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Sample records for health longitudinal observational

  1. Assessment of possible impact of a health promotion program in Korea from health risk trends in a longitudinally observed cohort

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Jee, SH; Edington, DW

    2004-01-01

    Background Longitudinally observed cohort data can be utilized to assess the potential for health promotion and healthcare planning by comparing the estimated risk factor trends of non-intervened with that of intervened. The paper seeks (1) to estimate a natural transition (patterns of movement between states) of health risk state from a Korean cohort data using a Markov model, (2) to derive an effective and necessary health promotion strategy for the population, and (3) to project a possible impact of an intervention program on health status. Methods The observed transition of health risk states in a Korean employee cohort was utilized to estimate the natural flow of aggregated health risk states from eight health risk measures using Markov chain models. In addition, a reinforced transition was simulated, given that a health promotion program was implemented for the cohort, to project a possible impact on improvement of health status. An intervened risk transition was obtained based on age, gender, and baseline risk state, adjusted to match with the Korean cohort, from a simulated random sample of a US employee population, where a health intervention was in place. Results The estimated natural flow (non-intervened), following Markov chain order 2, showed a decrease in low risk state by 3.1 percentage points in the Korean population while the simulated reinforced transition (intervened) projected an increase in low risk state by 7.5 percentage points. Estimated transitions of risk states demonstrated the necessity of not only the risk reduction but also low risk maintenance. Conclusions The frame work of Markov chain efficiently estimated the trend, and captured the tendency in the natural flow. Given only a minimally intense health promotion program, potential risk reduction and low risk maintenance was projected. PMID:15538950

  2. Training patterns and negative health outcomes in triathlon: longitudinal observations across a full competitive season.

    PubMed

    Main, L C; Landers, G J; Grove, J R; Dawson, B; Goodman, C

    2010-12-01

    Despite heavy training requirements, triathlon is a sport that is rapidly increasing in popularity. Yet, there is limited research detailing the relationship between training, the incidence of injuries and illness, psychological stress, overtraining and athlete burnout amongst triathletes. Six hypotheses relating inter-individual differences to training factors were generated to evaluate change in self-reported measures of these negative health outcomes over a training year. Thirty, well-trained, triathletes (males n=20: age=27.1±9.1 years and females n=10: age=27.4±6.6 years) from a local triathlon club participated in this study. The study commenced during pre-season training, and involved weekly monitoring of each athlete until the end of the competitive season 45 weeks later. Linear Mixed Modelling was used for the analysis. Signs and symptoms of injury and illness (SAS) were significantly associated with increases in training factors (P≤0.05); however, greatest impact on SAS was produced by psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Common symptoms of overtraining were significantly affected by increases in exposure to both training and psychological stressors (P≤0.05). Mood disturbance was not significantly affected by training factors (P>0.05) but rather increases in psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Finally, each of the three athlete burnout subscales were significantly affected by both psychological (P≤0.001) stressors as well as varying combinations of training factors (P≤0.05). Exposure to stressors (either training or psychological) had significant effects on all negative health outcomes assessed.

  3. Agreement between patient and proxy assessments of oral health-related quality of life after stroke: an observational longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; McMillan, A S; Zhu, H W; Li, L S W

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to assess agreement between patient and proxy assessment of patients' oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) during the acute stroke phase and 6 months after hospital discharge. As part of an observational longitudinal study, 161 consecutive patients hospitalized after stroke and their caregivers (CGs) were monitored during acute stroke and 6 months after hospital discharge. Patient-CG agreement of health-related quality of life as assessed by the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form (SF-12) which comprises physical (PCS-12) and mental component summaries (MCS-12) was determined by comparison and correlation analyses. Complete data were available for 65 patients and CGs. Compared with acute stroke, there were improvements in GOHAI and SF-12 scores from patient's and CG's perspective at 6-month follow-up. Caregivers overestimated the impact of stroke on MCS-12 over a period of time (P < 0.01) and underestimated the impact on GOHAI during acute stroke (P < 0.001) and on PCS-12 6 months later (P < 0.05). Patient-CG agreement was substantial to excellent during acute stroke [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 0.69-0.86)] and fair-to-moderate 6 months later (ICC 0.28-0.60). Agreement was adequate between patients' and CGs' assessment of patient OHRQoL during acute stroke but it was less reliable 6 months after hospital discharge. These findings suggest that proxy assessment of OHRQoL after stroke is effective in assessing stroke-related oral impairments that affect life quality without placing additional burden on stroke patients themselves to assess OHRQoL.

  4. Quality of reporting of observational longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh; Ware, Robert; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Dobson, Annette

    2005-02-01

    Observational longitudinal research is particularly useful for assessing etiology and prognosis and for providing evidence for clinical decision making. However, there are no structured reporting requirements for studies of this design to assist authors, editors, and readers. The authors developed and tested a checklist of criteria related to threats to the internal and external validity of observational longitudinal studies. The checklist criteria concerned recruitment, data collection, biases, and data analysis and descriptive issues relevant to study rationale, study population, and generalizability. Two raters independently assessed 49 randomly selected articles describing stroke research published from 1999 to 2003 in six journals: American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Stroke, Annals of Neurology, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. On average, 17 of the 33 checklist criteria were reported. Criteria describing the study design were better reported than those related to internal validity. No relation was found between study type (etiologic or prognostic) or word count and quality of reporting. A flow diagram for summarizing participant flow through a study was developed. Editors and authors should consider using a checklist and flow diagram when reporting on observational longitudinal research.

  5. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep and health-related quality of life in pregnant women: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2016-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in women, especially during pregnancy. Previous studies have confirmed the importance of sleep disturbances as a risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the need for screening and treatment of inadequate sleep. These reports, however, did not examine health-related quality of life which may be affected by sleep long before adverse clinical consequences are detectable in women during pregnancy. To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between sleep and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. A prospective observational study. A university-affiliated hospital in Taiwan and participants' homes. A total of 164 pregnant women completed questionnaires and wore a wrist actigraphy monitor for 7 days each trimester. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy, subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and health-related quality of life was measured using the SF-12v2 questionnaire across three trimesters. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep and health-related quality of life. Sixty-four (39.0%) women consistently had an average sleep efficiency<85% by actigraphy and 40 (24.4%) had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score>5 in all three trimesters. Cross-sectionally, more actigraphic daytime sleep (p=0.04) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better physical health-related quality of life in first-trimester pregnant women. Better actigraphic sleep efficiency (p=0.04) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better mental health-related quality of life in second-trimester pregnant women. Longer actigraphic total nighttime sleep (p<0.01) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better mental health-related quality of life in third-trimester pregnant women. Longitudinally, first-trimester actigraphic total nighttime

  6. A multicentre longitudinal observational study of changes in self reported health status in people with Parkinson's disease left untreated at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grosset, D; Taurah, L; Burn, D J; MacMahon, D; Forbes, A; Turner, K; Bowron, A; Walker, R; Findley, L; Foster, O; Patel, K; Clough, C; Castleton, B; Smith, S; Carey, G; Murphy, T; Hill, J; Brechany, U; McGee, P; Reading, S; Brand, G; Kelly, L; Breen, K; Ford, S; Baker, M; Williams, A; Hearne, J; Qizilbash, N; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2007-05-01

    The issue of when to start treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. Some favour treatment at diagnosis while others opt for a "wait and watch" policy. The effect of the latter policy on the self reported health status of people with PD is unknown. To record self reported health status through longitudinal use of a validated PD specific questionnaire (PDQ-39) in untreated PD patients in multiple centres in the UK. To compare patients who were left untreated with those who were offered treatment during follow-up. A multicentre, prospective, "real life" observational audit based study addressing patient reported outcomes in relation to self reported health status and other sociodemographic details. 198 untreated PD were assessed over a mean period of 18 months. During two follow-up assessments, the self reported health status scores in all eight domains of the PDQ-39 and the overall PDQ-39 summary index worsened significantly (p<0.01) in patients left untreated. In a comparative group in whom treatment was initiated at or soon after diagnosis, there was a trend towards improvement in self reported health status scores after treatment was started. This study addresses for the first time self reported health status, an indicator of health related quality of life, in untreated PD. The findings may strengthen the call for re-evaluation of the policy to delay treatment in newly diagnosed patients with PD.

  7. A multicentre longitudinal observational study of changes in self reported health status in people with Parkinson's disease left untreated at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, D; Taurah, L; Burn, D J; MacMahon, D; Forbes, A; Turner, K; Bowron, A; Walker, R; Findley, L; Foster, O; Patel, K; Clough, C; Castleton, B; Smith, S; Carey, G; Murphy, T; Hill, J; Brechany, U; McGee, P; Reading, S; Brand, G; Kelly, L; Breen, K; Ford, S; Baker, M; Williams, A; Hearne, J; Qizilbash, N; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2007-01-01

    Background The issue of when to start treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. Some favour treatment at diagnosis while others opt for a “wait and watch” policy. The effect of the latter policy on the self reported health status of people with PD is unknown. Aims To record self reported health status through longitudinal use of a validated PD specific questionnaire (PDQ‐39) in untreated PD patients in multiple centres in the UK. To compare patients who were left untreated with those who were offered treatment during follow‐up. Methods A multicentre, prospective, “real life” observational audit based study addressing patient reported outcomes in relation to self reported health status and other sociodemographic details. Results 198 untreated PD were assessed over a mean period of 18 months. During two follow‐up assessments, the self reported health status scores in all eight domains of the PDQ‐39 and the overall PDQ‐39 summary index worsened significantly (p<0.01) in patients left untreated. In a comparative group in whom treatment was initiated at or soon after diagnosis, there was a trend towards improvement in self reported health status scores after treatment was started. Conclusions This study addresses for the first time self reported health status, an indicator of health related quality of life, in untreated PD. The findings may strengthen the call for re‐evaluation of the policy to delay treatment in newly diagnosed patients with PD. PMID:17098846

  8. Material deprivation and health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Bell, Ruth

    2016-08-08

    Does material deprivation affect the consequences of ill health? Answering this question requires that we move beyond the effects of income. Longitudinal data on material deprivation, longstanding illness and limiting longstanding illness enables investigations of the effects of material deprivation on risk of limiting longstanding illness. This study investigates whether a shift from affording to not affording a car predicts the probability of limiting longstanding ill (LLSI). The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of Statistics on Income, Social Inclusion and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is utilised. Longitudinal fixed effects logit models are applied, using LLSI as dependent variable. Transition from affording a car to not affording a car is used as a proxy for material deprivation. All models are controlled for whether the person becomes longstanding ill (LSI) as well as other time-variant covariates that could affect the results. The analysis shows a statistically significant increased odds ratio of LLSI when individuals no longer can afford a car, after controlling for confounders and LSI in the previous year (1.129, CI = 1.022-1.248). However, when restricting the sample to observations where respondents report longstanding illness the results are no longer significant (1.032, CI = 0.910-1.171). The results indicate an individual level effect of material deprivation on LLSI, suggesting that material resources can affect the consequences of ill health.

  9. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  10. Determinants of health-related quality of life in older primary care patients: results of the longitudinal observational AgeCoDe Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Marion; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luppa, Melanie; Heser, Kathrin; Koppara, Alexander; Mösch, Edelgard; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Hajek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background In older patients with chronic diseases, focusing on subjective, patient-relevant outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is more pertinent than pursuing clinical or laboratory target values. Aim To investigate factors influencing the course of HRQoL in older (aged ≥78 years) primary care patients and to derive non-pharmacological recommendations for improving their quality of life. Design and setting A population-based prospective longitudinal observational study featuring data analysis from waves 2 to 5 of the AgeCoDe study, which was conducted in six cities in Germany. Method The HRQoL of 1968 patients over the course of 4.5 years was observed. Patients were, on average, aged 82.6 (±3.4) years and their HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D visual analogue scale in a face-to-face assessment. Fixed-effects regression models were calculated to examine impact of change in potential influencing factors. This method allows unobserved heterogeneity to be controlled. Results The course of the participants’ HRQoL declined with increasing age, walking and incident hearing impairment. Increasing the number of physical activities improved the HRQoL. These findings were modified by sex, education level, and depression. Especially in females and patients with rather low education levels, increased physical activity improved the subjects’ HRQoL, while hearing impairment decreased it. Moving to an institution only improved the HRQoL in patients without depression or those with a low level of education (primary education). Conclusion Motivating patients to increase their weekly physical activity and to focus on preserving their ability to walk are promising approaches to improving HRQoL in older age. Less-educated patients and those without depression can also benefit from moving into an institution (for example, a care or retirement home). PMID:26500318

  11. Contrasts Between Young Males Dying by Suicide, Those Dying From Other Causes and Those Still Living: Observations From the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, William; Joiner, Thomas; Rosen, Zohn; Silva, Caroline; Mueller, Anna S

    2016-07-02

    Utilizing Add Health longitudinal data, we compared 21 male suicide casualties to 10,101 living respondents identifying suicide correlates. 21 suicide decedents completed surveys in 1994/1995 (Wave 1) and 11 completed at Wave 3; responses were compared with Chi-square and oneway ANOVA tests. Suicide decedents were prone to higher delinquency and fighting at Wave 1, but not at Wave 3. At Wave 1 suicide decedents remained undistinguished from living respondents in depression, self-esteem, and drug uses. Yet, after Wave 3, the 11 respondents dying by suicide showed significantly higher depression, drug use and lower self-esteem. Delinquency trends can readily understood, but more complex causes are needed to account for unexpected changes in self-esteem, depression and drug uses.

  12. Baseline Regularization for Computational Drug Repositioning with Longitudinal Observational Data

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Zhaobin; Thomson, James; Caldwell, Michael; Peissig, Peggy; Stewart, Ron; Page, David

    2016-01-01

    Computational Drug Repositioning (CDR) is the knowledge discovery process of finding new indications for existing drugs leveraging heterogeneous drug-related data. Longitudinal observational data such as Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have become an emerging data source for CDR. To address the high-dimensional, irregular, subject and time-heterogeneous nature of EHRs, we propose Baseline Regularization (BR) and a variant that extend the one-way fixed effect model, which is a standard approach to analyze small-scale longitudinal data. For evaluation, we use the proposed methods to search for drugs that can lower Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level in the Marshfield Clinic EHR. Experimental results suggest that the proposed methods are capable of rediscovering drugs that can lower FBG level as well as identifying some potential blood sugar lowering drugs in the literature.

  13. Impact of smoking on health-related quality of Life after percutaneous coronary intervention treated with drug-eluting stents: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao; Bian, Lin; Xie, Yu Shui; Yin, Zhao Fang; Xu, Zuo Jun; Chen, Qi Zhi; Zhang, Hui Li; Wang, Chang Qian

    2017-01-03

    Smoking has been shown to reduce health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) either by means of balloon angioplasty or with the use of bare-metal stents (BMS). Drug-eluting stents (DES) have now been widely used and are related to substantial reduction of restenosis and significantly improved HRQOL compared with BMS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of smoking on HRQOL in patients after PCI in DES era. A cohort of 649 patients admitted for CAD and treated with drug-eluting stents were included in this prospective, observational study. Patients were classified as non-smokers (n = 351, 54.1%), quitters (n = 126, 19,4%), or persistent smokers (n = 172, 26.5%) according to their smoking status at the time they first admitted to hospital and during the first year of follow-up. Each patient was prospectively interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year following PCI. HRQOL was assessed with the use of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). For the overall population, HRQOL scores at 1-year follow-up were significantly higher than baseline for all 8 domains. At 1-year follow-up, the HRQOL scores in persistent smokers were still lower than that in non-smokers in 6 domains except for bodily pain and mental health, and than that in quitters in 5 domains except for bodily pain, role emotional and mental health. There were no significant differences with regard to the scores between non-smokers and quitters except role emotional for which non-smokers had higher scores. After adjustment, persistent smokers demonstrated significantly less improvements in HRQOL than non-smokers in 6 domains except for bodily pain and social functioning and significantly less improvement than quitters for general health. Improvements of quitters were comparable to that of non-smokers in all domains. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed persistent

  14. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  15. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  16. MIFuzzy Clustering for Incomplete Longitudinal Data in Smart Health

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are common in longitudinal observational and randomized controlled trials in smart health studies. Multiple-imputation based fuzzy clustering is an emerging non-parametric soft computing method, used for either semi-supervised or unsupervised learning. Multiple imputation (MI) has been widely-used in missing data analyses, but has not yet been scrutinized for unsupervised learning methods, although they are important for explaining the heterogeneity of treatment effects. Built upon our previous work on MIfuzzy clustering, this paper introduces the MIFuzzy concepts and performance, theoretically, empirically and numerically demonstrate how MI-based approach can reduce the uncertainty of clustering accuracy in comparison to non- and single-imputation based clustering approach. This paper advances our understanding of the utility and strength of MIFuzzy clustering approach to processing incomplete longitudinal behavioral intervention data.

  17. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations.

  18. Type D personality, mental distress, social support and health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with heart failure: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Burkauskas, Julius; Kazukauskiene, Nijole; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2015-01-22

    The relationship between Type D personality and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in coronary artery disease patients is becoming more established, however, the factors that may explain this association remain unclear. The objective of the study was to examine the mediating effects of mental distress and social support on the relationship between the Type D personality and HRQoL in CAD patients with heart failure. A total of 855 CAD patients with heart failure were assessed on Type D personality, mental distress, perceived social support and HRQoL with the following self-administered questionnaires: the Type D personality scale - 14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. The prevalence of Type D personality within the study population was 33.5%. Type D personality, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms and social support were all found to be determinants of decreased HRQoL (p's < 0.001), once age, gender, NYHA functional class and acute myocardial infarction were adjusted for. Anxiety, depressive symptoms and social support were found to mediate the relationship between Type D personality and HRQoL. Type D personality exerted a stable effect on HRQoL over 24 months follow-up period. Type D personality has an independent significant effect on the HRQoL in CAD patients with heart failure, and this relation is mediated by anxiety and depressive symptoms, social support.

  19. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Martín, Pablo; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Paz, Silvia; Forjaz, Maria João; Frades-Payo, Belén; Cubo, Esther; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Lizán, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL) determined PD costs over a 4-year period. Materials and Methods Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL. Results One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD) age: 63 (11) years, mean (SD) disease duration: 8 (6) years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease). Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD) PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from €2,082.17 (€2,889.86) in year 1 to €4,008.6 (€7,757.35) in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased €75.72 (p = 0.0174); for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented €49.21 (p = 0.0094) and €44.81 (p = 0.0404), respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased €16.31 (p = 0.0228). Conclusions PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses. PMID:26698860

  20. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martín, Pablo; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Paz, Silvia; Forjaz, Maria João; Frades-Payo, Belén; Cubo, Esther; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Lizán, Luis

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL) determined PD costs over a 4-year period. Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL. One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD) age: 63 (11) years, mean (SD) disease duration: 8 (6) years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease). Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD) PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from € 2,082.17 (€ 2,889.86) in year 1 to € 4,008.6 (€ 7,757.35) in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased € 75.72 (p = 0.0174); for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented € 49.21 (p = 0.0094) and € 44.81 (p = 0.0404), respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased € 16.31 (p = 0.0228). PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses.

  1. Estimation methods for marginal and association parameters for longitudinal binary data with nonignorable missing observations.

    PubMed

    Li, Haocheng; Yi, Grace Y

    2013-02-28

    In longitudinal studies, missing observations occur commonly. It has been well known that biased results could be produced if missingness is not properly handled in the analysis. Authors have developed many methods with the focus on either incomplete response or missing covariate observations, but rarely on both. The complexity of modeling and computational difficulty would be the major challenges in handling missingness in both response and covariate variables. In this paper, we develop methods using the pairwise likelihood formulation to handle longitudinal binary data with missing observations present in both response and covariate variables. We propose a unified framework to accommodate various types of missing data patterns. We evaluate the performance of the methods empirically under a variety of circumstances. In particular, we investigate issues on efficiency and robustness. We analyze longitudinal data from the National Population Health Study with the use of our methods.

  2. Observables for longitudinal flow correlations in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiangyong; Huo, Peng; Ma, Guoliang; Nie, Maowu

    2017-07-01

    We propose several new observables/correlators, based on correlations between two or more subevents separated in pseudorapidity η, to study the longitudinal flow fluctuations. We show that these observables are sensitive to the event-by-event fluctuations, as a function of η, of the initial condition as well as the nonlinear mode-mixing effects. Experimental measurement of these observables shall provide important new constraints on the boost-variant event-by-event initial conditions required by all 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics models.

  3. Observables for longitudinal flow correlations in heavy-ion collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Jiangyong; Huo, Peng; Ma, Guoliang; ...

    2017-06-06

    In this paper, we propose several new observables/correlators, based on correlations between two or more subevents separated in pseudorapidity η, to study the longitudinal flow fluctuations. We show that these observables are sensitive to the event-by-event fluctuations, as a function of η, of the initial condition as well as the nonlinear mode-mixing effects. Finally, experimental measurement of these observables shall provide important new constraints on the boost-variant event-by-event initial conditions required by all 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics models.

  4. First observation of the exchange of transverse and longitudinal emittances

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.P.; Koeth, T.; Sun, Y.-E; /Fermilab

    2011-02-01

    An experimental program to demonstrate a novel phase space manipulation in which the horizontal and longitudinal emittances of a particle beam are exchanged has been completed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, consisting of a TM{sub 110} deflecting mode cavity flanked by two horizontally dispersive doglegs has been installed. We report on the first direct observation of transverse and longitudinal emittance exchange: {l_brace}{var_epsilon}{sub x}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub y}{sup n}, {var_epsilon}{sub z}{sup n}{r_brace} = {l_brace} 2.9 {+-} 0.1, 2.4 {+-} 0.1, 13.1 {+-} 1.3{r_brace} {yields} {l_brace}11.3 {+-} 1.1, 2.9 {+-} 0.5, 3.1 {+-} 0.3{r_brace} mm-mrad.

  5. Duration of poverty and child health in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development: longitudinal analysis of a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Louise; Nikiéma, Béatrice; Gauvin, Lise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Xu, Qian

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between duration of poverty and the health of preschool children in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development birth cohort. Data from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development for 1950 children who were followed annually up to age 3 years were analyzed. Poverty was defined as having an income below the low-income cutoff from Statistics Canada. Five health indicators were examined: asthma attacks, infections, growth delay, a cumulative health-problems index, and maternal perception of the child's health. The association between duration of poverty and child health was explored with logistic regression modeling controlling for child and mother characteristics, including the mother's level of education, social support, and physical violence. In this birth cohort, 13.7% (268) 3-year-old children from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development experienced intermittent poverty since birth (1-2 episodes), and another 14.4% (280) experienced chronic poverty (3-4 episodes). Children from families with chronic poverty had more frequent asthma attacks and had a higher cumulative health-problems index score, whereas children with intermittent poverty were more often perceived to be in less than very good health by their mothers. These associations remained statistically significant when controlling for child and mother characteristics. No association was observed between duration of poverty and infections or growth delay. Chronic poverty affects a large number of children and has negative consequences for preschool children's health, although universal health care is available. The effects of chronic poverty may vary according to different health indicators and the age of the child.

  6. Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno

    2004-04-01

    One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale

  7. C/NOFS Observations of Longitudinal Ionospheric Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, O.; Huang, C.; Colman, J. J.; Roddy, P.; Dao, E.; Kelley, M. C.; Crowley, G.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    Launched at a 13 degrees inclination, the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite samples all longitudes during each orbit. C/NOFS is thus ideal for studying how the ionospheric ambient density and scintillation-producing irregularities vary with longitude. Irregularities maximize in frequency and amplitude in the America to Africa sector. It has been suggested that waves generated by tropospheric convection propagate upward and launch secondary waves that are responsible for triggering the instability that gives rise to equatorial plasma bubbles. Lightning frequency can be used as a proxy for tropospheric convection regions. We thus examine the possibility that the longitudinal variability is related to the occurrence of lightning, since the frequency of lightning in the equatorial regions is largest in Africa and then South America. We also present simultaneous data from C/NOFS and from the TID Detector Built in Texas (TIDDBIT) system newly installed in Peru. The purpose is to investigate a possible relationship between C/NOFS ionospheric irregularities and the waves observed below the F-peak by TIDDBIT. C/NOFS can also be used to investigate longitudinal changes in the ambient density. For example, as the solar cycle increased, the F-peak height increased. Close to perigee (400 km), C/NOFS was often below the F-peak. Preliminary analysis suggests that the F-peak altitude varies with longitude and is highest in the America to Africa sector.

  8. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  9. The Health Assessment Longitudinal File imperative: foundation for improving the health of the force.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Judith A; Donahue, Donald A; Harris, Judith S

    2003-08-01

    A smaller active duty force and an increased operational tempo have made the Reserve components (RC) essential elements in the accomplishment of the mission of the U.S. Army. One critical factor in meeting mission is maintaining the optimal health of each soldier. Baseline health data about the RC is currently not being collected, even though increasing numbers of reserve soldiers are being activated. The Annual Health Certification and Survey is being developed as a way to meet the RCs' statutory requirement for annual certification of health while at the same time generating and tracking baseline data on each reservist in a longitudinal health file, the Health Assessment Longitudinal File. This article discusses the Annual Health Certification Questionnaire/Health Assessment Longitudinal File, which will greatly enhance the Army's ability to accurately certify the health status of the RC and track health in relation to training, mission activities, and deployment.

  10. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  11. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  12. Impact of Health Literacy on Longitudinal Asthma Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Carol A; Rincon, Melina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impact of health literacy on longitudinal asthma outcomes is not known. OBJECTIVES To measure the association between health literacy and asthma outcomes and to assess how health literacy affects outcomes through covariates. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort. PATIENTS One hundred and seventy-five adult asthma patients. MEASUREMENTS Independent variables measured at enrollment included demographic and asthma characteristics, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and asthma knowledge. Health literacy was measured with the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcomes were Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and SF-36 scores and emergency department utilization for asthma measured every 3 to 6 months for 2 years. The effects of health literacy on outcomes and interactions between health literacy and covariates were measured with multivariable models. RESULTS The mean age of study participants was 42 years, and 83% were women. Less health literacy was associated with worse quality of life, worse physical function, and more emergency department utilization for asthma over 2 years (P ≤.05 for all comparisons). In multivariable analysis, health literacy did not remain statistically significant with any of the outcomes. Although the magnitude of its effect on emergency department utilization remained relatively intact, its effects on quality of life and functional status became attenuated with the sequential addition of covariates, particularly asthma knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Less health literacy was associated with poor longitudinal asthma outcomes. This relationship was both direct and indirect through effects on other independent variables, particularly patients' knowledge of asthma and self-management. Efforts to improve asthma outcomes should focus on improving literacy skills that are required to learn, understand, and implement effective self-management. PMID:16881939

  13. A Model Longitudinal Observation Medicine Curriculum for an Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Matthew; Baugh, Christopher; Osborne, Anwar; Clark, Carol; Shayne, Philip; Ross, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The role of observation services for emergency department patients has increased in recent years. Driven by changing health care practices and evolving payer policies, many hospitals in the United States currently have or are developing an observation unit (OU) and emergency physicians are most often expected to manage patients in this setting. Yet, few residency programs dedicate a portion of their clinical curriculum to observation medicine. This knowledge set should be integrated into the core training curriculum of emergency physicians. Presented here is a model observation medicine longitudinal training curriculum, which can be integrated into an emergency medicine (EM) residency. It was developed by a consensus of content experts representing the observation medicine interest group and observation medicine section, respectively, from EM's two major specialty societies: the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). The curriculum consists of didactic, clinical, and self-directed elements. It is longitudinal, with learning objectives for each year of training, focusing initially on the basic principles of observation medicine and appropriate observation patient selection; moving to the management of various observation appropriate conditions; and then incorporating further concepts of OU management, billing, and administration. This curriculum is flexible and designed to be used in both academic and community EM training programs within the United States. Additionally, scholarly opportunities, such as elective rotations and fellowship training, are explored.

