (BMI≥30) at 18 years had greater odds of SPI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-1.69 and 2.14, 95% CI: 1.72-2.65, respectively] than normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9) counterparts. Transitions from normal weight to overweight/obese or to underweight (BMI <18.5) were associated with greater odds of SPI (1.97 [1.84-2.11] and 1.35 [1.06-1.71], respectively) compared to weight stability. Shifting from underweight to overweight/obese also had increased odds of SPI (1.52 [1.11-2.09]). Overweight/obese to normal BMI transitions resulted in a reduced SPI odds (0.52 [0.39-0.71]). CONCLUSIONS Higher weight history and transitions into higher weight classes were associated with higher likelihood of severe physical impairment, while transitioning into lower weight classes for those with overweight/obesity was protective among postmenopausal women. PMID:27269298

  19. Critical quench dynamics of random quantum spin chains: ultra-slow relaxation from initial order and delayed ordering from initial disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roósz, Gergö; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    By means of free fermionic techniques combined with multiple precision arithmetic we study the time evolution of the average magnetization, \\overline{m}(t), of the random transverse-field Ising chain after global quenches. We observe different relaxation behaviors for quenches starting from different initial states to the critical point. Starting from a fully ordered initial state, the relaxation is logarithmically slow described by \\overline{m}(t)∼ {{ln}}at, and in a finite sample of length L the average magnetization saturates at a size-dependent plateau {\\overline{m}}p(L)∼ {L}-b; here the two exponents satisfy the relation b/a=\\psi =1/2. Starting from a fully disordered initial state, the magnetization stays at zero for a period of time until t={t}{{d}} with {ln}{t}{{d}}∼ {L}\\psi and then starts to increase until it saturates to an asymptotic value {\\overline{m}}p(L)∼ {L}-b^{\\prime }, with b\\prime ≈ 1.5. For both quenching protocols, finite-size scaling is satisfied in terms of the scaled variable {ln}t/{L}\\psi . Furthermore, the distribution of long-time limiting values of the magnetization shows that the typical and the average values scale differently and the average is governed by rare events. The non-equilibrium dynamical behavior of the magnetization is explained through semi-classical theory.

  20. Long-Term Consequences of Early Sexual Initiation on Young Adult Health: A Causal Inference Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Kari C.; Vasilenko, Sara A.; Butera, Nicole M.; Coffman, Donna L.

    2017-01-01

    Although early sexual initiation has been linked to negative outcomes, it is unknown whether these effects are causal. In this study, we use propensity score methods to estimate the causal effect of early sexual initiation on young adult sexual risk behaviors and health outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to…

  1. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered), blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs), and building blocks (resources to develop programs). Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the public health sector may face

  2. A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth.

    PubMed

    Lent, Michelle R; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; McCoy, Tara A; Wojtanowski, Alexis C; Sandoval, Brianna; Sherman, Sandy; Komaroff, Eugene; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    Although many initiatives exist to improve the availability of healthy foods in corner stores, few randomized trials have assessed their effects. This study evaluated, in a randomized controlled trial, the effects of a first-generation healthy corner store intervention on students' food and beverage purchases over a 2-year period. Participants (n = 767) were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students. Ten schools and their nearby corner stores (n = 24) were randomly assigned to the healthy corner store intervention or an assessment-only control. Intercept surveys directly assessed the nutritional characteristics of students' corner store purchases at baseline, 1 and 2 years. Students' weight and heights were measured at baseline, 1 and 2 years. There were no differences in energy content per intercept purchased from control or intervention schools at year 1 (P = 0.12) or 2 (P = 0.58). There were no differences between control and intervention students in BMI z score (year 1, P = 0.83; year 2, P = 0. 98) or obesity prevalence (year 1, P = 0.96; year 2, P = 0.58). A healthy corner store initiative did not result in significant changes in the energy content of corner store purchases or in continuous or categorical measures of obesity. These data will help to inform future interventions. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. A randomized, controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth

    PubMed Central

    Lent, Michelle R.; Veur, Stephanie S. Vander; McCoy, Tara A.; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Sandoval, Brianna; Sherman, Sandy; Komaroff, Eugene; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although many initiatives exist to improve the availability of healthy foods in corner stores, few randomized trials have assessed their effects. This study evaluated, in a randomized, controlled trial, the effects of a first-generation healthy corner store intervention on students’ food and beverage purchases over a two-year period. Design and Methods Participants (n=767) were 4th-6th grade students. Ten schools and their nearby corner stores (n=24) were randomly assigned to the healthy corner store intervention or an assessment-only control. Intercept surveys directly assessed the nutritional characteristics of students’ corner store purchases at baseline, 1 and 2 years. Students’ weight and heights were measured at baseline, 1 and 2 years. Results There were no differences in energy content per intercept purchased from control or intervention schools at year 1 (p=0.12) or 2 (p=0.58). There were no differences between control and intervention students in BMI-z score (year 1, p=0.83; year 2, p=0. 98) or obesity prevalence (year 1, p=0.96; year 2, p=0.58). Conclusions A healthy corner store initiative did not result in significant changes in the energy content of corner store purchases or in continuous or categorical measures of obesity. These data will help to inform future interventions. PMID:25311881

  4. A Healthy Communities Initiative in Rural Alberta: Building Rural Capacity for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GermAnn, Kathy; Smith, Neale; Littlejohns, Lori Baugh

    Efforts of health professionals are shifting away from programs that "deliver health" toward those that build the capacity of communities to work together to create healthy places. The Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) is a community development model in central Alberta (Canada) that involves the creation of a widely shared vision of…

  5. The Illinois Alcoholism Prevention Initiative: A State-Wide Health Promotion and Primary Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Jerald D.

    Two resource centers were funded by the Illinois Alcoholism Prevention Initiative to facilitate primary prevention and health promotion efforts at the local level. Located in DeKalb and Springfield, the centers assisted the Illinois State Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Division of Alcoholism in building a body of…

  6. Learning and Change in the Redesign of a Primary Health Care Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John; Dunston, Roger; Solomon, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an account of learning and change in the redesign of a primary health-care initiative in a large metropolitan city in Australia. Design/Methodology/ Approach: The paper is based on research exploring the place and role of learning in the re-making of health professional practices in a major New South Wales…

  7. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  8. Learning and Change in the Redesign of a Primary Health Care Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, John; Dunston, Roger; Solomon, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an account of learning and change in the redesign of a primary health-care initiative in a large metropolitan city in Australia. Design/Methodology/ Approach: The paper is based on research exploring the place and role of learning in the re-making of health professional practices in a major New South Wales…

  9. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  10. The men's health forum: an initiative to address health disparities in the community.

    PubMed

    Grant, Cathy G; Davis, Jenna L; Rivers, Brian M; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Antolino, Prado; Harris, Erika; Green, B Lee

    2012-08-01

    Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender disparities in health and access to and use of health care services currently exist. Health professionals are continually striving to reduce and eliminate health disparities within their own community. One such effort in the area of Tampa Bay, Florida was the creation of the African American Men's Health Forum, currently referred to as the Men's Health Forum. The African American Men's Health Forum was the result of the community's desire to reduce the gap in health outcomes for African American men. Later, it was recognized that the gap in health outcomes impacts other communities; therefore, it was broadened to include all men considered medically underserved (those who are uninsured, underinsured, or without a regular health care provider). The Men's Health Forum empowers men with the resources, knowledge, and information to effectively manage their health by providing health education and screenings to the community. This article provides an explanation of the key components that have contributed to the success of the Men's Health Forum, including challenges and lessons learned. It is intended that this information be replicated in other communities in an effort to eliminate health disparities.

  11. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes.

  12. Emergency Department-Initiated Tobacco Control: Update of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lemhoefer, Christina; Rabe, Gwen Lisa; Wellmann, Jürgen; Bernstein, Steven L; Cheung, Ka Wai; McCarthy, William J; Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Spies, Claudia; Neuner, Bruno

    2017-10-05

    A 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on emergency department-initiated tobacco control (ETC) showed only short-term efficacy. The aim of this study was to update data through May 2015. After registering the study protocol on the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) in May 2015, we searched 7 databases and the gray literature. Our outcome of interest was the point prevalence of tobacco-use abstinence at 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, or 12-month follow-up. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of tobacco-use abstinence after ETC at each follow-up time separately for each study and then pooled Mantel-Haenszel RRs by follow-up time. These results were pooled with results of the 7 studies included in the previous review. We calculated the effect of ETC on the combined point prevalence of tobacco-use abstinence across all follow-up times by using generalized linear mixed models. We retrieved 4 additional studies, one published as an abstract, comprising 1,392 participants overall. The 1-month follow-up point prevalence of tobacco-use abstinence after ETC resulted in an RR of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.05) across 3 studies; 3-month follow-up, an RR of 1.38 (95% CI, 1.12-1.71) across 9 studies; 6-month follow-up, an RR of 1.09 (95% CI, 0.84-1.41) across 6 studies; and 12-month follow-up, an RR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00-1.59) across 3 studies. The effect on the combined point prevalence of abstinence was an RR of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.06-1.86) (P = .02). ETC is effective in promoting continual tobacco-use abstinence up to 12 months after intervention. ETC may be a critically important public health strategy for engaging hard-to-reach smokers in tobacco-use cessation.

  13. Pulmonary vein triggers play an important role in the initiation of atrial flutter: Initial results from the prospective randomized Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Atrial Flutter (Triple A) trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ralph; Lauschke, Joerg; Tischer, Tina; Schneider, Cindy; Voss, Wolfgang; Moehlenkamp, Felix; Glass, Aenne; Diedrich, Doreen; Bänsch, Dietmar

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation of a cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) is high. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that AFL and AF may be initiated by pulmonary vein triggers. This prospective randomized trial tested the efficacy of a standalone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with AFL but without AF. Patients with AFL but without documented AF were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD), (2) CTI ablation, or (3) circumferential PVI. The primary end-point was defined as any recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia and the secondary end-point as recurrence of AFL. In case of tachyarrhythmia recurrence in the PVI group, a second PVI was performed to close gaps in the ablation lines. Of the 60 patients, 17 were randomized to AAD, 23 to CTI ablation, and 20 to PVI. During follow-up of 1.42 ± 0.83 years, 14 of 17 patients (82.4%) in the AAD group, 14 of 23 patients (60.9%) in the CTI group, and 2 of 20 patients (10%) in the PVI group reached the primary end-point (P <.001) after a mean of 1.4 PVI procedures per patient. AFL reoccurred in 9 patients (52.9.%) in the AAD group, in 2 patients (8.7%) in the CTI group, and after a single PVI in 3 patients (15%) in the PVI group (P = .003). After closure of gaps, 1 patient (5%) in the PVI group presented with recurrent AFL. Pulmonary vein triggers play an important role in AFL. PVI can prevent the recurrence of AFL, even without CTI ablation. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern selection and self-organization induced by random boundary initial values in a neuronal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Xu, Ying; Wang, Chunni; Jin, Wuyin

    2016-11-01

    Regular spatial patterns could be observed in spatiotemporal systems far from equilibrium states. Artificial networks with different topologies are often designed to reproduce the collective behaviors of nodes (or neurons) which the local kinetics of node is described by kinds of oscillator models. It is believed that the self-organization of network much depends on the bifurcation parameters and topology connection type. Indeed, the boundary effect is every important on the pattern formation of network. In this paper, a regular network of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons is designed in a two-dimensional square array with nearest-neighbor connection type. The neurons on the boundary are excited with random stimulus. It is found that spiral waves, even a pair of spiral waves could be developed in the network under appropriate coupling intensity. Otherwise, the spatial distribution of network shows irregular states. A statistical variable is defined to detect the collective behavior by using mean field theory. It is confirmed that regular pattern could be developed when the synchronization degree is low. The potential mechanism could be that random perturbation on the boundary could induce coherence resonance-like behavior thus spiral wave could be developed in the network.

  15. A Student-Led Global Health Education Initiative: Reflections on the Kenyan Village Medical Education Program

    PubMed Central

    John, Christopher; Asquith, Heidi; Wren, Tom; Mercuri, Stephanie; Brownlow, Sian

    2016-01-01

    The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-established strategies for the prevention of disease through workshops that are conducted in southern rural Kenya. These workshops are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of rural Kenyan communities, and are delivered to community leaders, as well as to adults and children within the wider community. Aside from the KVME Program’s emphasis on reducing the burden of preventable disease through health education, the positive impact of the KVME Program on the Program’s student volunteers also deserves consideration. Throughout the month-long KVME Program, student volunteers are presented with opportunities to develop their understanding of cultural competency, the social and economic determinants of health, as well as the unique challenges associated with working in resource-poor communities. Importantly, the KVME Program also represents an avenue through which global health leadership can be fostered amongst student volunteers. PMID:27190974

  16. The Genesis, Implementation and Impact of the Better Access Mental Health Initiative Introducing Medicare-Funded Psychology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Lyn; Giese, Jill

    2008-01-01

    The Australian Government's Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative introduced mental health reforms that included the availability of Medicare-funded psychology services. The mental health initiative has resulted in a huge uptake of these services, demonstrating the strong community demand for psychological treatment. The initiative has…

  17. International Society of Nephrology-Hydration and Kidney Health Initiative - Expanding Research and Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moist, Louise M; Clark, William F; Segantini, Luca; Damster, Sandrine; Le Bellego, Laurent; Wong, Germaine; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a collaborative research initiative to explore the role of hydration in kidney health. Our understanding of the effects of hydration in health and disease is surprisingly limited, particularly when we consider the vital role of hydration in basic human physiology. Recent initiatives and research outcomes have challenged the global medical community to expand our knowledge about hydration, including the differences between water, sugared beverages and other consumables. Identification of the potential mechanisms contributing to the benefits of hydration has stimulated the global nephrology community to advance research regarding hydration for kidney health. Hydration and kidney health has been a focus of research for several research centers with a rapidly expanding world literature and knowledge. The International Society of Nephrology has collaborated with Danone Nutricia Research to promote development of kidney research initiatives, which focus on the role of hydration in kidney health and the global translation of this new information. This initiative supports the use of existing data in different regions and countries to expand dialogue among experts in the field of hydration and health, and to increase scientific interaction and productivity with the ultimate goal of improving kidney health. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of the CHAMPUS Reform Initiative. Volume 3, Health Care Utilization and Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Deputy Assistant Secretaries of Defense for Health Services Financing, as well as Colonel (Ret.) Fred Vago , Barbara Cooper, Colonel Ronald Hudak, Colonel...a Randomized Experiment," The American Economic Review, Vol. 77, No. 3, June 1987, pp. 251-277. Manski, Charles F., and Steven R. Lerman, "The

  19. Hormone Therapy Use and Risk of Chronic Disease in the Nurses' Health Study: A Comparative Analysis With the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E

    2017-09-15

    Observational studies and randomized controlled trials of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and chronic disease risk appear to have divergent results for cardiovascular disease. However, differences may be related to a modifying effect of age, time since menopause, and HT formulation. In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (enrolling during 1980-1994 and following participants until 2002), we investigated associations between the use of oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/day) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (<10 mg/day) or oral CEE alone and cardiovascular disease, cancer, all-cause mortality, and other major endpoints among postmenopausal women, aged 50-79 years at HT initiation. Among women aged 50-59 years at HT initiation, associations of CEE alone or CEE+MPA with most clinical outcomes were highly concordant between NHS and Women's Health Initiative (WHI). However, for myocardial infarction, results for CEE+MPA were in the direction of risk elevation in WHI and in the direction of risk reduction in NHS. When examined according to years since menopause onset (<10 years) rather than age group, results were nonsignificant and concordant for both studies. Because few women in the NHS initiated HT after age 60 years, we did not examine associations in this group. Discrepancies between NHS and WHI could largely be attributed to differences in the age structure of the populations and age at HT initiation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The midwifery initiated oral health-dental service protocol: an intervention to improve oral health outcomes for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; George, Ajesh; Dahlen, Hannah; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Ellis, Sharon; Yeo, Anthony

    2015-01-15

    Evidence is emerging that women's poor oral health and health practices during pregnancy are associated with poor oral health in their children and potentially an increased risk of pre-term or low-birth weight infants. The Midwifery Initiated Oral Health-Dental Service (MIOH-DS) trial is a three arm multicentre randomised controlled trial which will recruit women from three metropolitan hospitals aimed at improving women's oral health and service access and indirectly reducing perinatal morbidity. All three arms of the trial will deliver oral health promotion material, although a midwife oral assessment and referral to private/public/health fund dental services pathway (Intervention Group 1) and the midwife oral assessment and referral to local free public dental services pathway (Intervention Group 2) will be compared to the control group of oral health promotional material only. Midwives will undergo specific oral health education and competency testing to undertake this novel intervention. This efficacy trial will promote a new partnership between midwives and dentists focused on enhancing the oral health of women and their infants. Should the intervention be found effective, this intervention, with existing on-line educational program for midwives, can be easily transferred into practice for large metropolitan health services within and beyond Australia. Further cost-benefit analysis is proposed to inform national health policy. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001271897.

  1. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I; Traore, Mamadou N; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-08-17

    Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local health systems. The campaign budget

  2. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and Country Health Systems: The Case of a Neglected Tropical Diseases Control Program in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I.; Traore, Mamadou N.; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Methods and Findings Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local

  3. A Randomized, Controlled Pragmatic Trial of Telephonic Medication Therapy Management to Reduce Hospitalization in Home Health Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zillich, Alan J; Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Lewis, Julie L; Deshotels, Donny; Dunham, Patrick; Jaynes, Heather A; Sutherland, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic medication therapy management (MTM) service on reducing hospitalizations among home health patients. Setting Forty randomly selected, geographically diverse home health care centers in the United States. Design Two-stage, randomized, controlled trial with 60-day follow-up. All Medicare- insured home health care patients were eligible to participate. Twenty-eight consecutive patients within each care center were recruited and randomized to usual care or MTM intervention. The MTM intervention consisted of the following: (1) initial phone call by a pharmacy technician to verify active medications; (2) pharmacist-provided medication regimen review by telephone; and (3) follow-up pharmacist phone calls at day seven and as needed for 30 days. The primary outcome was 60-day all-cause hospitalization. Data Collection Data were collected from in-home nursing assessments using the OASIS-C. Multivariate logistic regression modeled the effect of the MTM intervention on the probability of hospitalization while adjusting for patients’ baseline risk of hospitalization, number of medications taken daily, and other OASIS-C data elements. Principal Findings A total of 895 patients (intervention n = 415, control n = 480) were block-randomized to the intervention or usual care. There was no significant difference in the 60-day probability of hospitalization between the MTM intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR: 1.26, 95 percent CI: 0.89–1.77, p = .19). For patients within the lowest baseline risk quartile (n = 232), the intervention group was three times more likely to remain out of the hospital at 60 days (Adjusted OR: 3.79, 95 percent CI: 1.35–10.57, p = .01) compared to the usual care group. Conclusions This MTM intervention may not be effective for all home health patients; however, for those patients with the lowest-risk profile, the MTM intervention prevented patients from being hospitalized at 60 days. PMID

  4. Statistical analysis of the correlations between cell performance and its initial states in contact resistive random access memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yun Feng; Hsieh, Wei Ting; Che Chen, Chun; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2017-04-01

    Variability has been one of the critical challenges in the implementation of large resistive random access memory (RRAM) arrays. Wide variations in set/reset, read and cycling characteristics can significantly reduce the design margin and feasibility of a memory array. Predicting the characteristics of RRAM cells is constructive to provide insights and to adjust the memory operations accordingly. In this study, a strong correlation between the cell performance and its initial state is found in contact RRAM (CRRAM) cells by 28 nm CMOS logic technology. Furthermore, a verify-reset operation is proposed to identify the type of conductive filament (CF) in a cell. Distinctive CRRAM characteristics are found to be linked directly to initial CFs, enabling preliminary screening and adaptive resets to address the large variability problems in sizable CRRAM arrays.

  5. Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-07-01

    The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large cohort that is well suited to the study of the relation of vegetarian dietary patterns to health and disease risk. Here we review initial published findings with regard to vegetarian diets and several health outcomes. Vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with lower body mass index, lower prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus, lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its component factors, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower all-cause mortality, and in some instances, lower risk of cancer. Findings with regard to factors related to vegetarian diets and bone health are also reviewed. These initial results show important links between vegetarian dietary patterns and improved health. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings1234

    PubMed Central

    Orlich, Michael J; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    The Adventist Health Study 2 is a large cohort that is well suited to the study of the relation of vegetarian dietary patterns to health and disease risk. Here we review initial published findings with regard to vegetarian diets and several health outcomes. Vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with lower body mass index, lower prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus, lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its component factors, lower prevalence of hypertension, lower all-cause mortality, and in some instances, lower risk of cancer. Findings with regard to factors related to vegetarian diets and bone health are also reviewed. These initial results show important links between vegetarian dietary patterns and improved health. PMID:24898223

  7. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services.