  14. Procedural justice and prisoners' mental health problems: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  16. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  17. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  18. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  19. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  20. Microscopic observations during longitudinal compression loading of single pulp fibers

    Treesearch

    Irving B. Sachs

    1986-01-01

    Paperboard components (linerboard adn corrugating medium) fail in edgewise compression because of failure of single fibers, as well as fiber-to-fiber bonds. While fiber-to-fiber-bond failure has been studied extensively, little is known about the longitudinal compression failure of a single fiber. In this study, surface alterations on single loblolly pine kraft pulp...

  1. Effects of self-rated health on sick leave, disability pension, hospital admissions and mortality. A population-based longitudinal study of nearly 15,000 observations among Swedish women and men.

    PubMed

    Halford, Christina; Wallman, Thorne; Welin, Lennart; Rosengren, Annika; Bardel, Annika; Johansson, Saga; Eriksson, Henry; Palmer, Ed; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2012-12-22

    Simple global self-ratings of health (SRH) have become increasingly used in national and international public health monitoring, and in recent decades recommended as a standard part of health surveys. Monitoring developments in population health requires identification and use of health measures, valid in relation to targets for population health. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between SRH and sick leave, disability pension, hospital admissions, and mortality, adjusted for effects of significant covariates, in a large population-based cohort. The analyses were based on screening data from eight population-based cohorts in southern and central Sweden, and on official register data regarding sick-leave, disability pension, hospital admissions, and death, with little or no data loss. Sampling was performed 1973-2003. The study population consisted of 11,880 women and men, age 25-99 years, providing 14,470 observations. Information on SRH, socio-demographic data, lifestyle variables and somatic and psychological symptoms were obtained from questionnaires. There was a significant negative association between SRH and sick leave (Beta -13.2, p<0.0001, and -9.5, p<0.01, in women and men, respectively), disability pension (Hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.0001 and 0.76, p<0.0001, in women and men, respectively), and mortality, adjusted for covariates. SRH was also significantly associated with hospital admissions in men (Hazard ratio 0.87, p<0.0001), but not in women (Hazard ratio 0.96, p0.20). Associations between SRH on the one hand, and sick leave, disability pension, hospital admission, and mortality, on the other, were robust during the follow-up period. SRH had strong predictive validity in relation to use of social insurance facilities and health care services, and to mortality. Associations were strong and robust during follow-up.

  2. Resilience Mediates the Longitudinal Relationships Between Social Support and Mental Health Outcomes in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koelmel, Emily; Hughes, Abbey J; Alschuler, Kevin N; Ehde, Dawn M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine resilience as a mediator between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in this population. Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were assessed at 4 time points over 12 months in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Telephone-based measures administered to community-based participants. Individuals (N=163) with MS and 1 or more of the following symptoms: depression, fatigue, and pain. Not applicable. Mental health outcomes included (1) depressive symptomatology, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (2) anxious symptomatology, assessed using the short form of the Emotional Distress-Anxiety Scale from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; and (3) general mental health status, assessed using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short Form-8 Health Survey. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. At any given time, social support from significant others, family members, and friends was significantly associated with subsequent mental health outcomes for all 3 measures assessed (all P values <.05). Resilience measured concomitantly with social support significantly mediated the relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes. After controlling for resilience, most of the direct relationships between social support and mental health outcomes were no longer significant. There are significant longitudinal relationships between social support, resilience, and mental health outcomes for people with MS. Given the mediating role of resilience in supporting better mental health outcomes, future clinical research and practice may benefit from an emphasis on resilience-focused psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Data

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally-representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the U.S. in 1994-95 who have been followed for fifteen years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including siblings pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community. PMID:23231780

  4. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling pairs data.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community.

  5. Force Health Protection: the mission and political context of the longitudinal health record.

    PubMed

    Collmann, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Drawing upon an extensive search of publically available literature and discussions at the "National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," this article documents the evolving mission and political context of the longitudinal health record (LHR) as an instrument for Force Health Protection (FHP). Because of the Gulf War syndrome controversy, the Department of Defense (DoD) launched an ambitious, complex series of programs designed to create a comprehensive, integrated defense health surveillance capability to assure FHP and keep faith with the American people. This "system of systems" includes individual component systems to perform specific functions such as disease surveillance, battlefield assessment, and patient care and consolidates these diverse types of information into centrally accessible archives that serve the interests of occupational health, preventive medicine, medical strategic planning, and longitudinal patient health care. After 25 years of effort and major accomplishments, progress toward a LHR remains uneven and controversy persists.

  6. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  7. Mental health problems of homeless children and families: longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vostanis, Panos; Grattan, Eleanor; Cumella, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To establish the mental health needs of homeless children and families before and after rehousing. Design: Cross sectional, longitudinal study. Setting: City of Birmingham. Subjects: 58 rehoused families with 103 children aged 2-16 years and 21 comparison families of low socioeconomic status in stable housing, with 54 children. Main outcome measures: Children’s mental health problems and level of communication; mothers’ mental health problems and social support one year after rehousing. Results: Mental health problems remained significantly higher in rehoused mothers and their children than in the comparison group (mothers 26% v 5%, P=0.04; children 39% v 11%, P=0.0003). Homeless mothers continued to have significantly less social support at follow up. Mothers with a history of abuse and poor social integration were more likely to have children with persistent mental health problems. Conclusions: Homeless families have a high level of complex needs that cannot be met by conventional health services and arrangements. Local strategies for rapid rehousing into permanent accommodation, effective social support and health care for parents and children, and protection from violence and intimidation should be developed and implemented. Key messages Homeless children and their mothers have a high level of mental health problems Homeless families experience many risk factors, such as domestic violence, abuse, and family and social disruption In two fifths of children and a quarter of mothers, mental health problems persisted after rehousing In contrast with a comparison group of families of low socioeconomic status, a substantial proportion of homeless families remained residentially and socially unstable PMID:9552837

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jens-Oliver; Hajek, André; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Matschinger, Herbert; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schöttker, Ben; Quinzler, Renate; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-06-01

    To investigate factors affecting willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance of older adults in a longitudinal setting in Germany. Survey data from a cohort study in Saarland, Germany, from 2008-2010 and 2011-2014 (n1  = 3,124; n2  = 2,761) were used. Panel data were taken at two points from an observational, prospective cohort study. WTP estimates were derived using a contingent valuation method with a payment card. Participants provided data on sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, morbidity, and health care utilization. Fixed effects regression models showed higher individual health care costs to increase WTP, which in particular could be found for members of private health insurance. Changes in income and morbidity did not affect WTP among members of social health insurance, whereas these predictors affected WTP among members of private health insurance. The fact that individual health care costs affected WTP positively might indicate that demanding (expensive) health care services raises the awareness of the benefits of health insurance. Thus, measures to increase WTP in old age should target at improving transparency of the value of health insurances at the moment when individual health care utilization and corresponding costs are still relatively low. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  12. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-03-17

    Higher income neighborhoods are associated with better health, a relation observed in many cross-sectional studies. However, prior research focused on the prevalence of health conditions, and examining the incidence of new health conditions may provide stronger support for a potential causal role of neighborhoods on health. We used the 2004 and 2014 waves of the Midlife in the United States Study (n = 1726; ages 34-83) to examine health condition incidence as a function of neighborhood income. Among participants who had lived in the same neighborhood across the time period, we hypothesized that higher neighborhood income would be associated with a lower incidence of health conditions ten years later. Health included 18 chronic conditions related to mental (anxiety, depression) and physical (cardiovascular, immune) health. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual income and sociodemographics indicated that the odds of developing two or more new health conditions (no new health conditions as referent), was significantly lower (OR = 0.92, CI: 0.86, 0.99) for every $10,000 increment in neighborhood income. Associations did not vary by age or neighborhood tenure. Results add to a literature documenting that higher neighborhood income is associated with better health.

  13. Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

  14. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  15. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  16. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  17. Instrumental variables and inverse probability weighting for causal inference from longitudinal observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Joseph W; Lancaster, Tony

    2004-02-01

    Inferring causal effects from longitudinal repeated measures data has high relevance to a number of areas of research, including economics, social sciences and epidemiology. In observational studies in particular, the treatment receipt mechanism is typically not under the control of the investigator; it can depend on various factors, including the outcome of interest. This results in differential selection into treatment levels, and can lead to selection bias when standard routines such as least squares regression are used to estimate causal effects. Interestingly, both the characterization of and methodology for handling selection bias can differ substantially by disciplinary tradition. In social sciences and economics, instrumental variables (IV) is the standard method for estimating linear and nonlinear models in which the error term may be correlated with an observed covariate. When such correlation is not ruled out, the covariate is called endogenous and least squares estimates of the covariate effect are typically biased. The availability of an instrumental variable can be used to reduce or eliminate the bias. In public health and clinical medicine (e.g., epidemiology and biostatistics), selection bias is typically viewed in terms of confounders, and the prevailing methods are geared toward making proper adjustments via explicit use of observed confounders (e.g., stratification, standardization). A class of methods known as inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimators, which relies on modeling selection in terms of confounders, is gaining in popularity for making such adjustments. Our objective is to review and compare IPW and IV for estimating causal treatment effects from longitudinal data, where the treatment may vary with time. We accomplish this by defining the causal estimands in terms of a linear stochastic model of potential outcomes (counterfactuals). Our comparison includes a review of terminology typically used in discussions of causal inference

  18. Longitudinal shower development and its signature at observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, V. R.; Bhat, P. N.

    2002-03-01

    From a study of Cverenkov photon arrival times at various core distances at the observation level it has already been established that the photon front is well fitted with a spherical surface traveling at the speed of light and originating from a fixed point on the shower axis. The radius of curvature as measured at the observation level has been found to be roughly equal to the height of shower maximum from the observation level. In the present work we study the relationship between the radius of curvature of the shower fromt (R), the height of electron maximum (he), the Cverenkov photon maximum (hCv) and the average production height of Cverenkov photons (h-). Cverenkov pulse width (w) has always ben used as a parameter to study cascade development especially at tens of PeV energies. We discuss the relation between the w and he at TeV energies for gamma-ray and proton primaries.

  19. Longitudinal correlated changes in conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W; Jackson, Joshua J; Roberts, Brent W

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Longitudinal Correlated Changes in Conscientiousness, Preventative Health-related Behaviors, and Self-perceived Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Edmonds, Grant W.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Roberts, Brent W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical health. Method Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately 3 years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self-perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self-perceived physical health. Conclusion This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3-year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health-related behaviors are associated with improvements in self-perceived health over the same time period. PMID:23072269

  1. Music Acquisition of Children in Rural Zimbabwe: A Longitudinal Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutzer, Natalie Jones

    2001-01-01

    This article provides qualitative description of behaviors that bring children to musical competence by age 5 in Nharira Communal Lands in Zimbabwe. Based on observation of three villages comprised of multiple extended family groups, the narrative focuses on area demographics, the community's people, musical influences, musical interactions of…

  2. Dysphonia in extremely preterm children: A longitudinal observation.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2016-12-01

    Dysphonia is a potential long-term complication of preterm birth. Childhood voice disorders caused by vocal hyperfunction resolve with pubertal changes to the vocal mechanism in many cases. In extremely preterm children, whose voice quality is affected by supraglottic hyperfunction adapted secondary to underlying structural laryngeal pathology sustained during neonatal intubation, the prognosis is unknown. A pilot study was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of dysphonia in children born at < 25 weeks' gestation. Ten individuals, aged between 9.67 and 17.08 years, presented for repeat assessment in a replication and extension of the original study. The mean period between assessments was 2.85 (SD 0.38) years. The primary outcome measure was the severity score on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), with the Acoustic Voice Quality Index score as the secondary outcome measure. Scores on the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index were also compared. Perceptual dysphonia severity scores were significantly lower on repeat assessment, but no differences were observed in objective or quality of life scores. Individual variation was observed: the difference in CAPE-V scores ranged from -36 to + 1. No participant presented with normal voice quality on repeat assessment. Analysis of group data masked individual variability in this series. Mechanisms underlying such individual variation are currently unknown. These data suggest that dysphonia is persistent in extremely preterm children. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the progression of voice disorders in extremely preterm children, to inform prognostic predictors and treatment decisions.

  3. Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U. S.; Pushpakumara, T. V.; Weerakoon, Devaka K.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species’ remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11–60), averaging between 0.13–0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings. PMID:24376581

  4. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  5. Longitudinal observation of electroencephalograms in the Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A; Inoue, Y; Sasaki, H; Fukuyama, Y

    1989-01-01

    The long-term electroencephalographical observations were documented during the course of the Rett syndrome in 8 patients. The abnormal EEG findings changed with age and the clinical stage. In the premonitory stage (birth-1.5 years of age), EEG seemed to be normal. In the acute exacerbation stage (1.5-5 years old), occipital dominant alpha wave-like activity was characteristic and persisted for a few years, but it disappeared afterwards along with the seizure activity. At around 4 years of age, when the whole spectrum of symptoms manifested, the EEG background activity in the waking stage showed higher amplitude, lower frequency and more irregular than normal. Sleep spindles were hardly observed, while frequent seizure activity was found on sleep EEG. Before the onset of epileptic attacks, paroxysmal discharges, such as diffuse spike-and-wave complexes, were noted during sleep recordings. In the chronic stage (after age 6), a monotonous theta rhythm (MTR), which was not influenced by either opening or closing of the eyes but attenuated only by a big noise or strong pain stimuli, characteristically dominated the waking tracing. The MTR was generalized over both hemispheres. After age 20, the MTR tended to be more localized to the centro-parietal area. This suggests that a reduction in responsiveness to visual and other stimuli occurs in this disease, which may be attributable to a dysfunction of the reticular activating system in the brainstem.

  6. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  7. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Hospital Contributions to the Delivery of Public Health Activities in US Metropolitan Areas: National and Longitudinal Trends

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Glen P.; Mamaril, Cezar B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated changes in hospital participation in local public health systems and the delivery of public health activities over time and assessed the relationship between hospital participation and the scope of activities available in local public health systems. Methods. We used longitudinal observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems to examine how hospital contributions to the delivery of core public health activities varied in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We then used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between the level of hospital contributions and the overall availability of public health activities in the system. Results. Hospital participation in public health activities increased from 37% in 1998 to 41% in 2006 and down to 39% in 2012. Regression results indicated a positive association between hospital participation in public health activities and the total availability of public health services in the systems. Conclusions. Hospital collaboration does play an important role in the overall availability of public health services in local public health systems. Efforts to increase hospital participation in public health may have a positive impact on the scope of services provided and population health in US communities. PMID:26066929

  9. Hospital Contributions to the Delivery of Public Health Activities in US Metropolitan Areas: National and Longitudinal Trends.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Rachel A; Mays, Glen P; Mamaril, Cezar B

    2015-08-01

    We investigated changes in hospital participation in local public health systems and the delivery of public health activities over time and assessed the relationship between hospital participation and the scope of activities available in local public health systems. We used longitudinal observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems to examine how hospital contributions to the delivery of core public health activities varied in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We then used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between the level of hospital contributions and the overall availability of public health activities in the system. Hospital participation in public health activities increased from 37% in 1998 to 41% in 2006 and down to 39% in 2012. Regression results indicated a positive association between hospital participation in public health activities and the total availability of public health services in the systems. Hospital collaboration does play an important role in the overall availability of public health services in local public health systems. Efforts to increase hospital participation in public health may have a positive impact on the scope of services provided and population health in US communities.

  10. The association between green space and mental health varies across the lifecourse. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Mitchell, Richard; Hartig, Terry

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on green space and health have relied almost exclusively on cross-sectional designs, restricting understanding on how this relationship could vary across the lifecourse. We used multilevel linear regression to analyse variation in minor psychiatric morbidity over nine annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1996-2004). The sample was restricted to residents of urban areas who remained within their neighbourhoods for at least 12 months. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire and confounders were reported for 29 626 male and 35 781 female observations (person-years). This individual-level dataset was linked to a measure of green space availability within each ward of residence. Regression models included age, gender, employment status, household tenure, marital status, education, smoking status and household income. When not considering age, green space was associated with better mental health among men, but not women. Interaction terms fitted between age and green space revealed variation in the association between green space and mental health across the lifecourse and by gender. For men, the benefit of more green space emerged in early to mid-adulthood. Among older women, a curvilinear association materialised wherein those with a moderate availability of green space had better mental health. These findings illustrate how the relationship between urban green space and health can vary across the lifecourse, and they highlight the need for longitudinal studies to answer why green space may be better for health at some points in the lifecourse than others.

  11. Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Karin S.; Hirschstein, Miriam K.; Edstrom, Leihua V.; Snell, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal extension of a random control trial of the Steps to Respect antibullying program. Students in Grades 3-5 were surveyed (n = 624) and observed on the playground (n = 360). Growth curve models of intervention students showed 2-year declines in playground bullying, victimization, nonbullying aggression, destructive…

  12. Identifying Priorities for Mental Health Interventions in War-Affected Youth: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Gilman, Stephen E; Brennan, Robert T; Zahn, Ista; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2015-08-01

    War-affected youth often suffer from multiple co-occurring mental health problems. These youth often live in low-resource settings where it may be infeasible to provide mental health services that simultaneously address all of these co-occurring mental health issues. It is therefore important to identify the areas where targeted interventions would do the most good. This analysis uses observational data from 3 waves of a longitudinal study on mental health in a sample of 529 war-affected youth (24.2% female; ages 10-17 at T1, 2002) in Sierra Leone. We regressed 4 mental health outcomes at T3 (2008) on internalizing (depression/anxiety) and externalizing (hostility/aggression) problems and prosocial attitudes/behaviors and community variables at T2 (2004) controlling for demographics, war exposures, and previous mental health scores at T1, allowing us to assess the relative impact of potential mental health intervention targets in shaping mental health outcomes over time. Controlling for baseline covariates at T1 and all other exposures/potential intervention targets at T2, we observed a significant association between internalizing problems at T2 and 3 of the 4 outcomes at T3: internalizing (β = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.42), prosocial attitudes (β = -0.20, 95% CI: -0.33 to -0.07) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (β = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.02-0.43). No other potential intervention target had similar substantial effects. Reductions in internalizing may have multiple benefits for other mental health outcomes at a later point in time, even after controlling for confounding variables. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Kim, HeeChel; Chun, Hong-Woo; Kim, Seonho; Coh, Byoung-Youl; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Moon, Yeong-Ho

    2017-08-30

    The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country's population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure). The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical "big data"-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  14. Religious Music and Health in Late Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    Listening to religious music is often an important part of religious life. Yet there has been little empirical research on it. The purpose of this study is to test a conceptual model that specifies one way in which religious music may be associated with change in health over time. This model contains the following core relationships: (1) people who attend worship services more often will have stronger emotional reactions to religious music; (2) individuals who are more emotionally involved in religious music will be more likely to feel a close sense of connectedness with other people; (3) people who feel more closely connected with others will be more hopeful about the future; and (4) individuals who feel more hopeful will be more likely to rate their health in a favorably over time. The data provide support for each of these relationships. Significant variations by race were also observed in the findings. PMID:24363543

  15. Regression modeling of longitudinal data with outcome-dependent observation times: extensions and comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kay See; French, Benjamin; Troxel, Andrea B

    2014-11-30

    Conventional longitudinal data analysis methods assume that outcomes are independent of the data-collection schedule. However, the independence assumption may be violated, for example, when a specific treatment necessitates a different follow-up schedule than the control arm or when adverse events trigger additional physician visits in between prescheduled follow-ups. Dependence between outcomes and observation times may introduce bias when estimating the marginal association of covariates on outcomes using a standard longitudinal regression model. We formulate a framework of outcome-observation dependence mechanisms to describe conditional independence given observed observation-time process covariates or shared latent variables. We compare four recently developed semi-parametric methods that accommodate one of these mechanisms. To allow greater flexibility, we extend these methods to accommodate a combination of mechanisms. In simulation studies, we show how incorrectly specifying the outcome-observation dependence may yield biased estimates of covariate-outcome associations and how our proposed extensions can accommodate a greater number of dependence mechanisms. We illustrate the implications of different modeling strategies in an application to bladder cancer data. In longitudinal studies with potentially outcome-dependent observation times, we recommend that analysts carefully explore the conditional independence mechanism between the outcome and observation-time processes to ensure valid inference regarding covariate-outcome associations.

  16. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  17. Longitudinal Study of a Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Junmei; Qin, Yi; Gao, Miaomiao; Hai, Man

    2017-01-01

    By incorporating psychopathology and subjective well-being (SWB), the dual-factor model of mental health (DFM) can comprehensively measure psychological health. We examined the utility of the DFM among 1,293 Chinese adolescents (Grades 7-12). Furthermore, we examined the dynamics of mental health group membership via a two-wave longitudinal study…

  18. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  19. Accounting for the dead in the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Dennis; Allanson, Paul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an accounting framework to consider the effect of deaths on the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities. Ignoring deaths or using Inverse Probability Weights (IPWs) to re-weight the sample for mortality-related attrition can produce misleading results. Incorporating deaths into the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities provides a more complete picture in terms of the evaluation of health changes in respect to socioeconomic status. We illustrate our work by investigating health mobility from 1999 till 2004 using the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We show that for Scottish males explicitly accounting for the dead rather than using IPWs to account for mortality-related attrition changes the direction of the relationship between relative health changes and initial income position, from negative to positive, while for other groups it significantly increases the strength of the positive relationship. Incorporating the dead may be vital in the longitudinal analysis of health inequalities. PMID:21820193

  20. Predictors of Dental Care Use: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I.; Visotcky, Alexis (Dye); Szabo, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine longitudinal trends and associated factors in dental service utilization by adolescents progressing to early adulthood in the United States. Data Source The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health from Waves I (1994-95), II (1996), III (2001-2002) and IV (2007-2008). Study Design This is a retrospective, observational study of adolescents' transition to early adulthood. We obtained descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression analyses to identify the effects of baseline and concurrent covariates on dental service utilization from adolescence to early adulthood over time. Principal Findings Dental service utilization within the prior 12 months peaked at age 16 (72%), gradually decreased until age 21 (57%), and thereafter remained flat. Whites and Asians had a 10-20 percentage points higher proportion of dental service utilization at most ages compared to Blacks and Hispanics. Dental service utilization at later follow-up visits was strongly associated with baseline utilization with OR= 10.7, 2.4 and 1.5 at the 1-year, 7-year and 13-year follow-ups respectively. These effects decreased when adjusted for current income, insurance and education. Compared to Whites, Blacks were consistently less likely to report any dental examination. Conclusion Dental service utilization was highest in adolescents. Gender, education, health insurance and income in young adulthood were significant predictors of reporting a dental examination. Blacks had lower odds of reporting a dental examination either as adolescents or as young adults. PMID:23850156

  1. Trait body shame predicts health outcomes in college women: A longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Jean M

    2015-12-01

    Trait body shame impacts psychological health, but its influence on physical health heretofore has not been examined. While body shame may be expected to impact physical health through many mechanisms, this investigation tested whether trait body shame predicts physical health outcomes by promoting negative attitudes toward bodily processes, thereby diminishing health evaluation and ultimately impacting physical health. Correlational (Study 1, N = 177) and longitudinal (Study 2, N = 141) studies tested hypotheses that trait body shame would predict infections, self-rated health, and symptoms, and that body responsiveness and health evaluation would mediate these relationships. In Study 1, trait body shame predicted all three poor health outcomes, and body responsiveness and health evaluation mediated these relationships. Study 2 partially replicated these results while controlling for depression, smoking, and BMI, and longitudinal analyses supported the temporal precedence of trait body shame in the proposed model. Limitations and alternative pathways are discussed.

  2. Longitudinal associations of health-related behavior patterns in adolescence with change of weight status and self-rated health over a period of 6 years: results of the MoMo longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Schmocker, Eliane; Woll, Alexander

    2014-09-30

    Promoting a healthy lifestyle especially in adolescents is important because health-related behaviors adopted during adolescence most often track into adulthood. Longitudinal studies are necessary for identifying health-related risk groups of adolescents and defining target groups for health-promoting interventions. Multiple health behavior research may represent a useful approach towards a better understanding of the complexity of health-related behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association of health-related behavior patterns with change of weight status and self-rated health in adolescents in Germany. Within the framework of the longitudinal German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) and the Motorik-Modul (MoMo), four clusters of typical health-related behavior patterns of adolescents have been previously identified. Therefor the variables 'physical activity', 'media use' and 'healthy nutrition' were included. In the current study longitudinal change of objectively measured weight status (N = 556) and self-rated health (N = 953) in the four clusters was examined. Statistical analyses comprised T-tests for paired samples, McNemar tests, multinomial logistic regression analysis and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The prevalence of overweight increased in all four clusters. The health-related behavior pattern of low activity level with high media use and low diet quality had the strongest increase in prevalence of overweight, while the smallest and non-significant increase was found with the behavior pattern of a high physical activity level and average media use and diet quality. Only some significant relationships between health-related behaviour patterns and change in self-rated health were observed. High-risk patterns of health-related behavior were identified. Further, cumulative as well as compensatory effects of different health-related behaviors on each other were found. The

  3. Longitudinal muscle of the esophagus: its role in esophageal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2013-07-01

    The muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. The function of the longitudinal muscle and its role in bolus propulsion are not clear. The goal of this review is to summarize what is known of the role of the longitudinal muscle in health, as well as in sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging reveal that, during peristalsis, the two muscle layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the contrary, during transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, longitudinal muscle contracts independent of the circular muscle. Recent studies have provided novel insights into the role of the longitudinal muscle in LES relaxation and descending relaxation of the esophagus. In certain diseases (e.g. some motility disorders of the esophagus), there is discoordination between the two muscle layers, which likely plays an important role in the genesis of dysphagia and delayed esophageal emptying. There is close temporal correlation between prolonged contractions of the longitudinal muscles of the esophagus and esophageal 'angina-like' pain. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are reviewed. Longitudinal muscles of the esophagus play a key role in the physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Neuro-pharmacologic controls of circular and longitudinal muscle are different, which provides an opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies in the treatment of esophageal sensory and motor disorders.

  4. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  5. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi*

    PubMed Central

    Myroniuk, Tyler W.; Anglewicz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health or vice-versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined and little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15–80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age, and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. PMID:26646745

  6. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Myroniuk, Tyler W; Anglewicz, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health and/or vice versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined. Little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2,328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15 to 80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians.

  7. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Trajectories of mental health over 16 years amongst young adult women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. The effects of workplace flexibility on health behaviors: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Casey, Patrick R; Jones, Fiona A

    2007-12-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between workplace flexibility and health behaviors, and estimate the potential importance of flexibility for effective worksite health promotion programs. Cross-sectional and longitudinal health risk appraisal data were obtained from US based employees of a multinational pharmaceutical company (n = 3193). Examined health behaviors were hours of sleep, physical activity frequency, health education seminar attendance, frequency of practicing personal resilience techniques, and self-appraised lifestyle. Self-reported flexibility in the workplace was the primary independent variable. Each health behavior, except regular attendance in health education seminars, was positively related to perceived flexibility in cross-sectional analyses. Sleep and self-appraised lifestyle were significantly related to changes in perceived flexibility over time. Workplace flexibility may contribute to positive lifestyle behaviors, and may play an important role in effective worksite health promotion programs.