  8. Mental health leadership and patient access to care: a public-private initiative in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Christopher Paul; Fine, Jennifer; Mayers, Pat; Naidoo, Shan; Zabow, Tuviah

    2017-01-01

    Mental health leadership is a critical component of patient access to care. More specifically, the ability of mental health professionals to articulate the needs of patients, formulate strategies and engage meaningfully at the appropriate level in pursuit of resources. This is not a skill set routinely taught to mental health professionals. A public-private mental health leadership initiative, emanating from a patient access to care programme, was developed with the aim of building leadership capacity within the South African public mental health sector. The express aim was to equip health care professionals with the requisite skills to more effectively advocate for their patients. The initiative involved participants from various sites within South Africa. Inclusion was based on the proposal of an ongoing "project", i.e. a clinician-initiated service development with a multidisciplinary focus. The projects were varied in nature but all involved identification of and a plan for addressing an aspect of the participants' daily professional work which negatively impacted on patient care due to unmet needs. Six such projects were included and involved 15 participants, comprising personnel from psychiatry, psychology, occupational therapy and nursing. Each project group was formally mentored as part of the initiative, with mentors being senior professionals with expertise in psychiatry, public health and nursing. The programme design thus provided a unique practical dimension in which skills and learnings were applied to the projects with numerous and diverse outcomes. Benefits were noted by participants but extended beyond the individuals to the health institutions in which they worked and the patients that they served. Participants acquired both the skills and the confidence which enabled them to sustain the changes that they themselves had initiated in their institutions. The initiative gave impetus to the inclusion of public mental health as part of the curriculum

  9. Evaluation of population health short courses: implications for developing and evaluating population health professional development initiatives.

    PubMed

    Naccarella, Lucio; Greenstock, Louise; Butterworth, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Population health as an approach to planning is key to improving the health and well-being of whole populations and to reduce inequities within and between population groups. The Victorian Department of Health North and West Metropolitan Region, in collaboration with The University of Melbourne (School of Population Health), have delivered four annual population health short courses. The short courses were designed to equip participants with knowledge and skills to implement population health approaches upon their return to their workplaces. For three consecutive years, online surveys (n=41) and semi-structured interviews (n=35), underpinned by participatory and realist evaluation approaches, were conducted to obtain the perceptions and experiences of the population health short course participants. Evaluation findings indicate that participants' understanding of population health concepts increased; however, there were mixed outcomes in assisting participants' implementation of population health approaches upon their return to their workplaces. A core list of perceived requirements, enablers and barriers emerged at an individual, organisational and system level as influencing the capability of participants to implement population health approaches. Evaluation recommendations and actions taken to revise short course iterations are presented, providing evidence that the evaluation approaches were appropriate and increased the use of evaluation learnings. Implications of evaluation findings for professional development practice (i.e. shift from a 'Course' as a one-off event to a Population Health 'Program' of inter-dependent components) and evaluation (i.e. participatory realist evaluation approaches) are presented.

  10. Where theory and practice of global health intersect: the developmental history of a Canadian global health initiative.

    PubMed

    Daibes, Ibrahim; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada--the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North-South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.

  11. The Allegheny initiative for mental health integration for the homeless: integrating heterogeneous health services for homeless persons.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Adam J; Montlack, Melissa L; Freyder, Paul; Johnson, Diane; Bui, Thuy; Williams, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    The Allegheny Initiative for Mental Health Integration for the Homeless (AIM-HIGH) was a 3-year urban initiative in Pennsylvania that sought to enhance integration and coordination of medical and behavioral services for homeless persons through system-, provider-, and client-level interventions. On a system level, AIM-HIGH established partnerships between several key medical and behavioral health agencies. On a provider level, AIM-HIGH conducted 5 county-wide conferences regarding homeless integration, attended by 637 attendees from 72 agencies. On a client level, 5 colocated medical and behavioral health care clinics provided care to 1986 homeless patients in 4084 encounters, generating 1917 referrals for care. For a modest investment, AIM-HIGH demonstrated that integration of medical and behavioral health services for homeless persons can occur in a large urban environment.

  12. Health information technology: initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-01-13

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with a request for comments to adopt an initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria, as required by section 3004(b)(1) of the Public Health Service Act. This interim final rule represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health information technology and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the capabilities and related standards that certified electronic health record (EHR) technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of the proposed meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs.

  13. The Smart Health Initiative in China: The Case of Wuhan, Hubei Province.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meiyu; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Min

    2016-03-01

    To introduce smart health in Wuhan, and provide some references for other cities. As the largest mega-city in central China, Wuhan is investing large amounts of resources to push forward the development of Smart Wuhan and Health Wuhan, and it has unique features. It is one of the centerpieces of China's New Healthcare Reform, and great hope is put on it to help solve the conflict between limited healthcare resources and the large population of patients. How to plan and design smart health is important. The construction of Wuhan Smart Health includes some aspects as follows, like requirement analysis, the establishment of objectives and blueprint, the architecture design of regional health information platform, evaluation and implementation, problems and solutions, and so on. Wuhan Smart Health has obtained some achievements in health network, information systems, resident's health records, information standard, and the first phase of municipal health information platform. The focus of this article is the whole construction process of smart health in Wuhan. Although there are some difficulties during this period, some smart health services and management have been reflected. Compared with other cities or countries, Wuhan Smart Health has its own advantages and disadvantages. This study aims to provide a reference for other cities. Because smart health of Wuhan is characteristic in construction mode. Though still in the initial stage, it has great potentials in the future.

  14. The Bamako Initiative: Primary Health Care Experience. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippenberg, Rudolph; And Others

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987 World Health Organization's Regional Assembly, the Ministers of Health of the African States launched the Bamako Initiative, an effort aimed at reorganizing the health system to ensure universal, permanent accessibility of maternal and child health services. Three conditions were initially seen as necessary for success: improvement…

  15. The Bamako Initiative: Primary Health Care Experience. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippenberg, Rudolph; And Others

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987 World Health Organization's Regional Assembly, the Ministers of Health of the African States launched the Bamako Initiative, an effort aimed at reorganizing the health system to ensure universal, permanent accessibility of maternal and child health services. Three conditions were initially seen as necessary for success: improvement…

  16. Enacting Sustainable School-Based Health Initiatives: A Communication-Centered Approach to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Canary, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices. PMID:21233442

  17. Enacting sustainable school-based health initiatives: a communication-centered approach to policy and practice.

    PubMed

    LeGreco, Marianne; Canary, Heather E

    2011-03-01

    Communication plays an important role in all aspects of the development and use of policy. We present a communication-centered perspective on the processes of enacting public health policies. Our proposed conceptual framework comprises 4 communication frames: orientation, amplification, implementation, and integration. Empirical examples from 2 longitudinal studies of school-based health policies show how each frame includes different communication processes that enable sustainable public health policy practices in school-based health initiatives. These 4 frames provide unique insight into the capacity of school-based public health policy to engage youths, parents, and a broader community of stakeholders. Communication is often included as an element of health policy; however, our framework demonstrates the importance of communication as a pivotal resource in sustaining changes in public health practices.

  18. An experimental study of the turbulent development of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with a random initial perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklashvili, Vladimer; Lokhatchev, Oleg; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2012-11-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability is studied in a vertical shock tube experiment. The instability is observed between two gases of different densities accelerated by an incident planar shock wave. The stable stratification of the gases is created by introducing air seeded with smoke through a plenum at the top of the driven section, and SF6 through a plenum at the bottom. The gases are oscillated vertically using two loud speakers, located at the top and bottom of the driven section. Faraday waves created on the interface of the two gases results in a random initial perturbation from which the RM instability develops. The current study focuses on the development of the turbulent mixing layer width following the shock-interface interaction. In past experiments, a variety of growth behaviors has been observed. In some experiments the mixing layer width initially grows rapidly and then saturates later on. Other experiments have more gradual, almost linear growth behavior. In the new experiments views of the initial perturbation are captured along with the growth behavior in order to determine the effects of initial conditions on the mixing layers width's development.

  19. The need to evaluate public health reforms: Australian perinatal mental health initiatives.

    PubMed

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    To describe the Australian perinatal mental health reforms and explore ways of improving surveillance of maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in this context. We reviewed the Australian perinatal (defined as conception to one year postpartum) mental health reforms, in association with an appraisal of the population health methods that could be used for their evaluation. Despite the increasing focus of public health reforms on maternal mental health in the perinatal period, there is currently no national data available to evaluate these reforms or to provide an evidence base for improved health outcomes. National data development and linkage of relevant datasets would go a long way towards enabling such an endeavour. Inclusion of key mental health items in the Perinatal National Minimum Dataset and use of data linkage techniques will allow for monitoring of trends in maternal mental health morbidity and mortality in response to the Australian reforms. Once this is implemented, cost-benefit analyses can be undertaken. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    PubMed

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  1. A web application for moderation training: initial results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hester, Reid K; Delaney, Harold D; Campbell, William; Handmaker, Nancy

    2009-10-01

    Eighty-four heavy drinkers who responded to a newspaper recruitment advertisement were randomly assigned to receive either (a) training in a Moderate Drinking protocol via an Internet-based program (www.moderatedrinking.com) and use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; www.moderation.org) or (b) use of the online resources of MM alone. Follow-ups are being conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results of the recently completed 3-month follow-up (86% follow-up) indicated both groups significantly reduced their drinking based on these variables: standard drinks per week, percent days abstinent, and mean estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) per drinking day. Both groups also significantly reduced their alcohol-related problems. Relative to the control group, the experimental group had better outcomes on percent days abstinent and log drinks per drinking day. These short-term outcome data provide evidence for the effectiveness of both the Moderate Drinking Web application and of the resources available online at MM in helping heavy drinkers reduce their drinking and alcohol-related problems.

  2. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  3. No Increase in Fractures After Stopping Hormone Therapy: Results From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Watts, Nelson B; Cauley, Jane A; Jackson, Rebecca D; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lewis, Cora E; Manson, JoAnn E; Neuner, Joan M; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Crandall, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy (HT) trials showed protection against hip and total fractures, but a later observational report suggested loss of benefit and a rebound increased risk after cessation of HT. The purpose of this study was to examine fractures after discontinuation of HT. Two placebo-controlled randomized trials served as the study setting. Study patients included WHI participants (N = 15,187) who continued active HT or placebo through the intervention period and who did not take HT in the postintervention period. Trial interventions included conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in naturally menopausal women and CEE alone in women with prior hysterectomy. Total fractures and hip fractures through 5 years after discontinuation of HT were recorded. Hip fractures were infrequent (∼2.5 per 1000 person-years); this finding was similar between trials and in former HT and placebo groups. There was no difference in total fractures in the CEE + MPA trial for former HT vs former placebo users (28.9 per 1000 person-years and 29.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.09; P = 0.63); however, in the CEE-alone trial, total fractures were higher in former placebo users (36.9 per 1000 person-years) compared with the former active group (31.1 per 1000 person-years), a finding that was suggestive of a residual benefit of CEE against total fractures (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98; P = 0.03). We found no evidence for increased fracture risk, either sustained or transient, for former HT users compared with former placebo users after stopping HT. There was residual benefit for total fractures in former HT users from the CEE-alone study.

  4. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gangwisch, James E; Hale, Lauren; Garcia, Lorena; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G; Payne, Martha E; Rossom, Rebecca C; Lane, Dorothy

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load. We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression. This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954). We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression. The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive measures for depression in postmenopausal women.

  5. Investigating the association of lactation history and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thompson, Patricia A; Thomson, Cynthia A; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Ray, Roberta M; Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged lactation (≥24 mo) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. This research examined this association in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial (HT) and Observational Study (OS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 69,358 predominantly overweight (65.4%), white (83.2%) postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Women in the HT were randomized to 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), 0.625 CEE + 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA), or placebo. OS participants had no restrictions on hormone use. Lactation history was assessed via WHI Reproductive History Questionnaire. Most women breastfed at least 1 mo (58.0%); 35.4% breastfed 1-2 children; and 6.5% stated having breastfed ≥24mo. Women in the HT-CEE who breastfed their first child between 20-24 yr of age demonstrated a nonsignificant decreased risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.01). OS participants who reported CEE/MPA hormone use and age of first breastfeeding ≥30 yr showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.41). Risk was increased if age of last breastfeeding was ≥35yr (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.14). This research did not demonstrate a significantly decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in women who breastfed for ≥24 mo during their lifetime.

  6. Validity of diabetes self-reports in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jody M; DeFor, Terese A; Crain, A Lauren; Kerby, Tessa J; Strayer, Lori S; Lewis, Cora E; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Williams, Selvi B; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Larson, Joseph C; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Margolis, Karen L

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to determine the positive and negative predictive values of self-reported diabetes during the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. All WHI trial participants from four field centers who self-reported diabetes at baseline or during follow-up, as well as a random sample of women who did not self-report diabetes, were identified. Women were surveyed regarding diagnosis and treatment. Medical records were obtained and reviewed for documented treatment with antidiabetes medications or for physician diagnosis of diabetes supported by laboratory measurements of glucose. We identified 1,275 eligible participants; 732 consented and provided survey data. Medical records were obtained for 715 women (prevalent diabetes, 207; incident diabetes, 325; no diabetes, 183). Records confirmed 91.8% (95% CI, 87.0-95.0) of self-reported prevalent diabetes cases and 82.2% (95% CI, 77.5-86.1) of incident diabetes cases. Among those who never self-reported diabetes, there was no medical record or laboratory evidence for diabetes in 94.5% (95% CI, 89.9-97.2). Women with higher body mass index were more likely to accurately self-report incident diabetes. In a subgroup of participants enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare, a claims algorithm correctly classified nearly all diabetes cases and noncases. Among WHI clinical trial participants, there are high positive predictive values of self-reported prevalent diabetes (91.8%) and incident diabetes (82.2%) and a high negative predictive value (94.5%) when diabetes is not reported. For participants enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare, a claims algorithm has high positive and negative predictive values.

  7. Under the (legal) radar screen: global health initiatives and international human rights obligations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that many low income countries are heavily reliant on external assistance to fund their health sectors the acceptance of obligations of international assistance and cooperation with regard to the right to health (global health obligations) is insufficiently understood and studied by international health and human rights scholars. Over the past decade Global Health Initiatives, like the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) have adopted novel approaches to engaging with stakeholders in high and low income countries. This article explores how this experience impacted on acceptance of the international obligation to (help) fulfil the right to health beyond borders. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of international human rights law literature, transnational legal process literature, global public health literature and grey literature pertaining to Global Health Initiatives. To complement this desk work and deepen their understanding of how and why different legal norms evolve the authors conducted 19 in-depth key informant interviews with actors engaged with three stakeholders; the European Union, the United States and Belgium. The authors then analysed the interviews through a transnational legal process lens. Results Through according value to the process of examining how and why different legal norms evolve transnational legal process offers us a tool for engaging with the dynamism of developments in global health suggesting that operationalising global health obligations could advance the right to health for all. Conclusions In many low-income countries the health sector is heavily dependent on external assistance to fulfil the right to health of people thus it is vital that policies and tools for delivering reliable, long-term assistance are developed so that the right to health for all becomes more than a dream. Our research suggests that the Global Fund experience offers lessons to build on. PMID

  8. Health education for microcredit clients in Peru: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poverty, lack of female empowerment, and lack of education are major risk factors for childhood illness worldwide. Microcredit programs, by offering small loans to poor individuals, attempt to address the first two of these risk factors, poverty and gender disparity. They provide clients, usually women, with a means to invest in their businesses and support their families. This study investigates the health effects of also addressing the remaining risk factor, lack of knowledge about important health issues, through randomization of members of a microcredit organization to receive a health education module based on the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) community intervention. Methods Baseline data were collected in February 2007 from clients of a microcredit organization in Pucallpa, Peru (n = 1,855) and their children (n = 598). Loan groups, consisting of 15 to 20 clients, were then randomly assigned to receive a health education intervention involving eight monthly 30-minute sessions given by the organization's loan officers at monthly loan group meetings. In February 2008, follow-up data were collected, and included assessments of sociodemographic information, knowledge of child health issues, and child health status (including child height, weight, and blood hemoglobin levels). To explore the effects of treatment (i.e., participation in the health education sessions) on the key outcome variables, multivariate regressions were implemented using ordinary least squares. Results Individuals in the IMCI treatment arm demonstrated more knowledge about a variety of issues related to child health, but there were no changes in anthropometric measures or reported child health status. Conclusions Microcredit clients randomized to an IMCI educational intervention showed greater knowledge about child health, but no differences in child health outcomes compared to controls. These results imply that the intervention did

  9. Health education for microcredit clients in Peru: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Fernald, Lia Ch; Karlan, Dean S

    2011-01-24

    Poverty, lack of female empowerment, and lack of education are major risk factors for childhood illness worldwide. Microcredit programs, by offering small loans to poor individuals, attempt to address the first two of these risk factors, poverty and gender disparity. They provide clients, usually women, with a means to invest in their businesses and support their families. This study investigates the health effects of also addressing the remaining risk factor, lack of knowledge about important health issues, through randomization of members of a microcredit organization to receive a health education module based on the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) community intervention. Baseline data were collected in February 2007 from clients of a microcredit organization in Pucallpa, Peru (n = 1,855) and their children (n = 598). Loan groups, consisting of 15 to 20 clients, were then randomly assigned to receive a health education intervention involving eight monthly 30-minute sessions given by the organization's loan officers at monthly loan group meetings. In February 2008, follow-up data were collected, and included assessments of sociodemographic information, knowledge of child health issues, and child health status (including child height, weight, and blood hemoglobin levels). To explore the effects of treatment (i.e., participation in the health education sessions) on the key outcome variables, multivariate regressions were implemented using ordinary least squares. Individuals in the IMCI treatment arm demonstrated more knowledge about a variety of issues related to child health, but there were no changes in anthropometric measures or reported child health status. Microcredit clients randomized to an IMCI educational intervention showed greater knowledge about child health, but no differences in child health outcomes compared to controls. These results imply that the intervention did not have sufficient intensity to change

  10. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the role of interferon as initial and maintenance therapy in patients with follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rohatiner, A; Radford, J; Deakin, D; Earl, H; Love, S B; Price, O; Wilson, A; Lister, T A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of interferon as initial and maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed follicular lymphoma. Between 1984 and 1994, 204 patients with newly diagnosed Stage III or Stage IV follicular lymphoma were randomized to receive either, Chlorambucil (CB): 10 mg daily for 6 weeks, followed by a 2-week interval, with 3 subsequent 2-week treatment periods at the same dose, separated by 2-week intervals, or, CB given concurrently with interferon (IFN). IFN was given at a dose of 3 × 106units thrice weekly, subcutaneously, throughout the 18-week treatment period. Responding patients were subsequently randomized to receive maintenance IFN at the dose and schedule described above, or to expectant management. The overall response rate was 161/204 (78%), complete remission being achieved in 24% of patients. Neither the addition of IFN to the initial treatment, nor the use of maintenance IFN influenced response rate, remission duration or survival. This study was undertaken to determine whether IFN, given in combination with, and then subsequent to, CB would alter the clinical course of patients with follicular lymphoma. Disappointingly, this objective was not achieved, no advantage having been demonstrated for the addition of IFN. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11437398

  11. Cost Analysis of the STONE Randomized Trial: Can Health Care Costs be Reduced One Test at a Time?

    PubMed

    Melnikow, Joy; Xing, Guibo; Cox, Ginger; Leigh, Paul; Mills, Lisa; Miglioretti, Diana L; Moghadassi, Michelle; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Decreasing the use of high-cost tests may reduce health care costs. To compare costs of care for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected kidney stones randomized to 1 of 3 initial imaging tests. Patients were randomized to point-of-care ultrasound (POC US, least costly), radiology ultrasound (RAD US), or computed tomography (CT, most costly). Subsequent testing and treatment were the choice of the treating physician. A total of 2759 patients at 15 EDs were randomized to POC US (n=908), RAD US, (n=893), or CT (n=958). Mean age was 40.4 years; 51.8% were male. All medical care documented in the trial database in the 7 days following enrollment was abstracted and coded to estimate costs using national average 2012 Medicare reimbursements. Costs for initial ED care and total 7-day costs were compared using nonparametric bootstrap to account for clustering of patients within medical centers. Initial ED visit costs were modestly lower for patients assigned to RAD US: $423 ($411, $434) compared with patients assigned to CT: $448 ($438, $459) (P<0.0001). Total costs were not significantly different between groups: $1014 ($912, $1129) for POC US, $970 ($878, $1078) for RAD US, and $959 ($870, $1044) for CT. Hospital admissions contributed over 50% of total costs, though only 11% of patients were admitted. Mean total costs (and admission rates) varied substantially by site from $749 to $1239. Assignment to a less costly test had no impact on overall health care costs for ED patients. System-level interventions addressing variation in admission rates from the ED might have greater impact on costs.