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Access to Health Care by Immigrant Status among Older Adults: The Importance of Health Insurance as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Access to Health Care by Immigrant Status among Older Adults: The Importance of Health Insurance as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…

  12. Independent early predictors of mortality in polytrauma patients: a prospective, observational, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Luiz Guilherme V.; Carmona, Maria José C.; Malbouisson, Luiz M.; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha-Filho, Joel Avancini; Cardoso, Ricardo Galesso; Auler-Junior, José Otávio C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Trauma is an important public health issue and associated with substantial socioeconomic impacts and major adverse clinical outcomes. No single study has previously investigated the predictors of mortality across all stages of care (pre-hospital, emergency room, surgical center and intensive care unit) in a general trauma population. This study was designed to identify early predictors of mortality in severely injured polytrauma patients across all stages of care to provide a better understanding of the physiologic changes and mechanisms by which to improve care in this population. METHODS: A longitudinal, prospective, observational study was conducted between 2010 and 2013 in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients submitted to high-energy trauma were included. Exclusion criteria were as follows: injury severity score <16, <18 years old or insufficient data. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at four time points: pre-hospital, emergency room, and 3 and 24 hours after hospital admission. The primary outcome assessed was mortality within 30 days. Data were analyzed using tests of association as appropriate, nonparametric analysis of variance and generalized estimating equation analysis (p<0.05). ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01669577. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included. Independent early predictors of mortality were as follows: arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001), lactate level (p<0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale score (p<0.001), infused crystalloid volume (p<0.015) and presence of traumatic brain injury (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation, diastolic blood pressure, lactate level, Glasgow Coma Scale, infused crystalloid volume and presence of traumatic brain injury are independent early mortality predictors. PMID:28954004

  13. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  14. A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

  15. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  16. Predicting longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities with random-effects multinomial logit regression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian; Engel, Charles C

    2012-12-20

    Researchers often encounter longitudinal health data characterized with three or more ordinal or nominal categories. Random-effects multinomial logit models are generally applied to account for potential lack of independence inherent in such clustered data. When parameter estimates are used to describe longitudinal processes, however, random effects, both between and within individuals, need to be retransformed for correctly predicting outcome probabilities. This study attempts to go beyond existing work by developing a retransformation method that derives longitudinal growth trajectories of unbiased health probabilities. We estimated variances of the predicted probabilities by using the delta method. Additionally, we transformed the covariates' regression coefficients on the multinomial logit function, not substantively meaningful, to the conditional effects on the predicted probabilities. The empirical illustration uses the longitudinal data from the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old. Our analysis compared three sets of the predicted probabilities of three health states at six time points, obtained from, respectively, the retransformation method, the best linear unbiased prediction, and the fixed-effects approach. The results demonstrate that neglect of retransforming random errors in the random-effects multinomial logit model results in severely biased longitudinal trajectories of health probabilities as well as overestimated effects of covariates on the probabilities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Developing longitudinal qualitative designs: lessons learned and recommendations for health services research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative study. Results Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time; recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients, and analyzing data within and across time. Conclusions As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting conditions. PMID:23388075

  18. Genetic testing for inherited heart diseases: longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; O'Brien, Lisa; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-05-03

    Purpose:A genetic diagnosis is an extremely useful tool in the management and care of families with inherited heart diseases, particularly in allowing clarification of risk status of asymptomatic family members. The psychosocial consequences of genetic testing in this group are poorly understood. This longitudinal pilot study sought to determine changes in health-related quality of life in patients and asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for inherited heart diseases.Methods:Individuals attending two specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinics in Australia were invited to participate. Patients undergoing proband or predictive genetic testing for an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder were eligible. The Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (version 2) was administered before the genetic result was given, and follow-up surveys were completed 1-3, 6, and 12 months after the result was given.Results:A total of 54 individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and long QT syndrome completed baseline and at least one follow-up survey, including 33 probands and 21 asymptomatic relatives. Physical and mental component scores analyzed at baseline and 1-3 months were found to be unchanged in all groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed up to 12 months after result.Conclusion:In this longitudinal pilot study, no change in health-related quality of life was observed up to 12 months after the result was given in patients and their asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for an inherited heart disease.Genet Med 2012 advance online publication 3 May 2012.

  19. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    PubMed

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  20. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew F.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between the number of doctors, nurses and hospital beds per 10,000 people and individual HIV-infected patient outcomes in Botswana. Design Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 97,627 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. Doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density data at district-level were collected from various sources. Methods A multilevel, longitudinal analysis method was used to analyze the data at both patient- and district-level simultaneously to measure the impact of the health system input at district-level on probability of death or loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) at the individual level. A marginal structural model was used to account for LTFU over time. Results Increasing doctor density from one doctor to two doctors per 10,000 population decreased the predicted probability of death for each patient by 27%. Nurse density changes from 20 nurses to 25 nurses decreased the predicted probability of death by 28%. Nine percent decrease was noted in predicted mortality of an individual in the Masa program for every five hospital bed density increase. Conclusion Considerable variation was observed in doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density across health districts. Predictive margins of mortality and LTFU were inversely correlated with doctor, nurse and hospital bed density. The doctor density had much greater impact than nurse or bed density on mortality or LTFU of individual patients. While long-term investment in training more healthcare professionals should be made, redistribution of available doctors and nurses can be a feasible solution in the short term. PMID:27490477

  1. Outcomes trajectories in children with epilepsy: hypotheses and methodology of a Canadian longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Gabriel M; Streiner, David L; Boyle, Michael H; Cunningham, Charles E; Lach, Lucyna; Verhey, Leonard H; Fayed, Nora; Chen, Karen; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Connolly, Mary; Bello-Espinosa, Luis E; Rafay, Mubeen F; Appendino, Juan Pablo; Shevell, Michael; Carmant, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of childhood epilepsy can only be appreciated by understanding that epilepsy comprises a set of complex neurobehavioral conditions with significant social consequences, and not simply disorders of recurrent seizures. Our objective is to describe the hypotheses and methodology behind a large prospective longitudinal study that is based on a conceptual framework for understanding health outcomes. The study will quantify the specific influences--direct, mediating or moderating--that various epilepsy, comorbid, child, and family variables exert on health over the early life course. The target population is 8- to 14-year-old children with epilepsy and their caregivers from across Canada. Children, caregivers, and health professionals are completing 17 measures at five visits over a 28-month period. We have selected measures based on content, the source of the items, psychometric properties, and provisions for child self-report. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal design includes a relational model for structural equation modeling of specific biomedical and psychosocial variables with hierarchical direction of influence. To measure change over time, we will use hierarchical linear modeling. This article reports the framework for interpreting future data. We believe that it will help researchers consider their methodology and encourage them to plan and execute longitudinal studies. Furthermore, the article will help clinical readers identify what to look for when evaluating outcomes research. It is our belief that the next generation of research to understand life-course effect in the lives of children and youth with chronic conditions and their families must occur over real time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Student Delivery of Health Services to Students: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Student health aide programs for college students have been instrumental in nutrition improvement, medication compliance, general preventive medicine, and in aiding in the mental health delivery system. In this study, headaches and upper respiratory infections constituted a significant percentage of the total visits to the health aide. (JN)

  3. Development of the action observation network during early adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence places high demands on inter-personal interactions and, hence, on the extraction and processing of social cues. Here we assess longitudinally the development of brain activity within a network implicated in social cognition—the action observation network. We performed activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses to define regions of interest based upon the mature action observation network of adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we then examined developmental trajectories of functional brain activity within these brain regions. Using this approach, we reveal quadratic trajectories within a fronto-parietal network previously shown to demonstrate correlated morphological development. PMID:21278194

  4. Longitudinal structures in Mars' upper atmosphere as observed by MAVEN/NGIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiping; England, Scott; Lillis, Robert J.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Elrod, Meredith; Benna, Mehdi; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first comprehensive study of longitudinal structures in Mars' neutral upper atmosphere associated with atmospheric tides in composition, density and temperature using the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission/Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer observations during 2015. These are in situ measurements of number densities of atmospheric species (including CO2, Ar, N2, and CO) in the altitude range from 120 to 200 km above the areoid (corresponding to a total density range from 108-1011 cm-3), providing a data set that is larger than all previous measurements of these waves combined. These observations span from ±70° latitude and cover a wide range of local times and solar longitudes (Ls), allowing for the study of longitudinal structures under various conditions. Furthermore, the data in May and November 2015 are at similar latitudes and local times but different Ls ( 340° in May, close to northern spring equinox, and 70° in November, close to northern summer solstice and aphelion), ideal for studying the seasonal effects of tides. Our analysis shows that in each month the Ar density varies with longitude having a large wave structure. It is dominated by wave 2 and 3, accounting for 8-16% of the change of the mean density. Comparison shows that the longitudinal structures at a constant CO2 density level have different amplitudes at different seasons, although their patterns are similar. The temperature structure has a phase difference from the density variation, indicating the dissipation of tides in this altitude region. The longitudinal structure is seen in all species, including major and minor species, consistent with the tidal signatures.

  5. Joint Analyses of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data in Research on Aging: Implications for Predicting Health and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the “joint models” (JM). An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM), has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes, which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here, we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused) applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  6. Health promotion and prevention in higher music education: results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zander, Mark F; Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    Music-related symptoms can already be found among student musicians during their years of university training. The goals of the present study were to ascertain the state and developmental course of the student musicians' health and to test the effectiveness of a preventive curriculum given to student musicians during their first two semesters at university. Within a longitudinal, observational study, we assessed students' psychological and physical health during the first 2 years of university training. We compared data from the group of students who had followed the prevention program (intervention group, IG, n = 144) with data of a comparison group (CG, n = 103) of students who had not followed the program. Using standardized questionnaires, we measured physical and psychological symptoms as well as health behavior in a sequential plan (duration, 3.5 yrs). Student musicians (n = 247) showed elevated ratings in psychological and physical health in comparison with nonmusicians of the same age. These ratings decreased at the end of the students' second year. The prevention program had a preventive effect on the students' psychological health: while IG students remained stable in their performance and powers of concentration, CG students got worse in those same areas. However, the prevention program did not reduce physical symptoms. In comparison with their younger colleagues, upper-level students took more courses in body-oriented methods, relaxation, and mental techniques, which focus on preventive measures for musicians. At present, the study offers evidence supporting the use of the prevention curriculum for young musicians. In higher music education, preventive education has a positive impact on students' performance and their attitude toward health. The preventive curriculum does not have an effect on preexisting physical symptoms, and those symptoms related to the students musicians' activity should rather be treated in an additional therapeutic setting.

  7. The value of time in longitudinal studies of ageing. Lessons from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Byles, Julie E; Dobson, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) involves three cohorts of women born in 1921-1926, 1946-1951 and 1973-1978, who have been surveyed every 3 years since 1996. We describe how the 1921-1926 cohort have changed over time. We also describe trends in health risks among the younger cohorts, providing an indication of future health threats. By Survey 5, 28.4% of the 1921-1926 cohort had died. Among those who survived and remained in the study, 61% maintained high physical function scores over time. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease and stroke were associated with lower physical function scores and decline in scores over time. ALSWH will continue to provide information on changes in health and health service use as we follow the oldest cohort through their 90 s, and as younger cohorts accumulate increasing burden of disease and disability as they age. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  8. [Participated observation of nursing child health consultation].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Fernanda Manuela; da Silva, José António Neto Ferreira; Quitério, Margarida Maria de Sousa Lourenço; Charepe, Zaida Borges

    2012-12-01

    Situation diagnosis using exploratory and descriptive scientific methodology (participant observation with descriptive statistical treatment) in order to identify nursing' practices in the area of health promotion during a nursing child health consultation. The 31 consultations observed (n = 31) showed that the majority of observations occurred in children younger than 2 years being the most discussed topic feed with predominant use of expository methodology. There was also little use of informational support and when used relate to the themes of security and nutrition. Most providers raised questions and there was limited registration of the interaction between provider and child with an expenditure averaging of 23 minutes per consultation. Given the results and reflecting about them stands out as intervention the construction of a health promotion manual with the integration of theory and evidence of good practice in this area.

  9. Longitudinal associations between bullying and mental health among adolescents in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Ha Thi Hai; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Campbell, Marilyn A; Gatton, Michelle L; Tran, Nam T; Dunne, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This study measured bullying roles across an academic year and examined how change in bullying experiences is associated with symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in Vietnam. 1424 students in middle and high schools completed two self-administered questionnaires, six months apart in 2014-2015. Students who were victimised often and those who were classified as highly involved as both victims and bullies at one or both survey times showed significantly higher levels of depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation than other students. The mental health of adolescents who were involved in bullying as a victim or bully remained at low levels was generally similar to those not involved in any bullying. However, females who had stable but low level in victimisation or bully-victim status had worse mental health than males with stable-low-level exposure. This is the first longitudinal analysis of bullying among adolescents in Vietnam. Persistent and frequent bullying was strongly linked with poor mental health for males and females. A new observation is that Vietnamese girls appear to be more sensitive to low level but long-term bullying involvement than were boys.

  10. The longitudinal BELLA study: design, methods and first results on the course of mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Otto, Christiane; Kriston, Levente; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Barkmann, Claus; Schön, Gerhard; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Klasen, Fionna

    2015-06-01

    The high prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in childhood and adolescence is a global health challenge of the 21st century. Information about age of onset, persistence and development of MHP in young people is necessary to implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the design and methods of the longitudinal BELLA study, which investigates developmental trajectories of MHP from childhood into adulthood, their determinants, and the utilisation of mental health services. First results on the developmental course of MHP in children and adolescents are reported over a 6-year period. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). BELLA examines the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (a representative subsample of KiGGS, n = 2,863 at baseline). Standardised screening measures served to identify MHP at baseline and at follow-ups (1, 2, and 6 years later). Among children and adolescents participating at all measurement points (n = 1,255), 10 % showed clinically significant MHP at baseline (n = 130). Over the 6-year period, 74.3 % showed no signs of MHP (n = 933), 15.5 % had remitted (n = 194), 2.9 % showed persistent (n = 36) and 7.3 % acute or recurrent MHP (n = 92). Overall, MHP were more likely to occur between the age of 7 and 12 and after the age of 19 years. Regarding mental health service use, 33 % of the participants with acute or recurrent MHP (n = 30) and 63.9 % with persistent MHP used mental health services (n = 23). Mental health problems in children and adolescents have a high risk to persist into adulthood. In children and adolescents a low rate of mental health service use was observed, even among those with mental health problems.

  11. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  12. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  13. The curious case of cyberchondria: A longitudinal study on the reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking.

    PubMed

    Te Poel, Fam; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Hartmann, Tilo; Tanis, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The current study is the first to longitudinally investigate the reciprocal relationship between online health information seeking and health anxiety, i.e., cyberchondria. Expectations were that health anxious individuals who go online to find health information, experience an increase in health anxiety, which in turn will reinforce online seeking. A 4-wave longitudinal survey study among 5322 respondents aged 16-93 was conducted. Our results showed that individuals who are more health anxious than others, search online for health information more. Moreover, the results provided initial evidence for the expected reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking in respondents with non-clinical levels of health anxiety at the start of the study. However, this reciprocal relationship could not be found in a subsample of clinically health anxious individuals. Although for these individuals online health information seeking did not seem to exacerbate health anxiety levels, it might still serve as a maintaining factor of clinical health anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  15. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  16. Neurodevelopmental Deceleration by Urban Fine Particles from Different Emission Sources: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Basagaña, Xavier; Esnaola, Mikel; Rivas, Ioar; Amato, Fulvio; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; López-Vicente, Mònica; Pujol, Jesús; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few studies have reported associations between traffic-related air pollution exposure at schools and cognitive development. The role of PM components or sources other than traffic on cognitive development has been little explored. Objectives: We aimed to explore the role of PM sources in school air on cognitive development. Methods: A cohort of 2,618 schoolchildren (average age, 8.5 years) belonging to 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain) was followed up for a year. Children completed computerized tests assessing working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness during four visits. Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) was measured during two 1-week campaigns in each school, both outdoors and in the classroom. Source apportionment resulted in nine sources: mineral, organic/textile/chalk, traffic, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, road dust, metallurgy, sea spray, and heavy oil combustion. Differences in cognitive growth trajectories were assessed with mixed models with age-by-source interaction terms. Results: An interquartile range increase in indoor traffic-related PM2.5 was associated with reductions in cognitive growth equivalent to 22% (95% CI: 2%, 42%) of the annual change in working memory, 30% (95% CI: 6%, 54%) of the annual change in superior working memory, and 11% (95% CI: 0%, 22%) of the annual change in the inattentiveness scale. None of the other PM2.5 sources was associated with adverse effects on cognitive development. Conclusions: Traffic was the only source of fine particles associated with a reduction in cognitive development. Reducing air pollution from traffic at primary schools may result in beneficial effects on cognition. Citation: Basagaña X, Esnaola M, Rivas I, Amato F, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Forns J, López-Vicente M, Pujol J, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Querol X, Sunyer J. 2016. Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources: a longitudinal observational study. Environ

  17. The impact of early nutrition on health: key findings from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS).

    PubMed

    Borja, Judith B

    2013-04-01

    The Philippines' Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) is one of the longest running birth cohort studies in Southeast Asia. This paper illustrates the pathways through which maternal and infant nutrition influence later health outcomes using selected CLHNS findings. The CLHNS initially examined the determinants and consequences of low birth weight and early nutrition on child growth and development. It has since expanded to study other health, nutrition, and demographic issues in the life course of the cohort participants such as the consequences of early nutrition on adult health. CLHNS findings have documented important effects of poor maternal nutrition beyond impaired foetal growth (manifested through low birth weight). Mothers who had lower energy intakes and poorer nutritional status during pregnancy had offsprings who were at risk of having higher blood pressure measurements in adolescence. Infants born small at birth were not only more likely to be stunted through adolescence, but were also at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Among the males, those born thin at birth and have high BMI in adulthood had increased risk of elevated systolic blood pressure. Early infant feeding also had long-term effects on health. Breastfeeding not only protected against morbidity and stunting in childhood, but also lowered the risk of insulin resistance and high triglyceride levels in adulthood among the males. Delayed complementary feeding was associated a with lower risk of overweight in young adulthood. An intergenerational matrilineal effect was also observed among the participants, with maternal birth weight being positively associated with offspring birth weight. The CLHNS findings support the WHO recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding until six months, timely introduction of complementary foods, and continued breastfeeding until two years. Since child nutrition begins in utero, programs should focus on improving maternal

  18. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of the Longitudinal Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M.; Mason, G. M.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    During the recent rise in solar activity, the twin STEREO spacecraft, in combination with near-Earth assets (e.g., ACE, GOES, RHESSI, SDO, SOHO, and Wind) have provided ~360° coverage of solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), shocks, and other aspects of solar eruptions. This combination has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe how the properties of SEP events vary with longitude. Initial results indicate that particles are distributed in longitude more easily than was earlier appreciated. Indeed, most recent large SEP events associated with CME-driven shocks are observed by both STEREOs and ACE, even as these spacecraft are separated by >100° in longitude. This talk will discuss longitudinal, intensity, composition, and spectral variations of large SEP events and compare them with models and previous studies. Small 3He-rich flares associated with flares and coronal jets are also found to be distributed more broadly in longitude than reported in single-point studies. Recent observations, issues, and proposed explanations for SEP longitudinal variations will be reviewed.

  19. Pets and Human Health in Germany and Australia: National Longitudinal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Grabka, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    The German and Australian "longitudinal" surveys analysed here are the first national representative surveys to show that (1) people who continuously own a pet are the healthiest group and (2) people who cease to have a pet or never had one are less healthy. Most previous studies which have claimed that pets confer health benefits were…

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation of Interpersonal Violence in Relation to Mental Health and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedtke, Kristina A.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined longitudinally the mental health status of women as a function of different types and combinations of exposure to interpersonal violence. A structured telephone interview was administered to a household probability sample of 4,008 women (18-89 years of age), who were then recontacted for 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews.…

  1. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  2. Pets and Human Health in Germany and Australia: National Longitudinal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Grabka, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    The German and Australian "longitudinal" surveys analysed here are the first national representative surveys to show that (1) people who continuously own a pet are the healthiest group and (2) people who cease to have a pet or never had one are less healthy. Most previous studies which have claimed that pets confer health benefits were…

  3. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  4. Information Technology Management: Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-18

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of Inspector General May 18, 2006 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Acquisition of the...AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  5. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  7. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  8. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  9. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  10. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  11. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  12. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  13. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  14. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  15. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  16. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  18. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  19. New multipoint observations of the longitudinal extent of solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leske, Richard; Mason, Glenn; Haggerty, Dennis; Cohen, Christina; Wiedenbeck, Mark; Von Rosenvinge, Tycho; Mewaldt, R. A.; Gomez-Herrero, Raul

    2012-07-01

    With solar cycle 24 well underway and the STEREO spacecraft now separated from Earth by more than 100°, there have been a number of solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with flares or CME-driven shocks that have been observed by two and sometimes three separated spacecraft. This provides the opportunity to make improved measurements of the longitudinal spread of SEP intensities and fluences with respect to the location of the flare and CME eruption. Several previous studies have been based on near-Earth single-point measurements, but there have also been earlier multipoint studies based on Helios 1&2 and IMP data inside and near 1 AU, and on early Pioneer data. Our study covers H in the energy range from ˜0.1 to 100 MeV/nuc and makes use of 2007--2012 data from STEREO, ACE, SOHO, and GOES. We compare the observed SEP longitudinal extent with empirical relationships derived from earlier studies.

  20. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  1. Health Behaviors of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)

  2. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p < 0.01) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores (mean difference = -1.98, p = 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1-1.4]) but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1-6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3-24.1) and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1-14.6]) at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  3. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  4. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use.

  5. Cultural events - does attendance improve health? Evidence from a Polish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Węziak-Białowolska, Dorota; Białowolski, Piotr

    2016-08-05

    Although there is strong advocacy for uptake of both the arts and creative activities as determinants of individual health conditions, studies evaluating causal influence of attendance at cultural events on population health using individual population data on health are scarce. If available, results are often only of an associative nature. In this light, this study investigated causative impact of attendance at cultural events on self-reported and physical health in the Polish population. Four recent waves (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015) of the biennial longitudinal Polish household panel study, Social Diagnosis, were analysed. The data, representative for the Polish population aged over 16, with respect to age, gender, classes of place of residence and NUTS 2 regions, were collected from self-report questionnaires. Causative influence of cultural attendance on population health was established using longitudinal population representative data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity of individuals and to mitigate issues caused by omitted variables, a panel data model with a fixed effects estimator was applied. The endogeneity problem (those who enjoy good health are more likely to participate in cultural activities more frequently) was circumvented by application of instrumental variables. Results confirmed positive association between cultural attendance and self-reported health. However, in contrast to the often suggested positive causative relationship, such a link was not confirmed by the study. Additionally, no evidence was found to corroborate a positive impact from cultural attendance on physical health. Both findings were substantiated by augmentation in the longitudinal perspective and causal link. We showed the relation between attendance at cultural events and self-reported health could only be confirmed as associational. Therefore, this study provided little justification to encourage use of passive cultural participation as a measure of health promotion

  6. Temporal change in health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study in general practice 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hazell, Michelle L; Morris, Julie A; Linehan, Mary F; Frank, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess and plan for changing healthcare needs, the lack of available information regarding temporal changes in the health-related quality of life of a population must be addressed. Aim This paper aims to describe such changes over 5 years in a general population. Design of study Longitudinal postal questionnaire study. Setting UK general practice. Method This was a longitudinal postal questionnaire study in two general practice populations, using the generic instrument EQ-5D to measure health-related quality of life. Individuals were included if they responded to three postal surveys in 1999, 2001, and 2004 and there were three consecutive values of EQ-5Dindex available between 1999 and 2004. Results A total of 2498 subjects were included in the study. After adjustment for potential confounders (including ageing), health-related quality of life declined significantly over the observation period. The change in EQ-5Dindex was from 0.79 to 0.74 and for EQ-5Dvas 76.8 to 73.3 (P for both trends <0.001). Conclusion Health-related quality of life deteriorated in these populations over 5 years. In an era of improvements in mortality, this has important implications for the use of health-related quality of life data in healthcare planning and resource allocation. PMID:19861028

  7. Accounting for the dead in the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Dennis; Allanson, Paul; Gerdtham, Ulf G

    2011-09-01

    This paper develops an accounting framework to consider the effect of deaths on the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities. Ignoring deaths or using Inverse Probability Weights (IPWs) to re-weight the sample for mortality-related attrition can produce misleading results. Incorporating deaths into the longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities provides a more complete picture in terms of the evaluation of health changes in respect to socioeconomic status. We illustrate our work by investigating health mobility from 1999 till 2004 using the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We show that for Scottish males explicitly accounting for the dead rather than using IPWs to account for mortality-related attrition changes the direction of the relationship between relative health changes and initial income position, from negative to positive, while for other groups it significantly increases the strength of the positive relationship. Incorporating the dead may be vital in the longitudinal analysis of health inequalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental health symptoms in combat medic training: a longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael E; Teyhen, Deydre S; Wu, Samuel S; Dugan, Jessica L; Wright, Alison C; Childs, John D; Yang, Guijun; George, Steven Z

    2009-06-01

    Mental health symptoms in military populations are rising and constitute a significant health concern. This study examined the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in soldiers (N = 3,792) undergoing combat medic training. At the start of training, 10.4%, 15.5%, and 4.1% of soldiers had clinically significant depression, anxiety, or suicidal ideation, respectfully. These percentages increased to 12.2%, 20.3%, and 5.7% at completion of training, respectfully. Worsening of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation occurred for 7.7%, 11.4%, and 4% of soldiers. Higher percentages of symptoms were associated with females, lower education, and lower income. Active duty personnel were more likely to worsen following training with respect to suicidal ideation (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) compared to reservists. The identification of these significant predictors of mental health status may serve to identify individuals at risk. Additional work to examine the relative contribution of anticipatory (impending deployment) factors vs. training-related factors is warranted.

  9. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  10. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mark Erik; Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-08-09

    For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses challenges for consumers and clinicians seeking relevant

  11. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  12. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  13. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Tavener, Meredith; Mooney, Rosemary; Thomson, Clare; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-02-22

    Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the "hard to reach" character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld.

  14. Preliminary analysis of the use of smartwatches for longitudinal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Emil

    2015-08-01

    New generations of smartwatches feature continuous measurement of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin resistance (GSR), and temperature. In this paper we present the results of preliminary analysis of the use of Basis Peak smartwatch for longitudinal health monitoring during a 4 month period. Physiological measurements during sleep are validated using Zephyr Bioharness 3 monitor and SOMNOscreen+ polysomnographic monitoring system from SOMNOmedics. Average duration of sequences with no missed data was 49.9 minutes, with maximum length of 17 hours, and they represent 88.88% of recording time. Average duration of the charging event was 221.9 min, and average time between charges was 54 hours, with maximum duration of the charging event of 16.3 hours. Preliminary results indicate that the physiological monitoring performance of existing smartwatches provides sufficient performance for longitudinal monitoring of health status and analysis of health and wellness trends.

  15. Engaging Adolescent Mothers in a Longitudinal Mental Health Intervention Study: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations or advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Methods Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Results Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Discussion Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated. PMID:21355755

  16. Engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal mental health intervention study: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa Dawn; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations, or the advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated.

  17. Impact of patient involvement in mental health research: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2013-11-01

    It is deemed good practice to involve patients routinely in research but no study has investigated the practical benefits, particularly to successful recruitment. To identify whether patient involvement is associated with study success. All studies listed on the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN) portfolio database (n = 374) were interrogated using logistic regression, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation to identify associations with study characteristics, funding bodies and recruitment success. Patient involvement increased over time although in some areas of research it was limited. Some funders, especially the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), had more associated patient involvement than others. Studies that involved patients to a greater extent were more likely to have achieved recruitment targets (χ(2) = 4.58, P<0.05), defined as reaching at least 90% of the target. This is the first time associations with study success have been identified for patient involvement. Researchers might now consider ways to involve patients more comprehensively as this is associated with study success. Further research is needed to explore this finding.