  12. Cystatin C-Based Renal Function Changes After Antiretroviral Initiation: A Substudy of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Samir K.; Kitch, Douglas; Tierney, Camlin; Daar, Eric S.; Sax, Paul E.; Melbourne, Kathleen; Ha, Belinda; McComsey, Grace A.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  The effects of antiretrovirals on cystatin C-based renal function estimates are unknown. Methods.  We analyzed changes in renal function using creatinine and cystatin C-based estimating equations in 269 patients in A5224s, a substudy of study A5202, in which treatment-naive patients were randomized to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with open-label atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz. Results.  Changes in renal function significantly improved (or declined less) with abacavir/lamivudine treatment compared with tenofovir/emtricitabine using the Cockcroft-Gault formula (P = .016) and 2009 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI; P = .030) and 2012 CKD-EPI cystatin C-creatinine (P = .025). Renal function changes significantly improved (or declined less) with efavirenz compared with atazanavir/ritonavir (P < .001 for all equations). Mean (95% confidence interval) renal function changes specifically for tenofovir/emtricitabine combined with atazanavir/ritonavir were −8.3 (−14.0, −2.6) mL/min with Cockcroft-Gault; −14.9 (−19.7, −10.1) mL/min per 1.732 with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; −12.8 (−16.5, −9.0) mL/min per 1.732 with 2009 CKD-EPI; +8.9 (4.2, 13.7) mL/min per 1.732 with 2012 CKD-EPI cystatin C; and −1.2 (−5.1, 2.6) mL/min per 1.732 with 2012 CKD-EPI cystatin C-creatinine. Renal function changes for the other treatment arms were more favorable but similarly varied by estimating equation. Conclusions.  Antiretroviral-associated changes in renal function vary in magnitude and direction based on the estimating equation used. PMID:25734077

  13. Tailored versus Triple plus Bismuth or Concomitant Therapy as Initial Helicobacter pylori Treatment: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liya; Zhang, Jianzhong; Song, Zhiqiang; He, Lihua; Li, Yanqing; Qian, Jiaming; Bai, Peng; Xue, Yan; Wang, Ye; Lin, Sanren

    2016-04-01

    With markedly increased antibiotic resistance and unsatisfactory efficacies of common empiric eradication regimens in the mainland of China, tailored therapy may be the best choice to achieve good efficacy. This study compared the eradication rates, safety, and compliance of tailored therapy to those of triple therapy plus bismuth and concomitant therapy in the naïve patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. Between September 2013 and April 2014, 1050 patients with H. pylori infection at three tertiary hospitals were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment with tailored, triple plus bismuth, or concomitant regimens. In tailored therapy, medications were adjusted according to clarithromycin sensitivity and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 genotype. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing (E test) was performed. Eradication status was assessed 4-12 weeks after treatment. The eradication rate was significantly higher in tailored group than in triple plus bismuth and concomitant groups in both intention-to-treat (88.7 vs 77.4 vs 78.3%, p < .001) and per-protocol (93.3 vs 87.0 vs 87.4%, p = .021) analyses in a setting with high antibiotic resistance (clarithromycin 48.8%, metronidazole 65.7%, and dual resistance 35.3%). Significantly, fewer adverse effects occurred in tailored group than in concomitant group (22.0 vs 31.7%, p = .018). The eradication rates of dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance, isolated clarithromycin resistance, isolated metronidazole resistance, and dual susceptible were 78.7, 82.4, 94.8, and 94.4% in triple therapy plus bismuth and 75.9, 87.2, 92.9, and 95.2% in concomitant therapy, respectively. First-line tailored therapy achieves significantly higher eradication rates and fewer side effects, compared to triple therapy plus bismuth and concomitant therapy in a setting with high rates of clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Addressing the social determinants of health through the Alameda County, California, place matters policy initiative.

    PubMed

    Schaff, Katherine; Desautels, Alexandra; Flournoy, Rebecca; Carson, Keith; Drenick, Teresa; Fujii, Darlene; Lee, Anna; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Mena, Mona; Shrago, Amy; Siegel, Anita; Stahl, Robert; Watkins-Tartt, Kimi; Willow, Pam; Witt, Sandra; Woloshin, Diane; Yamashita, Brenda

    2013-11-01

    In Alameda County, California, significant health inequities by race/ethnicity, income, and place persist. Many of the county's low-income residents and residents of color live in communities that have faced historical and current disinvestment through public policies. This disinvestment affects community conditions such as access to economic opportunities, well-maintained and affordable housing, high-quality schools, healthy food, safe parks, and clean water and air. These community conditions greatly affect health. At the invitation of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' national Place Matters initiative, Alameda County Supervisor Keith Carson's Office and the Alameda County Public Health Department launched Alameda County Place Matters, an initiative that addresses community conditions through local policy change. We describe the initiative's creation, activities, policy successes, and best practices.

  15. Can a regional government's social inclusion initiative contribute to the quest for health equity?

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine; Patterson, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Despite decades of concern about reducing health inequity, the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) painted a picture of persistent and, in some cases, increasing health inequity. It also made a call for increased evaluation of interventions that might reduce inequities. This paper describes such an intervention-the Social Inclusion Initiative (SII) of the South Australian Government-that was documented for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the CSDH. This initiative is designed to increase social inclusion by addressing key determinants of health inequity-in the study period these were education, homelessness and drug use. Our paper examines evidence from a rapid appraisal to determine whether a social inclusion initiative is a useful aspect of government action to reduce health inequity. It describes achievements in each specific area and the ways they can be expected to affect health equity. Our study highlighted four factors central to the successes achieved by the SII. These were the independent authority and influence of the leadership of the SII, the whole of government approach supported by an overarching strategic plan which sets clear goals for government and the clear and unambiguous support from the highest level of government. We conclude that a social inclusion approach can be valuable in the quest to reduce inequities and that further research on innovative social policy approaches is required to examine their likely impact on health equity.

  16. Effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Brefo, Rita; Arthur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices have been argued to be one of the important ways of ensuring child health. Unfortunately, owing to modernization, most nursing mothers fail to adhere to such practices. This is believed to be a factor contributory to poor child health in Ghana. Thus, this study investigated the effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana. Cross sectional data using secondary data based on the positivism approach to research was employed. The Ordinary least squares and the Instrumental variables approach were used in estimating the effect of breastfeeding and other socio demographic indicators on the health of the child. Data for the study was sourced from the 2008 round of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that timely initiation of breastfeeding, both immediately and hours after birth are important factors that influence the child's health. Additionally, factors such as the wealth of the household, mother's education, age and size of the child at birth and age of the mother are important factors that also influence the health of the child in Ghana. The findings imply that efforts should be made on encouraging appropriate breastfeeding practices among nursing mothers to ensure proper child development and growth in Ghana.

  17. Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Smith, Stephanie

    2007-10-13

    Why do some global health initiatives receive priority from international and national political leaders whereas others receive little attention? To analyse this question we propose a framework consisting of four categories: the strength of the actors involved in the initiative, the power of the ideas they use to portray the issue, the nature of the political contexts in which they operate, and characteristics of the issue itself. We apply this framework to the case of a global initiative to reduce maternal mortality, which was launched in 1987. We undertook archival research and interviewed people connected with the initiative, using a process-tracing method that is commonly employed in qualitative research. We report that despite two decades of effort the initiative remains in an early phase of development, hampered by difficulties in all these categories. However, the initiative's 20th year, 2007, presents opportunities to build political momentum. To generate political priority, advocates will need to address several challenges, including the creation of effective institutions to guide the initiative and the development of a public positioning of the issue to convince political leaders to act. We use the framework and case study to suggest areas for future research on the determinants of political priority for global health initiatives, which is a subject that has attracted much speculation but little scholarship.

  18. Health plan auditing: 100-percent-of-claims vs. random-sample audits.

    PubMed

    Sillup, George P; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative efficacy of two different methodologies for auditing self-funded medical claim expenses: 100-percent-of-claims auditing versus random-sampling auditing. Multiple data sets of claim errors or 'exceptions' from two Fortune-100 corporations were analysed and compared to 100 simulated audits of 300- and 400-claim random samples. Random-sample simulations failed to identify a significant number and amount of the errors that ranged from $200,000 to $750,000. These results suggest that health plan expenses of corporations could be significantly reduced if they audited 100% of claims and embraced a zero-defect approach.

  19. Experiences Recruiting Indian Worksites for an Integrated Health Protection and Health Promotion Randomized Control Trial in Maharashtra, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman Cordeira, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gautam, J.; Wallace, L.; Stoddard, A. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Sorensen, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited.…

  20. Experiences Recruiting Indian Worksites for an Integrated Health Protection and Health Promotion Randomized Control Trial in Maharashtra, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman Cordeira, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gautam, J.; Wallace, L.; Stoddard, A. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Sorensen, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited.…

  1. What Factors are Associated with Consumer Initiation of Shared Decision Making in Mental Health Visits?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Marianne S; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed.

  2. What Factors are Associated with Consumer Initiation of Shared Decision Making in Mental Health Visits?

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Marianne S.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer initiation of shared decision making (SDM) is critical to improving SDM in mental health consultations, particularly because providers do not always invite consumer participation in treatment decisions. This study examined the association between consumer initiation of nine elements of SDM as measured by the SDM scale, and measures of consumer illness self-management and the consumer-provider relationship. In 63 mental health visits, three SDM elements were associated with self-management or relationship factors: discussion of consumer goals, treatment alternatives, and pros and cons of a decision. Limitations, implications, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26427999

  3. Demographic and health attributes of the Nahua, initial contact population of the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Culqui, Dante R; Ayuso-Alvarez, Ana; Munayco, Cesar V; Quispe-Huaman, Carlos; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Campos, Juan de Mata Donado

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of the Nahua population of Santa Rosa de Serjali, Peruvian Amazon's population, considered of initial contact. This population consists of human groups that for a long time decided to live in isolation, but lately have begun living a more sedentary lifestyle and in contact with Western populations. There are two fully identified initial contact groups in Peru: the Nahua and the Nanti. The health statistics of the Nahua are scarce. This study offers an interpretation of demographic and epidemiological indicators of the Nahua people, trying to identify if a certain degree of health vulnerability exists. We performed a cross sectional study, and after analyzing their health indicators, as well as the supplemental qualitative analysis of the population, brought us to conclude that in 2006, the Nahua, remained in a state of health vulnerability.

  4. Catching life: the contribution of arts initiatives to recovery approaches in mental health.

    PubMed

    Spandler, H; Secker, J; Kent, L; Hacking, S; Shenton, J

    2007-12-01

    This paper draws on a qualitative study that was undertaken as part of a national research study to assess the impact of participatory arts provision for people with mental health needs. It explores how arts and mental health projects may facilitate some of the key elements of what has been termed a 'recovery approach' in mental health. It is argued that it is precisely these elements--the fostering of hope, creating a sense of meaning and purpose, developing new coping mechanisms and rebuilding identities--which are hard to standardize and measure, yet may be the most profound and significant outcomes of participation in such projects. Therefore, in the context of a growing emphasis on recovery-orientated mental health services, while not necessarily being appropriate for all service users, arts and mental health initiatives could make an essential contribution to the future of mental health and social care provision.

  5. The Kids Into Health Careers (KIHC) initiative: innovative approaches to help solve the nursing shortage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rebecca; Burns, Kenneth; Frank-Stromborg, Marilyn; Flanagan, Joan; Askins, Donna L; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda

    2006-05-01

    In 2001, the Northern Illinois University School of Nursing was awarded a grant from the Division of Nursing of the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to enhance the School's advanced practice nursing program. As a recipient of this grant, the School of Nursing was required to incorporate activities to meet the goals of the "Kids Into Health Careers (KIHC) Initiative" to encourage children into health care careers. This article describes the strategies developed by the School of Nursing to meet the KIHC goals and encourage children, especially those from minorities, into health care careers. The School's approach was multifaceted and included collaboration with a variety of community organizations and groups. While there is a tremendous amount of work to be accomplished in encouraging middle and high school students to consider nursing as a career, creative strategies through which nurses take an active role in helping resolve the problem are suggested.

  6. Considerations for Community-Based mHealth Initiatives: Insights From Three Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs. PMID:24128406

  7. Considerations for community-based mHealth initiatives: insights from three Beacon Communities.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Nebeyou A; Capozza, Korey L; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Kulick, David A; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Turske, Scott A

    2013-10-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) is gaining widespread attention for its potential to engage patients in their health and health care in their daily lives. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions can be used effectively to support behavior change, but numerous challenges remain when implementing these programs at the community level. This paper provides an overview of considerations when implementing community-based mHealth initiatives, based on the experiences of three Beacon Communities across the United States that have launched text messaging (short message service, SMS) pilot programs aimed at diabetes risk reduction and disease management. The paper addresses lessons learned and suggests strategies to overcome challenges related to developing text message content, conducting marketing and outreach, enrolling participants, engaging providers, evaluating program effectiveness, and sustaining and scaling the programs.

  8. Is the estrogen controversy over? Deconstructing the Women's Health Initiative study: a critical evaluation of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Harman, S Mitchell; Naftolin, Frederick; Brinton, Eliot A; Judelson, Debra R

    2005-06-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials have been widely interpreted as demonstrating that combined menopausal hormone therapy (HT) fails to protect against-and may increase-cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and dementia in menopausal women, regardless of whether initiated early in the menopause or later. This conclusion does not agree with results of large epidemiological studies showing protection by HT and by estrogen replacement alone (ET) against CVD and dementia. One possible reason for this inconsistency is that the epidemiologic data are confounded by "healthy user bias." Another possible explanation is that most women in the observational studies initiated ET or HT at or near the menopausal transition, at which point there is little or no arterial injury, whereas, in the WHI studies, older women, averaging approximately 12 years postmenopausal, many of whom would have had significant asymptomatic atherosclerosis, were treated. Substantial data demonstrate atheropreventive effects of estrogen before vascular damage occurs, whereas adverse effects of oral estrogen on thrombosis and inflammation may predominate once complex atheromas are present. Similarly, the excess of dementia observed in older WHI women treated with oral conjugated estrogen could be due to cerebral thromboses (multi-infarct dementia). Given the uncertain relevance of the WHI (and other published randomized clinical trials) to initiation of HT in perimenopausal women, and its subsequent continuation for atheroprevention, new trials will be needed to resolve whether early intervention with estrogen may prevent CVD and/or dementia. The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), which began in mid-2005, is a randomized, controlled multicenter trial of HT in recently menopausal women. It will examine surrogate end points as well as risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  9. Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Laureillard, Didier; Marcy, Olivier; Madec, Yoann; Chea, Sokeo; Chan, Sarin; Borand, Laurence; Fernandez, Marcelo; Prak, Narom; Kim, Chindamony; Dim, Bunnet; Nerrienet, Eric; Sok, Thim; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Goldfeld, Anne E; Blanc, François-Xavier

    2013-10-23

    To analyze cases of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the CAMbodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretrovirals (CAMELIA) randomized trial designed to compare early (2 weeks) versus late (8 weeks) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset in Cambodia (NCT00226434). ART-naive adults with CD4 cell count of 200 cells/μl or less, newly diagnosed tuberculosis, and at least one follow-up visit after ART initiation were included in this analysis. Each case of suspected TB-IRIS was systematically validated by two physicians not involved in patients' management. Factors associated with occurrence of TB-IRIS were identified using the Cox proportional hazard model. Among 597 patients, 26% experienced TB-IRIS with an incidence rate of 37.9 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4-44.4]. Main clinical manifestations included new or worsening lymphadenopathy (77.4%) and fever (68.4%). Chest radiograph revealed new or worsening abnormalities in 53.4%. Symptoms resolved in 95.5% of patients. Six deaths were directly related to TB-IRIS. Initiating ART early increased the risk of TB-IRIS by 2.61 (95% CI 1.84-3.70). Extrapulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis, CD4 cell count of 100 cells/μl or less, and HIV RNA concentration more than 6 log10 copies/ml were also significantly associated with higher risk of TB-IRIS. Shortening the delay between tuberculosis treatment onset and ART initiation to 2 weeks was associated with an increased risk of developing TB-IRIS. However, TB-IRIS was generally easily manageable. Given the marked reported survival advantage of early ART initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset, these data indicate that fear of TB-IRIS should not be an impediment to early ART in adults with advanced immunodeficiency in resource-limited, high burden settings.

  10. Bandages or double stockings for the initial therapy of venous oedema? A randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mosti, G; Partsch, H

    2013-07-01

    Treatment for leg oedema conventionally starts with compression bandaging followed by elastic stockings once swelling is reduced. The aim was to investigate if a kit consisting of a liner and outer stocking, each exerting 20 mmHg of pressure, would be equally effective in achieving and maintaining volume reduction compared with short-stretch bandaging (2 weeks) followed by a class II (23-33 mmHg) stocking (2 weeks). Forty legs (28 patients) with chronic venous oedema were randomised to either short-stretch bandages applied weekly for 2 weeks, followed by an elastic stocking for 2 weeks (group A) or a light stocking ("liner") for 1 week followed by superimposing a second stocking for 3 weeks (group B). Interface pressures and leg volumes were measured weekly. Despite differences in the pressure (median ± interquartile range) applied (bandage: 67 mmHg [55.7-73.0] vs. liner 24.5 mmHg [21.2-26.5]) volume reduction after 1 week was equal (12.8% [8.7-16.5] and 13.0% [10.4-20.6]). After 2 weeks (group A: 17.8% [10.6-20.0] vs. group B 16.2% [13.0-25.4]) and 4 weeks (group A: 17.3% [9.6-22.8] vs. group B: 17.0% [13.1-24.1]) volume reductions remained identical. The initial improvement in leg volume (1 week) was independent of the pressure applied and the reduction was maintained by superimposing a second stocking. This offers a simple alternative for managing leg oedema with reduced staffing costs. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Machine Assisted Translation of Health Materials to Chinese: An Initial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne M; Desai, Loma; Dew, Kristin; Martin, Nathalie; Kirchhoff, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for Chinese language health materials in the USA. We investigated the use of machine translation (MT) plus human post-editing (PE) to produce Chinese translations of public health materials. We collected 60 documents that had been manually translated from English to traditional Chinese. The English versions were translated to Chinese using MT and assessed for errors and time required to correct via PE. Results suggest poor initial translation may explain the lack of quality translations despite PE.

  12. [Perspectives on veterinary public health, food security, and the "One Health" joint initiative].

    PubMed

    Cartín-Rojas, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Veterinarians play a key role in food security. The health of millions of people, stimulation of national economies, development of sustainable livestock production related to this food source, and the different agricultural production systems that compose value chains, and access to more profitable international markets all depend on their efficient and transparent work. Shifting nutritional patterns globally, along with expected population growth, and the increase in marketable food commodity routes and volumes, forecast that demand for animal source food will steadily intensify over the coming decades. To successfully address these challenges, the veterinary profession should establish more practical and up-to-date conceptual and methodological frameworks for academic and professional profiles, focusing the profession on the different public health subject areas, in undergraduate and graduate courses. Furthermore, interdisciplinary alliances should also be developed--such as the "One Health" approach proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and the World Health Organization (WHO)--to establish frameworks for joint work and public policies more in line with the domestic conditions of Latin American countries, using a collaborative, sustainable, and comprehensive approach to animal health, food security, and public health policy.