  18. The Oporto mixed-longitudinal growth, health and performance study. Design, methods and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Souza, Michele Caroline de; Chaves, Raquel Nichele de; Dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Queiroz Ferreira; Santos, Daniel Vilhena E; Borges, Alessandra Silva; Pereira, Sara Isabel Sampaio; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Studies concerning child and adolescent growth, development, performance and health aimed at the multiple interactions amongst this complex set of variables are not common in the Portuguese speaking countries. The aim of this paper is to address the key ideas, methodology and design of the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study (OGHPS). The OGHPS is a multidisciplinary mixed-longitudinal study whose main purpose is to examine the multiple interactions among biological, environmental and lifestyle indicators that affect growth, development, health and performance of Portuguese adolescents aged 10-18 years old. This study briefly presents baseline results for growth, physical fitness and lifestyle behaviours for those participating in the cross-sectional sample (n ≈ 8000). Approximately 30% were over-fat or obese. On average, boys were more physically fit and active than girls. Few adolescents meet the guidelines for sleep duration (≈10%) and eating habits (16.2-24.8%), while 76-85% meet the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The OGHPS has an innovative approach due to its mixed-longitudinal design and the broad array of variables. Furthermore, subsequent analyses of the longitudinal data will enable a detailed exploration of important factors affecting the growth trajectories of health and performance variables and will also help to identify some of the most opportune times for interventions in terms of health behaviours.

  19. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid

  20. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan F; Merrick, Hannah; Deverill, Mark; Le Couteur, Ann; Parr, Jeremy; Pearce, Mark S; Rapley, Tim; Vale, Luke; Watson, Rose; McConachie, Helen

    2013-07-23

    Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer.Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children's and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care.We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services.In order to better understand mechanisms and aid interpretation, we will undertake

  1. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  2. Elder Mistreatment Predicts Later Physical and Psychological Health: Results from a National Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jaclyn S.; Waite, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health five years later, than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health, but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process. PMID:27636657

  3. Longitudinal Health Risks Among Graduates and Disenrollees from Diving School.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    et al., 1980). Other disorders, such as decompression sickness, the barotraumas, otitis externa , and hearing problems, require either inpatient or...literature, hospitalizations for ()niy -ven ,1 111,1 diagnoses were observed in this study: otitis externa , hearing disorders, pneumothorax, joint p.,uc ii... otitis xterna, hearing disorders, pneumothorax, joint pain or arthralgia, oxygen or nitrogen toxicity, decm ression sickness, and traum or air embolism

  4. Health impact: longitudinal analysis of employment at middle and old age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, César; WONG, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study to analyze the relationship between health and labor force participation of population aged 50 years and older in Mexico. The results confirm that health, measured through chronic diseases and difficulty to perform activities of daily living, has a powerful influence on labor force participation. We also find important differences by gender; hypertension and diabetes have effects in both, men and women; heart disease and stroke only in men. We provide concrete evidence on economic participation and highlight the importance of public policies to create adequate jobs for the population at middle and old age. PMID:25722646

  5. Longitudinal structure in atomic oxygen concentrations observed with WINDII on UARS. [Wind Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Thuillier, G.; Solheim, B. H.; Chandra, S.; Cogger, L. L.; Duboin, M. L.; Evans, W. F. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Gault, W. A.; Herse, M.

    1993-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, began atmospheric observations on September 28, 1991 and since then has been collecting data on winds, temperatures and emissions rates from atomic, molecular and ionized oxygen species, as well as hydroxyl. The validation of winds and temperatures is not yet complete, and scientific interpretation has barely begun, but the dominant characteristic of these data so far is the remarkable structure in the emission rate from the excited species produced by the recombination of atomic oxygen. The latitudinal and temporal variability has been noted before by many others. In this preliminary report on WINDII results we draw attention to the dramatic longitudinal variations of planetary wave character in atomic oxygen concentration, as reflected in the OI 557.7 nm emission, and to similar variations seen in the Meine1 hydroxyl band emission.

  6. [Presenteeism and workers' health: effects of mediation on psycho-physical stress in a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Falco, Alessandra; Girardi, Damiano; Parmiani, Gianluca; Bortolato, Stefano; Piccirelli, Alessandra; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; De Carlo, Nicola A

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the phenomenon of presenteeism, a construct still little studied, especially in Italy, in its medical, psychological, social and economic implications. In the first part we propose a review of the international literature, and of the meanings, causes and consequences of the phenomenon on individual and organizational health. In the second part, we present a study which involved, for a period of about a year, 326 workers of a company in the engineering industry. This study is, in this writers' knowledge, the first survey--characterized by a longitudinal design and a multi-method approach, both not very present also in the international literature--carried out in our country on the phenomenon of presenteeism. The survey examines the mediating role of presenteeism in the relationship between specific risk factors of work context and content--career growth, conflict with colleagues, social rewards--and the psycho-physical strain. The risk factors were detected through a self-report instrument at the beginning of the year. The workers, at the end of the same year, were subjected to a healthcare surveillance visit in which the competent physician evaluated the psycho-physical strain. The hypothesized relations have been tested by estimating a structural equation model with observed variables. What emerged was a negative association between social rewards and presenteeism and a positive relation between conflict with colleagues and presenteeism. Instead, no association between growth and presenteeism emerged. Presenteeism, in turn, predicts psycho-physical strain. Overall, presenteeism mediates the relationship between social rewards and strain, as well as between interpersonal conflict and strain, but not between growth and strain. This work is characterized by some innovative aspects compared to previous studies conducted on the subject, both in theory and methodology. From a theoretical point of view the hypothesized model aims to

  7. Anxiety during pregnancy and autonomic nervous system activity: A longitudinal observational and cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Taeko; Tamakoshi, Koji; Tanabe, Keiko

    2017-08-01

    To assess the longitudinal change in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during pregnancy and the association between anxiety during pregnancy and ANS activity. Pregnant Japanese women with a singleton fetus and normal pregnancy were recruited (n=65). ANS activity and anxiety were measured using a self-rating questionnaire at approximately 20, 30, and 36weeks of gestation. Very low (VLF) and high (HF) frequency bands of heart rate variability spectrums were used. Anxiety was assessed using the Japanese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A score of 45 or more on trait-anxiety and the other represent the trait-anxiety group and the non- trait-anxiety group, respectively. The state-anxiety group and the non-state-anxiety group were defined in the same manner. Longitudinal observation of individual pregnant women indicated the significant increasing trend (p=0.002) of VLF power and the significant decreasing trend (p<0.001) of HF power during 20 to 36 gestation weeks. Compared with the non-trait-anxiety group, the trait-anxiety group had significantly lower VLF values at 20 gestational weeks (p=0.033) and had significantly lower HF values at 30 and 36 gestational weeks (p=0.015 and p=0.044, respectively). The increasing rate of VLF from 20 to 36 gestational weeks was higher among the trait-anxiety group. The same associations were observed between the state-anxiety and non-state-anxiety groups at 20 gestational weeks. Anxiety during pregnancy decreased heart rate variability. Anxiety in second trimester pregnancy promoted a subsequent increase in sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health related quality of life in renal transplantation: 2 years of longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Cantarell, M Carmen; Moreso, Francesc; Parramon, Gemma; Seron, Daniel

    2017-08-10

    Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is recognized as an outcome measure in kidney transplantation. In this study was assessed changes on HRQoL and kidney-specific symptoms, also was evaluated the effect of socio-demographic and clinical parameters on patient's perceived HRQoL. A longitudinal study was done, at 5 time-points over 2 years after transplantation. To evaluate HRQoL the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire Short Form was administrated, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress. At 6-months after transplantation, patients had similar HRQoL scores compared to the general population. The improvement on effects of kidney disease domain could be considered as large (η(2)=0.29), and medium on burden of kidney disease domain (η(2)=0.12), work status domain (η(2)=0.12), and sexual function domain (η(2)=0.13). Psychological distress, depressive symptoms, haemoglobin, and serum creatinine had significant influence on patient's perceived HRQoL over 2 years after transplantation. An improvement of HRQoL was observed on general and specific-targeted symptoms over 2 years after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. PMID:27508909

  10. Concurrent and longitudinal associations of basal and diurnal cortisol with mental health symptoms in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J

    2008-11-01

    Recent biosocial theories postulate that both biological risk and the social context influence the development of mental health problems [Boyce and Ellis (2005) Development and Psychopathology, 17(2), 271-301]. Guided by this framework, we examined whether basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm were associated with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. Because cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations sometimes reveal different cortisol-mental health associations, we examined the association both concurrently and longitudinally when children transition to middle school, a time which entails a major change in social context from single to multiple teachers, classrooms, and sets of classmates. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day (waking, afternoon, and bedtime) across 3 days when adolescents were 5th graders. Mental health was measured when adolescents were in 5th and 7th grades, just before and after the transition to middle school. To deal with the substantial comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at this developmental stage, mental health measures distinguished overall symptom severity from the preponderance of internalizing versus externalizing symptoms (i.e., directionality). A three-level Hierarchical Linear Model was used to extract basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm separate from the day-to-day and within-the-day fluctuations in cortisol in response to daily experiences. Results were specific to symptom severity, suggesting that cortisol is a nonspecific risk factor for mental health symptoms in young adolescents. At 5th grade, low basal cortisol was associated with concurrent symptom severity. However, longitudinally, it was adolescents with high cortisol at 5th grade who were at risk for increasing mental health symptoms by 7th grade. Flat diurnal rhythms in 5th grade were related to levels of symptom severity at both 5th and 7th grades. Considering the change in social context, as defined by the transition to

  11. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  12. Test of a Hadronic Interaction Model by a Multidimensional Analysis of Lateral and Longitudinal Air-Shower Observables at KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, F.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The multi-detector experiment KASCADE enables simultaneous observations of parameters describing the lateral and longitudinal development of Extensive Air Showers. The present analysis is fo cused on Field Array and Muon Tracking detectors of KASCADE. The Field Array (FA) provides the numbers of electrons and muons in the shower and the Muon Tracking Detector (MTD) measures angles-of-incidence of muons which are related to the longitudinal development of EAS. An identical two step deconvolution method (on primary mass using a Bayesian approach and on primary energy) is performed to calculate the primary mass and energy of cosmic rays using the correlation of FA observables only and by adding MTD observables. The consistency of the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation code in describing the correlation between lateral and longitudinal developments of the shower is studied by comparing the results obtained from the two sets of observables.

  13. Patient Core Data Set. Standard for a longitudinal health/medical record.

    PubMed

    Renner, A L; Swart, J C

    1997-01-01

    Blue Chip Computers Company, in collaboration with Wright State University-Miami Valley College of Nursing and Health, with support from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, completed Small Business innovative Research research to design a comprehensive integrated Patient information System. The Wright State University consultants undertook the development of a Patient Core Data Set (PCDS) in response to the lack of uniform standards of minimum data sets, and lack of standards in data transfer for continuity of care. The purpose of the Patient Core Data Set is to develop a longitudinal patient health record and medical history using a common set of standard data elements with uniform definitions and coding consistent with Health Level 7 (HL7) protocol and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The PCDS, intended for transfer across all patient-care settings, is essential information for clinicians, administrators, researchers, and health policy makers.

  14. Self-rated health and hospital services use in the Spanish National Health System: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo-Fonseca, Nayara; Nolasco, Andreu; Quesada, Jose A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Melchor, Inmaculada; Moncho, Joaquin; Calabuig, Julia; Barona, Carmen

    2015-11-04

    Self-rated health is a subjective measure that has been related to indicators such as mortality, morbidity, functional capacity, and the use of health services. In Spain, there are few longitudinal studies associating self-rated health with hospital services use. The purpose of this study is to analyze the association between self-rated health and socioeconomic, demographic, and health variables, and the use of hospital services among the general population in the Region of Valencia, Spain. Longitudinal study of 5,275 adults who were included in the 2005 Region of Valencia Health Survey and linked to the Minimum Hospital Data Set between 2006 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios between use of hospital services and self-rated health, sex, age, educational level, employment status, income, country of birth, chronic conditions, disability and previous use of hospital services. By the end of a 4-year follow-up period, 1,184 participants (22.4%) had used hospital services. Use of hospital services was associated with poor self-rated health among both men and women. In men, it was also associated with unemployment, low income, and the presence of a chronic disease. In women, it was associated with low educational level, the presence of a disability, previous hospital services use, and the presence of chronic disease. Interactions were detected between self-rated health and chronic disease in men and between self-rated health and educational level in women. Self-rated health acts as a predictor of hospital services use. Various health and socioeconomic variables provide additional predictive capacity. Interactions were detected between self-rated health and other variables that may reflect different complex predictive models, by gender.

  15. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Miche, Martina; Brothers, Allyson F; Barrett, Anne E; Diehl, Manfred; Montepare, Joann M; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging-that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process-on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed resulted in 19 longitudinal studies reporting effects of subjective aging on health, health behaviors, and longevity. The authors combine the outcomes reported in these studies using a random effects meta-analysis, assuming that there would be differences in effect sizes across studies. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall significant effect of subjective aging (likelihood ratio = 1.429; 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.604; p < .001). The analyses revealed heterogeneity, with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow-up, for studies of health versus survival, for studies with younger participants (average age of the studies varies between 57 and 85 years with a median of 63 years), and for studies in welfare systems where state provisions of welfare are minimal. However, effects did not vary either across different operationalizations of subjective aging or by study quality. Subjective aging has a small significant effect on health, health behaviors, and survival. Further theoretical conceptualizations and empirical studies are needed to determine how subjective aging contributes to health and survival. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Team Investment and Longitudinal Relationships: An Innovative Global Health Education Model.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kimberly R; Fredrick, N Benjamin

    2017-06-27

    Increasing student interest in global health has resulted in medical schools offering more global health opportunities. However, concerns have been raised, particularly about one-time, short-term experiences, including lack of follow-through for students and perpetuation of unintentional messages of global health heroism, neocolonialism, and disregard for existing systems and communities of care. Medical schools must develop global health programs that address these issues. The Global Health Scholars Program (GHSP) was created in 2008-2009 at Penn State College of Medicine. This four-year program is based on values of team investment and longitudinal relationships and uses the service-learning framework of preparation, service, and reflection. Teams of approximately five students, with faculty oversight, participate in two separate monthlong trips abroad to the same host community in years 1 and 4, and in campus- and Web-based activities in years 2 and 3. As of December 2016, 191 students have been accepted into the GHSP. Since inception, applications have grown by 475% and program sites have expanded from one to seven sites on four continents. The response from students has been positive, but logistical challenges persist in sustaining team investment and maintaining longitudinal relationships between student teams and host communities. Formal methods of assessment should be used to compare the GHSP model with more traditional approaches to global health education. Other medical schools with similar aims can adapt the GHSP model to expand their global health programming.

  17. What do we know about the non-work determinants of workers' mental health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past years, cumulative evidence has convincingly demonstrated that the work environment is a critical determinant of workers' mental health. Nevertheless, much less attention has been dedicated towards understanding the pathways through which other pivotal life environments might also concomitantly intervene, along with the work environment, to bring about mental health outcomes in the workforce. The aim of this study consisted in conducting a systematic review examining the relative contribution of non-work determinants to the prediction of workers' mental health in order to bridge that gap in knowledge. Methods We searched electronic databases and bibliographies up to 2008 for observational longitudinal studies jointly investigating work and non-work determinants of workers' mental health. A narrative synthesis (MOOSE) was performed to synthesize data and provide an assessment of study conceptual and methodological quality. Results Thirteen studies were selected for evaluation. Seven of these were of relatively high methodological quality. Assessment of study conceptual quality yielded modest analytical breadth and depth in the ways studies conceptualized the non-work domain as defined by family, network and community/society-level indicators. We found evidence of moderate strength supporting a causal association between social support from the networks and workers' mental health, but insufficient evidence of specific indicator involvement for other analytical levels considered (i.e., family, community/society). Conclusions Largely underinvestigated, non-work determinants are important to the prediction of workers' mental health. More longitudinal studies concomitantly investigating work and non-work determinants of workers' mental health are warranted to better inform healthy workplace research, intervention, and policy. PMID:21645393

  18. Health related lifestyle in adolescence predicts adult educational level: a longitudinal study from Finland

    PubMed Central

    Koivusilta, L.; Rimpela, A.; Rimpela, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative importance of perceived health and health related lifestyle in adolescence in the production of educational differences. DESIGN: A longitudinal study: survey data from 1981 and 1985 linked with Educational Registry data from 1993. SETTING: The whole of Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 4761, 16 and 18 year olds. The follow up rate was 82%. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The outcome variable was the attained educational level at age 24 to 30. Predictive variables described health related lifestyle and health at the age of 16 and 18. Those whose educational level was low at follow up, had in adolescence, a more health compromising lifestyle than those who had reached higher levels. They had placed less emphasis on health promoting behaviours like not smoking, physical exercise, good diet, and dental hygiene. Smoking was the outstanding predictor of attained educational level. Among the health variables, only psychosomatic symptoms predicted high educational levels in girls, and both psychosomatic symptoms and height in boys. CONCLUSION: Those who reach a high level of education in adulthood, have had a health enhancing lifestyle already in adolescence, while those reaching only a low level, have had a health compromising lifestyle. Health plays only a small part in the prediction of adult educational level. The results suggest that a health compromising lifestyle, adopted already in adolescence, is an important mechanism from which educational health differences originate.   PMID:10396520

  19. Social disadvantage and individual vulnerability: a longitudinal investigation of welfare receipt and mental health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter

    2013-07-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between mental health and welfare receipt among working-age Australians. We analysed 9 years of data from 11,701 respondents (49% men) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Mental health was assessed by the mental health subscale from the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to examine the longitudinal associations between mental health and income support adjusting for the effects of demographic and socio-economic factors, physical health, lifestyle behaviours and financial stress. Within-person variation in welfare receipt over time was differentiated from between-person propensity to receive welfare payments. Random effect models tested the effects of income support transitions. Socio-demographic and financial variables explained the association between mental health and income support for those receiving student and parenting payments. Overall, recipients of disability, unemployment and mature age payments had poorer mental health regardless of their personal, social and financial circumstances. In addition, those receiving unemployment and disability payments had even poorer mental health at the times that they were receiving income support relative to the times when they were not. The greatest reductions in mental health were associated with transitions to disability payments and parenting payments for single parents. The poor mental health of welfare recipients may limit their opportunities to gain work and participate in community life. In part, this seems to reflect their adverse social and personal circumstances. However, there remains evidence of a direct link between welfare receipt and poor mental health that could be due to factors such as welfare stigma or other adverse life events coinciding with welfare receipt for those receiving unemployment or disability payments. Understanding these factors is critical to inform the next stage of welfare reform.

  20. The quadratic hazard model for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and the life span.

    PubMed

    Yashin, A I; Arbeev, K G; Akushevich, I; Kulminski, A; Ukraintseva, S V; Stallard, E; Land, K C

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of processes and mechanisms linking human aging with changes in health status and survival requires methods capable of analyzing new data that take into account knowledge about these processes accumulated in the field. In this paper, we describe an approach to analyses of longitudinal data based on the use of stochastic process models of human aging, health, and longevity which allows for incorporating state of the art advances in aging research into the model structure. In particular, the model incorporates the notions of resistance to stresses, adaptive capacity, and "optimal" (normal) physiological states. To capture the effects of exposure to persistent external disturbances, the notions of allostatic adaptation and allostatic load are introduced. These notions facilitate the description and explanation of deviations of individuals' physiological indices from their normal states, which increase the chances of disease development and death. The model provides a convenient conceptual framework for comprehensive systemic analyses of aging-related changes in humans using longitudinal data and linking these changes with genotyping profiles, morbidity, and mortality risks. The model is used for developing new statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity.

  1. The quadratic hazard model for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and the life span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, A. I.; Arbeev, K. G.; Akushevich, I.; Kulminski, A.; Ukraintseva, S. V.; Stallard, E.; Land, K. C.

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of processes and mechanisms linking human aging with changes in health status and survival requires methods capable of analyzing new data that take into account knowledge about these processes accumulated in the field. In this paper, we describe an approach to analyses of longitudinal data based on the use of stochastic process models of human aging, health, and longevity which allows for incorporating state of the art advances in aging research into the model structure. In particular, the model incorporates the notions of resistance to stresses, adaptive capacity, and “optimal” (normal) physiological states. To capture the effects of exposure to persistent external disturbances, the notions of allostatic adaptation and allostatic load are introduced. These notions facilitate the description and explanation of deviations of individuals' physiological indices from their normal states, which increase the chances of disease development and death. The model provides a convenient conceptual framework for comprehensive systemic analyses of aging-related changes in humans using longitudinal data and linking these changes with genotyping profiles, morbidity, and mortality risks. The model is used for developing new statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity.

  2. Effects of changing exposure to neighbourhood greenness on general and mental health: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Hanna; Rylander, Lars; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Östergren, Per-Olof; Björk, Jonas

    2015-05-01

    Green neighbourhood environments have been associated with physical and psychological wellbeing in adults. Access to greenness is potentially more important in vulnerable subgroups. In this study based on longitudinal survey data from southern Sweden the cohort was divided into prognostic groups for good self-reported general (n=8891) and mental (n=9444) health. We used independent survey data to assess perceived neighbourhood greenness in 1km(2) areas, and estimated effects of changing exposure longitudinally stratified by prognostic group. The overall effect on health was small and statistically uncertain (for general health OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.10, for mental health OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14). A more beneficial effect of increased greenness was indicated among subjects with lowest prognostic of good general health (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52). The study provided only weak evidence for beneficial effects of increased neighbourhood greenness triggered by changing residence. It seems that altered life circumstances, e.g. changed civil or socioeconomic status that often trigger a decision to move, are also the key determinants of the health consequences of changing residence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health and Grandparent-Grandchild Well-Being: One-Year Longitudinal Findings for Custodial Grandfamilies.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Garner, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively little longitudinal data exist focusing on grandparent caregiving, to say nothing of health's impact over time on grandparent and grandchild well-being. Accordingly, the present study explored relationships among grandparent caregiver physical health, well-being, and adjustment, as well as with grandchild well-being across a 1-year period. Participants were 79 grandparents who had full-time responsibility for their grandchildren. Measures of grandparent physical health, well-being, and grandchild well-being were completed across two assessments, 1 year apart. Cross-lagged analyses exploring potential causality over time suggested that with one exception, the relationships between health and well-being appeared to be bidirectional. In general, these longitudinal data indicate that better perceived health may provide an adaptive advantage for both grandparent caregivers and their grandchildren, yet also underscore to the potentially causal role that proactivity in the face of adversity plays in the maintenance and improvement of grandparent caregiver health over time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Who Participates? Longitudinal Retention in the MIDUS National Study of Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Radler, Barry T.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25–75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. Method The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Results Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. Discussion The authors’ analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors. PMID:20103686

  5. An Observation of a Transverse to Longitudinal Emittance Exchange at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Koeth, Timothy W

    2009-05-01

    An experimental program to perform a proof of principle of transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (ϵxin ↔ ϵzout and ϵxin ↔ ϵzout) has been developed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, including two magnetic dogleg channels and a TM110 deflecting mode radio frequency cavity, were constructed for the emittance exchange experiment. The first priority was a measurement of the Emittance Exchange beamline transport matrix. The method of difference orbits was used to measure the transport matrix. Through varying individual beam input vector elements, such as xin, x'in, yin, y'in, zin, or δin, and measuring the changes in all of the beam output vector's elements, xout, x'out, yout, y'out, zout, δout, the full 6 x 6 transport matrix was measured. The measured emittance exchange transport matrix was in overall good agreement with our calculated transport matrix. A direct observation of an emittance exchange was performed by measuring the electron beam's characteristics before and after the emittance exchange beamline. Operating with a 14.3 MeV, 250pC electron bunch, ϵzin of 21.1 ± 1.5 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵxout of 20.8 ± 2.00 mm • mrad. Diagnostic limitations in the ϵzout measurement did not account for an energy-time correlation, thus potentially returning values larger than the actual longitudinal emittance. The ϵxin of 4.67 ± 0.22 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵzout of 7.06 ± 0.43 mm • mrad. The apparent ϵzoutgrowth is consistent with calculated values in which the correlation term is neglected.

  6. Intimate partner violence adversely impacts health over 16 years and across generations: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Deborah; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of intimate partner violence on women's mental and physical health over a 16 year period and across three generations. Participants were from the Australian Longitudinal study on Women's Health, a broadly representative national sample of women comprised of three birth cohorts 1973-78, 1946-51 and 1921-26 who were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare (i.e. national health insurer) database in 1996 to participate in the longitudinal health and wellbeing survey. Since baseline, six waves of survey data have been collected. Women from each cohort who had returned all six surveys and had a baseline measure (Survey 1) for intimate partner violence were eligible for the current study. The main outcome of interest was women's physical and mental health, measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form (SF-36). The experience of intimate partner violence was measured using the survey item 'Have you ever been in a violent relationship with a partner/spouse?' Sociodemographic information was also collected. For all cohorts, women who had lived with intimate partner violence were more likely to report poorer mental health, physical function and general health, and higher levels of bodily pain. Some generational differences existed. Younger women showed a reduction in health associated with the onset of intimate partner violence, which was not apparent for women in the older two groups. In addition, the physical health differences between women born 1921-26 who had and had not experienced intimate partner violence tapered off overtime, whereas these differences remained constant for women born 1973-78 and 1946-51. Despite generational differences, intimate partner violence adversely impacted on mental and physical health over the 16 year study period and across generations.

  7. Disability and unmet health care needs in Canada: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    The rate of unmet health care needs is quite high for the general population in Canada; however, the rate is even higher for the subset of people with disabilities. To date, there is a gap in the research utilizing longitudinal data to measure the unmet health care needs of Canadians. The purpose of this research is to compare the rate of unmet health care needs of people with disabilities to people without disabilities over 15 years. Longitudinal data from waves 1 to 8 (1994/95 to 2008/09) of the National Population Health Survey in Canada (NPHS) were analyzed using a growth curve modeling approach. Respondents with disabilities have two to three times the rate of unmet health care needs compared to respondents without disabilities. Unmet health care needs increase over time, and at a faster rate for all disability types except work-related disability. Personal reasons for unmet health care needs decrease over time and there is no significant difference between respondents with disabilities and respondents without disabilities. The opposite was found for structural reasons, which increase over time, and, people with disabilities have higher rates of structural-based unmet health care needs (45% higher) at baseline. The incidence of disability in the population increases over time while at the same time the rate of unmet health care needs are higher for people with disabilities. The combination of these factors suggests that, in the absence of intervention, Canadians can expect more unmet health care needs in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adjustment disorders as a stress-related disorder: a longitudinal study of the associations among stress, resources, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Mierke, Annett; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F

    2014-01-01

    Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients' presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs) was performed to assess change over time. Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001). Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44%) of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48), taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms) into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level) at baseline (β= -0.23, R2corr=0.56, p<0.001). With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df=15.26; RMSEA=0.21). Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress.

  9. Adjustment Disorders as a Stress-Related Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Stress, Resources, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Mierke, Annett; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. Methods The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients’ presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs) was performed to assess change over time. Results Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001). Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44%) of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48), taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms) into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level) at baseline (β = −0.23, R2corr = 0.56, p<0.001). With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df = 15.26; RMSEA = 0.21). Conclusions Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress. PMID:24825165

  10. Calculations and observations of the longitudinal instability caused by the ferrite inductors at the Los Alamos proton storage ring (PSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, C.; Browman, A. A.; Macek, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency dependence of the complex permeability of the ferrite (at room temperature) used in the Inductors at PSR have been determined by comparing the S11 parameters of a jig containing a ferrite core, and a MAFIA simulation of the jig. Both the resonance frequency and the longitudinal impedance of the inductor were obtained by simulating the inductor cavity in MAFIA. Experimental observations of the longitudinal instability caused by the ferrite inductors at room temperature for both DC Coasting beams and Bunched Coasting beams at a variety of intensities have been conducted. Comparisons of observed and calculated growth times, thresholds, resonant frequencies, and width of the instability will be discussed.

  11. The association between earlier marijuana use and subsequent academic achievement and health problems: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Stimmel, Matthew A; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between marijuana use over a period of 13 years and subsequent health problems at age 27. A community sample of 749 participants from upstate New York was interviewed at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Marijuana use over time was significantly associated with increased health problems by the late twenties, including respiratory problems, general malaise, neurocognitive problems, and lower academic achievement and functioning. Effective prevention and intervention programs should consider the wide range of adverse physiological and psychosocial outcomes associated with marijuana use over time.

  12. Toward a DoD/VA longitudinal health record: politics and the policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, Ronald W; Clyburn, Conrad A

    2009-05-01

    Policy implications of an interoperable Department of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Administration (VA) longitudinal health record (LHR) are substantial and far reaching. In this manuscript the authors explore the existing challenges and opportunities, the political landscape, and alternative solutions that have created a favorable environment for legislation and funding to support its development. The authors identify six policy themes emerging from the historic National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System held recently at Georgetown University in Washington DC.

  13. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and newlyweds' observed communication, partner characteristics, and longitudinal marital outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-11-01

    Given borderline personality disorder's (BPD) relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD's effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds' 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Experimental leprosy in monkeys. II. Longitudinal serological observations in sooty mangabey monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gormus, B J; Xu, K; Cho, S N; Baskin, G B; Bohm, R P; Martin, L N; Blanchard, J L; Mack, P A; Ratterree, M S; Meyers, W M

    1995-06-01

    In this study, 11 SMM were grouped and inoculated with differing doses of SMM-origin Mycobacterium leprae (ML) between 4.5 x 10(8) and 1 x 10(9) by either combined IV/IC routes or by IV or IC route alone. The combined route was the most effective in eliciting progressive, disseminated LL leprosy. In all, 6 of 7 SMM inoculated by the combined routes developed leprosy requiring treatment at some point. Only 1 of 4 inoculated by a single route developed persisting leprosy requiring chemotherapy. Either no disease or spontaneous regression of initial disease occurred in the other 3 animals inoculated by a single route. Doses in excess of 1 x 10(9) ML were more effective than lesser doses. An association was observed between the development of IgG anti-PGL-I ELISA OD values and resistance to leprosy and between IgM anti-PGL-I and leprosy progression or susceptibility. Serum PGL-I antigen levels, determined by dot ELISA, paralleled disease severity longitudinally. High positive OD values of anti-LAM IgG prior to ML inoculation were observed in the majority of leprosy-susceptible SMM in contrast to negative levels in more resistant animals. Anti-LAM IgG OD values exceeded the positive cut-off point after inoculation in 5 of 11 SMM; 3 of these 5 had concurrent detectable serum levels of PGL-I antigen.

  16. SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE-AMPLITUDE LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN A SOLAR FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2012-11-20

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations in the south and north parts (SP and NP) of a solar filament on 2012 April 7. Both oscillations are triggered by flare activities close to the filament. The period varies with filamentary threads, ranging from 44 to 67 minutes. The oscillations of different threads are out of phase, and their velocity amplitudes vary from 30 to 60 km s{sup -1}, with a maximum displacement of about 25 Mm. The oscillations of the SP repeat for about four cycles without any significant damping and then a nearby C2.4 flare causes the transition from the LAL oscillations of the filament to its later eruption. The filament eruption is also associated with a coronal mass ejection and a B6.8 flare. However, the oscillations of the NP damp with time and die out at last. Our observations show that the activated part of the SP repeatedly shows a helical motion. This indicates that the magnetic structure of the filament is possibly modified during this process. We suggest that the restoring force is the coupling of the magnetic tension and gravity.

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Newlyweds’ Observed Communication, Partner Characteristics, and Longitudinal Marital Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Justin A.; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Given borderline personality disorder (BPD)’s relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD’s effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses’ BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds’ 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. PMID:26348097

  18. Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Newman, D L; Silva, P A

    1996-11-01

    This study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial personality disorder, recidivistic and violent crime, alcoholism, and suicidal behavior. In a longitudinal-epidemiological study, 3-year-old children were classified into groups based on examiner observations of their behavior. At age 21 years, they were reassessed for psychopathologic functioning using standardized interviews based on DSM-III-R criteria. Although effect sizes were small, undercontrolled (includes children who are impulsive, restless and distractible) and inhibited (includes children who are shy, fearful, and easily upset) children differed significantly from comparison children in young adulthood. Under-controlled 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder and to be involved in crime. Inhibited 3-year-olds were more likely at 21 years to meet diagnostic criteria for depression. Both groups were more likely to attempt suicide, and boys in both groups had alcohol-related problems. Controls for family social class did not change the findings. Some forms of adult psychopathologic abnormality are meaningfully linked, albeit weakly, to behavioral differences observed among children in the third year of life.

  19. Gene-arsenic interaction in longitudinal changes of blood pressure: Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Karagas, Margaret R; Jiang, Jieying; Wu, Fen; Liu, Mengling; Newman, Jonathan D; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Parvez, Faruque; Argos, Maria; Scannell Bryan, Molly; Eunus, Mahbub; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and mounting evidence indicates that toxicant exposures can profoundly impact on CVD risk. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that arsenic (As) exposure is positively related to increases in blood pressure (BP), a primary CVD risk factor. However, evidence of whether genetic susceptibility can modify the association between As and BP is lacking. In this study, we used mixed effect models adjusted for potential confounders to examine the interaction between As exposure from well water and potential genetic modifiers on longitudinal change in BP over approximately 7years of follow-up in 1137 subjects selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Bangladesh. Genotyping was conducted for 235 SNPs in 18 genes related to As metabolism, oxidative stress and endothelial function. We observed interactions between 44 SNPs with well water As for one or more BP outcome measures (systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure (PP)) over the course of follow-up. The interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well water As on annual PP remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR-adjusted p for interaction=0.05). Among individuals with the rs3794624 variant genotype, well water As was associated with a 2.23mmHg (95% CI: 1.14-3.32) greater annual increase in PP, while among those with the wild type, well water As was associated with a 0.13mmHg (95% CI: 0.02-0.23) greater annual increase in PP. Our results suggest that genetic variability may contribute to As-associated increases in BP over time.

  20. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Atasayi, Serpil; Molendijk, Marc L

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23-.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29-.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30-.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13-0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10-0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work.

  1. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  2. Social stressors at work, sleep quality and psychosomatic health complaints--a longitudinal ambulatory field study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that occupational stress increases psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The present longitudinal actigraphy field study investigated the role of sleep quality--objectively assessed sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation, and subjectively assessed sleep quality--as a mediator in the relationship between stressful work conditions at time 1 and psychosomatic health complaints at time 2. A longitudinal hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were positively related to objectively assessed sleep fragmentation and to psychosomatic health complaints. Moreover, objectively assessed sleep fragmentation mediated the effect of social stressors at work on psychosomatic health complaints. Contrary to our expectations, social stressors at work were not related to other sleep quality parameters (i.e. sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and subjectively assessed sleep quality) during follow-up. Sleep fragmentation is discussed as an important consequence of social stressors at work that increase the risk of psychosomatic health complaints in the long run.

  3. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Berthier, Johanna; Corny, Jennifer; Bourdon, Olivier; Dossier, Claire; Delclaux, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous case reports of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in pediatric narcolepsy have shown contradictory results. Methods: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, controlled, longitudinal observational study of IVIg use in pediatric narcolepsy with retrospective data collection from medical files obtained from a single pediatric national reference center for the treatment of narcolepsy in France. Of 56 consecutively referred patients with narcolepsy, 24 received IVIg (3 infusions administered at 1-mo intervals) in addition to standard care (psychostimulants and/or anticataplectic agents), and 32 continued on standard care alone (controls). Results: For two patients in each group, medical files were unavailable. Of the 22 IVIg patients, all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL and were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive. Of the 30 control patients, 29 were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive and of those with available CSF measurements, all 12 had hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL. Compared with control patients, IVIg patients had shorter disease duration, shorter latency to sleep onset, and more had received H1N1 vaccination. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up length was 2.4 (1.1) y in the IVIg group and 3.9 (1.7) y in controls. In multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects analyses of change from baseline in Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS) scores, high baseline UNS, but not IVIg treatment, was associated with a reduction in narcolepsy symptoms. On time-to-event analysis, among patients with high baseline UNS scores, control patients achieved a UNS score < 14 (indicating remission) less rapidly than IVIg patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.18; 95% confidence interval: 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.95; p = 0.043). Shorter or longer disease duration did not influence treatment response in any analysis. Conclusions: Overall, narcolepsy symptoms were not significantly reduced by IVIg. However, in patients with high baseline symptoms, a subset of IVIg

  4. The concurrent and longitudinal effects of child disability types and health on family experiences.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal effects of children's disability types and health on family experiences, namely, parent divorce, mother's unemployment, and receipt of social welfare. The parent and school staff survey data for 1999 and 2004 from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study were analyzed, when the ages of children with disabilities ranged from 6 to 17. Weighted logistic regressions using Taylor Series Linearization were used to model the concurrent associations and longitudinal association between children's disability types and health and family experiences. Models were adjusted to account for other children in the family with disabilities, sociodemographic characteristics, and other family experiences variables. Family experiences varied significantly by disability type in 1999. Compared with families of children with learning disabilities, parents of children with emotional disturbances were 81% more likely to get divorced, and 2.5 times more likely to receive welfare from 1999 to 2004. Mothers of children with a secondary disability were 81% more likely to be unemployed than those of children without a secondary disability. These findings indicate that specific disability types in children have an influence on family experience, and that some of those influences may persist over time. Families of children with emotional disturbances appear to be particularly at risk for negative family experiences. Clinicians, educators, and policymakers should be aware of the complex needs of families of children with disabilities when considering the types of services and supports provided to both children with disabilities and their families.

  5. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  6. Have Mischievous Responders Misidentified Sexual Minority Youth Disparities in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health?

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica N; Russell, Stephen T

    2017-05-05

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has been instrumental in identifying sexual minority youth health disparities. Recent commentary suggested that some Wave 1 youth responders, especially males, intentionally mismarked same-sex attraction and, as a result, published reports of health disparities from these data may be suspect. We use two recently developed approaches to identify "jokesters" and mischievous responding and apply them to the Add Health data. First, we show that Wave 1 same-sex attracted youth, including those who later reported completely heterosexual identities in adulthood, were no more likely than different-sex attracted youth and consistently heterosexual participants to be "jokesters." Second, after accounting for mischievous responses, we replicated six previously established disparities: depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and behaviors, alcohol use, cocaine use, parental satisfaction, and school connectedness. Accounting for mischievousness resulted in the elimination of one observed disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority youth: suicidal ideation for males who reported romantic attraction to both sexes. Results also showed that accounting for mischievous responding may underestimate disparities for sexual minority youth, particularly females. Overall, results presented here support previous studies that identified health disparities among sexual minority youth using these data.

  7. Household Food Insecurity During Childhood and Subsequent Health Status: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bartfeld, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined long-term patterns of household food insecurity in children from kindergarten through eighth grade and the association between those patterns and children’s proxy-reported health status in eighth grade. Methods. We obtained data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort, a study that followed a nationally representative sample of students from kindergarten entry in 1998–1999 through eighth grade. We classified food insecurity according to the number of years of reported household food insecurity over 4 observation years. We estimated logistic regression models to estimate the association between cumulative food insecurity exposure and health outcomes. Results. Food insecurity was generally a transient rather than a persistent condition. Persistent food insecurity over the 9-year period was associated with lower health status in eighth grade, whereas more transient food insecurity was not significantly associated with health outcomes in most models. Conclusions. Single-year estimates substantially underestimate the share of children whose households experienced food insecurity at some point during their childhood years. Persistent food insecurity is an important public health issue for children. Policy interventions to alleviate children’s persistent food insecurity may promote child health. PMID:22994255

  8. Characteristics of large-scale wave structure observed from African and Southeast Asian longitudinal sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Chau, H. D.; Hoang, T. L.; Damtie, B.; Wassaie, M.; Yatini, C. Y.; Manik, T.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-03-01

    The spatial large-scale wave structure (LSWS) at the base of F layer is the earliest manifestation of seed perturbation for Rayleigh-Taylor instability, hence, found to play a deterministic role in the development of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). Except for a few case studies, a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted on the characteristics of LSWS because of the complexity involved in detecting the LSWS, particularly, in spatial domain. In this scenario, a comprehensive study is carried out, for the first time, on the spatial and temporal characteristics of LSWS observed in spatial domain over African and Southeast Asian longitudinal sectors during the year 2011. The observations indicate that these wave structures can be detected a few degrees west of E region sunset terminator and found to grow significantly at longitudes past the sunset terminator. The phase fronts of these spatial structures are found to align with the geomagnetic field (B→) lines over a latitudinal belt for at least 5-6° (~500-600 km) centered on dip equator. The zonal wavelengths of these structures are found to vary from 100 to 700 km, which is consistent with the earlier reports, and the EPBs were consistently observed when the amplitudes of LSWS were grown to sufficient strengths. These results would provide better insights on the underlying physical processes involved in excitation of LSWS in terms of important roles being played by E region electrical loading and polarization electric fields induced via spatially varying dynamo current due to neutral wind perturbations associated with atmospheric gravity waves.

  9. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  10. Calibration of a full-disc longitudinal magnetogram at the Huairou Solar Observing Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofan; Su, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hongqi

    2010-08-01

    Based on a spectral profile analysis of a filter magnetograph and the application of the astronomical data analysis technique, a full-disc distribution of Stokes I-to-V crosstalk in the solar magnetism and activity telescope (SMAT) has been acquired quantitatively. We produce a correction template to remove the full-disc Stokes I-to-V crosstalk. This template is important for the accuracy of the full-disc longitudinal magnetogram. Then, we propose an observational calibration method under the weak-field approximation on the basis of the scanning spectrum of the filter magnetograph. The following main results have been obtained. (i) For the original Stokes V images, there is about -1.67 × 10-3 of Stokes I crosstalk into V at all wavelength positions, and this crosstalk presents itself as a horse-saddle surface distribution on the full disc. (ii) A sample of the calibration curve at different wavelength positions is given. (iii) After being calibrated into magnetic flux density, the Stokes I-to-V crosstalk has an amplitude of about 50 G, but introduces negative and positive spurious magnetic fields into the blue and red wing magnetograms, respectively.

  11. Deaths observed in Medicare beneficiaries: average attributable fraction and its longitudinal extension for many diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T E; McAvay, G; Carriero, N J; Gross, C P; Tinetti, M E; Allore, H G; Lin, H

    2012-11-30

    Calculating the longitudinal extension of the average attributable fraction (LE-AAF) for many risk factors (RFs) requires a two-stage computational process using only those combinations of RFs observed in the dataset. We first screen candidates RFs in a Cox Model, and assuming piecewise constant hazards, use pooled logistic regression to model the probability of death as a function of combinations of selected RFs. We average the iterative differencing of the attributable fractions calculated for all overlapping subsets of co-occurring RFs to obtain a LE-AAF for each RF that is additive and symmetrical. We illustrate by partitioning the additive proportions of death from 10 different groupings of acute and chronic diseases, on a national sample of older persons from the US (Medicare Beneficiary Survey) over a 4-year period and compare with results reported by the National Center for Healthcare Statistics. We conclude that careful screening of RFs with analysis restricted to extant combinations greatly reduces computational burden. LE-AAF accounted for a cumulative total of 66% of the deaths in our sample, compared with the 83% accounted for by the National Center for Healthcare Statistics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Radiation Doses of Various CT Protocols: a Multicenter Longitudinal Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the hazard from medical radiation including CT examinations has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to observe the longitudinal changes of CT radiation doses of various CT protocols and to estimate the long-term efforts of supervising radiologists to reduce medical radiation. Radiation dose data from 11 representative CT protocols were collected from 12 hospitals. Attending radiologists had collected CT radiation dose data in two time points, 2007 and 2010. They collected the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) of each phase, number of phases, dose length product (DLP) of each phase, and types of scanned CT machines. From the collected data, total DLP and effective dose (ED) were calculated. CTDIvol, total DLP, and ED of 2007 and 2010 were compared according to CT protocols, CT machine type, and hospital. During the three years, CTDIvol had significantly decreased, except for dynamic CT of the liver. Total DLP and ED were significantly decreased in all 11 protocols. The decrement was more evident in newer CT scanners. However, there was substantial variability of changes of ED during the three years according to hospitals. Although there was variability according to protocols, machines, and hospital, CT radiation doses were decreased during the 3 years. This study showed the effects of decreased CT radiation dose by efforts of radiologists and medical society. PMID:26908984

  13. The longitudinal relationship between job mobility, perceived organizational justice, and health

    PubMed Central

    Liljegren, Mats; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Background The main purpose of the present study was to examine the 2-year longitudinal and reciprocal relationship between job mobility and health and burnout. A second aim was to elucidate the effects of perceived organizational justice and turnover intentions on the relationship between job mobility (non-, internally and externally mobile), and health (SF-36) and burnout (CBI). Methods The study used questionnaire data from 662 Swedish civil servants and the data were analysed with Structural Equation Modeling statistical methods. Results The results showed that job mobility was a better predictor of health and burnout, than health and burnout were as predictors of job mobility. The predictive effects were most obvious for psychosocial health and burnout, but negligible as far as physical health was concerned. Organizational justice was found to have a direct impact on health, but not on job mobility; whereas turnover intentions had a direct effect on job mobility. Conclusion The predictive relationship between job mobility and health has practical implications for health promotive actions in different organizations. PMID:18489747

  14. Longitudinal Relationships Between Productive Activities and Functional Health in Later Years: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Sung-Geun; Turk, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationships between functional health in later years and three types of productive activities: volunteering, full-time, and part-time work. Using the data from five waves (2000-2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, we applied multivariate latent growth curve modeling to examine the longitudinal relationships among individuals 50 or over. Functional health was measured by limitations in activities of daily living. Individuals who volunteered, worked either full time or part time exhibited a slower decline in functional health than nonparticipants. Significant associations were also found between initial functional health and longitudinal changes in productive activity participation. This study provides additional support for the benefits of productive activities later in life; engagement in volunteering and employment are indeed associated with better functional health in middle and old age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Experience of health-system pharmacy administration residents in a longitudinal human resource management program.

    PubMed

    Amerine, Lindsey B Poppe; Granko, Robert P; Savage, Scott W; Daniels, Rowell; Eckel, Stephen F

    2014-12-15

    The experience of health-system pharmacy administration (HSPA) residents in a longitudinal human resource (HR) management program is described. The subsequent benefits to the residents, department, and profession are also discussed. Postgraduate year 2 HSPA residents at an academic medical center desired more responsibility for managing an operational area. To this end, a program was created in which these residents directly manage a small group of pharmacy technicians and report to a clinical manager or assistant director with oversight responsibility. These "resident managers" are responsible, under the direction of the area's clinical manager, for the personnel, schedule, time and attendance, and HR activities of the area. Resident managers have led and sustained operational improvement projects in their areas. In addition to providing learning experiences to residents, the HSPA residency program has also improved the operations of the areas in which these residents work. Benefits to the residents include conducting annual performance evaluations for employees with whom they have a relationship as it is a task every administrator completes. Resident managers at UNC have consistently stated that this longitudinal HR experience is one of the most rewarding and most challenging experiences offered in the two-year HSPA residency. The involvement of HSPA residents in longitudinal management responsibilities furthers residents' leadership success by providing trained managers who are ready to immerse themselves into practice postresidency, having employee engagement and HR skills as well as experiences with leading operational improvements. A longitudinal HR management experience was successfully incorporated into an HSPA residency combined Master of Science degree program. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics observations in the African and American longitudinal sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Mebrahtu, A.; Damtie, B.; Pfaff, R. F.; Zesta, E.; Valladares, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent ground- and space-based observations have shown dramatic longitudinal differences in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, such as enhanced generation of F-region plasma irregularities and the super fountain effect at low latitudes. For example, satellite observations have shown very unique equatorial ionospheric density structures in the African region. The African region is the longitude sector where the peak in large scale plasma depletion activity (zonal width, depletion level, and spacing) is maximal, in which no other region of the globe showed similar characteristics. Indeed, the most recent in situ density observations from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite also reveal similar maximal density depletion activities in Africa. However, the dearth of ground-based instrumentation in the region makes it difficult to confirm the ground-based signatures of these unique equatorial ionospheric structures, ultimately leading the investigation of their physics into speculation. This initiated several open questions, which include: What are the possible governing mechanisms that create unique equatorial structures in Africa? In order to answer such open questions, recently limited progress has been made and very few ground-based instruments, including the AMBER magnetometers network, have been deployed in the region. One of many objectives of AMBER magnetometers network, in coordination with ground- and space-based GPS receiver observations, is to understand the fundamental electrodynamics that govern equatorial ionospheric motion, which includes the evolution and formation of equatorial anomaly. This paper presents initial results from the AMBER magnetometer network and compares electrodynamics results in the Africa sector with similar observations in the American sector. The electron density structure in response to the electrodynamics is also investigated using the available ground-based GPS receivers in the region as

  17. Mental health care use among children and adolescents in Germany: results of the longitudinal BELLA study.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Birte; Klasen, Fionna; Schön, Gerhard; Voss, Catharina; Hölling, Heike; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Data on mental health care use of children and adolescents in Germany is scarce. This study investigates the degree of mental health care use, its trajectories and influencing factors among children and adolescents in Germany, using longitudinal data of the BELLA study. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). Baseline data of N = 2,863 participants aged 7-17 years were collected between 2003 and 2006. The study sample was followed up in three additional measurement points, assessing general mental health problems and impairment, specific mental health problems, and mental health care use. In the current study, we analysed data from the first three measurement points. At baseline, 5.9 % of all participants used mental health care in the past 12 months. Among those with general mental health problems, 29.5 % sought professional help. Only a minority of participants reporting mental health care use at baseline also sought help at the following two measurement points. Analysing a random intercept only model, mental health care use was found to be more likely among participants living in larger communities as well as in the Eastern part of Germany, among those participants with impairment of mental health problems, and signs of externalizing problems. Our results indicate a temporary character of mental health care use. Participants' impairment was identified to be the strongest predictor of mental health care use.

  18. Mental and physical health consequences of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in primary care: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Neria, Yuval; Wickramaratne, Priya; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2013-02-01

    The magnitude of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks was without precedent in the United States, but long-term longitudinal research on its health consequences for primary care patients is limited. We assessed the prevalence and exposure-related determinants of mental disorders, functioning, general medical conditions, and service utilization, 1 and 4 years after the 9/11 attacks, in an urban primary care cohort (N = 444) in Manhattan. Although the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and levels of functional impairment declined over time, a substantial increase in suicidal ideation and missed work was observed. Most medical outcomes and service utilization indicators demonstrated a short-term increase after the 9/11 attacks (mean change of +20.3%), followed by a minor decrease in the subsequent year (mean change of -3.2%). Loss of a close person was associated with the highest risk for poor mental health and functional status over time. These findings highlight the importance of longitudinal assessments of mental, functional, and medical outcomes in urban populations exposed to mass trauma and terrorism.

  19. Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH).

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Watkins, Susan C; Behrman, Jere R; Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Iliana V; Thornton, Rebecca L; Mkandawire, James; Honde, Hastings; Hawara, Augustine; Chilima, Ben; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwapasa, Victor; Fleming, Peter; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda

    2015-04-01

    The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing, publicly available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. The MLSFH was initially established in 1998 to study social network influences on fertility behaviours and HIV risk perceptions, and over time the focus of the study expanded to include health, sexual behaviours, intergenerational relations and family/household dynamics. The currently available data include MLSFH rounds collected in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4000 individuals, providing information about socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, risk perceptions, social networks and social capital, intergenerational relations, HIV/AIDS and other dimensions of health. The MLSFH public use data can be requested on the project website: http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu/. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Hidden Criteria for Out-of-Home Day-Care Centre Admission in Pokhara, Nepal: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Shinji; Poudel, Krishna C.; Lopchan, Milan; Ichikawa, Masao; Poudel, Om R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal observational study evaluated whether admission priorities given to children on waiting lists for out-of-home day-care centres (DCCs), determined as being either an early or late admission to DCCs, are determined by actual childcare needs and are assigned to children of disadvantaged families, in public DCCs in Pokhara, Nepal,…

  1. Longitudinal pressure ulcer rates since the adoption of culture change in Veterans Health Administration nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Christine W.; Shwartz, Michael; Zhao, Shibei; Palmer, Jennifer A.; Berlowitz, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine facility-level pressure ulcer development rates and variations in these rates after a system-wide adoption of culture change in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes. Design 4-year retrospective longitudinal design. Setting 109 VHA facilities representing 132 nursing homes, known as Community Living Centers (CLCs). Measurements Pressure ulcers were identified using FY08-11 Minimum Data Set (MDS) data. Pressure ulcer development was defined as a stage 2 or larger pressure ulcer on an MDS assessment with no pressure ulcer on the previous assessment. A risk adjustment model was developed using 105,274 MDS observations to predict the likelihood of pressure ulcers (c statistic = 0.72). A Bayesian hierarchical model that adjusted for differences in the precision of pressure ulcer rates from differently sized facilities was used to calculate smoothed risk-adjusted (SRA) rates for each facility. The statistical significance of the trend over the 4 years was determined by examining the 95% interval estimate for the slope. Results Over the 4 year period, the beginning of which coincided with the VHA’s system-wide adoption of culture change as a performance measure, median SRA facility pressure ulcer development rates were fairly consistent at approximately 4%. The range in SRA rates declined from 14.8% to 10.1%. Some facilities had significantly improving SRA rates (e.g., declined steadily from 5.5% to 3.9%) and some had significantly worsening SRA rates (e.g., increased steadily from 5.1% to 7.9%). Seven sites had significantly improving rates (p<.001) that were below the median across all 4 years. Conclusion CLC pressure ulcer development rates were unaffected by a system-wide culture change implementation. There was, however, significant variation in facility rates and some facilities exhibited sustained high performance. PMID:26782865

  2. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. Objective The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale” (dallas) from 2012-2015. Methods The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. Results We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Conclusions

  3. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally; Mair, Frances S

    2017-02-16

    Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale" (dallas) from 2012-2015. The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Although there is receptiveness to digital health

  4. China’s new cooperative medical scheme and equity in access to health care: evidence from a longitudinal household survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was brought to life in 2003 in response to the deterioration in access to health services in rural areas. Despite its fast expansion, the scheme’s impacts on access to health care have raised growing concerns, in particular regarding whether and to what extent the scheme has reduced inequity in access to health care in rural China. Methods This study examines income-related inequity in access to health care from 2004 (before the national rollout of NCMS) to 2009 (after the expansion of NCMS across the rural China) by estimating Concentration Indices over both formal health care (outpatient care, prevention care) and informal health care use (folk doctor care). Data were drawn from a longitudinal household survey dataset - China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Results The study suggested that the level of inequity remained the same for outpatient care, and an increased favouring-poor gap in terms of folk doctor care was observed. In terms of preventive care, a favouring-rich inequity was observed both in 2004 and 2009, but the effects of inequity were narrowed. The NCMS had some effects in reducing income-related health inequity in folk doctor care and preventive care, but the contribution was rather small. The study also found that the rural better-off had started to seek for commercial insurance to cover possible financial risks from the burden of diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that the impacts of the NCMS on improving access to formal care for the poor are limited. Without a more comprehensive insurance package that effectively targets the rural poor, the intended equity goals expected from the scheme will be difficult to realize. PMID:23522336

  5. The Fit for School Health Outcome Study - a longitudinal survey to assess health impacts of an integrated school health programme in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Monse, Bella; Benzian, Habib; Naliponguit, Ella; Belizario, Vincente; Schratz, Alexander; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2013-03-21

    Child health in many low- and middle-income countries lags behind international goals and affects children's education, well-being, and general development. Large-scale school health programmes can be effective in reducing preventable diseases through cost-effective interventions. This paper outlines the baseline and 1-year results of a longitudinal health study assessing the impact of the Fit for School Programme in the Philippines. A longitudinal 4-year cohort study was conducted in the province of Camiguin, Mindanao (experimental group); an external concurrent control group was studied in Gingoog, Mindanao. The study has three experimental groups: group 1-daily handwashing with soap, daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste, biannual deworming with 400 mg albendazole (Essential Health Care Program [EHCP]); group 2-EHCP plus twice-a-year access to school-based Oral Urgent Treatment; group 3-EHCP plus weekly toothbrushing with high-fluoride concentration gel. A non-concurrent internal control group was also included. Baseline data on anthropometric indicators to calculate body mass index (BMI), soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infection in stool samples, and dental caries were collected in August 2009 and August 2010. Data were analysed to assess validity of the control group design, baseline, and 1-year results. In the cohort study, 412 children were examined at baseline and 341 1 year after intervention. The baseline results were in line with national averages for STH infection, BMI, and dental caries in group 1 and the control groups. Children lost to follow-up had similar baseline characteristics in the experimental and control groups. After 1 year, group 1 showed a significantly higher increase in mean BMI and lower prevalence of moderate to heavy STH infection than the external concurrent control group. The increases in caries and dental infections were reduced but not statistically significant. The results for groups 2 and 3 will be reported separately

  6. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents: The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-03-01

    Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. Eight health risk behaviors (no regular consumption of fruit, vegetables or breakfast, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol use and cannabis use) were assessed in a prospective population study (second and third wave). Participants were assessed in three waves between ages 10 and 17 (2001-2008; n=2230). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the influence of gender, self-control, parental health risk behaviors, parental monitoring and socioeconomic factors on the number of health risk behaviors adjusted for preceding multiple health risk behaviors (analysis: 2013-2014). Rates of >5 health risk behaviors were high: 3.6% at age 13.5 and 10.2% at age 16. Smoking at age 13.5 was frequently associated with health risk behaviors at age 16. No regular consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity and smoking predicted the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors at follow-up. Significant predictors of the development of multiple health risk behaviors were adolescents' levels of self-control, socioeconomic status and maternal smoking. Multiple health risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Individual and social factors predict changes in multiple health risk behaviors, showing that prevention targeting multiple risk behaviors is needed. Special attention should be paid to adolescents with low self-control and families with low socioeconomic status or a mother who smokes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Print news and health psychology: some observations.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Esther

    2006-03-01

    This commentary overviews the look of health news in American print journalism and the research that suggests how health news creates influence at both the individual and policy levels. Crime and violence are argued to be public health issues, but unfortunately they are often not treated as such. There is clearly room for improvement in all areas of health news, but unfortunately the extreme stress that newspapers are under to maintain their high profit margins suggests that the resources for such improvement are unlikely to be available. Examination of the Minneapolis Star Tribune's coverage of health, crime and violence exemplifies problematic aspects.