  13. Predicting longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities with random-effects multinomial logit regression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian; Engel, Charles C

    2012-12-20

    Researchers often encounter longitudinal health data characterized with three or more ordinal or nominal categories. Random-effects multinomial logit models are generally applied to account for potential lack of independence inherent in such clustered data. When parameter estimates are used to describe longitudinal processes, however, random effects, both between and within individuals, need to be retransformed for correctly predicting outcome probabilities. This study attempts to go beyond existing work by developing a retransformation method that derives longitudinal growth trajectories of unbiased health probabilities. We estimated variances of the predicted probabilities by using the delta method. Additionally, we transformed the covariates' regression coefficients on the multinomial logit function, not substantively meaningful, to the conditional effects on the predicted probabilities. The empirical illustration uses the longitudinal data from the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old. Our analysis compared three sets of the predicted probabilities of three health states at six time points, obtained from, respectively, the retransformation method, the best linear unbiased prediction, and the fixed-effects approach. The results demonstrate that neglect of retransforming random errors in the random-effects multinomial logit model results in severely biased longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities as well as overestimated effects of covariates on the probabilities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Health sector initiatives for disaster risk management in ethiopia: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster management phases; and impacts of drought

  15. Initial outcomes from a 4-week follow-up study of the Text4baby program in the military women's population: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Wallace Bihm, Jasmine; Szekely, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter; Murray, Elizabeth; Abroms, Lorien; Snider, Jeremy

    2014-05-20

    The use of mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention has advanced rapidly in recent years. Text4baby is a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program in which text messages are delivered to pregnant women and new mothers to improve their health care beliefs and behaviors and improve health status and clinical outcomes. Recent evaluations of Text4baby have found that it improves targeted health attitudes and beliefs, but effects on behavior have not yet been determined. In this study, investigators aimed to evaluate Text4baby in the military women's population. Investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, from December 2011 through September 2013. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at Madigan. Investigators conducted a baseline assessment using a 24-item, self-administered online survey of attitudes and behaviors related to Text4baby message content. Participants were randomized to Text4baby plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control). Investigators analyzed treatment effects of Text4baby on short-term targeted outcomes 4 weeks post enrollment. For this study, 943 patients were randomized and completed a baseline assessment. The average patient age was 28 years and nearly 70% self-identified as Caucasian. 48.7% of enrollees (459/943) completed the first follow-up assessment. Higher rates of single and working/in-school patients dropped out of the intervention arm of the study, and we adjusted for this finding in subsequent models. However, while investigators were unable to re-survey these participants, only 1.9% of Text4baby enrollees (18/943) dropped the service during the study period. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic generalized estimating equation models were developed to assess intervention effects on measured outcomes. In the model adjusting for age, marital status, having had a previous baby, and race/ethnicity, there was a

  16. Initial Outcomes From a 4-Week Follow-Up Study of the Text4baby Program in the Military Women’s Population: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallace Bihm, Jasmine; Szekely, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter; Murray, Elizabeth; Abroms, Lorien; Snider, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention has advanced rapidly in recent years. Text4baby is a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program in which text messages are delivered to pregnant women and new mothers to improve their health care beliefs and behaviors and improve health status and clinical outcomes. Recent evaluations of Text4baby have found that it improves targeted health attitudes and beliefs, but effects on behavior have not yet been determined. Objective In this study, investigators aimed to evaluate Text4baby in the military women’s population. Methods Investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, from December 2011 through September 2013. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at Madigan. Investigators conducted a baseline assessment using a 24-item, self-administered online survey of attitudes and behaviors related to Text4baby message content. Participants were randomized to Text4baby plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control). Investigators analyzed treatment effects of Text4baby on short-term targeted outcomes 4 weeks post enrollment. Results For this study, 943 patients were randomized and completed a baseline assessment. The average patient age was 28 years and nearly 70% self-identified as Caucasian. 48.7% of enrollees (459/943) completed the first follow-up assessment. Higher rates of single and working/in-school patients dropped out of the intervention arm of the study, and we adjusted for this finding in subsequent models. However, while investigators were unable to re-survey these participants, only 1.9% of Text4baby enrollees (18/943) dropped the service during the study period. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic generalized estimating equation models were developed to assess intervention effects on measured outcomes. In the model adjusting for age, marital status, having had a

  17. A review of health literacy: Definitions, interpretations, and implications for policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Malloy-Weir, Leslie J; Charles, Cathy; Gafni, Amiram; Entwistle, Vikki

    2016-05-19

    Definitions and interpretations of 'health literacy' have important implications for the delivery of health care and for health policy-related initiatives. We conducted a systematic review and critical analysis to determine the extent to which definitions of health literacy differ in the academic literature, the similarities and differences across definitions, and possible interpretations for the most commonly used definitions. We identified 250 different definitions of health literacy and grouped them into three categories: (i) most commonly used definitions (n=6), (ii) modified versions of these most commonly used definitions (n=133), and (iii) 'other' definitions (n=111). We found the most commonly used definitions to be open to multiple interpretations and to reflect underlying assumptions that are not always justifiable. Attention is needed to the ways in which differing definitions and interpretations of health literacy may affect patient care and the delivery of health literacy-related policy initiatives.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 19 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.18.

  18. The effect of bupivacaine with fentanyl temperature on initiation and maintenance of labor epidural analgesia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sviggum, H P; Yacoubian, S; Liu, X; Tsen, L C

    2015-02-01

    Labor epidural analgesia is highly effective, but can be limited by slow onset and incomplete blockade. The administration of warmed, compared to room temperature, bupivacaine has resulted in more rapid onset epidural anesthesia. We hypothesized that the administration of bupivacaine with fentanyl at 37°C versus 20°C would result in improved initial and ongoing labor epidural analgesia. In this prospective, randomized, doubled blinded study, 54 nulliparous, laboring women were randomized to receive epidural bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL (20 mL initial and 6 mL hourly boluses) at either 37°C or 20°C. Pain verbal rating scores (VRS), sensory level, oral temperature, and side effects were assessed after epidural loading (time 0), at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min, and at hourly intervals. The primary outcome was the time to achieve initial satisfactory analgesia (VRS ⩽3). Secondary outcomes included ongoing quality of sensory blockade, body temperature and shivering. There were no differences between groups in patient demographics, initial pain scores, cervical dilatation, body temperature or mode of delivery. Epidural bupivacaine at 37°C resulted in shorter mean (±SD) analgesic onset time (9.2±4.7 vs. 16.0±10.5 min, P=0.005) and improved analgesia for the first 15 min after initial bolus (P=0.001-0.03). Although patient temperature increased during the study (P<0.01), there were no differences between the groups (P=0.09). Six (24%) and 10 (40%) patients experienced shivering in the 37°C and 20°C groups, respectively (P=0.23). The administration of epidural 0.125% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2μg/mL at 37°C versus 20°C resulted in more rapid onset and improved labor analgesia for the first 15 min. There was no evidence of improved ongoing labor analgesia or differences in side effects between groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reframing undergraduate medical education in global health: rationale and key principles from the Bellagio Global Health Education Initiative.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; van Schalkwyk, Susan; Kellett, Anne; Brewer, Timothy F; Clarfield, A Mark; Davies, David; Garg, Bishan; Greensweig, Tobin; Hafler, Janet; Hou, Jianlin; Maley, Moira; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Pemba, Senga; Jenny Samaan, Janette; Schoenbaum, Stephen; Sethia, Babulal; Uribe, Juan Pablo; Margolis, Carmi Z; Rohrbaugh, Robert M

    2017-03-31

    Global health education (GHE) continues to be a growing initiative in many medical schools across the world. This focus is no longer limited to participants from high-income countries and has expanded to institutions and students from low- and middle-income settings. With this shift has come a need to develop meaningful curricula through engagement between educators and learners who represent the sending institutions and the diverse settings in which GHE takes place. The Bellagio Global Health Education Initiative (BGHEI) was founded to create a space for such debate and discussion and to generate guidelines towards a universal curriculum for global health. In this article, we describe the development and process of our work and outline six overarching principles that ought to be considered when adopting an inclusive approach to GHE curriculum development.

  20. Initiation of GnRH agonist treatment on 3-5 days postoperatively in endometriosis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lili; Zhang, Shaofen; Han, Yi; Long, Qiqi; Zou, Shien; Cao, Yuankui

    2015-08-01

    Seventy patients with stage III or IV endometriosis were randomly assigned to 2 groups after conservative surgery. Group O (n = 35) received 3 cycles of a 28-day gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment (goserelin, 3.6 mg) starting 3-5 days postoperatively. Group M (n = 35) received the same treatment starting on days 1-5 of menstruation. Groups were further subdivided according to add-back treatment. Pre- and posttreated levels of estradiol (E2 ), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and visual analog scale (VAS), Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) scores were recorded. The incidence of uterine bleeding was assessed. In both groups, serum levels of E2 , FSH, and LH and VAS scores decreased significantly after treatment. Spotting was the most frequent bleeding pattern. During cycle 1, the bleeding time in group M was much longer that than that in group O (P =.001), and the bleeding rate in group M was significantly higher than that in group O (P =.024, RR = 1.185). In patients with stage III or IV endometriosis, the efficacy of GnRH-a initiated 3-5 days postoperatively was equivalent to that of GnRH-a initiated on days 1-5 of menstruation. Female patients who initiated GnRH-a treatment 3-5 days postoperatively experienced less uterine bleeding during the first cycle of treatment.

  1. Park rangers as public health educators: the Public Health in the Parks Grants Initiative.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Higgins, Charles L

    2010-08-01

    Health education in nontraditional settings can supplement messages received in more traditional venues, such as schools and health care facilities, and can reach new populations. In 2007, the US National Park Service awarded one-time seed grants of $10 000 or less to 16 parks in 16 states to fund the development of public health-focused programs for visitors. These programs used a wide variety of formats and addressed topics such as air pollution, prevention of vector-borne diseases, and promotion of physical activity in the parks. Almost 12 000 visitors attended the programs in 2007. Most programs were supported by park management and were well received by visitors. National parks and similar settings may be underutilized resources for delivering health messages to the general population.

  2. Mapping of initiatives to increase membership in mutual health organizations in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been implemented across Africa to increase access to healthcare and improve financial protection. Despite efforts to develop MHOs, low levels of both initial enrolment and membership renewals continue to threaten their financial viability. The purpose of this study was to map initiatives implemented to increase the pool of MHO members in Benin. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to assess MHOs supported by five major promoters in Benin. Three months of fieldwork resulted in 23 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with MHO promoters, technicians, elected members, and health professionals affiliated with the MHOs. Fifteen non-structured interviews provided additional information and a valuable source of triangulation. Results MHOs have adopted a wide range of initiatives targeting different entry points and involving a variety of stakeholders. Initiatives have included new types of collective health insurance packages and efforts to raise awareness by going door-to-door and organizing health education workshops. Different types of partnerships have been established to strengthen relationships with healthcare professionals and political leaders. However, the selection and implementation of these initiatives have been limited by insufficient financial and human resources. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of prioritizing sustainable strategies to increase MHO membership. No single MHO initiative has been able to resolve the issue of low membership on its own. If combined, existing initiatives could provide a comprehensive and inclusive approach that would target all entry points and include key stakeholders such as household decision-makers, MHO elected members, healthcare professionals, community leaders, governmental authorities, medical advisors, and promoters. There is a need to evaluate empirically the implementation of these interventions. Mechanisms to promote dialogue between

  3. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and

  4. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. Design The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health

  5. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ditcharles, Sébastien; Yiou, Eric; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Hamaoui, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22) performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before ("pre-manipulation" condition) and after ("post-manipulation" condition) a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9). Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11) or the HVLA group (n = 11).The spine range of motion (ROM) was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between the pre- and post

  6. Short-Term Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation on the Biomechanical Organisation of Gait Initiation: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ditcharles, Sébastien; Yiou, Eric; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Hamaoui, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. “Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude” (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility. As such, it may have a positive effect on the PKC and therefore facilitate gait initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of thoracic SMT-HVLA on spine mobility, APA and speed performance during gait initiation. Healthy young adults (n = 22) performed a series of gait initiation trials on a force plate before (“pre-manipulation” condition) and after (“post-manipulation” condition) a sham manipulation or an HVLA manipulation applied to the ninth thoracic vertebrae (T9). Participants were randomly assigned to the sham (n = 11) or the HVLA group (n = 11).The spine range of motion (ROM) was assessed in each participant immediately after the sham or HVLA manipulations using inclinometers. The results showed that the maximal thoracic flexion increased in the HVLA group after the manipulation, which was not the case in the sham group. In the HVLA group, results further showed that each of the following gait initiation variables reached a significantly lower mean value in the post-manipulation condition as compared to the pre-manipulation condition: APA duration, peak of anticipatory backward center of pressure displacement, center of gravity velocity at foot-off, mechanical efficiency of APA, peak of center of gravity velocity and step length. In contrast, for the sham group, results showed that none of the gait initiation variables significantly differed between the pre

  7. Enhancing the sustainability and climate resiliency of health care facilities: a comparison of initiatives and toolkits.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John; Berry, Peter; Brettle, Meagan; Jagnarine-Azan, Shalini; Soares, Agnes; Ugarte, Ciro; Varangu, Linda; Prats, Elena Villalobos

    2016-09-01

    Extreme weather events have revealed the vulnerability of health care facilities and the extent of devastation to the community when they fail. With climate change anticipated to increase extreme weather and its impacts worldwide-severe droughts, floods, heat waves, and related vector-borne diseases-health care officials need to understand and address the vulnerabilities of their health care systems and take action to improve resiliency in ways that also meet sustainability goals. Generally, the health sector is among a country's largest consumers of energy and a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Now it has the opportunity lead climate mitigation, while reducing energy, water, and other costs. This Special Report summarizes several initiatives and compares three toolkits for implementing sustainability and resiliency measures for health care facilities: the Canadian Health Care Facility Climate Change Resiliency Toolkit, the U.S. Sustainable and Climate Resilient Health Care Facilities Toolkit, and the PAHO SMART Hospitals Toolkit of the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization. These tools and the lessons learned can provide a critical starting point for any health system in the Americas.

  8. Behavioral Health and the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) Initiative: findings from the 2014 CPC behavioral health survey.

    PubMed

    Zivin, Kara; Miller, Benjamin F; Finke, Bruce; Bitton, Asaf; Payne, Perry; Stowe, Edith C; Reddy, Ashok; Day, Timothy J; Lapin, Pauline; Jin, Janel L; Sessums, Laura L

    2017-08-29

    Incorporating behavioral health care into patient centered medical homes is critical for improving patient health and care quality while reducing costs. Despite documented effectiveness of behavioral health integration (BHI) in primary care settings, implementation is limited outside of large health systems. We conducted a survey of BHI in primary care practices participating in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative, a four-year multi-payer initiative of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). We sought to explore associations between practice characteristics and the extent of BHI to illuminate possible factors influencing successful implementation. We fielded a survey that addressed six substantive domains (integrated space, training, access, communication and coordination, treatment planning, and available resources) and five behavioral health conditions (depression, anxiety, pain, alcohol use disorder, and cognitive function). Descriptive statistics compared BHI survey respondents to all CPC practices, documented the availability of behavioral health providers, and primary care and behavioral health provider communication. Bivariate relationships compared provider and practice characteristics and domain scores. One hundred sixty-one of 188 eligible primary care practices completed the survey (86% response rate). Scores indicated basic to good baseline implementation of BHI in all domains, with lowest scores on communication and coordination and highest scores for depression. Higher scores were associated with: having any behavioral health provider, multispecialty practice, patient-centered medical home designation, and having any communication between behavioral health and primary care providers. This study provides useful data on opportunities and challenges of scaling BHI integration linked to primary care transformation. Payment reform models such as CPC can assist in BHI promotion and development.

  9. Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G.

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12 month digital health treatment aimed to prevent weight gain among overweight and class I obese black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. Over half (55%)of participants had low health literacy, which was more common for those with fewer years of educational attainment and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy. PMID:27043756

  10. Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice.

    PubMed

    Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy.

  11. [Initiatives in urban health communities: Health promotion at work in deprived territories].

    PubMed

    Motard, Clémentine; Tessier, Stéphane

    2016-12-19

    The “Urban Health Workshop” [“Atelier santé ville” (Asv)] approach, created in 2000 and interfacing between urban development policies and public health, is implemented in about 250 territories. After more than fifteen years of implementation and development, it appeared useful to review experiences and analyse their effects.Conducted in 2015, this research demonstrates the benefits of Asv, which created health territorial dynamics and local strategies to reduce social and territorial health inequalities. Fifty-one Asv coordinators participated in the study, 30 by answering a survey, 28 (7 of whom had already answered the survey) by a semi-structured interview. The high flexibility of the approach, essential to adapt to a complex reality, justifies a qualitative analysis.Capitalising on these experiences defined the main lessons from implementation of the Asv approach and identified the “good practices” of some of the projects, with the objective of promotion and dissemination of the knowledge acquired. The main consequences observed are territorial dynamics, mobilization of diverse actors and transfer of people’s needs to policy-makers and elected representatives. Health promotion was a central part of all experiences: Asvs implement an approach that is inspired and guided by the five action areas for health promotion identified in the Ottawa Charter.Moreover, the majority of Local Health Contracts (“Contrats locaux de santé”) are based on existing Asvs, indicating the effectiveness of the approach..

  12. Collaborating while competing? The sustainability of community-based integrated care initiatives through a health partnership.

    PubMed

    Plochg, Thomas; Delnoij, Diana M J; Hoogedoorn, Nelleke P C; Klazinga, Niek S

    2006-03-20

    To improve health-care delivery, care providers must base their services on community health needs and create a seamless continuum of care in which these needs can be met. Though, it is not obvious that providers apply this vision. Experiments with regulated competition in the health systems of many industrialized countries trigger providers to optimize individual organizational goals rather than improve population health from a community perspective. Thus, a tension exists between the need to collaborate and the need to compete. Despite or because of this tension, community health partnerships are being promoted, and this should enforce a needs-based and integrated care delivery. In this single case study, we retrospectively explored how local health-care providers in Amsterdam collaborated for more than 30 years, interacting with the changes to the national health-care system. In-depth analysis of interviews, documents and literature focused on the complex relationship between the activities of this health partnership, its nature and its changing context. The findings revealed that the partnership itself was successful and sustainable over time, although the partnership lost its initial broad explorative nature and narrowed its strategic focus towards care of the elderly. Furthermore, the realized projects--although they enforced integrated care--lost their community-based character. This declining scope of community-based integrated care seems to have been influenced by the incremental introduction of regulated competition in Dutch health care. This casts doubts on the ability of health partnerships to apply a vision of community-based integrated care within the context of competition. Collaborating health-care providers can build seamless continuums of care in a competitive environment, although these will not automatically maximize community health with limited resources. Active policies with regard to health system design, incentive structures and population

  13. Collaborating while competing? The sustainability of community-based integrated care initiatives through a health partnership

    PubMed Central

    Plochg, Thomas; Delnoij, Diana MJ; Hoogedoorn, Nelleke PC; Klazinga, Niek S

    2006-01-01

    Background To improve health-care delivery, care providers must base their services on community health needs and create a seamless continuum of care in which these needs can be met. Though, it is not obvious that providers apply this vision. Experiments with regulated competition in the health systems of many industrialized countries trigger providers to optimize individual organizational goals rather than improve population health from a community perspective. Thus, a tension exists between the need to collaborate and the need to compete. Despite or because of this tension, community health partnerships are being promoted, and this should enforce a needs-based and integrated care delivery. Methods In this single case study, we retrospectively explored how local health-care providers in Amsterdam collaborated for more than 30 years, interacting with the changes to the national health-care system. In-depth analysis of interviews, documents and literature focused on the complex relationship between the activities of this health partnership, its nature and its changing context. Results The findings revealed that the partnership itself was successful and sustainable over time, although the partnership lost its initial broad explorative nature and narrowed its strategic focus towards care of the elderly. Furthermore, the realized projects – although they enforced integrated care – lost their community-based character. This declining scope of community-based integrated care seems to have been influenced by the incremental introduction of regulated competition in Dutch health care. This casts doubts on the ability of health partnerships to apply a vision of community-based integrated care within the context of competition. Conclusion Collaborating health-care providers can build seamless continuums of care in a competitive environment, although these will not automatically maximize community health with limited resources. Active policies with regard to health system

  14. A Study of Failures of Follow-Through for Initial Mental Health Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Sheldon; Berger, Mike

    Mental health center administrators are concerned about persons who contact centers but fail to keep initial appointments. Factors within centers that discourage client follow-through must be identified and changed. Telephone surveys were attempted for 50 such individuals from the youth (N=23) and adult (N=27) team logs of the Weber Mental Health…

  15. The Psychological Structure of African Americans Who Terminate Mental Health Treatment Services after Their Initial Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossman, Craig Arthur, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological research study was to describe and explain the experiences of African Americans who terminated mental health treatment services after their initial sessions. The goal of the study was to expand the available knowledge by scientifically illuminating the lived experiences of African Americans who used…

  16. The CROWN Initiative: journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women's health.

    PubMed

    Leese, Henry

    2014-09-01

    Human Fertility is pleased to support the 'CROWN' initiative outlined below, whose aim is 'to develop core outcomes in women's health'. The editorial, which was unanimously adopted by our Editorial Board is being published by more than 50 gynaecology-obstetrics and related journals. We commend it to all our readers.

  17. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  18. Health Promotion and Aging: Educational and Clinical Initiatives by the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses positive and negative effects of five federal health promotion initiatives: Medicare Prevention Benefits, Surgeon General's Reports, Healthy People 2000 and 2001, Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, and Put Prevention into Practice Campaign. Recommends additional research and coordination with state and private sector agencies.…

  19. A Study of Failures of Follow-Through for Initial Mental Health Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Sheldon; Berger, Mike

    Mental health center administrators are concerned about persons who contact centers but fail to keep initial appointments. Factors within centers that discourage client follow-through must be identified and changed. Telephone surveys were attempted for 50 such individuals from the youth (N=23) and adult (N=27) team logs of the Weber Mental Health…

  20. ONE Nano: NIEHS's strategic initiative on the health and safety effects of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Johnson, Anne F; Balshaw, David M; Garantziotis, Stavros; Walker, Nigel J; Weis, Christopher; Nadadur, Srikanth S; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen tremendous expansion in the production and application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The unique properties that make ENMs useful in the marketplace also make their interactions with biological systems difficult to anticipate and critically important to explore. Currently, little is known about the health effects of human exposure to these materials. As part of its role in supporting the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed an integrated, strategic research program-"ONE Nano"-to increase our fundamental understanding of how ENMs interact with living systems, to develop predictive models for quantifying ENM exposure and assessing ENM health impacts, and to guide the design of second-generation ENMs to minimize adverse health effects. The NIEHS's research investments in ENM health and safety include extramural grants and grantee consortia, intramural research activities, and toxicological studies being conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). These efforts have enhanced collaboration within the nanotechnology research community and produced toxicological profiles for selected ENMs, as well as improved methods and protocols for conducting in vitro and in vivo studies to assess ENM health effects. By drawing upon the strengths of the NIEHS's intramural, extramural, and NTP programs and establishing productive partnerships with other institutes and agencies across the federal government, the NIEHS's strategic ONE Nano program is working toward new advances to improve our understanding of the health impacts of engineered nanomaterials and support the goals of the National Nanotechnology Initiative.

  1. Mental health promotion in the health care setting: collaboration and engagement in the development of a mental health promotion capacity-building initiative.

    PubMed

    Horn, Michelle A; Rauscher, Alana B; Ardiles, Paola A; Griffin, Shannon L

    2014-01-01

    Health Compass is an innovative, multiphased project that aims to transform health care practice and shift organizational culture by building the capacity of Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA) health care providers to further promote the mental health and well-being of patients and families accessing PHSA's health care services. Health Compass was developed within a health promotion framework, which involved collaboration and engagement with stakeholders across all partnering PHSA agencies. This approach led to the development of an educational and training resource that contributes to increased capacity for mental health promotion within the health care setting. Based on interviews with Health Compass' internal Project Team and findings from a Stakeholder Engagement Evaluation Report, this article outlines the participatory approach taken to develop the Health Compass Mental Health Promotion Resource and E-Learning Tool. A number of key facilitators for collaboration and engagement are discussed, which may be particularly applicable to the implementation of a mental health promotion program or initiative within a complex health care setting.

  2. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students.

    PubMed

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-02-15

    Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  3. What it will take to create new Internet initiatives in health care.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rosemary; Dieter, Michael; Panko, Walter; Valenta, Annette

    2003-02-01

    Today's Internet cannot fulfill the anticipated future needs of health care organizations. To address growing administrative, clinical, and research communication networking requirements and to serve as a test bed for future technology, two separate initiatives, the Next Generation Internet (NGI--federally funded by the NIH/NLM) and Internet2 (a consortium of academic partners), are establishing project partnerships that will create new and improved opportunities for health care applications and interactions such as telemedicine, medical imaging, virtual medicine, home health care, public health, consumer medicine, medical education, and medical research, among other uses. In addition to creating and improving large-scale health care networking, it is also expected that much of the technology developed and tested for NGI/Internet2 will filter down to improve the mainstream Internet.

  4. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country. PMID:20186283

  5. Conjugated Equine Estrogens and Breast Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial and Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Ross L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Langer, Robert D.; Pettinger, Mary; Hendrix, Susan L.; Hubbell, F. Allan; Kooperberg, Charles; Kuller, Lewis H.; Lane, Dorothy S.; McTiernan, Anne; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2009-01-01

    The Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial found a trend (p = 0.09) toward a lower breast cancer risk among women assigned to daily 0.625-mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) compared with placebo, in contrast to an observational literature that mostly reports a moderate increase in risk with estrogenalone preparations. In 1993–2004 at 40 US clinical centers, breast cancer hazard ratio estimates for this CEE regimen were compared between the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study toward understanding this apparent discrepancy and refining hazard ratio estimates. After control for prior use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and for confounding factors, CEE hazard ratio estimates were higher from the observational study compared with the clinical trial by 43% (p = 0.12). However, after additional control for time from menopause to first use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, the hazard ratios agreed closely between the two cohorts (p = 0.82). For women who begin use soon after menopause, combined analyses of clinical trial and observational study data do not provide clear evidence of either an overall reduction or an increase in breast cancer risk with CEEs, although hazard ratios appeared to be relatively higher among women having certain breast cancer risk factors or a low body mass index. PMID:18448442

  6. Cause for caution: culture, sensitivity and the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    This paper examines the cultural grounding and sensitivity in the concept, implementation, instrumentation and findings of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (WHO-WMS). The WHO-WMS Initiative is managed by agencies in Boston and Geneva and covers 28 sites in 27 nations worldwide. It uses the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI) translated to make diagnoses in 150,000 people. A large body of potentially influential data has been produced. The Initiative assumes that psychopathology is universal and not culturally determined. This assumption cannot be safely sustained. As a result, survey findings using ethnocentrically Western instruments and diagnoses may be uninterpretable, yet may misdirect policy and treatment. There are cautions here for ethnically and linguistically diverse nations such as Australia and New Zealand.

  7. Passage Meditation Reduces Perceived Stress in Health Professionals: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Doug; Hedberg, John; Thoresen, Carl E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluated an 8-week, 2-hr per week training for physicians, nurses, chaplains, and other health professionals using nonsectarian, spiritually based self-management tools based on passage meditation (E. Easwaran, 1978/1991). Participants were randomized to intervention (n = 27) or waiting list (n = 31). Pretest, posttest, and 8-and…

  8. Passage Meditation Reduces Perceived Stress in Health Professionals: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Doug; Hedberg, John; Thoresen, Carl E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluated an 8-week, 2-hr per week training for physicians, nurses, chaplains, and other health professionals using nonsectarian, spiritually based self-management tools based on passage meditation (E. Easwaran, 1978/1991). Participants were randomized to intervention (n = 27) or waiting list (n = 31). Pretest, posttest, and 8-and…

  9. Early food for future health: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an eHealth intervention aiming to promote healthy food habits from early childhood.

    PubMed

    Helle, Christine; Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Omholt, Mona Linge; Øverby, Nina Cecilie

    2017-09-20

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health challenge. Primary prevention initiatives targeting parents have been called for to encourage a positive feeding environment and healthy eating habits that may lay a good foundation for future health. At the same time, there is a need for interventions which combine accessibility and scalability with cost effectiveness. Today's parents are extensive Internet-users, but only a few randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of Internet to promote healthy eating habits in early childhood. In Early Food for Future Health we have developed and will evaluate an Internet-based tool for parents of children between 6 and 12 months, aiming to increase knowledge about infant nutrition and foster protective feeding behavior. During springtime 2016, parents of children aged between 3 and 5 months were recruited through Norwegian child health centres and announcements on Facebook. After completing the baseline questionnaire, 718 parents were individually randomized to intervention- or control group. The intervention group received monthly emails with links to an age-appropriate web-site when their child was between 6 and 12 months. The control group received ordinary care from the child health centres. The data-collection is ongoing. All participants will be followed up at ages 12 and possibly 24 and 48 months, with questionnaires relating to eating behaviour and feeding practices, food variety and diet quality. Providing guidance and counseling to parents of infants is an important task for health authorities and the public child health services. Early Food for Future health is an intervention focusing on promoting early healthy food-habits which may prevent childhood overweight and obesity. If proven to be effective, Early Food for Future Health can be used by parents and public health nurses for supplementary guidance on feeding practices and diet. This study has the potential to provide greater

  10. Park Rangers as Public Health Educators: The Public Health in the Parks Grants Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Health education in nontraditional settings can supplement messages received in more traditional venues, such as schools and health care facilities, and can reach new populations. In 2007, the US National Park Service awarded one-time seed grants of $10 000 or less to 16 parks in 16 states to fund the development of public health–focused programs for visitors. These programs used a wide variety of formats and addressed topics such as air pollution, prevention of vector-borne diseases, and promotion of physical activity in the parks. Almost 12 000 visitors attended the programs in 2007. Most programs were supported by park management and were well received by visitors. National parks and similar settings may be underutilized resources for delivering health messages to the general population. PMID:20558795

  11. Blood compatibility comparison for polysulfone membranes modified by grafting block and random zwitterionic copolymers via surface-initiated ATRP.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Zhang, Li-Sha; Wang, Rui; Xia, Yi; Su, Bai-Hai; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-10-15

    For blood-contacting materials, good blood compatibility, especially good anticoagulant property is of great importance. Zwitterionic polymers have been proved to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion; however, their anticoagulant property is always inadequate. In this study, two kinds of zwitterionic copolymers (sulfobetaine methacrylate and sodium p-styrene sulfonate random copolymer and block copolymer) with sulfonic groups were covalently grafted from polysulfone (PSf) membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to improve blood compatibility. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static water contact angle (WCA) were applied to characterize the morphologies, chemical compositions and hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. All the zwitterionic copolymer modified membranes showed improved blood compatibility, especially the anticoagulant property was obviously enhanced compared to the pristine PSf and simple zwitterionic polymer modified membranes. We also found that the random copolymer modified membranes showed better resistance to platelet adhesion than the block copolymer modified membranes. The zwitterionic copolymer modified membranes with integrated antifouling property and blood compatibility provided wide choice for specific applications such as hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and plasma separation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the sustained implementation of a mental health learning initiative in long-term care.

    PubMed

    McAiney, Carrie A; Stolee, Paul; Hillier, Loretta M; Harris, Diane; Hamilton, Pam; Kessler, Linda; Madsen, Victoria; Le Clair, J Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an innovative education program for the management of mental health problems in long-term care (LTC) homes and the evaluation of its longer-term sustainability. Since 1998, the "Putting the P.I.E.C.E.S. Together" learning initiative has been providing education sessions and related learning strategies aimed at developing the knowledge and skills of health professionals who care for older persons with complex physical and mental health needs and associated behaviors, in Ontario, Canada. A major focus of this province-wide initiative was the development of in-house Psychogeriatric Resource Persons (PRPs). Evaluation of this initiative included the completion of pre- and post-education questionnaires (over three data collection time periods) assessing learner confidence (N = 1,024 and 792, for pre- and post-education, respectively) and session evaluation questionnaires gathering feedback on the session (N = 2,029 across all sessions). A survey of LTC homes in Ontario (N = 439, 79% of the homes in the province) was conducted to assess longer-term sustainability. Ratings of the sessions indicated that they were relevant to learners' clinical practice. There were significant increases in ratings of ability to recognize and understand challenging behaviors and mental health problems, and in ability to use a variety of assessment tools. Few homes (15%) do not have a PRP; over 50% of the staff who completed the first session in 1999 continue to serve as a PRP and to apply learned skills. A learning initiative with supportive and reinforcing strategies can develop in-house PRPs to enhance the care of the elderly in LTC. Incorporation of PRP functions into job descriptions and management support contributed to the success of this initiative. This study highlights the importance of work environments that support and reinforce the use of learned skills to the success of continuing education and quality improvement initiatives in LTC.

  13. Initial Treatment of Men With Newly Diagnosed Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Lu, Xin; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kreder, Karl J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Cram, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine initial treatments given to men with newly diagnosed lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) within a large integrated health care system in the United States. METHODS We used data from 2003 to 2009 from the Veteran's Health Administration to identify newly diagnosed cases of LUTD using established ICD-9CM codes. Our primary outcome was initial LUTD treatment (3 months), categorized as watchful waiting (WW), medical therapy (MT), or surgical therapy (ST); our secondary outcome was pharmacotherapy class received. We used logistic regression models to examine patient, provider, and health system factors associated with receiving MT or ST when compared with WW. RESULTS There were 393,901 incident cases of LUTD, of which 58.0% initially received WW, 41.8% MT, and 0.2% ST. Of the MT men, 79.8% received an alpha-blocker, 7.7% a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 3.3% an anticholinergic, and 7.3% combined therapy (alpha-blocker and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor). In our regression models, we found that age (higher), race (white/black), income (low), region (northeast/south), comorbidities (greater), prostate-specific antigen (lower), and provider (nonurologist) were associated with an increased odds of receiving MT. We found that age (higher), race (white), income (low), region (northeast/south), initial provider (urologist), and prostate-specific antigen (higher) increased the odds of receiving ST. CONCLUSION Most men with newly diagnosed LUTD in the Veteran's Health Administration receive WW, and initial surgical treatment is rare. A large number of men receiving MT were treated with monotherapy, despite evidence that combination therapy is potentially more effective in the long-term, suggesting opportunities for improvement in initial LUTD management within this population. PMID:24286603

  14. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  15. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    PubMed

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  16. The Role of Prevention in Promoting Continuity of Health Care in Prisoner Reentry Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, A. Stephen; Dyson, William; Gordon, Derrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Most incarcerated individuals will return to the community, and their successful reentry requires consideration of their health and how their health will affect their families and communities. We propose the use of a prevention science framework that integrates universal, selective, and indicated strategies to facilitate the successful reentry of men released from prison. Understanding how health risks and disparities affect the transition from prison to the community will enhance reentry intervention efforts. To explore the application of the prevention rubric, we evaluated a community-based prisoner reentry initiative. The findings challenge all involved in reentry initiatives to reconceptualize prisoner reentry from a program model to a prevention model that considers multilevel risks to and facilitators of successful reentry. PMID:23488516

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Traditional and Mobile Public Health Communications With Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Baseman, Janet; Revere, Debra; Painter, Ian; Oberle, Mark; Duchin, Jeffrey; Thiede, Hanne; Nett, Randall; MacEachern, Dorothy; Stergachis, Andy

    2016-02-01

    Health care providers play an essential role in public health emergency preparedness and response. We conducted a 4-year randomized controlled trial to systematically compare the effectiveness of traditional and mobile communication strategies for sending time-sensitive public health messages to providers. Subjects (N=848) included providers who might be leveraged to assist with emergency preparedness and response activities, such as physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, physician's assistants, and veterinarians. Providers were randomly assigned to a group that received time-sensitive quarterly messages via e-mail, fax, or cell phone text messaging (SMS) or to a no-message control group. Follow-up phone interviews elicited information about message receipt, topic recall, and perceived credibility and trustworthiness of message and source. Our main outcome measures were awareness and recall of message content, which was compared across delivery methods. Per-protocol analysis revealed that e-mail messages were recalled at a higher rate than were messaged delivered by fax or SMS, whereas the as-treated analysis found that e-mail and fax groups had similar recall rates and both had higher recall rates than the SMS group. This is the first study to systematically evaluate the relative effectiveness of public health message delivery systems. Our findings provide guidance to improve public health agency communications with providers before, during, and after a public health emergency.

  18. Infidelity, initiation, and the emotional climate of divorce: are there implications for mental health?

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M M; Horwitz, A V

    2001-09-01

    A large literature has examined the role of "secondary" stressors, such as problems with finances, social support, residential mobility, and children, in producing the well-documented association between divorce and a variety of psychopathological conditions. Much less attention, however, has been paid to variation in the "primary" disruption experience. We address this omission using data from the National Survey of Families and Households to investigate the interrelationships among depression, initiator status, and spousal infidelity. While we find little evidence of direct effects of initiator status or spousal infidelity on post-divorce depression, the importance of these characteristics emerges when they are considered in an interactive context. Specifically, while divorce initiation is associated with reduced depression among individuals with unfaithful spouses, initiation is associated with increased depression in the absence of spousal infidelity. Taken together, our findings suggest that characteristics of the divorce experience may interact in complex ways to produce variation in mental health outcomes.

  19. CDC/NACCHO Accreditation Support Initiative: advancing readiness for local and tribal health department accreditation.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Erinn; Fisher, Jessica Solomon; Daub, Teresa; Zamperetti, Michelle Chuk

    2014-01-01

    Health departments have various unique needs that must be addressed in preparing for national accreditation. These needs require time and resources, shortages that many health departments face. The Accreditation Support Initiative's goal was to test the assumption that even small amounts of dedicated funding can help health departments make important progress in their readiness to apply for and achieve accreditation. Participating sites' scopes of work were unique to the needs of each site and based on the proposed activities outlined in their applications. Deliverables and various sources of data were collected from sites throughout the project period (December 2011-May 2012). Awardees included 1 tribal and 12 local health departments, as well as 5 organizations supporting the readiness of local and tribal health departments. Sites dedicated their funding toward staff time, accreditation fees, completion of documentation, and other accreditation readiness needs and produced a number of deliverables and example documents. All sites indicated that they made accreditation readiness gains that would not have occurred without this funding. Preliminary evaluation data from the first year of the Accreditation Support Initiative indicate that flexible funding arrangements may be an effective way to increase health departments' accreditation readiness.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment initiated during psychiatric hospitalization: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Method Smokers, regardless of intention to quit, were recruited during psychiatric hospitalization and randomized to receive stage-based smoking cessation services or usual aftercare. Smoking cessation services, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed during 18-months of follow-up. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness during a lifetime horizon. Results Among 223 smokers randomized between 2006 and 2008, the mean cost of smoking cessation services was $189 in the experimental treatment group and $37 in the usual care condition (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, 18.75% of the experimental group was abstinent from cigarettes, compared to 6.80% abstinence in the usual care group (p <0.05). The model projected that the intervention added $43 in lifetime cost and generated 0.101 additional Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $428 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found the experimental intervention was cost-effective against the acceptance criteria of $50,000/QALY in 99.0% of the replicates. Conclusions A cessation intervention for smokers identified in psychiatric hospitalization did not result in higher mental health care costs in the short-run and was highly cost-effective over the long-term. The stage-based intervention was a feasible and cost-effective way of addressing the high smoking prevalence in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:26528651

  1. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off.

  2. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Peng, X; Sun, P; Novick, D; Andrews, J; Sun, S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009). Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs) had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years), percentage of women (87%–88%), and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis). In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%). The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05), any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05), and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05). From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort experienced decreases in certain utilization rates, whereas the pregabalin cohort had increases (percentage of patients with a fibromyalgia

  3. Coordinated Public Health Initiatives to Address Violence Against Women and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health

  4. Coordinated public health initiatives to address violence against women and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Mary Ann; James, Lisa; Langhorne, Aleisha; Kelley, Marylouise

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-recognized public health problem. IPV affects women's physical and mental health through direct pathways, such as injury, and indirect pathways, such as a prolonged stress response that leads to chronic health problems. The influence of abuse can persist long after the violence has stopped and women of color are disproportionately impacted. Successfully addressing the complex issue of IPV requires multiple prevention efforts that target specific risk and protective factors across individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and societal levels. This paper includes examples of community-based, state led and federally funded public health programs focused on IPV along this continuum. Two community-based efforts to increase access to mental health care for low income, women of color who had experienced IPV, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and a telehealth intervention are discussed. Core tenets of a patient-centered comprehensive approach to assessment and responses and strategies for supporting a statewide comprehensive response are described in Project Connect: A Coordinated Public Health Initiative to Prevent Violence Against Women. Project Connect provides technical assistance to grantees funded through the Violence Against Women Act's health title and involves developing, implementing, and evaluating new ways to identify, respond to, and prevent domestic and sexual violence and promote an improved public health response to abuse in states and Native health programs. Health care partnerships with domestic violence experts are critical in order to provide training, develop referral protocols, and to link IPV victims to advocacy services. Survivors need a comprehensive response that addresses their safety concerns and may require advocacy around housing or shelter, legal assistance, and safety planning. Gaps in research knowledge identified are health system readiness to respond to IPV victims in health care

  5. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  6. BETTER HEALTH: Durham -- protocol for a cluster randomized trial of BETTER in community and public health settings.