  8. The association between adolescents' health and disparities in school career: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Uiters, Ellen; Maurits, Erica; Droomers, Mariël; Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Verheij, Robert A; van der Lucht, Fons

    2014-10-25

    Literature suggests that children's educational achievement is associated with their health status and the socioeconomic position of their parents. Few studies have investigated this association in adolescence, while this is an important period affecting future life trajectories. Our study investigates the relationship between adolescents' health and their subsequent school career, taking into account their parents' socioeconomic position. Data of all Dutch adolescents who entered secondary education in 2003, according to the national education register, were linked to electronic health records from general practices and to data from the Dutch population register on a patient by patient basis. Secondary school career data of 2455 adolescents were available for several years, resulting in a longitudinal prospective cohort. School career was measured by the completion of secondary education within the research period. For most health problems, adolescents' health status at the moment of entering secondary education showed no association with the subsequent course of their school career. However, adolescents who had more frequent contact with their general practitioner for acute psychosocial problems (e.g. enuresis or overactive/hyperkinetic disorder), were less likely to complete their secondary education, also after adjustment for parental socioeconomic position. They were also less likely to complete their secondary education at the level of entry. Adolescents' secondary school career is negatively affected by the presence of acute psychosocial health problems, but not by the presence of physical health problems. This underlines the importance of adequately addressing mental health problems in adolescence.

  9. Health among Swedish employees and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vingård, Eva; Lampa, Erik; Wahlstedt, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background. The present study is part of a 3-year longitudinal study on work and health among employees in the public sector in Sweden. The aim was to study associations between self-rated health (SRH) and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Methods. Of the 9003 employees, 7533 answered the baseline questionnaires (84%). Altogether 9373 subjects received the follow-up questionnaire, and 6617 subjects responded (71%). In total 4240 completed the questionnaire on both occasions, and this group comprised the study population. SRH consisted of the response to a single question: ‘In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, poor, or very poor?' The health was investigated in terms of the development of health status in the 3-year follow-up. The exposure factors were: financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Odds ratios were analysed using logistic regressions. Results. Good financial situation and further education were predictors in maintaining good health and in avoiding poor health. The analysis also indicated the following determinants of sustained good SRH: having a good financial situation (OR 1.99 at baseline and OR 1.87 at follow-up), having a further education compared to lower education (OR 1.17 at baseline), and not having a worsening financial situation between baseline and follow-up (OR 0.53). Conclusion. Financial situation and educational level were important factors that influence the subjective perception of health. PMID:22862746

  10. Association of FTO with obesity-related traits in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Leslie A; Qin, Li; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

    2008-07-01

    The underlying genetic component of obesity-related traits is not well understood, and there is limited evidence to support genetic association shared across multiple studies, populations, and environmental contexts. The present study investigated the association between candidate variants and obesity-related traits in a sample of 1,886 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) cohort. We selected and genotyped 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 genes (ADRB2, ADRB3, FTO, GNB3, INSIG2, LEPR, PPARG, TNF, UCP2, and UCP3) that had been previously reported to be associated with an obesity-related quantitative trait. We observed evidence for association of the A allele of rs9939609 (FTO intron 1) with increased BMI (P = 0.0072 before multiple test correction), baseline BMI (P = 0.0015), longitudinal BMI based on eight surveys from 1983 to 2005 (P = 0.000029), waist circumference (P = 0.0094), and weight (P = 0.021). The increase in average BMI was approximately 0.4 for each additional A allele. We also observed association of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant with BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, weight, fat mass, arm fat area, and arm muscle area (P < 0.05), although the direction of effect is inconsistent with the majority of previous reports. Our study confirms that FTO is a common obesity susceptibility gene in Filipinos, with an effect size similar to that seen in samples of European origin.

  11. Long-term Antifungal Treatment Improves Health Status in Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-shair, Khaled; Atherton, Graham T.; Harris, Christine; Ratcliffe, Libuse; Newton, Philippa J.; Denning, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an infectious disease that progressively destroys lung tissue. To date, no longitudinal data on the efficacy of antifungal treatment on health status in CPA patients exist. Methods. Using the standardized St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the health status of 122 patients with was assessed at baseline and quarterly over 12 months. The score range was 0–100, where higher score indicates worse heath status, and a change of ≥4 was deemed the minimal clinically important difference. Lung function, body mass index, Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, disease severity, and demographic data were reported. Results. Mean age of patients was 59 years, and 45% were female. Overall, patients with CPA had substantial health status impairment at baseline. After treatment, 47%–50% gained substantial health improvement with a mean reduction of score of 14 at both 6 and 12 months, whereas 32% deteriorated with a mean rise of score of 11 and 14 after 6 and 12 months of treatment and observation, respectively, and 21% were not much different (stable). Patients gained therapeutic benefit irrespective of their illness severity where >50% of those who had “poor” and “very poor” status at baseline improved with score reduction of ≥4 after 6 months of treatment. Replicating this analysis using a health status category, we found that at least 50% of patients with a “poor/very poor” health status category at baseline improved significantly to “fair” or “good/very good” categories. Side effects burdened health status considerably. In multivariate analysis, dyspnea and disease severity significantly defined health status impairment. Conclusions. Antifungal therapy improved health status and prevented CPA progression in most patients. PMID:23788240

  12. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  13. Longitudinal patterns of offending during the transition to adulthood in youth from the mental health system.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Banks, Steven; Fisher, William; Grudzinskas, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Arrest rates among the population of youth who have been served in child mental health systems are known to be high during adolescence and young adulthood, but individual longitudinal patterns have not been examined. The present study used developmental trajectory modeling, a contemporary method used widely in criminology, to examine clusters of individual criminal justice involvement patterns at ages 8 through 25, from database records of 131 individuals in public adolescent mental health services. Three groups of particular concern emerged: one with increasingly high offense rates and two with moderate to high violent offense rates that did not desist. Offense patterns in these groups indicate that early intervention should occur before age 15. Some risk factors were identified. Peak offending for most groups occurred between ages 18 and 20. Implications of these findings for mental health services during the transition to adulthood are offered.

  14. The effects of work organization on the health of immigrant manual workers: A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a longitudinal design to examine the associations of work organization and health outcomes among Latino manual workers. Participants included 247 Latino workers who completed baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews and clinical examinations. Health outcome measures were epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, back pain, and depressive symptoms. Independent measures were measures of job demand, job control, and job support. Workers commonly experienced rotator cuff syndrome (6.5%), back pain (8.9%), and depressive symptoms (11.2%); fewer experienced epicondylitis (2.4%). Psychological demand was associated with rotator cuff syndrome; awkward position and decision latitude were associated with back pain. Decreased skill variety but increased decision latitude was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Work context factors are important for health outcomes among vulnerable workers. Further research is needed to expand upon this work, particularly cultural perspectives on job support.

  15. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  16. Maternal psychological responses during pregnancy after ultrasonographic detection of structural fetal anomalies: A prospective longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kaasen, Anne; Helbig, Anne; Malt, Ulrik F.; Næs, Tormod; Skari, Hans; Haugen, Guttorm

    2017-01-01

    In this longitudinal prospective observational study performed at a tertiary perinatal referral centre, we aimed to assess maternal distress in pregnancy in women with ultrasound findings of fetal anomaly and compare this with distress in pregnant women with normal ultrasound findings. Pregnant women with a structural fetal anomaly (n = 48) and normal ultrasound (n = 105) were included. We administered self-report questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire-28, Impact of Event Scale-22 [IES], and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) a few days following ultrasound detection of a fetal anomaly or a normal ultrasound (T1), 3 weeks post-ultrasound (T2), and at 30 (T3) and 36 weeks gestation (T4). Social dysfunction, health perception, and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, and depression) were the main outcome measures. The median gestational age at T1 was 20 and 19 weeks in the group with and without fetal anomaly, respectively. In the fetal anomaly group, all psychological distress scores were highest at T1. In the group with a normal scan, distress scores were stable throughout pregnancy. At all assessments, the fetal anomaly group scored significantly higher (especially on depression-related questions) compared to the normal scan group, except on the IES Intrusion and Arousal subscales at T4, although with large individual differences. In conclusion, women with a known fetal anomaly initially had high stress scores, which gradually decreased, resembling those in women with a normal pregnancy. Psychological stress levels were stable and low during the latter half of gestation in women with a normal pregnancy. PMID:28350879

  17. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacomb, Patricia A; Jorm, Anthony F; Korten, Ailsa E; Christensen, Helen; Henderson, A Scott

    2002-01-01

    Background The loss of participants in longitudinal studies due to non-contact, refusal or death can introduce bias into the results of such studies. The study described here examines reasons for refusal over three waves of a survey of persons aged ≥ 70 years. Methods In a longitudinal study involving three waves, participants were compared to those who refused to participate but allowed an informant to be interviewed and to those who refused any participation. Results At Wave 1 both groups of Wave 2 non-participants had reported lower occupational status and fewer years of education, had achieved lower verbal IQ scores and cognitive performance scores and experienced some distress from the interview. Those with an informant interview only were in poorer physical health than those who participated and those who refused. Depression and anxiety symptoms were not associated with non-participation. Multivariate analyses found that verbal IQ and cognitive impairment predicted refusal. Results were very similar for refusers at both Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Longitudinal studies of the elderly may over estimate cognitive performance because of the greater refusal rate of those with poorer performance. However, there is no evidence of bias with respect to anxiety or depression. PMID:11914148

  18. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Serum Bilirubin and Prediabetes in a Health Screening Population.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal associations between total bilirubin (TB) and prediabetes have not been reported. This study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TB and prediabetes. Cross-sectional associations between TB and prediabetes were investigated in 3681 nondiabetic subjects. Longitudinal associations between TB and prediabetes over 6 years were investigated in 2149 subjects who were normoglycemic at baseline. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels of ≥5.6 mmol/L or glycated hemoglobin levels of ≥5.7% excluding diabetes. The prevalence of prediabetes was 25.4%, and the cumulative incidence of prediabetes during 6 years was 25.5% in a Japanese health screening population. Prevalent prediabetes was significantly associated with the quintiles of TB in nonsmoking men (trend, p<0.001) and women (trend, p=0.012), but not in smoking men (trend, p=0.689). Incident prediabetes was not significantly associated with the quintiles of TB, while it was positively associated with 1 standard deviation increase in TB in nonsmoking men (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]; 1.21 [1.07 to 1.37], p=0.002). TB levels were significantly inversely associated with prevalent prediabetes in nonsmokers, but not in smokers, whereas an inverse association between TB levels and incident prediabetes seemed to be unlikely. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generating qualitative data by design: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health qualitative data collection.

    PubMed

    Tavener, Meredith; Chojenta, Catherine; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-07-15

    Objectives and importance of study: The purpose of this study was to illustrate how qualitative free-text comments, collected within the context of a health survey, represent a rich data source for understanding specific phenomena. Work conducted with data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) was used to demonstrate the breadth and depth of qualitative information that can be collected. The ALSWH has been collecting data on women's health since 1996, and represents a unique opportunity for understanding lived experiences across the lifecourse. A multiple case study design was used to demonstrate the techniques that researchers have used to manage free-text qualitative comments collected by the ALSWH. Eleven projects conducted using free-text comments are discussed according to the method of analysis. These methods include coding (both inductively and deductively), longitudinal analyses and software-based analyses. This work shows that free-text comments are a data resource in their own right, and have the potential to provide rich and valuable information about a wide variety of topics.

  20. Observation of guided longitudinal acoustic modes and nondestructive characterization of the elastic properties of hard films/coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chirita, M.; Sooryakumar, R.; Xia, Hua; Monteiro, O. R.; Brown, I. G.

    1999-12-02

    We report on a new high frequency excitation, identified as a longitudinal guided mode, supported in a hard isotropic film deposited on a substrate. The observation of this mode allows for a direct determination of the C{sub 11} elastic constant of the film. The remaining constant, C{sub 44}, was determined through a least square fit to the dispersion of the pseudo surface wave. Properties of the observed excitations were investigated by evaluating their mode density and polarization characteristics.

  1. Daytime longitudinal structures of electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere observed by the Hinotori and DEMETER satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinami, Y.; Lin, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Kamogawa, M.; Watanabe, S.; Parrot, M.

    2011-05-01

    Daytime longitudinal structures of the electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) in the topside ionosphere observed by Hinotori and DEMETER are examined under various conditions of solar flux, local time, and seasons. Results from both satellites show a similar longitudinal Ne structure in the morning from July to October, although the value of Ne observed by Hinotori is higher than that of DEMETER owing to higher solar flux. This result implies that the longitudinal structure of Ne may appear in any solar cycle. Further, a negative correlation between Ne and Te in the longitudinal structures appears in the morning when Ne is low, while a positive correlation appears around the magnetic equator when Ne is sufficiently enhanced during noontime in the high solar flux. A spectrum analysis performed on the DEMETER data reveals that wave numbers 1-2 for Ne and Te are dominant and nondominant. The observed wave numbers 3-4 for Ne are dominant during November-May and June-October, while they are dominant for Te during October-June and July-September. Both Ne and Te show the largest power of wave number 3 in December and wave number 4 in September. Further, observed annual variations of wave numbers 3-4 for Ne and Te also differ from wave numbers 3-4 generated by waves in the lower thermosphere. It can be interpreted as discrepancies between the longitudinal distributions of Ne and Te caused by difference in the condition of zonal winds driving E region dynamo and meridional winds modulating the ionospheric plasma structures.

  2. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  3. Rural-urban migration and health: evidence from longitudinal data in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies on the impact of migration on health often face the difficulties of choosing the proper comparison group and addressing potential selection of migration. Using longitudinal data for 1997 and 2000 from Indonesia, this paper examines the effect of rural-urban migration on physical and psychological health, by (1) comparing the health of migrants with that of the appropriate group of comparison, people who remained in rural origins, and (2) studying health both prior to and after migration to adjust for possible selection bias. The research further explores various socioeconomic, psychosocial, and behavioral pathways mediating the migration effect. Results show that rural-urban labor migration increased the risk of psychological disorder as measured by depressive symptoms. This was largely a result of reduced social support due to family disruption, because the deleterious effect was particularly strong for migrants who moved alone and was negligible for migrants moving with family members. In contrast, migration had little impact on physical health in the medium term. This was largely attributed to the multiple offsetting influences of migration: migration improved economic status and living standards but led to increased work-related stressors and barriers to health utilization. In addition, despite earning higher income, migrants tend to underconsume and remit a large amount of earnings to original families, which hindered potential health gains from improved economic well-being. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.

  5. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions.

  6. Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Elena; Salvini, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Working conditions have changed dramatically over recent decades in all the countries of European Union: permanent full-time employment characterized by job security and a stable salary is replaced more and more by temporary work, apprenticeship contracts, casual jobs and part-time work. The consequences of these changes on the general well-being of workers and their health represent an increasingly important path of inquiry. We add to the debate by answering the question: are Italian workers on temporary contracts more likely to suffer from poor health than those with permanent jobs? Our analysis is based on a sample of men and women aged 16-64 coming from the Italian longitudinal survey 2007-2010 of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. We use the method of inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to estimate the causal effect of temporary work on self-rated health, controlling for selection effects. Our major findings can be summarized as follows: firstly, we show a negative association between temporary employment and health that results from a statistical causal effect in the work-to-health direction, and does not trivially derive from a selection of healthier individuals in the group of people who find permanent jobs (selection effect). Secondly, we find that temporary employment becomes particularly negative for the individual's health when it is prolonged over time. Thirdly, whereas temporary employment does not entail significant adverse consequences for men, the link between temporary employment and health is strongly harmful for Italian women.

  7. The influence of organizational commitment and health on sickness absenteeism: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schalk, René

    2011-07-01

    The prevention of sickness absenteeism of nurses is an important issue for organizations in health care as well as for nurses. The role of work-related attitudes, such as organizational commitment, as a cause of absenteeism is still unclear. To examine the influence over time of organizational commitment, health complaints, and visits to a general practitioner on sickness absenteeism. This was a longitudinal, three-wave study in two nursing homes in the Netherlands among 224 nurses. Questionnaire data (self reports of organizational commitment, health complaints, visits to a general practitioner), as well as absenteeism data retrieved from personnel files was used. Health complaints and visits to a general practitioner were found to predict absenteeism behaviour. Commitment was related to health complaints at the same point in time, but did not predict future sickness absenteeism. With respect to managing sickness absenteeism of nurses it should be acknowledged by managers that nurses call in sick when they perceive that there is a real health problem, not because of negative work attitudes. It is important, however, for managers to signal signs of decreasing organizational commitment because this is associated with increases in health complaints. This can eventually result in increases in absenteeism. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The effect of food insecurity on health status of adolescents in Ethiopia: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jebena, Mulusew G; Lindstrom, David; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    The effect of food insecurity on health and wellbeing of a population has been the subject of much research. Yet, limited research has investigated its effect on adolescents' health and wellbeing in Ethiopia. We used data from the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth which began tracking a cohort of adolescents in 2005 to examine the social, behavioral and economic determinants of their health and well-being. A total of 1,919 sample were included in the main analyses. All youths provided data related to their food insecurity experiences and their health status. A mixed effect logistic regression using random intercept and trend model was used to examine the relationship between food insecurity and their health status. Fixed effects estimates were also computed to check the parsimoniousness of the random intercept and trend model. The results indicated that the mean (±SD) age of adolescents was 18.6(±1.4). Nine hundred twenty three (48.1%) of them were female. The magnitude of self-rated health status was relatively unstable ranging from 18.9%, 34.7% to 37.3% in each round. Similarly, 20.4%, 48.4% and 20.6% of adolescents were food insecure during each consecutive round of the survey respectively. Exposure to food insecurity is strongly associated with self-rated health status (β = 0.28, P < 0.001) and poor self-rated health was also more pronounced for some time (β =2.11, P < 0.001) and decline after a turning point (β = -0.38, P < 0.001). These findings imply that any social, nutrition and public health interventions designed to improve adolescent health should consider underlying social determinants of health such as food insecurity.

  9. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  10. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  11. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  12. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  13. The differences in health care utilization between Medical Aid and health insurance: a longitudinal study using propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Health care utilization has progressively increased, especially among Medical Aid beneficiaries in South Korea. The Medical Aid classifies beneficiaries into two categories, type 1 and 2, on the basis of being incapable (those under 18 or over 65 years of age, or disabled) or capable of working, respectively. Medical Aid has a high possibility for health care utilization due to high coverage level. In South Korea, the national health insurance (NHI) achieved very short time to establish coverage for the entire Korean population. However there there remaine a number of problems to be solved. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the differences in health care utilization between Medical Aid beneficiaries and Health Insurance beneficiaries. Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study from 2008 to 2012 using propensity score matching. Of the 2,316 research subjects, 579 had Medical Aid and 1,737 had health insurance. We also analyzed three dependent variables: days spent in the hospital, number of outpatient visits, and hospitalizations per year. Analysis of variance and longitudinal data analysis were used. The number of outpatient visits was 1.431 times higher (p<0.0001) in Medical Aid beneficiaries, the number of hospitalizations per year was 1.604 times higher (p<0.0001) in Medical Aid beneficiaries, and the number of days spent in the hospital per year was 1.282 times higher (p<0.268) for Medical Aid beneficiaries than in individuals with Health Insurance. Medical Aid patients had a 0.874 times lower frequency of having an unmet needs due to economic barrier (95% confidence interval: 0.662-1.156). Health insurance coverage has an impact on health care utilization. More health care utilization among Medical Aid beneficiaries appears to have a high possibility of a moral hazard risk under the Health Insurance program. Therefore, the moral hazard for Medical Aid beneficiaries should be avoided.

  14. Longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content: observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Lian; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Wan, Weixing

    2016-07-01

    Radio signals transmitted from GPS satellite going through the ionization zone above the Earth will be refracted by the ionized components in the ionosphere and the plasmasphere, which would produce additional transfer delay and generate extra errors in satellite navigation and positioning, etc. These errors have strong relation with the total electron content (TEC) along the signal's travelling path. Therefore TEC is one of the most important parameters required by many users for different modern usage purposes. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content makes a large contribution to TEC. In the present study, data for the year 2008 of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) between the height of 800-20200km above the Earth derived from the upward-looking TEC measurements of the precise orbit determination antenna on board the COSMIC low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to the GPS signals are used to study the longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of PEC. A comparison study of the observed PEC with the IZMIRAN_Plas model results is also made. Our study showed that PEC shows different seasonal variations at different longitudinal sectors: for the 240°E-60°E longitudinal sector, PEC shows a strong annual variation with lowest value in the June solstice and highest value in the December solstice months; In contrast, very weak seasonal variations are observed for PEC at 60°E-240°E longitudinal sector; Comparison study showed that this longitudinal dependence feature of the observed PEC's seasonal variation is not well captured by the IZMIRAN_Plas model result. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 41274163)

  15. Exposure to temporary employment and job insecurity: a longitudinal study of the health effects.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-08-01

    This study analysed interactions between job insecurity and temporary employment and health. We tested the violation hypothesis (whether permanent employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) and the intensification hypothesis (whether temporary employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) in a longitudinal setting. Previous research on this topic is scarce and based on cross-sectional data. A population cohort (n=1071) was surveyed at age 30 and age 42. Exposure to temporary employment during this 12-year period was elicited with a job-time matrix and measured as the score of 6-month periods. Exposure to job insecurity was measured according to the perceived threat of unemployment. Health at follow-up was assessed as optimal versus suboptimal self-rated health, sleep quality and mental health. In addition to sociodemographics and baseline health, the analyses were adjusted for exposure to unemployment, non-employment and self-employment during the 12-year period. 26% of participants had been exposed to temporary employment. The effect of job insecurity on health was the same in the exposed and unexposed groups, that is the violation hypothesis was not supported. Non-significant interactions between the exposures and all health outcomes also indicated null findings regarding the intensification hypothesis. These findings suggest that perceived job insecurity can lead to adverse health effects in both permanent and temporary employees. Policies should aim to improve work-related well-being by reducing job insecurity. Efforts towards 'flexicurity' are important, but it is equally important to remember that a significant proportion of employees with a permanent contract experience job insecurity.

  16. Mental health outcomes of burn: A longitudinal population-based study of adults hospitalized for burns.

    PubMed

    Logsetty, Sarvesh; Shamlou, Amir; Gawaziuk, Justin P; March, Justin; Doupe, Malcolm; Chateau, Dan; Hoppensack, Mike; Khan, Sazzadul; Medved, Maria; Leslie, William D; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the increased risk of mental health outcomes and health care utilization associated with burn with two year of follow-up using a longitudinal population-based matched cohort design. Adult burn survivors (n=157) were identified from a provincial burn registry and matched 1:5 with non-burn control subjects from the general population (matching variables age and gender). The prevalence of mental health outcomes and the rates of health care utilization between the groups were compared for the 2years pre and post index date using anonymously linked population-based administrative health care data. Rates were adjusted for age, gender and sociodemographic characteristics. While the burn cohort had an increased prevalence of mental health problems after burn compared to the control cohort, the burn group also had an increased prevalence of pre-burn depression (16.6% vs 7.8%; p=0.0005) and substance use disorders (8.9% vs 3.2%; p=0.001) when compared to controls. Once the pre-existing prevalence of mental illness was taken into account there was no significant change in the prevalence of mental health problems when comparing the burn group to controls over time. Although burns may not increase rates of mental health issues and health care utilization, burn survivors are a vulnerable group who already demonstrate increased rates of psychopathology and need for care. The present study highlights the importance of assessment and treatment of mental health outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Longitudinal Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response to Wildfire, Bastrop County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Katie R; Feldt, Bonnie A; Zane, David F; Haywood, Tracy; Jones, Russell W; Horney, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    On September 4, 2011, a wildfire ignited in Bastrop County, Texas, resulting in losses of 34,068 acres of land and 1,645 homes and 2 deaths. At the request of the Texas Department of State Health Services Health Service Region 7 and the Bastrop County Office of Emergency Management, Community Assessments for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) were conducted in the weeks following the wildfire and again 3.5 years later to assess both the immediate and long-term public health and preparedness impacts of the wildfire. The objective of these assessments was to learn more about the trajectory of disaster recovery, including rebuilding, evacuation, household emergency planning, and mental and physical health outcomes among both adults and children. In 2015, households exposed to the 2011 wildfires were significantly more likely to have established a family meeting place and evacuation route, to have confidence in the local government's ability to respond to disaster, and to report symptoms of depression and higher stress. Longitudinal assessments using the CASPER method can provide actionable information for improved planning, preparedness, and recovery to public health and emergency management agencies and community residents.

  18. Methods for analyzing observational longitudinal prognosis studies for rheumatic diseases: a review & worked example using a clinic-based cohort of juvenile dermatomyositis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lily Siok Hoon; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Moineddin, Rahim; Gladman, Dafna D; Silverman, Earl D; Feldman, Brian M

    2017-03-29

    Most outcome studies of rheumatic diseases report outcomes ascertained on a single occasion. While single assessments are sufficient for terminal or irreversible outcomes, they may not be sufficiently informative if outcomes change or fluctuate over time. Consequently, longitudinal studies that measure non-terminal outcomes repeatedly afford a better understanding of disease evolution.Longitudinal studies require special analytic methods. Newer longitudinal analytic methods have evolved tremendously to deal with common challenges in longitudinal observational studies. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used longitudinal design. This review aims to help readers understand and apply the findings from longitudinal studies. Using a cohort of children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), we illustrate how to study evolution of disease activity in JDM using longitudinal methods.