    PubMed

    Paszat, Lawrence; Sutradhar, Rinku; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Lofters, Aisha; Pinto, Andrew; Selby, Peter; Baxter, Nancy; Donnelly, Peter D; Elliott, Regina; Glazier, Richard H; Kyle, Robert; Manca, Donna; Pietrusiak, Mary-Anne; Rabeneck, Linda; Sopcak, Nicolette; Tinmouth, Jill; Wall, Becky; Grunfeld, Eva

    2017-09-29

    The Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (BETTER) cluster randomized trial in primary care settings demonstrated a 30% improvement in adherence to evidence-based Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) activities. CDPS activities included healthy activities, lifestyle modifications, and screening tests. We present a protocol for the adaptation of BETTER to a public health setting, and testing the adaptation in a cluster randomized trial (BETTER HEALTH: Durham) among low income neighbourhoods in Durham Region, Ontario (Canada). The BETTER intervention consists of a personalized prevention visit between a participant and a prevention practitioner, which is focused on the participant's eligible CDPS activities, and uses Brief Action Planning, to empower the participant to set achievable short-term goals. Durham aims to establish that the BETTER intervention can be adapted and proven effective among 40-64 year old residents of low income areas when provided in the community by public health nurses trained as prevention practitioners. Focus groups and key informant interviews among stakeholders and eligible residents of low income areas will inform the adaptation, along with feedback from the trial's Community Advisory Committee. We have created a sampling frame of 16 clusters composed of census dissemination areas in the lowest urban quintile of median household income, and will sample 10 clusters to be randomly allocated to immediate intervention or six month wait list control. Accounting for the clustered design effect, the trial will have 80% power to detect an absolute 30% difference in the primary outcome, a composite score of completed eligible CDPS actions six months after enrollment. The prevention practitioner will attempt to link participants without a primary care provider (PCP) to a local PCP. The implementation of BETTER HEALTH: Durham will be evaluated by focus groups and key informant interviews. The

  7. Early ART initiation among HIV-positive pregnant women in central Mozambique: a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial of an optimized Option B+ approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, James F; Micek, Mark; Cowan, Jessica F Greenberg; Napúa, Manuel; Hoek, Roxanne; Gimbel, Sarah; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth; Pfeiffer, James T; Chapman, Rachel R

    2015-04-30

    Despite effective prevention strategies and increasing investments in global health, maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a significant problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2012, there were 94,000 HIV-positive pregnant women in Mozambique. Approximately 15% of these women transmitted HIV to their newborn infants, resulting in nearly 14,000 new pediatric HIV infections that year. To address this issue, in 2013, the Mozambican Ministry of Health implemented the World Health Organization-recommended "Option B+" strategy in which all newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women are counseled to initiate combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) immediately upon diagnosis regardless of CD4 count and to continue treatment for life. Given the limited experience with Option B+ in sub-Saharan Africa, few rigorous pragmatic trials have studied this new treatment strategy. This study utilizes an initial formative research process involving patient and health care provider interviews and focus groups, workforce assessments, value stream mapping, and commodity utilization assessments to understand the strengths and weaknesses in the current Option B+ care cascade. The formative research is intended to guide identification and prioritization of key workflow modifications and the development of an enhanced adherence and retention package. These two components are bundled into a defined intervention implemented and evaluated across six health facilities utilizing a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial study design. The overall objective of this trial is to develop and test a pilot intervention in central Mozambique to implement the new Option B+ guidelines with high fidelity and increase the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in target antenatal clinics (ANC) who start ART prior to delivery and are retained in care. This pragmatic study utilizes research strategies that have the potential to meaningfully improve the Option B+ care

  8. Monotherapy with Levetiracetam Versus Older AEDs: A Randomized Comparative Trial of Effects on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Tahir; O'Brien, Terence J; Petty, Sandra J; Sakellarides, Mary; Christie, Jemma; Kantor, Susan; Todaro, Marian; Gorelik, Alexandra; Seibel, Markus J; Yerra, Raju; Wark, John D

    2016-06-01

    Long-term anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy is associated with increased fracture risk. This study tested whether substituting the newer AED levetiracetam has less adverse effects on bone than older AEDs. An open-label randomized comparative trial. Participants had "failed" initial monotherapy for partial epilepsy and were randomized to substitution monotherapy with levetiracetam or an older AED (carbamazepine or valproate sodium). Bone health assessments, performed at 3 and 15 months, included areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and content at lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), forearm (FA), and femoral neck (FN), radial and tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and serum bone turnover markers. Main outcomes were changes by treatment group in aBMD at LS, TH, and FA, radial and tibial trabecular BMD and cortical thickness. 70/84 patients completed assessments (40 in levetiracetam- and 30 in older AED group). Within-group analyses showed decreases in both groups in LS (-9.0 %; p < 0.001 in levetiracetam vs. -9.8 %; p < 0.001 in older AED group), FA (-1.46 %; p < 0.001 vs. -0.96 %; p < 0.001, respectively) and radial trabecular BMD (-1.46 %; p = 0.048 and -2.31 %; p = 0.013, respectively). C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (βCTX; bone resorption marker) decreased in both groups (-16.1 %; p = 0.021 vs. -15.2 %; p = 0.028, respectively) whereas procollagen Ι N-terminal peptide (PΙNP; bone formation marker) decreased in older AED group (-27.3 %; p = 0.008). The treatment groups did not differ in any of these measures. In conclusion, use of both levetiracetam and older AEDs was associated with bone loss over 1 year at clinically relevant fracture sites and a reduction in bone turnover.

  9. What should be given a priority - costly medications for relatively few people or inexpensive ones for many? The Health Parliament public consultation initiative in Israel.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit; Shalev, Carmel; Kaplan, Giora; Abulafia, Ahuva; Bin-Nun, Gabi; Goffer, Ronen; Ben-Moshe, Roei; Tal, Orna; Shani, Mordechai; Lev, Boaz

    2008-06-01

    In the past two decades, government and civic organizations have been implementing a wide range of deliberative public consultations on health care-related policy. Drawing on these experiences, a public consultation initiative in Israel called the Health Parliament was established. To implement a public consultation initiative that will engage members of the public in the discussion of four healthcare policy questions associated with equity in health services and on priorities for determining which medications and treatments should be included in the basket of national health services. One hundred thirty-two participants from the general population recruited through a random sample were provided with background materials and met over several months in six regional sites. Dilemma activities were used and consultants were available for questions and clarifications. Participants presented their recommendations in a national assembly to the Minister of Health. Across the regional groups the recommendations were mostly compatible, in particular regarding considering the healthcare system's monetary state, even at the expense of equity, but for each policy question minority views were also expressed. A strong emphasis in the recommendations was pragmatism. Participants felt the experience was worthwhile; though the actual impact of their recommendations on policy making was indirect, they were willing to participate in future consultations. However, despite enthusiasm the initiative was not continued. Issues raised are whether consultation initiatives must have a direct impact on healthcare policy decisions or can be mainly a venue to involve citizens in the deliberation of healthcare policy issues.

  10. Suicide risk of your client: initial identification and management for the allied health professional.

    PubMed

    Donley, Euan

    2013-01-01

    Allied health professionals treat clients in varying degrees of distress with complex needs in a wide range of services. A client could be experiencing a chronic or life-changing illness, have a trauma from a critical event, have preexisting mental illness, be dealing with significant health or personal loss, be using substances, or experiencing a depression. At some point an allied health professional will treat a client who may have a diagnosed depression, appear depressed, or have thoughts of suicide. Mental health of clients is everyone's responsibility, especially those working in health. This article aims to increase allied health professionals' understanding of some risk factors and clinical features a client at risk may have and will discuss some initial options of management. It is recommended the allied health professional and organisation be aware of risk factors for suicide but not rely too heavily on risk screening. The worker should have basic skills in recognising poor mood and have a list of useful questions to ask in a crisis. Know your local crisis and supportive mental health services, create links with them, have ongoing professional education and protocols for managing clients at-risk, and be acutely aware of your role and limitations.

  11. A comparative review of patient safety initiatives for national health information technology.

    PubMed

    Magrabi, Farah; Aarts, Jos; Nohr, Christian; Baker, Maureen; Harrison, Stuart; Pelayo, Sylvia; Talmon, Jan; Sittig, Dean F; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    To collect and critically review patient safety initiatives for health information technology (HIT). Publicly promulgated set of advisories, recommendations, guidelines, or standards potentially addressing safe system design, build, implementation or use were identified by searching the websites of regional and national agencies and programmes in a non-exhaustive set of exemplar countries including England, Denmark, the Netherlands, the USA, Canada and Australia. Initiatives were categorised by type and software systems covered. We found 27 patient safety initiatives for HIT predominantly dealing with software systems for health professionals. Three initiatives addressed consumer systems. Seven of the initiatives specifically dealt with software for diagnosis and treatment, which are regulated as medical devices in England, Denmark and Canada. Four initiatives dealt with blood bank and image management software which is regulated in the USA. Of the 16 initiatives directed at unregulated software, 11 were aimed at increasing standardisation using guidelines and standards for safe system design, build, implementation and use. Three initiatives for unregulated software were aimed at certification in the USA, Canada and Australia. Safety is addressed alongside interoperability in the Australian certification programme but it is not explicitly addressed in the US and Canadian programmes, though conformance with specific functionality, interoperability, security and privacy requirements may lead to safer systems. England appears to have the most comprehensive safety management programme for unregulated software, incorporating safety assurance at a local healthcare organisation level based on standards for risk management and user interface design, with national incident monitoring and a response function. There are significant gaps in the safety initiatives for HIT systems. Current initiatives are largely focussed on software. With the exception of diagnostic, prognostic

  12. Improving the mental health, healthy lifestyle choices, and physical health of Hispanic adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette M; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z

    2009-12-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to improve both their healthy lifestyles and mental health outcomes. Even fewer studies have been conducted with Hispanic youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, and Nutrition) program, a manualized educational and cognitive behavioral skills-building program, on Hispanic adolescents' healthy lifestyle choices as well as mental and physical health outcomes. A cluster randomized controlled pilot study was conducted with 19 Hispanic adolescents enrolled in 2 health classes in a southwestern high school. One class received COPE and the other received an attention control program. Adolescents in the COPE program increased their healthy lifestyle choices and reported a decrease in depressive and anxiety symptoms from baseline to postintervention follow-up. A subset of 7 overweight adolescents in the COPE program had a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in high-density lipoproteins. In addition, these overweight adolescents reported increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and nutrition knowledge along with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The COPE TEEN program is a promising school-based strategy for improving both physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents.

  13. Credit with Health Education in Benin: A Cluster Randomized Trial Examining Impacts on Knowledge and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Karlan, Dean; Thuysbaert, Bram; Gray, Bobbi

    2017-02-08

    We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs. No significant changes in health behavior were observed except an increase in HIV/AIDS prevention behavior, a result predominantly driven by an increase in respondents' self-reported ability to procure a condom, likely an indicator of increased perceived access rather than improved preventative behavior. Women in villages assigned to mixed-gender groups had significantly lower levels of social capital, compared with villages assigned to female-only groups. This suggests there may be an important trade-off to consider for interventions seeking improved health outcomes and social capital through provision of services to mixed-gender groups. Although bundling health education with microcredit can expand health education coverage and lower service-delivery costs, the approach may not be sufficient to improve health behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. From the Paralympics to public health: increasing physical activity through legislative and policy initiatives.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri A; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience a disproportionate rate of chronic disease and are more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles than the general population. Multiple complex factors likely contribute to these disparities, including structural, socioeconomic and attitudinal barriers that impede broad participation of individuals with disabilities in health and wellness promotion programs. Public health initiatives aimed at mitigating these health disparities emphasize improved access to physical activity and sports opportunities. Given its visibility, the Paralympic Movement provides an opportunity to transform how society conceptualizes the relationship of disability to physical fitness. The Paralympics also serve as a catalyst for public health education and program development. Already, public policies and governmental regulations are expanding grassroots sports opportunities for youth and adults with disabilities, thus promoting inclusive opportunities for participation in physical activity.

  15. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    PubMed

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  16. Palliative Care in Rural Minnesota: Findings from Stratis Health's Minnesota Rural Palliative Care Initiative.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Deb; Shearer, Janelle; Weng, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care, which involves managing symptoms, controlling pain and addressing stress caused by a chronic or terminal illness, has been shown to keep patients out of the hospital and allow them to stay home and live more comfortably with their illness. Typically, it is provided by an interdisciplinary team led by a physician trained in palliative medicine. Rural areas have not always had access to such specialists. Yet, today, rural health care organizations are finding ways to create palliative care programs that meet the needs of their chronically ill and aging populations. This article describes a six-year initiative led by Stratis Health to advance palliative care in rural Minnesota. It highlights the work of FirstLight Health System in Mora and describes Stratis Health's Rural Palliative Care Measurement Pilot Project, an effort to develop and test measures for evaluating rural palliative care programs.

  17. An Evaluation of the Implementation and Impact of England's Mandated School-Based Mental Health Initiative in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpert, Miranda; Humphrey, Neil; Deighton, Jessica; Patalay, Praveetha; Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Fonagy, Peter; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We report on a randomized controlled trial of Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS), which is a nationally mandated school-based mental health program in England. TaMHS aimed to improve mental health for students with, or at risk of, behavioral and emotional difficulties by providing evidence-informed interventions relating to closer working…

  18. Building cooperation through health initiatives: an Arab and Israeli case study

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey A; Sriharan, Abi

    2007-01-01

    Background Ongoing conflict in the Middle East poses a major threat to health and security. A project screening Arab and Israeli newborns for hearing loss provided an opportunity to evaluate ways for building cooperation. The aims of this study were to: a) examine what attracted Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian participants to the project, b) describe challenges they faced, and c) draw lessons learned for guiding cross-border health initiatives. Methods A case study method was used involving 12 key informants stratified by country (3 Israeli, 3 Jordanian, 3 Palestinian, 3 Canadian). In-depth interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an inductive qualitative approach to derive key themes. Results Major reasons for getting involved included: concern over an important health problem, curiosity about neighbors and opportunities for professional advancement. Participants were attracted to prospects for opening the dialogue, building relationships and facilitating cooperation in the region. The political situation was a major challenge that delayed implementation of the project and placed participants under social pressure. Among lessons learned, fostering personal relationships was viewed as critical for success of this initiative. Conclusion Arab and Israeli health professionals were prepared to get involved for two types of reasons: a) Project Level: opportunity to address a significant health issue (e.g. congenital hearing loss) while enhancing their professional careers, and b) Meta Level: concern about taking positive steps for building cooperation in the region. We invite discussion about roles that health professionals can play in building "cooperation networks" for underpinning health security, conflict resolution and global health promotion. PMID:17634138

  19. When is informed consent required in cluster randomized trials in health research?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs) in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the second of the questions posed, namely, from whom, when, and how must informed consent be obtained in CRTs in health research? The ethical principle of respect for persons implies that researchers are generally obligated to obtain the informed consent of research subjects. Aspects of CRT design, including cluster randomization, cluster level interventions, and cluster size, present challenges to obtaining informed consent. Here we address five questions related to consent and CRTs: How can a study proceed if informed consent is not possible? Is consent to randomization always required? What information must be disclosed to potential subjects if their cluster has already been randomized? Is passive consent a valid substitute for informed consent? Do health professionals have a moral obligation to participate as subjects in CRTs designed to improve professional practice? We set out a framework based on the moral foundations of informed consent and international regulatory provisions to address each of these questions. First, when informed consent is not possible, a study may proceed if a research ethics committee is satisfied that conditions for a waiver of consent are satisfied. Second, informed consent to randomization may not be required if it is not possible to approach subjects at the time of randomization. Third, when potential subjects are approached after cluster randomization, they must be provided with a detailed description of the interventions in the trial arm to which their cluster has been randomized; detailed information on interventions in other trial arms need not be provided. Fourth, while passive consent may serve a variety of practical ends, it

  20. A Personal Perspective on the Initial Federal Health-Based Regulation to Remove Lead from Gasoline

    PubMed Central

    Bridbord, Kenneth; Hanson, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article describes the personal experience and perspective of the authors, who had primary responsibility for drafting the initial health-based regulation limiting lead content of gasoline during the early 1970s while employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data source Information used by the U.S. EPA in developing the initial health-based regulation limiting lead content of gasoline in December 1973 and studies documenting the impact of that and subsequent actions. Data extraction Among the lessons learned from this experience is the importance of having input from independent scientists to the regulatory decision-making process. This also demonstrates the critical role of independent peer-reviewed research, such as that supported by the National Institutes of Health, as well as research conducted by scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in delineating the consequences of lead exposure in the population. Data synthesis Removal of lead from gasoline in the United States has been described as one of the great public health achievements of the 20th century, but it almost did not happen. The experience of the authors in developing this regulation may be helpful to others involved in developing health-based regulatory policy in the future. Conclusion The initial U.S. EPA health-based regulation to remove lead from gasoline is clearly an example where science successfully affected public policy. The leadership of the U.S. EPA at that time deserves much credit for establishing an atmosphere in which this was possible. PMID:19672397

  1. Developing a web-based data mining application to impact community health improvement initiatives: the Virginia Atlas of Community Health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how a team from the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) and the Virginia Center for Healthy Communities (VCHC) attended the UNC Management Academy for Public Health to learn skills to address Virginia's commitment to using technology to improve the public's health. After creating a business plan for a food-safety information Web site, team members used that experience as well as Management Academy training in information technology, the management of data and finances, and strategic partnering to create a comprehensive tool with which to place customizable population data in the hands of anyone interested in pursuing population health improvement. The Virginia Atlas of Community Health, launched through the VCHC in 2003, places clear, compelling data in the hands of those who can influence decisions at the local level and create the most impact for health. Since the program's inception, more than 2,000 individuals have registered as ongoing users of the Virginia Atlas. Initially funded by a Turning Point grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the program is sustained through a series of smaller grants and funding from the VDH.

  2. Community health worker perspectives on a new primary health care initiative in the Eastern Cape of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Miriam; Macheka, Tonderayi; Mutiti, Anthony; Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; Dlamini, Thomas; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2010, South Africa’s National Department of Health launched a national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to provide a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model. A key component of rPHC is the use of community-based outreach teams staffed by generalist community health workers (CHWs). Methods We conducted focus group discussions and surveys on the knowledge and attitudes of 91 CHWs working on community-based rPHC teams in the King Sabata Dalindyebo (KSD) sub-district of Eastern Cape Province. Results The CHWs we studied enjoyed their work and found it meaningful, as they saw themselves as agents of change. They also perceived weaknesses in the implementation of outreach team oversight, and desired field-based training and more supervision in the community. Conclusions There is a need to provide CHWs with basic resources like equipment, supplies and transport to improve their acceptability and credibility to the communities they serve. PMID:28301609

  3. From rhetoric to reality: barriers faced by Health For All initiatives.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Dina; Springett, Jane

    2006-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed an upsurge in the development and implementation of 'Health For All-type' initiatives in many parts of the world. However, despite the popularity of the approach, barriers and constraints to the fulfillment of their remit still persist, making it difficult for them to achieve the potential originally envisaged. Drawing upon considerable empirical work while evaluating the European Healthy City projects and English Health Action Zones, this paper explores the differences between barriers and constraints and then focuses on barriers as they manifest themselves in England. It distinguishes between cultural barriers, stemming from different philosophical, organisational, and professional/experiential cultures, and political barriers, stemming from both party political and realpolitik concerns. It discusses how these barriers often operate together, compounding their individual impacts, with detrimental effects for Health For All initiatives. Consequently, while the prevailing rhetoric appears to promote an alternative, and more appropriate, vision of how health can be maintained and enhanced, these barriers effectively function to sustain the hegemony of the status quo which was, and is, based on a different and outdated vision. We argue that acknowledging the continuous persistence of these barriers is an essential first step towards turning the prevailing health-related rhetoric into reality.

  4. Geographically varying effects of weather on tobacco consumption: implications for health marketing initiatives.

    PubMed

    Govind, Rahul; Garg, Nitika; Sun, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Weather and its fluctuations have been found to influence the consumption of negative hedonic goods. However, such findings are of limited use to health marketers who cannot control the weather, and hence, its effects. The current research utilizes data obtained at the zip-code level to study geographical variations in the effect of weather on tobacco consumption across the entire continental United States. The results allow health marketers to identify areas that will be most responsive to marketing efforts aimed at curtailing negative hedonic consumption and thus implement more effective, region-specific initiatives.

  5. Community Health Worker Support for Disadvantaged Patients With Multiple Chronic Diseases: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kangovi, Shreya; Mitra, Nandita; Grande, David; Huo, Hairong; Smith, Robyn A; Long, Judith A

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved outcomes in a low-income population with multiple chronic conditions. We conducted a single-blind, randomized clinical trial in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (2013-2014). Participants (n = 302) were high-poverty neighborhood residents, uninsured or publicly insured, and diagnosed with 2 or more chronic diseases (diabetes, obesity, tobacco dependence, hypertension). All patients set a disease-management goal. Patients randomly assigned to CHWs also received 6 months of support tailored to their goals and preferences. Support from CHWs (vs goal-setting alone) led to improvements in several chronic diseases (changes in glycosylated hemoglobin: -0.4 vs 0.0; body mass index: -0.3 vs -0.1; cigarettes per day: -5.5 vs -1.3; systolic blood pressure: -1.8 vs -11.2; overall P = .08), self-rated mental health (12-item Short Form survey; 2.3 vs -0.2; P = .008), and quality of care (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems; 62.9% vs 38%; P < .001), while reducing hospitalization at 1 year by 28% (P = .11). There were no differences in patient activation or self-rated physical health. A standardized CHW intervention improved chronic disease control, mental health, quality of care, and hospitalizations and could be a useful population health management tool for health care systems. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01900470.

  6. Teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses and their general health: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sharif, F; Rezaie, S; Keshavarzi, S; Mansoori, P; Ghadakpoor, S

    2013-07-01

    Emotion and how people manage it is an important part of personality that would immensely affect their health. Investigations showed that emotional intelligence is significantly related to and can predict psychological health. To determine the effect of teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses on their general health. This randomized clinical trial (registered as IRCT201208022812N9) was conducted on 52 of 200 in intensive care unit nurses affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. They were recruited through purposeful convenience sampling and then randomly categorized into two groups. The intervention group members were trained in emotional intelligence. Bar-on emotional intelligence and Goldberg's general health questionnaires were administered to each participant before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. While the mean score of general health for the intervention group decreased from 25.4 before the intervention, to 18.1 immediately after the intervention and to 14.6 one month later, for the control group, it increased from 22.0, to 24.2 and to 26.5, respectively (p<0.001). Teaching emotional intelligence improved the general health of intensive care unit nurses.

  7. Cost analysis of the History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, and initial Troponin (HEART) Pathway randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert F; Miller, Chadwick D; Russell, Gregory B; Harper, Erin N; Hiestand, Brian C; Hoekstra, James W; Lefebvre, Cedric W; Nicks, Bret A; Cline, David M; Askew, Kim L; Mahler, Simon A

    2017-01-01

    The HEART Pathway is a diagnostic protocol designed to identify low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain that are safe for early discharge. This protocol has been shown to significantly decrease health care resource utilization compared with usual care. However, the impact of the HEART Pathway on the cost of care has yet to be reported. We performed a cost analysis of patients enrolled in the HEART Pathway trial, which randomized participants to either usual care or the HEART Pathway protocol. For low-risk patients, the HEART Pathway recommended early discharge from the emergency department without further testing. We compared index visit cost, cost at 30 days, and cardiac-related health care cost at 30 days between the 2 treatment arms. Costs for each patient included facility and professional costs. Cost at 30 days included total inpatient and outpatient costs, including the index encounter, regardless of etiology. Cardiac-related health care cost at 30 days included the index encounter and costs adjudicated to be cardiac-related within that period. Two hundred seventy of the 282 patients enrolled in the trial had cost data available for analysis. There was a significant reduction in cost for the HEART Pathway group at 30 days (median cost savings of $216 per individual), which was most evident in low-risk (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score of 0-1) patients (median savings of $253 per patient) and driven primarily by lower cardiac diagnostic costs in the HEART Pathway group. Using the HEART Pathway as a decision aid for patients with undifferentiated chest pain resulted in significant cost savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An analytical perspective of Global health initiatives in Tanzania and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mwisongo, Aziza; Soumare, Alice Ntamwishimiro; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    A number of Global health initiatives (GHIs) have been created to support low and middle income countries. Their support has been of different forms. The African Region has benefitted immensely from GHIs and continues to register an increase in health partnerships and initiatives. However, information on the functioning and operationalisation of GHIs in the countries is limited. This study involved two country case studies, one in Tanzania and the other one in Zambia. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The aims were to understand and profile the GHIs supporting health development and to assess their governance and alignment with country priorities, harmonisation and alignment of their interventions and efforts, and contribution towards health systems strengthening. The respondents included senior officers from health stakeholder agencies at the national and sub-national levels. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis in MAXQDA software. Health systems in both Tanzania and Zambia are decentralised. They have benefitted from GHI support in fighting the common health problems of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and vaccine-preventable diseases. In both countries, no GHI adequately made use of the existing Sector-wide Approach (SWAp) mechanisms but they largely operate through their unique structures and committees. GHI efforts to improve general health governance have not been matched with similar efforts from the countries. Their support to health system strengthening has not been comprehensive but has involved the selection of a few areas some of which were disease-focused. On the positive side, however, in both Tanzania and Zambia improved alignment with the countries' priorities is noted in that most of the proposals submitted to the GHIs refer to the priorities, objectives and strategies in the national health development plans and, GHIs depend on the national health information systems. GHIs are important funders

  9. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster

  10. The Impact of Including Husbands in Antenatal Health Education Services on Maternal Health Practices in Urban Nepal: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullany, Britta C.; Becker, S.; Hindin, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that including men in reproductive health interventions can enhance positive health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to test the impact of involving male partners in antenatal health education on maternal health care utilization and birth preparedness in urban Nepal. In total, 442 women seeking…

  11. The Impact of Including Husbands in Antenatal Health Education Services on Maternal Health Practices in Urban Nepal: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullany, Britta C.; Becker, S.; Hindin, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that including men in reproductive health interventions can enhance positive health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to test the impact of involving male partners in antenatal health education on maternal health care utilization and birth preparedness in urban Nepal. In total, 442 women seeking…

  12. The Shared Health Appointments and Reciprocal Enhanced Support (SHARES) study: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Heisler, Michele; Burgess, Jennifer; Cass, Jeffrey; Chardos, John F; Guirguis, Alexander B; Jeffery, Sean M; Strohecker, Lorrie A; Tremblay, Adam S; Wu, Wen-Chih; Zulman, Donna M

    2017-05-26

    Diabetes shared medical appointments (SMAs) and reciprocal peer support programs have been found in efficacy trials to help adults with diabetes improve their self-management and achieve short-term gains in clinical and patient-centered outcomes. In order to translate this evidence to system-level interventions, there is a need for large-scale, pragmatic trials that examine the effectiveness, implementation, and costs of SMAs and reciprocal peer support across diverse settings. The Shared Health Appointments and Reciprocal Enhanced Support (SHARES) study is a multisite, cluster randomized trial that is evaluating the effectiveness and implementation of SMAs with and without an additional reciprocal Peer-to-Peer (P2P) support program, when compared to usual care. The P2P program comprises periodic peer support group sessions and telephone contact between SMA participant pairs to promote more effective diabetes self-management. We will examine outcomes across three different treatment groups: (1) SMAs, (2) SMAs plus P2P, and (3) usual care. We will collect and analyze data over a 2.5-year implementation period at five geographically diverse Veterans Affairs (VA) health systems. The primary outcome is the relative change in hemoglobin A1c over time. Secondary outcomes are changes in systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, statin use, and insulin initiation over the study period. The unit of analysis is the individual, adjusted by the individual's SMA group (the cluster). We will use mixed methods to rigorously evaluate processes and costs of implementing these programs in each of the clinic settings. We hypothesize that patients will experience improved outcomes immediately following participation in SMAs and that augmenting SMAs with reciprocal peer support will help to maintain these gains over time. The results of this study will be among the first to examine the effects of diabetes SMAs alone and in conjunction with P2P in a range of real

  13. Examining fiscal federalism, regionalization and community-based initiatives in Canada's health care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of Canadian provinces to shape in different ways the development of various provincial health delivery systems within the constraints of the mandates of the federal Canada Health Act of 1984 and the fiscal revenues that the provinces receive if they comply with these mandates. In so doing, it will examine the operation of Canadian federalism with respect to various provincial health systems. This study applies a comparative analysis framework developed by Heisler and Peters to facilitate an understanding of the dimensionality of provincial health delivery systems as applied to the case of provincial regionalization and community-based initiatives. The three sets of relationships touched upon are: first, the levels of government and the nature of their involvement in public policy concerning the provincial health care delivery systems; and secondly, understanding of the factors influencing provincial governments' political dispositions to act in various directions. A third dimension that is taken are the factors influencing the "timing" of particular decisions. A fourth area noted by Heisler and Peters and other comparative analysts is the nature and characteristics of public and private sector activities in health care and other social policy areas. While the evolving nature of public and private sector health care delivery activities within Canada's provincial and territorial systems is a significant policy matter in the Canadian context, due to the space limitations of this article, they are not discussed herein.

  14. Supplemental vibrational force does not reduce pain experience during initial alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances: a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Neil R.; DiBiase, Andrew T.; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N.; Johnson, Nicola; Slipper, Carmel; Grant, James; Alsaleh, Maryam; Cobourne, Martyn T.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized trial investigated the effect of supplemental vibrational force on orthodontic pain during alignment with fixed-appliances. Eighty-one subjects < 20 years-old undergoing extraction-based fixed-appliance treatment were randomly allocated to supplementary (20-minutes/day) use of an intra-oral vibrational device (AcceleDent®) (n = 29); an identical non-functional (sham) device (n = 25) or fixed-appliances only (n = 27). Each subject recorded pain intensity (using a 100-mm visual-analogue scale) and intake of oral analgesia in a questionnaire, following appliance-placement (T1) and first-adjustment (T2) for 1-week (immediately-after, 4, 24, 72-hours and at 1-week). Mean maximum-pain for the total sample was 72.96 mm [SD 21.59; 95%CI 68.19–77.74 mm] with no significant differences among groups (P = 0.282). Subjects taking analgesics reported slightly higher maximum-pain although this was not significant (P = 0.170). The effect of intervention was independent of analgesia (P = 0.883). At T1 and T2, a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean pain was seen at 4 and 24-hours, declining at 72-hours and becoming insignificant at 1-week. For mean alignment-rate, pain-intensity and use of analgesics, no significant differences existed between groups (P > 0.003). The only significant predictor for mean pain was time. Use of an AcceleDent vibrational device had no significant effect on orthodontic pain or analgesia consumption during initial alignment with fixed appliances. PMID:26610843

  15. The Cumbria Rural Health Forum: initiating change and moving forward with technology.

    PubMed

    Ditchburn, Jae-Llane; Marshall, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The Cumbria Rural Health Forum was formed by a number of public, private and voluntary sector organisations to collaboratively work on rural health and social care in the county of Cumbria, England. The aim of the forum is to improve health and social care delivery for rural communities, and share practical ideas and evidence-based best practice that can be implemented in Cumbria. The forum currently consists of approximately 50 organisations interested in and responsible for delivery of health and social care in Cumbria. An exploration of digital technologies for health and care was recognised as an initial priority. This article describes a hands-on approach undertaken within the forum, including its current progress and development. The forum used a modified Delphi technique to facilitate its work on discussing ideas and reaching consensus to formulate the Cumbria Strategy for Digital Technologies in Health and Social Care. The group communication process took place over meetings and workshops held at various locations in the county. A roadmap for the implementation of digital technologies into health and social care was developed. The roadmap recommends the following: (i) to improve the health outcomes for targeted groups, within a unit, department or care pathway; (ii) to explain, clarify, share good (and bad) practice, assess impact and value through information sharing through conferences and events, influencing and advocacy for Cumbria; and (iii) to develop a digital-health-ready workforce where health and social care professionals can be supported to use digital technologies, and enhance recruitment and retention of staff. The forum experienced issues consistent with those in other Delphi studies, such as the repetition of ideas. Attendance was variable due to the unavailability of key people at times. Although the forum facilitated collective effort to address rural health issues, its power is limited to influencing and supporting implementation of change

  16. Developing a statewide public health initiative to reduce infant mortality in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Suzanna; Patrick, Paul; Lincoln, Alicia; Cline, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The Preparing for a Lifetime, It's Everyone's Responsibility initiative was developed to improve the health and well- being of Oklahoma's mothers and infants. The development phase included systematic data collection, extensive data analysis, and multi-disciplinary partnership development. In total, seven issues (preconception/interconception health, tobacco use, postpartum depression, breastfeeding, infant safe sleep, preterm birth, and infant injury prevention) were identified as crucial to addressing infant mortality in Oklahoma. Workgroups were created to focus on each issue. Data and media communications workgroups were added to further partner commitment and support for policy and programmatic changes across multiple agencies and programs. Leadership support, partnership, evaluation, and celebrating small successes were important factors that lead to large scale adoption and support for the state-wide initiative to reduce infant mortality.

  17. A Statewide Common Elements Initiative for Children’s Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Shannon; Berliner, Lucy; Lyon, Aaron R.; Pullmann, Michael D.; Murray, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    Many evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for child and adolescent mental health disorders have been developed, but few are available in public mental health settings. This paper describes initial implementation outcomes for a state-funded effort in Washington State to increase EBT availability, via a common elements training and consultation approach focused on 4 major problem areas (anxiety, PTSD, depression, and behavioral problems). Clinicians (N = 180) reported significant improvement in their ability to assess and treat all problem areas at post-consultation. Clinicians from organizations with a supervisor-level “EBT champion” had higher baseline scores on a range of outcomes, but many differences disappeared at post-consultation. Outcomes suggest that a common elements initiative which includes training and consultation may positively impact clinician-level outcomes, and that having “in-house” organizational expertise may provide additional benefits. PMID:25081231

  18. Why is it difficult to implement e-health initiatives? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of information and communication technologies in healthcare is seen as essential for high quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, implementation of e-health initiatives has often been problematic, with many failing to demonstrate predicted benefits. This study aimed to explore and understand the experiences of implementers -- the senior managers and other staff charged with implementing e-health initiatives and their assessment of factors which promote or inhibit the successful implementation, embedding, and integration of e-health initiatives. Methods We used a case study methodology, using semi-structured interviews with implementers for data collection. Case studies were selected to provide a range of healthcare contexts (primary, secondary, community care), e-health initiatives, and degrees of normalization. The initiatives studied were Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in secondary care, a Community Nurse Information System (CNIS) in community care, and Choose and Book (C&B) across the primary-secondary care interface. Implementers were selected to provide a range of seniority, including chief executive officers, middle managers, and staff with 'on the ground' experience. Interview data were analyzed using a framework derived from Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Results Twenty-three interviews were completed across the three case studies. There were wide differences in experiences of implementation and embedding across these case studies; these differences were well explained by collective action components of NPT. New technology was most likely to 'normalize' where implementers perceived that it had a positive impact on interactions between professionals and patients and between different professional groups, and fit well with the organisational goals and skill sets of existing staff. However, where implementers perceived problems in one or more of these areas, they also perceived a lower level of normalization

  19. Health Reform in Minnesota: An Analysis of Complementary Initiatives Implementing Electronic Health Record Technology and Care Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Soderberg, Karen; Rajamani, Sripriya; Wholey, Douglas; LaVenture, Martin

    2016-01-01

    initiatives supporting EHR adoption and HCH certification. Ultimately, improvement in health outcomes depends on effective intersection of people, processes and technology. PMID:28210425

  20. Pan-Canadian REspiratory STandards INitiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE): 2011 National Forum Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Lougheed, M Diane; Minard, Janice; Dworkin, Shari; Juurlink, Mary-Ann; Temple, Walley J; To, Teresa; Koehn, Marc; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario’s Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS). Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario) are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to bring together key

  1. Pan-Canadian REspiratory STandards INitiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE): 2011 national forum proceedings.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, M Diane; Minard, Janice; Dworkin, Shari; Juurlink, Mary-Ann; Temple, Walley J; To, Teresa; Koehn, Marc; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario's Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS). Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario) are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to bring together key

  2. Moving science into state child and adolescent mental health systems: Illinois' evidence-informed practice initiative.

    PubMed

    Starin, Amy C; Atkins, Marc S; Wehrmann, Kathryn C; Mehta, Tara; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S; Marinez-Lora, A; Mehlinger, Renee

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the Illinois State Mental Health Authority embarked on an initiative to close the gap between research and practice in the children's mental health system. A stakeholder advisory council developed a plan to advance evidence informed practice through policy and program initiatives. A multilevel approach was developed to achieve this objective, which included policy change, stakeholder education, and clinician training. This article focuses on the evidence-informed training process designed following review of implementation research. The training involved in-person didactic sessions and twice-monthly telephone supervision across 6 cohorts of community based clinicians, each receiving 12 months of training. Training content initially included cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral parent training and was adapted over the years to a practice model based on common element concepts. Evaluation based on provider and parent report indicated children treated by training clinicians generally showed superior outcomes versus both a treatment-as-usual comparison group for Cohorts 1 to 4 and the statewide child population as a whole after 90 days of care for Cohorts 5 to 6. The results indicated primarily moderate to strong effects for the evidence-based training groups. Moving a large public statewide child mental health system toward more effective services is a complex and lengthy process. These results indicate training of community mental health providers in Illinois in evidence-informed practice was moderately successful in positively impacting child-level functional outcomes. These findings also influenced state policy in committing resources to continuing the initiative, even in difficult economic times.

  3. What attracts students to interprofessional education and other health care reform initiatives?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Rosenfield, Daniel; Nasmith, Louise

    2009-01-01

    An international consensus has emerged that interprofessional education (IPE) and other health care reforms are necessary to address the increasing complexity of patients' health needs. Despite overwhelming barriers to its system-wide implementation, health professional students worldwide have organized themselves to promote IPE and have achieved considerable attention. This study seeks to offer insights into what attracts students to IPE and other health care reform initiatives and how advocates of change can stimulate this interest. Using a qualitative research methodology, 69 students representing 25 disciplines from 22 institutions across North America were interviewed and surveyed on why and how they became interested in IPE. Students were attracted to the possibility of enhancing patient care (n=17), advancing their careers (n=17) and learning more about the issue (n=15). The participating students first became involved in IPE after they joined a student organization (n=21), attended an IPE conference (n=10) or received personal encouragement to do so from a dean (n=2), instructor (n=3), school administrator (n=7) or peer (n=11). These findings point to several strategies that advocates can use to capitalize on the potential of student advocacy to gain support for IPE and new health care innovations. This study is the first of its kind to delineate how clinicians, educators, researchers and policymakers can attract students to health care reform initiatives. This work can inform the strategic efforts of advocates to make the idea of IPE and health care reform more attractive to students (as both learners and leaders) and enlist their help in achieving it in the future.

  4. ONE Nano: NIEHS’s Strategic Initiative on the Health and Safety Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anne F.; Balshaw, David M.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Walker, Nigel J.; Weis, Christopher; Nadadur, Srikanth S.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The past decade has seen tremendous expansion in the production and application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The unique properties that make ENMs useful in the marketplace also make their interactions with biological systems difficult to anticipate and critically important to explore. Currently, little is known about the health effects of human exposure to these materials. Objectives: As part of its role in supporting the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed an integrated, strategic research program—“ONE Nano”—to increase our fundamental understanding of how ENMs interact with living systems, to develop predictive models for quantifying ENM exposure and assessing ENM health impacts, and to guide the design of second-generation ENMs to minimize adverse health effects. Discussion: The NIEHS’s research investments in ENM health and safety include extramural grants and grantee consortia, intramural research activities, and toxicological studies being conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). These efforts have enhanced collaboration within the nanotechnology research community and produced toxicological profiles for selected ENMs, as well as improved methods and protocols for conducting in vitro and in vivo studies to assess ENM health effects. Conclusion: By drawing upon the strengths of the NIEHS’s intramural, extramural, and NTP programs and establishing productive partnerships with other institutes and agencies across the federal government, the NIEHS’s strategic ONE Nano program is working toward new advances to improve our understanding of the health impacts of engineered nanomaterials and support the goals of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. PMID:23407114

  5. Testing health information technology tools to facilitate health insurance support: a protocol for an effectiveness-implementation hybrid randomized trial.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Huguet, Nathalie; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Angier, Heather; Nelson, Christine; Marino, Miguel; Cohen, Deborah; Sumic, Aleksandra; Hoopes, Megan; Harding, Rose L; Dearing, Marla; Gold, Rachel

    2015-08-25

    Patients with gaps in health insurance coverage often defer or forgo cancer prevention services. These delays in cancer detection and diagnoses lead to higher rates of morbidity and mortality and increased costs. Recent advances in health information technology (HIT) create new opportunities to enhance insurance support services that reduce coverage gaps through automated processes applied in healthcare settings. This study will assess the implementation of insurance support HIT tools and their effectiveness at improving patients' insurance coverage continuity and cancer screening rates. This study uses a hybrid cluster-randomized design-a combined effectiveness and implementation trial-in community health centers (CHCs) in the USA. Eligible CHC clinic sites will be randomly assigned to one of two groups in the trial's implementation component: tools + basic training (Arm I) and tools + enhanced training + facilitation (Arm II). A propensity score-matched control group of clinics will be selected to assess the tools' effectiveness. Quantitative analyses of the tools' impact will use electronic health record and Medicaid data to assess effectiveness. Qualitative data will be collected to evaluate the implementation process, understand how the HIT tools are being used, and identify facilitators and barriers to their implementation and use. This study will test the effectiveness of HIT tools to enhance insurance support in CHCs and will compare strategies for facilitating their implementation in "real-world" practice settings. Findings will inform further development and, if indicated, more widespread implementation of insurance support HIT tools. Clinical trial NTC02355262.