  19. Longitudinal Patterns of Health Insurance Coverage Among a National Sample of Children in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Aarons, Gregory A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe health insurance coverage over time among a national sample of children who came into contact with child welfare or child protective services agencies. Methods. We used data from 4 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine insurance coverage among 2501 youths. Longitudinal insurance trajectories were identified using latent class analyses, a technique used to classify individuals into groupings of observed variables, and survey-weighted logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with class membership. Results. We identified 2 latent insurance classes—1 contained children who gained health insurance, and the other contained children who stably maintained coverage over time. History of sexual abuse, and race/ethnicity other than White, Black, and Hispanic, were associated with membership in the “gainer” class. Foster care placement and poorer health status were associated with membership in the “maintainer” class. Caregiver characteristics were not associated with class membership. Conclusions. The majority of children in child welfare had stable health insurance coverage over time. Given this vulnerable population’s dependence upon Medicaid, protection of existing entitlements to Medicaid is essential to preserve their stable insurance coverage. PMID:18235059

  20. Longitudinal patterns of health insurance coverage among a national sample of children in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Aarons, Gregory A; Roesch, Scott C; Leslie, Laurel K

    2008-03-01

    We sought to describe health insurance coverage over time among a national sample of children who came into contact with child welfare or child protective services agencies. We used data from 4 waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine insurance coverage among 2501 youths. Longitudinal insurance trajectories were identified using latent class analyses, a technique used to classify individuals into groupings of observed variables, and survey-weighted logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with class membership. We identified 2 latent insurance classes--1 contained children who gained health insurance, and the other contained children who stably maintained coverage over time. History of sexual abuse, and race/ethnicity other than White, Black, and Hispanic, were associated with membership in the "gainer" class. Foster care placement and poorer health status were associated with membership in the "maintainer" class. Caregiver characteristics were not associated with class membership. The majority of children in child welfare had stable health insurance coverage over time. Given this vulnerable population's dependence upon Medicaid, protection of existing entitlements to Medicaid is essential to preserve their stable insurance coverage.

  1. Causal inference and longitudinal data: a case study of religion and mental health.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Jackson, John W; Li, Shanshan

    2016-11-01

    We provide an introduction to causal inference with longitudinal data and discuss the complexities of analysis and interpretation when exposures can vary over time. We consider what types of causal questions can be addressed with the standard regression-based analyses and what types of covariate control and control for the prior values of outcome and exposure must be made to reason about causal effects. We also consider newer classes of causal models, including marginal structural models, that can assess questions of the joint effects of time-varying exposures and can take into account feedback between the exposure and outcome over time. Such feedback renders cross-sectional data ineffective for drawing inferences about causation. The challenges are illustrated by analyses concerning potential effects of religious service attendance on depression, in which there may in fact be effects in both directions with service attendance preventing the subsequent depression, but depression itself leading to lower levels of the subsequent religious service attendance. Longitudinal designs, with careful control for prior exposures, outcomes, and confounders, and suitable methodology, will strengthen research on mental health, religion and health, and in the biomedical and social sciences generally.

  2. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  3. USE OF BIOMARKERS TO INDICATE EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO ORGANOPHOSPATE PESTICIDES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of their widespread use in the U.S. and unkown long-term health effects, planning for the National Children's Study (NCS) includes consideration of organophosphate pestcides (OPs) as a chemical class of interest in a longitudinal study of children's environmental health...

  4. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL.

  6. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-01-01

    Background Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Conclusions Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly

  7. Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all). Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition.

  8. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    El-Hilly, Abdulrahman Abdulla; Iqbal, Sheeraz Syed; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Muntasir, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Sarim; Al-Fagih, Zaid; Usmani, Omar; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-10-24

    Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly against current behavioral support therapy

  9. Causal Latent Markov Model for the Comparison of Multiple Treatments in Observational Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We extend to the longitudinal setting a latent class approach that was recently introduced by Lanza, Coffman, and Xu to estimate the causal effect of a treatment. The proposed approach enables an evaluation of multiple treatment effects on subpopulations of individuals from a dynamic perspective, as it relies on a latent Markov (LM) model that is…

  10. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  11. Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

  12. Causal Latent Markov Model for the Comparison of Multiple Treatments in Observational Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We extend to the longitudinal setting a latent class approach that was recently introduced by Lanza, Coffman, and Xu to estimate the causal effect of a treatment. The proposed approach enables an evaluation of multiple treatment effects on subpopulations of individuals from a dynamic perspective, as it relies on a latent Markov (LM) model that is…

  13. Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

  14. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn. PMID:27965962

  15. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn.

  16. Longitudinal Correlates of Health Risk Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Walders-Abramson, Natalie; Amodei, Nancy; Drews, Kimberly L; Kaplan, Joan; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E; Lavietes, Sylvia; Saletsky, Ron; Seidman, Daniel; Yasuda, Patrice

    2015-05-01

    To characterize, during a 2-year period, the proportion of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth study that reported ever at least trying smoking cigarettes and/or drinking alcohol. Longitudinal data were examined for participants with T2D ages 10-18 years at baseline. Youth psychosocial, parent/family, environmental, and biological correlates of trying health risk behaviors were tested via cross-sectional multivariate models at each time point. Longitudinal models were explored for selected factors. Data were obtained from the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth study's ethnically diverse participants at baseline (N=644), 6-month (N=616), and 24-month (N=543) assessments. The percentage of youth ever trying only smoking remained stable at 4%; only drinking alcohol increased from 17% to 26%, and both smoking and drinking increased from 10% to 18% during the 2-year period. Factors related to trying health risk behaviors were older age, male sex, non-Hispanic white race-ethnicity, lower grades, more depressive symptoms, and stressful life events. Depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and body mass index Z-score (the latter with smoking only) were related to engagement in health risk behaviors over time. Youth with T2D who are already at risk for health complications and who reported engaging in activities that further increase the likelihood of life-threatening morbidities were characterized. Although most correlates of trying these risk behaviors are nonmodifiable, intervention efforts may need to focus on potentially modifiable factors, such as depressive symptoms and lower grades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective observational longitudinal study of new-onset seizures and newly diagnosed epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fredsø, N; Toft, N; Sabers, A; Berendt, M

    2017-02-16

    Seizures are common in dogs and can be caused by non-epileptic conditions or epilepsy. The clinical course of newly diagnosed epilepsy is sparsely documented. The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate causes for seizures (epileptic and non-epileptic) in a cohort of dogs with new-onset untreated seizures, and for those dogs with newly diagnosed epilepsy to investigate epilepsy type, seizure type and the course of disease over time, including the risk of seizure recurrence. Untreated client-owned dogs experiencing new-onset seizures were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal observational study including clinical investigations and long-term monitoring at the Copenhagen University Hospital for Companion Animals. A baseline clinical assessment was followed by investigator/owner contact every eight weeks from inclusion to death or end of study. Inclusion of dogs was conducted from November 2010 to September 2012, and the study terminated in June 2014. One hundred and six dogs were included in the study. Seventy-nine dogs (74.5%) were diagnosed with epilepsy: 61 dogs (77.2%) with idiopathic epilepsy, 13 dogs (16.5%) with structural epilepsy and five dogs (6.3%) with suspected structural epilepsy. A non-epileptic cause for seizures was identified in 13 dogs and suspected in 10 dogs. Four dogs in which no cause for seizures was identified experienced only one seizure during the study. In dogs with idiopathic epilepsy 60% had their second epileptic seizure within three months of seizure onset. Twenty-six dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (43%) completed the study without receiving antiepileptic treatment. The natural course of idiopathic epilepsy (uninfluenced by drugs) was illustrated by highly individual and fluctuating seizure patterns, including long periods of remission. Cluster seizures motivated early treatment. In a few dogs with a high seizure frequency owners declined treatment against the investigators advice. Epilepsy is the most likely

  18. Longitudinal Pressure Ulcer Rates After Adoption of Culture Change in Veterans Health Administration Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christine W; Shwartz, Michael; Zhao, Shibei; Palmer, Jennifer A; Berlowitz, Dan R

    2016-01-01

    To examine facility-level pressure ulcer (PrU) development rates and variations in these rates after a system-wide adoption of culture change in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes. Four-year retrospective longitudinal design. VHA facilities (N=109) representing 132 nursing homes known as community living centers (CLCs). VHA nursing home residents. PrUs were identified using fiscal year (FY) 2008-11 Minimum Data Set (MDS) data. PrU development was defined as a Stage 2 or larger PrU on an MDS assessment with no PrU on the previous assessment. A risk adjustment model was developed using 105,274 MDS observations to predict the likelihood of PrUs (c-statistic=0.72). A Bayesian hierarchical model that adjusted for differences in the precision of PrU rates from different-size facilities was used to calculate smoothed risk-adjusted (SRA) rates for each facility. The statistical significance of the trend over the 4 years was determined by examining the 95% interval estimate for the slope. Over the 4-year period, the beginning of which coincided with the VHA's system-wide adoption of culture change as a performance measure, median SRA facility PrU development rates were fairly consistent at approximately 4%. The range in SRA rates declined over the years, from a 14.8-percentage point spread to 10.1-percentage point spread. Some facilities had significantly improving SRA rates (e.g., declined steadily from 5.5% to 3.9%) and some had significantly worsening SRA rates (e.g., increased steadily from 5.1% to 7.9%). Seven sites had significantly improving rates (P<.001) that were below the median across all 4 years. A system-wide culture change implementation did not affect CLC PrU development rates, but there was significant variation in facility rates, and some facilities had sustained high performance. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. In search of links between social capital, mental health and sociotherapy: a longitudinal study in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Verduin, Femke; Smid, Geert E; Wind, Tim R; Scholte, Willem F

    2014-11-01

    To date, reviews show inconclusive results on the association between social capital and mental health. Evidence that social capital can intentionally be promoted is also scarce. Promotion of social capital may impact post-conflict recovery through both increased social cohesion and better mental health. However, studies on community interventions and social capital have mostly relied on cross-sectional study designs. We present a longitudinal study in Rwanda on the effect on social capital and mental health of sociotherapy, a community-based psychosocial group intervention consisting of fifteen weekly group sessions. We hypothesized that the intervention would impact social capital and, as a result of that, mental health. We used a quasi-experimental study design with measurement points pre- and post-intervention and at eight months follow-up (2007-2008). Considering sex and living situation, we selected 100 adults for our experimental group. We formed a control group of 100 respondents with similar symptom score distribution, age, and sex from a random community sample in the same region. Mental health was assessed by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire, and social capital through a locally adapted version of the short Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool. It measures three elements of social capital: cognitive social capital, support, and civic participation. Latent growth models were used to examine whether effects of sociotherapy on mental health and social capital were related. Civic participation increased with 7% in the intervention group versus 2% in controls; mental health improved with 10% versus 5% (both: p < 0.001). Linear changes over time were not significantly correlated. Support and cognitive social capital did not show consistent changes. These findings hint at the possibility to foster social capital and simultaneously impact mental health. Further identification of pathways of influence may contribute to the designing of psychosocial

  20. Observations on a rural health manpower project.

    PubMed

    Pinchoff, D M; Ingall, J R; Crage, W D

    1977-02-01

    The Rural Externship Program was developed by the Lakes Area Regional Medical Program in conjunction with the State University of New York at Buffalo and the health professionals of western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania. It was designed to encourage health science students to practice in a rural area following graduation. This interdisciplinary program provides health science students with an eight-week summer living-working experience in a rural environment, supervised by practitioner-preceptors. The intent is to develop their appreciation of rural health care and life-styles. Since the summer of 1970, 240 students have participated. This paper describes and discusses the project and presents measures of the externs' changes in attitudes toward rural practice which occurred after they participated in the program. A survey of externs who have graduated shows the effect of the program on their decision to locate. Of the 61 externs contacted, 55 percent indicated that they were in rural practice, and 53 percent of the latter indicated that their experience in the Rural Externship Program was an important factor in their decision to practice in a rural area.

  1. Psychopathology among young homeless people: longitudinal mental health outcomes for different subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Kate J; Shelton, Katherine H; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Homeless young people are recognized as a very vulnerable group in terms of mental health; however, few studies in the UK have examined this. Furthermore, homeless young people represent a heterogeneous group in terms of their mental health and greater characterization could improve intervention work. The aims of this study were to examine prevalence and subtypes of psychopathology among a British sample of young homeless people and to investigate potential associations between identified typologies and a priori specified current and past experiences. In addition, the study intended to explore physical health, mental health, and housing outcomes for the different mental health subgroups. A prospective longitudinal design was used. Structured interviews including a mental health assessment were conducted with 90 young homeless people aged 16-23 years. Follow-up interviews were conducted approximately 10 and 20 months later. Cluster analysis at baseline was used to identify groups based on lifetime mental health problems. The current and lifetime incidence of mental health problems was high (88% and 93%, respectively). Three subgroups of homeless young people were identified: (1) minimal mental health issues; (2) mood, substance, and conduct disorder; and (3) post-traumatic stress disorder, mood, and anxiety issues. These groups differed with respect to follow-up indicators of change and stability of mental health status, service use, and suicide risk, but not housing outcome. Other characteristics (gender ratio, past experiences) also distinguished the subgroups. Typologies of young homeless people based on psychopathology reveal differences in lifetime and future experiences including mental health at follow-up. Identified groups could be used to tailor interventions towards differing needs. Low mood, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and psychosis are common mental health issues among young homeless people in the UK. Subgroups of young homeless people with

  2. Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

  3. Improving the Rank Precision of Population Health Measures for Small Areas with Longitudinal and Joint Outcome Models

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Jessica K.; Remington, Patrick L.; Gangnon, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published the County Health Rankings since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight health outcomes and the multiple determinants of these outcomes and to encourage in-depth health assessment for all United States counties. A significant methodological limitation, however, is the uncertainty of rank estimates, particularly for small counties. To address this challenge, we explore the use of longitudinal and pooled outcome data in hierarchical Bayesian models to generate county ranks with greater precision. Methods In our models we used pooled outcome data for three measure groups: (1) Poor physical and poor mental health days; (2) percent of births with low birth weight and fair or poor health prevalence; and (3) age-specific mortality rates for nine age groups. We used the fixed and random effects components of these models to generate posterior samples of rates for each measure. We also used time-series data in longitudinal random effects models for age-specific mortality. Based on the posterior samples from these models, we estimate ranks and rank quartiles for each measure, as well as the probability of a county ranking in its assigned quartile. Rank quartile probabilities for univariate, joint outcome, and/or longitudinal models were compared to assess improvements in rank precision. Results The joint outcome model for poor physical and poor mental health days resulted in improved rank precision, as did the longitudinal model for age-specific mortality rates. Rank precision for low birth weight births and fair/poor health prevalence based on the univariate and joint outcome models were equivalent. Conclusion Incorporating longitudinal or pooled outcome data may improve rank certainty, depending on characteristics of the measures selected. For measures with different determinants, joint modeling neither improved nor degraded rank precision. This approach suggests a simple

  4. Improving the Rank Precision of Population Health Measures for Small Areas with Longitudinal and Joint Outcome Models.

    PubMed

    Athens, Jessica K; Remington, Patrick L; Gangnon, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published the County Health Rankings since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight health outcomes and the multiple determinants of these outcomes and to encourage in-depth health assessment for all United States counties. A significant methodological limitation, however, is the uncertainty of rank estimates, particularly for small counties. To address this challenge, we explore the use of longitudinal and pooled outcome data in hierarchical Bayesian models to generate county ranks with greater precision. In our models we used pooled outcome data for three measure groups: (1) Poor physical and poor mental health days; (2) percent of births with low birth weight and fair or poor health prevalence; and (3) age-specific mortality rates for nine age groups. We used the fixed and random effects components of these models to generate posterior samples of rates for each measure. We also used time-series data in longitudinal random effects models for age-specific mortality. Based on the posterior samples from these models, we estimate ranks and rank quartiles for each measure, as well as the probability of a county ranking in its assigned quartile. Rank quartile probabilities for univariate, joint outcome, and/or longitudinal models were compared to assess improvements in rank precision. The joint outcome model for poor physical and poor mental health days resulted in improved rank precision, as did the longitudinal model for age-specific mortality rates. Rank precision for low birth weight births and fair/poor health prevalence based on the univariate and joint outcome models were equivalent. Incorporating longitudinal or pooled outcome data may improve rank certainty, depending on characteristics of the measures selected. For measures with different determinants, joint modeling neither improved nor degraded rank precision. This approach suggests a simple way to use existing information to

  5. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objectives of the present study were (1) to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2) to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel), covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based), and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%). A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction. PMID:21529345

  6. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Emily T; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-06-01

    In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship.  We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40-69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness).  Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001.  Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  7. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bronwyn; Inder, Kerry; Allen, Joanne; Thomas, Matthew; Kelly, Brian

    2016-09-15

    Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline). Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β -0.33, 95 % CI -0.53, -0.13) and wellbeing (β -0.21(95 % CI -0.35, -0.06) than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98). All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP) or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97). Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 %) or mental health needs (75 %) and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health professionals should be supported.

  8. Health Care Costs and the Socioeconomic Consequences of Work Injuries in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, Vilma Sousa; FERNANDES DE SOUZA, Luis Eugênio Portela; PINTO, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2013-01-01

    Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System − SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496

  9. School social capital and body mass index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Tracy K; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-12-01

    Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 (N = 13,428), we used principal components analysis to define 3 school social capital factors: "connectedness" (feel part of/close to people/safe in school), "treatment" (get along with teachers/students, teachers treat students fairly), and "parental involvement" (school administrator reported percent family/parent self-reported participation in Parent Teacher Organization, average daily school attendance). We examined the associations between individual- and school-level social capital and individual BMI using multilevel modeling techniques. In girls, both feeling connected to one's school (β = -0.06, p < .05) and attending schools with overall high connectedness (b = -0.43, p < .01) were associated with lower BMIs. In boys only attending a school with high "treatment" was inversely associated with BMI (b = -0.61, p < .01), adjusting for individual and school demographics. Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest enhancing school social capital as a novel approach to addressing student obesity. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Levels of empathy in undergraduate emergency health, nursing, and midwifery students: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Etherington, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examines the extent and nature of empathy among emergency health (paramedic), nursing, and midwifery students at one Australian university and investigates the longitudinal changes in empathy levels across the course of study. Methods First-, second-, and third-year students at Monash University completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy–Health Professional (JSE-HP) in 2008, 2009, and 2010, and the resulting mean empathy scores were analyzed by course, year of course, year of study, age, and sex. Results Midwifery students were found to have higher empathy levels than nursing and emergency health students. Second- and third-year students scored higher than their counterparts in the first year. Empathy levels dipped in 2009 and rose in 2010. Students aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years recorded higher scores than their younger colleagues, and female students were found to be more empathic than their male counterparts. Conclusion The finding that empathy levels are relatively stable over the term of study contributes to the understanding of how empathy evolves over the course of study and offers insights into the importance of incorporating and promoting empathy in health care curricula. PMID:25246815

  11. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life.

  12. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara Dos Santos

    2016-08-08

    to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. descrever as características sociodemográficas e o número de morbidades de idosos, segundo a dinâmica do arranjo domiciliar; e verificar os determinantes sociodemográficos e de saúde do arranjo domiciliar. trata-se de uma pesquisa domiciliar e longitudinal (2005-2012), conduzida com 623 idosos. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva e regressão logística multinomial (p<0,05). predominaram, idosos que moram sozinhos, acompanhados e com mudança do arranjo domiciliar, do sexo feminino, faixa etária 60├ 70 anos, 1├ 4 anos de estudo e com renda entre 1

  13. CGH observes National Women’s Health Week

    Cancer.gov

    This week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is observing the 17th annual National Women’s Health Week. The goal of the National Women's Health Week is to empower women to make their health a priority. In celebration, the NCI Center for Global Health held a seminar on the Knowledge Summaries for Comprehensive Breast Cancer Control: Pathways for Advanced Cancer Planning.

  14. Environmental health research and the observer's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-08-01

    Environmental health researchers frequently study people in occupational, educational, recreational, or domestic settings who are exposed to hazardous agents. Deciding whether-and how-to inform research subjects about risks they face in their environment can be a challenging task for investigators. Because legal rules and professional guidelines do not cover this topic, investigators must carefully consider their ethical obligations in light of the facts and circumstances. To navigate through this dilemma, investigators should consider the evidence for the risks, the nature of the risks, the usefulness of risk information to the subjects, and the effects on the study and community of informing subjects about risks.

  15. The Longitudinal Stability and Dynamics of Group Membership in the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health: Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Hills, Kimberly J.; Huebner, E. Scott; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership within the Greenspoon and Sakflofske's dual-factor model of mental health. This expanded model incorporates information about subjective well-being (SWB), in addition to psychopathological symptoms, to better identify the mental health status and current functioning of…

  16. The Longitudinal Stability and Dynamics of Group Membership in the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health: Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Hills, Kimberly J.; Huebner, E. Scott; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership within the Greenspoon and Sakflofske's dual-factor model of mental health. This expanded model incorporates information about subjective well-being (SWB), in addition to psychopathological symptoms, to better identify the mental health status and current functioning of…

  17. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  18. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  19. Father mental health during the early parenting period: results of an Australian population based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Christensen, Daniel; Mensah, Fiona; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine; Lucas, Nina; Canterford, Louise; Nicholson, Jan M

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to report on the occurrence of mental health difficulties for a large national sample of Australian fathers of children aged 0-5 years (n = 3,471). Secondary objectives were to compare fathers' mental health against normative data for the general male adult population, and to examine the course of mental health problems for fathers across the early childhood period. Secondary analysis of data from the infant cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children at three waves when children were 0-12 months, 2-3 and 4-5 years. Comparative data on the prevalence of psychological distress in the Australian adult male population sourced from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Approximately nine per cent of fathers reported symptomatic or clinical psychological distress at each wave, as measured by the Kessler-6. Approximately 30 % reporting distress at wave 1 continued to report distress at a similar or worse level across waves 2 and 3. Fathers not living with their children also had high rates of distress (14 % at wave 1 and 10 % at wave 2). Finally, fathers in the present study had 1.38 increased odds (95 % CI 1.12-1.69) for psychological distress compared with the Australian adult male population. Fathers are at risk of experiencing postnatal mental health difficulties, which may persist across the early childhood period for some fathers. The results suggest routine assessment of fathers' wellbeing should be undertaken in the postnatal period with mental health interventions and support provided across the early childhood period.

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Stepfamily Relationship Quality and Adolescent Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Todd M; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2017-10-01

    Approximately one third of youth are estimated to live with a biological parent and stepparent before reaching adulthood. Additional research is warranted whereby stepfamily processes are identified that drive variation in youth adjustment, particularly physical health. We examined stepfather-child, mother-child, and stepcouple relationship quality as predictors of levels and changes in adolescent physical health over time. We used a nationally representative sample of 1,233 adolescents living in biological mother-stepfather families from waves I (1994-1995) and II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We incorporated measures of stepfather-child, mother-child, and stepcouple relationship quality, as well as adolescent reports of 10 physical health symptoms at waves I and II. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between wave I stepfamily relationships and adolescent physical symptoms at waves I and II. We used a zero-inflated negative binomial model to establish the validity of wave II adolescent physical symptoms as a predictor of an index of diagnosed chronic illnesses by wave IV (ages 26-32 years). Stepfather-child and mother-child relationship quality were negatively correlated with concurrent levels of adolescent physical symptoms. Stepfather-child relationship quality was negatively associated with change in adolescent physical symptoms over time. Adolescents with higher levels of physical symptoms at wave II were more likely to report chronic illnesses by adulthood. Stepfather-child relationship quality is a robust predictor of adolescent physical health throughout adolescence and is linked to chronic illness diagnoses in young adulthood. Future research should explore further the mechanisms that underlie this association. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal study of dental health from the age of 14 to 41.

    PubMed

    Crossner, Claes-Göran; Unell, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of present study was to longitudinally follow dental health from the age of 14 to 41. Originally an entire age group attending one of the compulsory schools in the city of Orebro, Sweden was selected and 115 children born in 1962 were included in the study. At the last examination 27 years later, 73 (63%) individuals, 35 males and 38 females, could still be located and were willing to participate. The drop out analysis did not show any statistical difference between the drop-outs and this final material. All participants had experienced a comprehensive whole population based preventive dental care, free of charge, during the first 19 years of their lives, and after that the increment of dental diseases had been limited. Only two individuals were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis at 41, and 70% of all DMFS registered at 41 were present already at 19. This positive development during adulthood seemed to be unrelated to socio-economic status. In addition, the dental health at 41 did not seem to be obviously influenced by if the participants, as adults, had paid yearly visits to the dentist or not, and there was no evidence supporting that regularly seeing a dental hygienist or using daily inter-dental cleaning would improve dental health. The most obvious difference in dental health at 41 was due to gender where e.g. the experience of proximal caries and bleeding after probing were twice as frequent in males as in females. Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that uncritically abandoning whole population preventive strategies might not be in the best interest of public dental health. Furthermore, if already existing dental care resources should be reallocated for a better long-term dental health investment it should be on the expense of the young adults to the benefit of the young teenagers (as population sub-groups) and not the other way around based on individual indications.

  2. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship. Methods: We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40–69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness). Results: Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. Conclusions: Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. PMID:26922299

  3. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  4. Promoting school connectedness: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    McNeely, Clea A; Nonnemaker, James M; Blum, Robert W

    2002-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that when adolescents feel cared for by people at their school and feel like a part of their school, they are less likely to use substances, engage in violence, or initiate sexual activity at an early age. However, specific strategies to increase students' connectedness to school have not been studied. This study examined the association between school connectedness and the school environment to identify ways to increase students' connectedness to school. Data from the in-school and school administrator surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (75,515 students in 127 schools) and hierarchical linear models were used to estimate the association between school characteristics and the average level of school connectedness in each school. Positive classroom management climates, participation in extracurricular activities, tolerant disciplinary policies, and small school size were associated positively with higher school connectedness.

  5. CHI: A contemporaneous health index for degenerative disease monitoring using longitudinal measurements.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijun; Meng, Qiang; Evans, Heather; Lober, William; Cheng, Yu; Qian, Xiaoning; Liu, Ji; Huang, Shuai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel formulation for contemporaneous patient risk monitoring by exploiting the emerging data-rich environment in many healthcare applications, where an abundance of longitudinal data that reflect the degeneration of the health condition can be continuously collected. Our objective, and the developed formulation, is fundamentally different from many existing risk score models for different healthcare applications, which mostly focus on predicting the likelihood of a certain outcome at a pre-specified time. Rather, our formulation translates multivariate longitudinal measurements into a contemporaneous health index (CHI) that captures patient condition changes over the course of progression. Another significant feature of our formulation is that, CHI can be estimated with or without label information, different from other risk score models strictly based on supervised learning. To develop this formulation, we focus on the degenerative disease conditions, for which we could utilize the monotonic progression characteristic (either towards disease or recovery) to learn CHI. Such a domain knowledge leads us to a novel learning formulation, and on top of that, we further generalize this formulation with a capacity to incorporate label information if available. We further develop algorithms to mitigate the challenges associated with the nonsmooth convex optimization problem by first identifying its dual reformulation as a constrained smooth optimization problem, and then, using the block coordinate descent algorithm to iteratively solve the optimization with a derived efficient projection at each iteration. Extensive numerical studies are performed on both synthetic datasets and real-world applications on Alzheimer's disease and Surgical Site Infection, which demonstrate the utility and efficacy of the proposed method on degenerative conditions that include a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health effects of unemployment in Europe (2008-2011): a longitudinal analysis of income and financial strain as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete

    2016-05-06

    Unemployment has a number of negative consequences, such as decreased income and poor self-rated health. However, the relationships between unemployment, income, and health are not fully understood. Longitudinal studies have investigated the health effect of unemployment and income separately, but the mediating role of income remains to be scrutinized. Using longitudinal data and methods, this paper investigates whether the effect of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH) is mediated by income, financial strain and unemployment benefits. The analyses use data from the longitudinal panel of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) over the 4 years of 2008 to 2011. Individual fixed effects models are applied, estimating the longitudinal change in SRH as people move from employment to unemployment, and investigating whether this change is reduced after controlling for possible mediating mechanisms, absolute income change, relative income change, relative income rank, income deprivation, financial strain, and unemployment benefits. Becoming unemployed is associated with decreased SRH (-0.048, SE 0.012). This decrease is 19 % weaker (-0.039, SE 0.010) after controlling for change in financial strain. Absolute and relative changes in household equalized income, as well as changes in relative rank and transitions into income deprivation, are not found to be associated with change in SRH. Financial strain is found to be a potential mediator of the individual health effect of unemployment, while neither absolute income, relative income, relative rank, income deprivation nor unemployment benefits are found to be mediators of this relationship.