  6. The Arkansas aging initiative: an innovative approach for addressing the health of older rural Arkansans.

    PubMed

    Beverly, Claudia J; McAtee, Robin E; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V; Jones, Susan K; Lipschitz, David A

    2007-04-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on aging across the state using $1.3 to $2 million dollars annually from the state's portion of the Master Tobacco Settlement. These centers on aging assist the state's population of older adults, many of whom reside in rural areas, live in poverty, and suffer from poor health. The centers provide multiple avenues of education for the community, health care providers, families, and caregivers. The Arkansas Aging Initiative, in partnership with local hospitals, also makes geriatric primary and specialty care more accessible through senior health clinics established across rural Arkansas. In 2005, older adults made more than 36,000 visits to these clinics. All sites have attracted at least one physician who holds a Certificate of Added Qualifications in geriatrics and one advanced practice nurse. Other team members include geriatric medical social workers, pharmacists, nutritionists, and neuropsychologists. This initiative also addresses other policy issues, including engaging communities in building partnerships and programs crucial to maximizing their limited resources and identifying opportunities to change reimbursement mechanisms for care provided to the growing number of older adults. We believe this type of program has the potential to create a novel paradigm for nationwide implementation.

  7. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau's Initiative for Mental Health in Schools. Report from the Summit. (Washington, DC, March 7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Howard; Taylor, Linda

    When the Maternal and Child Health Bureau implemented an initiative in 1995 to support mental health for school-age children and youth by strengthening the capacity of school-linked health programs to address psychosocial issues and mental health problems, two national centers and five state projects were developed. The work of projects in…

  8. Relationship between attitudes toward oral health at initial office visit and compliance with supportive periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Ojima, M; Kanagawa, H; Nishida, N; Nagata, H; Hanioka, T; Shizukuishi, S

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the present study include investigation of the relationship between attitudes and desires with respect to oral health at initial office visit and compliance with supportive periodontal treatment (SPT) and identification of prognostic factors with respect to low-compliance with SPT. Four hundred thirty-one patients were evaluated. Subjects completed a questionnaire concerning attitude and desire with respect to oral health and subjective symptoms prior to periodontal treatment. Survival probabilities of SPT were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between answers for each item of the questionnaire via the Cox-Mantel test. Finally, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed, which included age and gender. Greater than 95% of participants desired toothbrushing proficiency and lifelong retention of teeth at the initial office visit; however, the overall survival probabilities of SPT were only 52.7% after about 5 years. Patients exhibiting unfavourable attitudes toward oral health at the initial office visit, in comparison with those displaying favourable attitudes, exhibited greater tendency to abandon SPT. A Cox regression model revealed that lack of brushing on the gingival margin, non-use of an inter-dental brush or dental floss, non-use of fluoride toothpaste and frequent consumption of sugar-containing drinks were significant independent prognostic factors for low-compliance with SPT (p<0.05; Hazard ratios=2.27, 2.00, 2.56 and 2.06, respectively). Desire for satisfactory oral health is not related consistently to continuation of SPT. Unfavourable attitudes toward oral health were correlated to low-compliance with SPT. Clinicians may wish to establish methods for improvement of patient compliance employing behavioural approaches applicable to the attitudes of potential low-compliance individuals.

  9. Are current debt relief initiatives an option for scaling up health financing in beneficiary countries?

    PubMed

    Kaddar, M; Furrer, E

    2008-11-01

    One central goal of the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the more recent Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) is to free up additional resources for public spending on poverty reduction. The health sector was expected to benefit from a considerable share of these funds. The volume of released resources is important enough in certain countries to make a difference for priority programmes that have been underfunded so far. However, the relevance of these initiatives in terms of boosting health expenditure depends essentially, at the global level, on the compliance of donors with their aid commitments and, at the domestic level, on the success of health officials in advocating for an adequate share of the additional fiscal space. Advocacy efforts are often limited by a state of asymmetric information whereby some ministries are not well aware of the economic consequences of debt relief on public finances and of the management systems in place to deal with savings from debt relief. A thorough comprehension of these issues seems essential for health advocates to increase their bargaining power and for a wider public to readjust expectations of what debt relief can realistically achieve and of what can be measured. This paper intends to narrow the information gap by classifying debt relief savings management systems observed in practice. We illustrate some of the major advantages and stated drawbacks and outline the policy implications for health officials operating in the countries concerned. There should be careful monitoring of fungibility (i.e. where untraceable funds risk substitution) and additionality (i.e. the extent to which new inputs add to existing inputs at national and international level).

  10. Clinical Efficacy of Two Different Methods to Initiate Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Francisco Javier; Gálvez Moreno, Maria Ángeles; Castaño, Justo P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze clinical effect of a novel approach to initiate sensor-augmented insulin pumps in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients through early real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) initiation. Methods. A 26-week pilot study with T1DM subjects randomized (1 : 1) to start RT-CGM three weeks before continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM pre-CSII) or adding RT-CGM three weeks after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CGM post-CSII). Results. Twenty-two patients were enrolled with a mean age of 36.6 yr. (range 19–59 yr.) and T1DM duration of 16.8 ± 10.6 yr. Higher adherence in CGM pre-CSII patients was confirmed at study end (84.6 ± 11.1% versus 64.0 ± 25.4%; P = 0.01). The two intervention groups had similar HbA1c reduction at study end of −0.6% (P = 0.9). Hypoglycemic event frequency reduction was observed from baseline to study end only in CGM pre-CSII group (mean difference in change, −6.3%; 95% confidence interval, −12.0 to −0.5; P = 0.04). Moreover, no severe hypoglycemia was detected among CGM pre-CSII subjects during the study follow-up (0.0 ± 0.0 events versus 0.63 ± 1.0 events; P = 0.03). CGM pre-CSII patients showed better satisfaction than CGM post-CSII patients at the end of the study (27.3 ± 9.3 versus 32.9 ± 7.2; P = 0.04). Conclusions. CGM pre-CSII is a novel approach to improve glycemic control and satisfaction in type 1 diabetes sensor-augmented pump treated patients. PMID:28004007

  11. Predictors of Thyroid Hormone Initiation in Older Adults: Results From the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Somwaru, Lily L.; Arnold, Alice M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Despite widespread use, there are no data on initiation of thyroid hormone use in older people. We report the prevalence of thyroid hormone use and predictors of thyroid hormone initiation in a population of older men and women. Methods. Thyroid hormone medication data were collected annually from 1989 to 2006 in community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (N = 5,888). Associations of age, sex, race, body mass index, education, and coronary heart disease with initiation were evaluated using discrete-time survival analysis. Results. In 1989–1990, 8.9% (95% confidence interval 8.1%–9.7%) of participants were taking a thyroid hormone preparation, increasing to 20.0% (95% confidence interval 8.2%–21.8%) over 16 years. The average initiation rate was 1% per year. The initiation rate was nonlinear with age, and those aged 85 years and older initiated thyroid hormone more than twice as frequently as those aged 65–69 years (hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval 1.43–3.85). White women were more likely to initiate thyroid hormone than any other race and sex group. Higher body mass index was independently associated with higher risk for initiation (p = .002) as was greater education (p = .02) and prevalent coronary heart disease (p = .03). Conclusions. Thyroid hormone use is common in older people. The indications and benefits of thyroid hormone use in older individuals with the highest rate of thyroid hormone initiation—the oldest old, overweight and obese individuals, and those with coronary heart disease—should be investigated. PMID:21628677

  12. Assessing health system interventions: key points when considering the value of randomization

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, Joanna; Todd, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Research is needed to help identify interventions that will improve the capacity or functioning of health systems and thereby contribute to achieving global health goals. Well conducted, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), insofar as they reduce bias and confounding, provide the strongest evidence for identifying which interventions delivered directly to individuals are safe and effective. When ethically feasible, they can also help reduce bias and confounding when assessing interventions targeting entire health systems. However, additional challenges emerge when research focuses on interventions that target the multiple units of organization found within health systems. Hence, one cannot complacently assume that randomization can reduce or eliminate bias and confounding to the same degree in every instance. While others have articulated arguments in favour of alternative designs, this paper is intended to help people understand why the potential value afforded by RCTs may be threatened. Specifically, it suggests six points to be borne in mind when exploring the challenges entailed in designing or evaluating RCTs on health system interventions: (i) the number of units available for randomization; (ii) the complexity of the organizational unit under study; (iii) the complexity of the intervention; (iv) the complexity of the cause–effect pathway, (v) contamination; and (vi) outcome heterogeneity. The authors suggest that the latter may be informative and that the reasons behind it should be explored and not ignored. Based on improved understanding of the value and possible limitations of RCTs on health system interventions, the authors show why we need broader platforms of research to complement RCTs. PMID:22271948

  13. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  14. Income transfers and maternal health: Evidence from a national randomized social cash transfer program in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber; Seidenfeld, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2017-01-01

    There is promising recent evidence that poverty-targeted social cash transfers have potential to improve maternal health outcomes, however questions remain surrounding design features responsible for impacts. In addition, virtually no evidence exists from the African region. This study explores the impact of Zambia’s Child Grant Program on a range of maternal health utilization outcomes using a randomized design and difference-in-differences multivariate regression from data collected over 24 months from 2010 to 2012. Results indicate that while there are no measurable program impacts among the main sample, there are heterogeneous impacts on skilled attendance at birth among a sample of women residing in households having better access to maternal health services. The latter result is particularly interesting because of the overall low level of healthcare availability in program areas suggesting dedicated program design or matching supply-side interventions may be necessary to leverage unconditional cash transfers in similar settings to impact maternal health. PMID:25581062

  15. Physician's intention to initiate health check-up discussions with men: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Trevena, Lyndal; Willcock, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Although prevalent in primary care settings, men's health issues are rarely discussed. Yet, primary care doctors (PCDs) are well positioned to offer health check-ups during consultations. This study aims to develop a substantive theory to explain the process of decision making by which PCDs engage men in discussing health check-ups. Grounded theory method was adopted. Data source was from 14 in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions conducted with a semi-structured guide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Initial open coding captured the concepts of processes from the data, followed by selective and theoretical coding to saturate the core category. Constant comparative method was used throughout the process to allow emergence of the theory. Fifty-two PCDs from private and public settings were interviewed. PCDs engaged male patients in health check-ups when they associated high medical importance with the relevant issues. The decision to engage men also depended on perceived chances of success in negotiations about health check-ups. A high chance of success, associated with minimal negotiation effort, is associated with men being most receptive to health check-ups. When doctors feel the importance of a particular health issue, they place less emphasis on their perceived men's receptivity to discuss that health issue in their intention to engage them in discussing it. Engaging male patients in appropriate health check-up activities requires a series of actions and decisions by the PCDs. The decision to engage the patient depends on the perceived balance between the receptivity of male patients and the medical importance of the issues in mind.

  16. Wisconsin's Lifecourse Initiative for Healthy Families: application of the maternal and child health life course perspective through a regional funding initiative.

    PubMed

    Frey, Catherine A; Farrell, Philip M; Cotton, Quinton D; Lathen, Lorraine S; Marks, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    National experts are calling for more integrated approaches such as the life course perspective to reduce health disparities and achieve greater health equity. The translation and application of the life course perspective is therefore of great interest to public health planners, policy makers and funders to promote community-wide improvements in maternal and child health. However, few organizations have applied the life course perspective in designing strategic funding initiatives. For over three decades, Wisconsin has observed persistent racial disparities in birth outcomes. This complex public health issue led to the development of the Lifecourse Initiative for Health Families, a regional multi-million dollar funding initiative created and supported by the Wisconsin Partnership Program of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health (Created by the UW SMPH from an endowment following the conversion of Blue Cross Blue Shield United of Wisconsin, the Partnership Program makes investments in research, education, and public health and prevention initiatives that improve health and reduce health disparities in the state.). Over a 2-year period, the program funded four collaboratives to adopt a life course perspective and develop strategic plans for improving African American birth outcomes. The Twelve-point plan to close the black-white gap in birth outcomes provided the framework for the planning process. Despite the conceptual challenges, the life course perspective was embraced by the collaboratives, challenged community assumptions on the root causes of poor birth outcomes and provided a unifying funding construct for organizing and planning complementary individual-level interventions with social and physical environmental change strategies. These integrated and complimentary approaches provide a long-term opportunity to address the persistent racial birth outcome disparity in Wisconsin.

  17. The role of the architectural environment in community health: an evidence-based initiative.

    PubMed

    Verderber, Stephen; Kimbrell, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This discussion reports the status of a 12-year program administered by a statewide health agency to strategically assess, redevelop, and monitor the architectural and facility management performance of its network of community-based public health care facilities. A protocol, the Strategic Facility Improvement initiative, has directly resulted in significant improvements to the major share of a network of over 100 community clinic and clinical support facilities in the State of Louisiana. The SFI initiative provides oversight with respect to the allocation of public health capital improvement infrastructural resources and has guided completion of 55 facility replacement or renovation projects to date. Its administrative mission, organizational structure, and field methodology is presented as a vehicle to significantly improve the architectural condition of clinical and clinical support environments for underrepresented patient populations. The SFI process is discussed as an evidence-based means to foster greater systemic success in capital improvement efforts within public sector health agencies in the United States and in international contexts.

  18. Whose place is it anyway? Representational politics in a place-based health initiative.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Carole

    2014-03-01

    The association between place and poor health, such as chronic disease, is well documented and in recent years has given rise to public health strategies such as place-based initiatives (PBIs). This article reports on the emergence of one such initiative in Australia, in regions identified as culturally diverse and socially disadvantaged. The study draws on the intellectual resources provided by governmentality and actor-network theory to provide insights into the reasons why community actors were excluded from a new governance body established to represent their interests. Risk-thinking and representational politics determined who represented whom in the PBI partnership. Paradoxically, actors representing 'community', identified as being 'at risk', were excluded from the partnership during its translation because they were also identified as being 'a risk'. As a consequence, contrary to federal government health and social policy in Australia, it was state government interests rather than the interests of community actors that influenced decisions made in relation to local health planning and the allocation of resources.

  19. Multimedia based health information to parents in a pediatric acute ward: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Botngård, Anja; Skranes, Lars P; Skranes, Jon; Døllner, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether multimedia based health information presented to parents of children with breathing difficulties in a pediatric acute ward, is more effective than verbal information, to reduce parental anxiety and increase satisfaction. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a pediatric acute ward in Norway, from January to March 2011. Parents were randomly assigned to a multimedia intervention (n=53), or verbal health information (n=48). Primary outcome measure was parental anxiety, and secondary outcome measures were parental satisfaction with nursing care and health information. Parental anxiety decreased from arrival to discharge within both groups. At discharge the anxiety levels in the intervention group were no lower than in the control group. There was no difference in satisfaction with nursing care between the groups, but parents in the intervention group reported higher satisfaction with the health information given in the acute ward (p=.005). Multimedia based health information did not reduce anxiety more than verbal information, among parents to children with breathing difficulties. However, after discharge the parents were more satisfied with the multimedia approach. More research is needed to recommend the use of multimedia based information as a routine to parents in pediatric emergency care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized Control Trial of the 3Rs Health Knowledge Training Program for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Maurice A; Owen, Frances; Andrews, Amy E; Tahir, Munazza; Barber, Rachel; Griffiths, Dorothy

    2016-05-01

    Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) experience a wide range of health problems. Research is needed on teaching persons with intellectual disabilities about their health to promote self-advocacy. This study used a RCT to evaluate a health knowledge training program for adults with intellectual disabilities and verbal skills. Participants were randomly assigned to training (n = 12) or no training control (n = 10) groups. Topics included key body organs, systems, functions, health maintenance and illnesses. Participants played a game answering questions (e.g. 'What does the heart do?'). Instruction involved visuals (e.g., PowerPoint slides), cueing, modelling and feedback. The control group received pre-, post- and follow-up tests as the training group. The training group had significantly higher overall post-test and follow-up health knowledge test scores than the control group. Health knowledge training is one step in promoting health self-advocacy and better health in persons with intellectual disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Moderating Effects of Health Literacy on Change in Physical Activity Among Latinas in a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Gregory M; Dunsiger, Shira I; Pekmezi, Dorothy W; Larsen, Britta; Marquez, Becky; Nodora, Jesse; Gans, Kim M; Marcus, Bess H

    2015-09-01

    Latinas report low rates of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for poor health outcomes. Language and literacy barriers impede access and utilization of PA-related resources. This study examined health literacy as a moderator on changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in 196 Latinas enrolled in Seamos Saludables, a randomized-controlled trial of a 6-month culturally and linguistically adapted PA print intervention Secondary analyses were conducted on demographics, acculturation and generation status, and health literacy (Newest Vital Sign). MVPA was determined by 7 day physical activity recall, assessed at baseline and 6 months. General linear models examined interaction effects between health literacy (HL), experimental condition (treatment vs. control), and generation status. Health literacy moderated change in MVPA from baseline to 6 months. The intervention effect was greater among first-generation Latinas with limited health literacy. Differences in health literacy level appear to influence MVPA outcomes. Formative research is recommended to ensure that materials are appropriate when developing print-based PA interventions, particularly among first-generation Latinas who are more likely to have limited health literacy.

  2. Knowledge of health information and services in a random sample of the population of Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, M; Jones, A K; Stewart, G T; Lucas, R W

    1980-01-01

    A RANDOM sample of adults in Glasgow was surveyed by trained interviewers to determine public knowledge on four topics chosen specifically for each of four age groups. The topics were: Welfare rights and services; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and individual action that can reduce risk; The dangers of smoking in pregnancy; and fluoride and its functions and the connections between good health and habitual behaviour.

  3. Initial Severity and Differential Treatment Outcome in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Irene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Random regression models were used to investigate the role of initial severity in the outcome of four treatments for major depression: cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, imipramine plus clinical management, and placebo plus clinical management. Initial severity of depression and impairment of functioning significantly…

  4. Applying a global justice lens to health systems research ethics: an initial exploration.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-03-01

    Recent scholarship has considered what, if anything, rich people owe to poor people to achieve justice in global health and the implications of this for international research. Yet this work has primarily focused on international clinical research. Health systems research is increasingly being performed in low and middle income countries and is essential to reducing global health disparities. This paper provides an initial description of the ethical issues related to priority setting, capacity-building, and the provision of post-study benefits that arise during the conduct of such research. It presents a selection of issues discussed in the health systems research literature and argues that they constitute ethical concerns based on their being inconsistent with a particular theory of global justice (the health capability paradigm). Issues identified include the fact that priority setting for health systems research at the global level is often not driven by national priorities and that capacity-building efforts frequently utilize one-size-fits-all approaches.

  5. Personal Health Technologies in Employee Health Promotion: Usage Activity, Usefulness, and Health-Related Outcomes in a 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Orsama, Anna-Leena; Ahtinen, Aino; Hopsu, Leila; Leino, Timo; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Background Common risk factors such as obesity, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, stress, and sleep deprivation threaten the wellness and work ability of employees. Personal health technologies may help improve engagement in health promotion programs and maintenance of their effect. Objective This study investigated personal health technologies in supporting employee health promotion targeting multiple behavioral health risks. We studied the relations of usage activity to demographic and physiological characteristics, health-related outcomes (weight, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and cholesterol), and the perceived usefulness of technologies in wellness management. Methods We conducted a subgroup analysis of the technology group (114 subjects, 33 males, average age 45 years, average BMI 27.1 kg/m2) of a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (N=352). The trial was organized to study the efficacy of a face-to-face group intervention supported by technologies, including Web services, mobile applications, and personal monitoring devices. Technology usage was investigated based on log files and questionnaires. The associations between sustained usage of Web and mobile technologies and demographic and physiological characteristics were analyzed by comparing the baseline data of sustained and non-sustained users. The associations between sustained usage and changes in health-related outcomes were studied by repeated analysis of variance, using data measured by baseline and end questionnaires, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements. The experienced usability, usefulness, motivation, and barriers to using technologies were investigated by 4 questionnaires and 2 interviews. Results 111 subjects (97.4%) used technologies at some point of the study, and 33 (29.9%) were classified as sustained users of Web or mobile technologies. Simple technologies, weight scales and pedometer, attracted the most users. The sustained users were slightly older 47 years (95% CI 44 to 49

  6. Personal health technologies in employee health promotion: usage activity, usefulness, and health-related outcomes in a 1-year randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Elina; Orsama, Anna-Leena; Ahtinen, Aino; Hopsu, Leila; Leino, Timo; Korhonen, Ilkk