  7. Three Years of Digital Consumer Health Information: A Longitudinal Study of the Touch Screen Health Kiosk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use, over three and a half years, of a sample of 20 touch-screen health kiosks in the United Kingdom. Identifies four patterns of use over time--declining, stable, increasing, and no trend--and discusses implications of these patterns. Thumbnail use graphs for the 20 kiosks are appended. (AEF)

  8. Three Years of Digital Consumer Health Information: A Longitudinal Study of the Touch Screen Health Kiosk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use, over three and a half years, of a sample of 20 touch-screen health kiosks in the United Kingdom. Identifies four patterns of use over time--declining, stable, increasing, and no trend--and discusses implications of these patterns. Thumbnail use graphs for the 20 kiosks are appended. (AEF)

  9. Food insecurity and emotional health in the USA: a systematic narrative review of longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales

    2017-09-14

    To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.

  10. The role of acculturative stress on mental health symptoms for immigrant adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selcuk R; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included 332 urban-residing first-and second-generation immigrant adolescents (44% male). Participants were recruited in 10th grade (Mage = 16.20 years, SD = 1.19), and 2 additional waves of data were gathered in 12-month intervals. Both generational and racial/ethnic background of the participants reflected the general demographics of urban centers in the United States. With individual growth curve modeling, the results show significant decline in internalizing mental health problems during the high school years. At the same time, greater exposure to acculturative stress predicted significantly more withdrawn, somatic, and anxious/depressed symptoms. Gender and generation status differences in internalizing mental health problems were also identified.

  11. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65 years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3 years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (β=−0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (β=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be

  12. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Sanne M A; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-06-01

    High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Data were used from 4482 representative adults participating in the second (2010-12) and third wave (2013-15) of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental well-being was assessed with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) at the second wave. The classification criteria of this instrument were used to classify participants as having flourishing mental health: high levels of both hedonic well-being (life-satisfaction, happiness) and eudaimonic well-being (social contribution, purpose in life, personal growth). DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders were measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 at all waves. Odds ratios of (first and recurrent) incident disorders were estimated, using logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Flourishing reduced the risk of incident mood disorders by 28% and of anxiety disorders by 53%, but did not significantly predicted substance use disorders. A similar pattern of associations was found for either high hedonic or high eudaimonic well-being. Significant results were found for substance use disorders when life-events and social support were removed as covariates. This study underscores the rationale of promoting mental well-being as a public mental health strategy to prevent mental illness. In wealthy European nations it seems fruitful to measure and pursuit a flourishing life rather than merely high levels of hedonic well-being.

  13. Educational success and adult health: findings from the Chicago longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Topitzes, James; Godes, Olga; Mersky, Joshua P; Ceglarek, Sudi; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2009-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that education is associated with health, yet we lack knowledge about the specific educational experiences influencing health trajectories. This study examines the role school factors play in the emergence of poor young adult health outcomes for a low-income, minority sample. The following research questions are addressed. First, what are the education-based predictors of daily tobacco smoking, frequent substance use, depression, and no health insurance coverage? Second, do later-occurring school factors explain the association between earlier school measures and the outcomes and, if so, what pathways account for this mediation effect? Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an investigation of a cohort of 1,539 individuals, born around 1980, who attended kindergarten programs in the Chicago Public Schools. Participants were followed prospectively from early childhood through age 24, and study measures were created from various data sources and multiple assessment waves. Findings from probit hierarchical regressions with controls for early sociodemographic covariates indicated that elementary school socioemotional classroom adjustment and high school completion were significantly and negatively associated with all four study outcomes. Participation in the Chicago Child Parent Center preschool program predicted lower rates of both daily tobacco smoking and no health insurance coverage (p < .05). Middle school reading achievement was inversely related to depression (p < .01), while middle school frustration tolerance was inversely associated with daily tobacco smoking and frequent drug use (p < .05). Also, negatively linked to frequent drug use was a high school measure of students' expectation to attend college (p < .01). In nearly all cases, later-occurring school factors fully mediated significant associations between earlier ones and the outcomes. Patterns of mediation were explored along with implications of results.

  14. Longitudinal study of rural health workforce in five counties in China: research design and baseline description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The village doctors have served rural residents for many decades in China, and their role in rural health system has been highly praised in the world; unfortunately, less attention has been paid to the health workforce during the ambitious healthcare reform in recent years. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore the current situation and track the future evolution of the rural healthcare workforce. Methods The self-administered structured Village Clinic Questionnaire and Village Doctor Questionnaire, which were modified from the official questionnaires of the Ministry of Health, were constructed after three focus groups, in-depth interviews in Hebei Province, and a pilot survey in Sichuan Province. Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, we gathered baseline data for a longitudinal survey of village doctors, village clinics from Changshu County, Liyang County, Yongchuan District, Mianzhu County, and Jingning County in China in 2011. Well-trained interviewers and strict procedures were employed to ensure the quality of this survey. Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed with Stata 12.0. Results After four months of surveying, 1,982 Village Doctor Questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 88.1%. There were 1,507 (76.0%) male and 475 (24.0%) female doctors, with an average age of 51.3 years. The majority of village doctors (58.5%) practiced both western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, and 91.2% of the doctors received their education below college level. Their practice methods were not correlated with education level (P = 0.43), but closely related to the way they obtained their highest degree (that is, prior to starting work or as on-the-job training) (P < 0.01). The mean income of the village doctors was 1,817 (95% CI 1,733 to 1,900) RMB per month in 2011; only 757 (41.3%) doctors had pensions, and the self-reported expected pension was 1,965 RMB per month. Conclusions Village doctors

  15. School breakfast and body mass index: a longitudinal observational study of middle school students.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Schwartz, M B; Shebl, F M; Read, M; Henderson, K E; Ickovics, J R

    2017-06-01

    The objectives are to identify breakfast location patterns (frequency and place of breakfast consumption) and explore the association between breakfast patterns and weight status over time among preadolescents. Surveys and physical measurements were completed among students from 12 randomly selected schools in a medium-sized urban school district. All students were followed from fifth (Fall, 2011) to seventh grade (Fall, 2013). Latent transition analysis and longitudinal analyses were used in the study. Six distinct breakfast location patterns emerged at baseline (1) frequent skippers; (2) inconsistent school eaters; (3) inconsistent home eaters; (4) regular home eaters; (5) regular school eaters and (6) double breakfast eaters. Results from the longitudinal analyses revealed that there was an increased odds of overweight/obesity among frequent skippers compared with double breakfast eaters after adjusting for school, year and students' race/ethnicity (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.67, 4.24). Weight changes from year to year were similar between double breakfast eaters and other students. Concerns that a second breakfast at school increases risk of excessive weight gain are unsupported. Students who regularly consumed breakfasts at school, including double breakfast eaters, were more likely to exhibit a healthy weight trajectory. Additional research is needed to understand the impact of universal school breakfast on students' overall diets. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Observations and implications of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a solar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Knizhnik, K.; Muglach, K.; Karpen, J.; Gilbert, H.; Kucera, T. A.; Uritsky, V.

    2014-04-10

    On 2010 August 20, an energetic disturbance triggered large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a nearby filament. The triggering mechanism appears to be episodic jets connecting the energetic event with the filament threads. In the present work, we analyze this periodic motion in a large fraction of the filament to characterize the underlying physics of the oscillation as well as the filament properties. The results support our previous theoretical conclusions that the restoring force of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations is solar gravity, and the damping mechanism is the ongoing accumulation of mass onto the oscillating threads. Based on our previous work, we used the fitted parameters to determine the magnitude and radius of curvature of the dipped magnetic field along the filament, as well as the mass accretion rate onto the filament threads. These derived properties are nearly uniform along the filament, indicating a remarkable degree of cohesiveness throughout the filament channel. Moreover, the estimated mass accretion rate implies that the footpoint heating responsible for the thread formation, according to the thermal nonequilibrium model, agrees with previous coronal heating estimates. We estimate the magnitude of the energy released in the nearby event by studying the dynamic response of the filament threads, and discuss the implications of our study for filament structure and heating.

  17. Longitudinal intensity oscillations in coronal loops observed with TRACE I. Overview of Measured Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moortel, I.; Ireland, J.; Walsh, R. W.; Hood, A. W.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we aim to give a comprehensive overview of geometric and physical properties of longitudinal oscillations in large coronal loops. The 38 examples of propagating disturbances were obtained from the analysis of high cadence, 171 Å TRACE data (JOP 83 and JOP 144). The majority of these outward propagating oscillations are found in the footpoints of large diffuse coronal loop structures, close to active regions. The disturbances travel outward with a propagation speed of the order of v≈122±43 km s-1. The variations in intensity are estimated to be roughly 4.1±1.5% of the background loop brightness. The propagating disturbances are found to be damped very quickly and are typically only detected in the first 8.9±4.4 Mm along the loop. Using a wavelet analysis, periods of the order of 282±93 s are found and the energy flux was estimated as 342±126 erg cm-2 s-1. We found highly filamentary behavior in the lower part of the coronal loops and showed that the intensity oscillations can be present for several consecutive hours, with a more or less constant period. It is evident that the longitudinal oscillations are a widespread, regularly occurring coronal phenomena. A companion paper is devoted to the interpretation and discussion of the results.

  18. Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko

    2011-06-01

    To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials.

  19. Health status and satisfaction with health care: a longitudinal study among patients served by the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Ren, X S; Kazis, L; Lee, A; Rogers, W; Pendergrass, S

    2001-01-01

    As the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) places high priority on becoming a performance-based organization, there is an increasing need to quantify and refine its outcome measurement system. Using panel data from VHA ambulatory care patients (1996-1998), we conducted cross-lagged correlations and ordinary least squares regression to examine the relationship between 2 VHA health care values: health status and satisfaction with care. The study results indicated that patients' health status was significantly associated with their satisfaction with care, indicating that patients with better health status were more likely to be satisfied with health care. Although satisfaction with care was both a consequence and a determinant of health status, the effects of health status on satisfaction seemed to be more important than the effects of satisfaction on health status. More research is needed for a better understanding of the dynamic relationship between health status and satisfaction with care.

  20. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  1. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  2. Researching Special Populations: Retention of Latino Gay and Bisexual Men and Transgender Persons in Longitudinal Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, L. M.; Vazquez, R.; Ramirez-Valles, J.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have sought to assess predictors of retention of racial/ethnic or sexual minorities in longitudinal health research. The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of retention of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender (GBT) research participants after the baseline interview. Data come from a sample of 643 Latino GBT…

  3. Researching Special Populations: Retention of Latino Gay and Bisexual Men and Transgender Persons in Longitudinal Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, L. M.; Vazquez, R.; Ramirez-Valles, J.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have sought to assess predictors of retention of racial/ethnic or sexual minorities in longitudinal health research. The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of retention of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender (GBT) research participants after the baseline interview. Data come from a sample of 643 Latino GBT…

  4. The impact of persistent poor housing conditions on mental health: A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pevalin, David J; Reeves, Aaron; Baker, Emma; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-09-26

    Living with housing problems increases the risk of mental ill health. Housing problems tend to persist over time but little is known about the mental health consequences of living with persistent housing problems. We investigated if persistence of poor housing affects mental health over and above the effect of current housing conditions. We used data from 13 annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey (1996 to 2008) (81,745 person/year observations from 16,234 individuals) and measured the persistence of housing problems by the number of years in the previous four that a household experienced housing problems. OLS regression models and lagged-change regression models were used to estimate the effects of past and current housing conditions on mental health, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Interaction terms tested if tenure type modified the impact of persistent poor housing on mental health. In fully adjusted models, mental health worsened as the persistence of housing problems increased. Adjustment for current housing conditions attenuated, but did not explain, the findings. Tenure type moderated the effects of persistent poor housing on mental health, suggesting that those who own their homes outright and those who live in social housing are most negatively affected. Persistence of poor housing was predictive of worse mental health, irrespective of current housing conditions, which added to the weight of evidence that demonstrates that living in poor quality housing for extended periods of time has negative consequences for mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Common health predictors of early retirement: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David

    2011-01-01

    facing the costs of population ageing, many governments aim to keep older people in employment for longer. Summary health measures predict early retirement, but more specific symptoms and conditions need to be identified to guide efforts to delay retirement. to identify common symptoms and conditions that predict early work exit, at the population level. cohort study of community dwelling respondents to the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. a total of 1,693 workers aged 50 and over at baseline who were younger than the contemporaneous retirement age (60 for women, 65 for men) at 4-year follow-up. a total of 308 (18.2%) individuals moved out of employment during the follow-up period. Advancing age, female gender, partner retirement, greater pension wealth, high alcohol consumption and fair or poor self-rated health were all associated with work exit. Accounting for these factors, reported difficulty walking a quarter mile was predictive of early work exit (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-3.52), especially where symptoms included lower limb pain and/or shortness of breath. Symptomatic depression (measured by Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) was also predictive of early work exit (OR = 1.52, CI 1.07, 2.18). About 50.8% of early retirees reported one or more of these specific health symptoms (depression, general pain, mobility limitations and leg pain when walking). older workers who report depressive symptoms or impaired physical mobility, especially with lower limb pain and shortness of breath, are at increased risk of early transition out of work. Health interventions targeting these conditions may enable older workers to remain in the labour force.

  6. Socioeconomic position and depression in South African adults with long-term health conditions: a longitudinal study of causal pathways.

    PubMed

    Elwell-Sutton, T; Folb, N; Clark, A; Fairall, L R; Lund, C; Bachmann, M O

    2017-08-14

    There is convincing evidence that lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased risk of mental disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. This study aims to elucidate the causal pathways between socioeconomic position and depression symptoms in South African adults. Two possible causal theories are examined: social causation, which suggests that poor socioeconomic conditions cause mental ill health; and social drift, which suggests that those with poor mental health are more likely to drift into poor socioeconomic circumstances. The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional observational data on 3904 adults, from a randomised trial carried out in 38 primary health care clinics between 2011 and 2012. Structural equation models and counterfactual mediation analyses were used to examine causal pathways in two directions. First, we examined social causation pathways, with language (a proxy for racial or ethnic category) being treated as an exposure, while education, unemployment, income and depression were treated as sequential mediators and outcomes. Second, social drift was explored with depression treated as a potential influence on health-related quality of life, job loss and, finally, income. The results suggest that the effects of language on depression at baseline, and on changes in depression during follow-up, were mediated through education and income but not through unemployment. Adverse effects of unemployment and job loss on depression appeared to be mostly mediated through income. The effect of depression on decreasing income appeared to be mediated by job loss. These results suggest that both social causation and social selection processes operate concurrently. This raises the possibility that people could get trapped in a vicious cycle in which poor socioeconomic conditions lead to depression, which, in turn, can cause further damage to their economic prospects. This study also suggests that modifiable factors such

  7. Metabolic Health in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Longitudinal Study in a Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Harriet M; Emilsson, Hanna; Gabriel, Melissa; Maguire, Ann M; Steinbeck, Katharine S

    2016-03-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of metabolic dysfunction as a late effect of cancer treatment. However, pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) lacks a unified definition, limiting the diagnosis of MetS in CCS. This study evaluated individual metabolic health risk factors and potential areas for intervention in this at-risk population. This single center, retrospective observational longitudinal study evaluated the metabolic health of all CCS attending an oncology long-term follow-up clinic at a university hospital in Sydney, Australia (January 2012-August 2014). Participants were 276 CCS (52.2% male; mean age 18.0 years; range 6.8-37.9 years), at least 5 years disease free with a broad spectrum of oncological diagnoses. Primary metabolic health risk factors included raised body mass index, hypertension, and hypertransaminasemia. Participants treated with cranial radiotherapy (n = 47; 17.0% of cohort) had additional biochemical variables analyzed: fasting glucose/insulin, HDL/LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Hypertension was common (19.0%), with male sex (p < 0.01) and being aged 18 years or above (p < 0.01) identified as risk factors. Cranial irradiation was a risk factor for overweight/obesity (47.8% in cranial radiotherapy-treated participants vs. 30.4%; p = 0.02). Hypertransaminasemia was more prevalent among participants treated with radiotherapy (15.6% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.03), and overweight/obese participants (17.6% vs. 8.2%; p = 0.04). Metabolic health risk factors comprising MetS are common in CCS, placing this population at risk of premature adverse cardiovascular consequences. Proactive surveillance and targeted interventions are required to minimize these metabolic complications, and a unified definition for pediatric MetS would improve identification and monitoring.

  8. Challenges in shared decision making in advanced cancer care: a qualitative longitudinal observational and interview study.

    PubMed

    Brom, Linda; De Snoo-Trimp, Janine C; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Pasman, H Roeline W

    2017-02-01

    Patients' preferences and expectations should be taken into account in treatment decision making in the last phase of life. Shared decision making (SDM) is regarded as a way to give the patient a central role in decision making. Little is known about how SDM is used in clinical practice in advanced cancer care. To examine whether and how the steps of SDM can be recognized in decision making about second- and third-line chemotherapy. Fourteen advanced cancer patients were followed over time using face-to-face in-depth interviews and observations of the patients' out-clinic visits. Interviews and outpatient clinic visits in which treatment options were discussed or decisions made were transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding. Patients were satisfied with the decision-making process, but the steps of SDM were barely seen in daily practice. The creation of awareness about available treatment options by physicians was limited and not discussed in an equal way. Patients' wishes and concerns were not explicitly assessed, which led to different expectations about improved survival from subsequent lines of chemotherapy. To reach SDM in daily practice, physicians should create awareness of all treatment options, including forgoing treatment, and communicate the risk of benefit and harm. Open and honest communication is needed in which patients' expectations and concerns are discussed. Through this, the difficult process of decision making in the last phase of life can be facilitated and the focus on the best care for the specific patient is strengthened. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The sand seas of titan: Cassini RADAR observations of longitudinal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, R.D.; Wall, S.; Radebaugh, J.; Boubin, G.; Reffet, E.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.; Mitchell, Ken; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Ori, G.G.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; Flamini, E.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    The most recent Cassini RADAR images of Titan show widespread regions (up to 1500 kilometers by 200 kilometers) of near-parallel radar-dark linear features that appear to be seas of longitudinal dunes similar to those seen in the Namib desert on Earth. The Ku-band (2.17-centimeter wavelength) images show ???100-meter ridges consistent with duneforms and reveal flow interactions with underlying hills. The distribution and orientation of the dunes support a model of fluctuating surface winds of ???0.5 meter per second resulting from the combination of an eastward flow with a variable tidal wind. The existence of dunes also requires geological processes that create sand-sized (100- to 300-micrometer) particulates and a lack of persistent equatorial surface liquids to act as sand traps.

  10. The sand seas of Titan: Cassini RADAR observations of longitudinal dunes.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R D; Wall, S; Radebaugh, J; Boubin, G; Reffet, E; Janssen, M; Stofan, E; Lopes, R; Kirk, R; Elachi, C; Lunine, J; Mitchell, K; Paganelli, F; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H; Anderson, Y; Ostro, S; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Ori, G G; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Stiles, B; Vetrella, S; Flamini, E; West, R

    2006-05-05

    The most recent Cassini RADAR images of Titan show widespread regions (up to 1500 kilometers by 200 kilometers) of near-parallel radar-dark linear features that appear to be seas of longitudinal dunes similar to those seen in the Namib desert on Earth. The Ku-band (2.17-centimeter wavelength) images show approximately 100-meter ridges consistent with duneforms and reveal flow interactions with underlying hills. The distribution and orientation of the dunes support a model of fluctuating surface winds of approximately 0.5 meter per second resulting from the combination of an eastward flow with a variable tidal wind. The existence of dunes also requires geological processes that create sand-sized (100- to 300-micrometer) particulates and a lack of persistent equatorial surface liquids to act as sand traps.

  11. Understanding the Evolution of Multimorbidity: Evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS)

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Guillaume; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Stocks, Nigel; Sirois, Caroline; Kroger, Edeltraut; Adams, Robert J.; Doucet, Mariève; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. Study Design and Setting Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study(NWAHS) was collected between baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2008–2010). Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs) was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD) mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001) while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001) and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001) were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001), diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01) and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05). Conclusion Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs. PMID:24798485

  12. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Claudia B.; Weitlauf, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design and Methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65–79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans’ greater cognitive reserve. PMID:26615021

  13. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Padula, Claudia B; Weitlauf, Julie C; Rosen, Allyson C; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B; Naughton, Michelle J; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R; Stefanick, Marcia L; Goldstein, Mary K; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We studied 7,330 women aged 65-79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans' greater cognitive reserve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Longitudinal changes in health related quality of life in children with migrant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josue; von Steinbüchel, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about longitudinal changes in the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among children with migrant backgrounds. Methods The sample comprised 350 children with predominantly migrant backgrounds enrolled in 7 kindergartens in Frankfurt and Darmstadt, Germany. At baseline, the participants’ mean age was 4.4 years (SD 0.9). Data collection started in May 2009. Two waves of data were collected one year apart (94% response rate). HRQoL was evaluated with the Kiddy-KINDL. The other variables under study were sex, age, socioeconomic status, country of origin, developmental status (WET) and individual behavior (VBV). Data were collected from the children, parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the Wilson and Cleary theoretical framework on changes in HRQoL and Generalized Estimated Equations (GEE) to model the longitudinal trend in HRQoL. Results Overall HRQoL remained stable between baseline and follow-up. SEM model fit was χ2 = 8.51; df = 5; p = 0.13; SRMR = 0.02 RMSEA = 0.06 and indicated that there were differences in kindergarten activities (p<0.05). The GEE model elucidated that the differences in HRQoL between the baseline and follow-up varied according to kindergarten activities that the children were assigned to (music, art, or no activities) (p<0.05), but that there were no differences in terms of country of origin. On average, girls reported better HRQoL. Conclusion Overall HRQoL scores remained stable over follow-up in a sample of migrant children and there were no differences in terms of origin. However, there was heterogeneity in the results depending on the kindergarten activities that the children were assigned to. PMID:28151986

  15. Is dietary zinc protective for type 2 diabetes? Results from the Australian longitudinal study on women’s health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that zinc intake has protective effects against type 2 diabetes, but few studies have been conducted to examine this relationship in humans. The aim of this study is to investigate if dietary zinc is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a longitudinal study of mid-age Australian women. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of women aged 45-50 years at baseline, participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake and other nutrients. Predictors of 6-year incidence of type 2 diabetes were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results From 8921 participants, 333 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified over 6 years of follow-up. After adjustment for dietary and non-dietary factors, the highest quintile dietary zinc intake had almost half the odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.50, 95% C.I. 0.32–0.77) compared with the lowest quintile. Similar findings were observed for the zinc/iron ratio; the highest quintile had half the odds of developing type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.50, 95% C.I 0.30-0.83) after multivariable adjustment of covariates. Conclusions Higher total dietary zinc intake and high zinc/iron ratio are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. This finding is a positive step towards further research to determine if zinc supplementation may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:24093747

  16. Long-term health benefits of physical activity--a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Miriam; Niermann, Christina; Jekauc, Darko; Woll, Alexander

    2013-09-08

    The treatment of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), like coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus, causes rising costs for the health system. Physical activity is supposed to reduce the risk for these diseases. Results of cross-sectional studies showed that physical activity is associated with better health, and that physical activity could prevent the development of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing evidence for the long-term (>5 years) relationship between physical activity and weight gain, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Fifteen longitudinal studies with at least 5-year follow up times and a total of 288,724 subjects (>500 participants in each study), aged between 18 and 85 years, were identified using digital databases. Only studies published in English, about healthy adults at baseline, intentional physical activity and the listed NCDs were included. The results of these studies show that physical activity appears to have a positive long-term influence on all selected diseases. This review revealed a paucity of long-term studies on the relationship between physical activity and the incidence of NCD.

  17. The deterioration of Canadian immigrants' oral health: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effect of immigration on the self-reported oral health of immigrants to Canada over a 4-year period. The study used Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC 2001-2005). The target population comprised 3976 non-refugee immigrants to Canada. The dependent variable was self-reported dental problems. The independent variables were as follows: age, sex, ethnicity, income, education, perceived discrimination, history of social assistance, social support, and official language proficiency. A generalized estimation equation approach was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. After 2 years, the proportion of immigrants reporting dental problems more than tripled (32.6%) and remained approximately the same at 4 years after immigrating (33.3%). Over time, immigrants were more likely to report dental problems (OR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.55-3.02). An increase in self-reported dental problems over time was associated with sex, history of social assistance, total household income, and self-perceived discrimination. An increased likelihood of reporting dental problems occurred over time. Immigrants should arguably constitute an important focus of public policy and programmes aimed at improving their oral health and access to dental care in Canada. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of combat deployment on psychological and relationship health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Tobacco use transitions in the United States: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Annette R; Land, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; Backinger, Cathy L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and describe transitions in cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use, including dual use, prospectively from adolescence into young adulthood. The current study utilizes four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine patterns of cigarette and ST use (within 30 days of survey) over time among a cohort in the United States beginning in 7th-12th grade (1995) into young adulthood (2008-2009). Transition probabilities were estimated using Markov modeling. Among the cohort (N=20,774), 48.7% reported using cigarettes, 12.8% reported using ST, and 7.2% reported dual use (cigarettes and ST in the same wave) in at least one wave. In general, the risk for transitioning between cigarettes and ST was higher for males and those who were older. Dual users exhibited a high probability (81%) of continuing dual use over time. Findings suggest that adolescents who use multiple tobacco products are likely to continue such use as they move into young adulthood. When addressing tobacco use among adolescents and young adults, multiple forms of tobacco use should be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Adaptogenic Potential of a Polyherbal Natural Health Product: Report on a Longitudinal Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rana

    2007-01-01

    Stress is a risk factor for a number of diseases and is an important predictor of health in general. Herbal medicines have been used as adaptogens to regulate and improve the stress response and there is evidence to support the use of herbal medicines for this purpose. We conducted an open-label longitudinal study on the natural health product, OCTA©, a compound mixture of eight herbs, to determine its effects on perceptions of stress. Eighteen participants were enrolled in the study and were followed over a period of 3 months. Primary endpoints included scores from four validated questionnaires (SF-36v2, PSS, STAI and BDI-II), serum DHEA, ALT, AST and creatinine all measured at 12 weeks. Seventeen patients completed the study. Except for the physical summary score of the SF36 questionnaire, all the subjective scores indicated a highly significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in the participants' ability to cope with stress. No adverse effects were reported and there was no evidence of damage to the liver or kidney based on serum markers. Initial evidence for this polyherbal compound supports its potential as an effective ‘adaptogenic’ aid in dealing with stress. Further research using a randomized controlled design is necessary to confirm the findings from this pilot study. PMID:17965770

  1. Adaptogenic potential of a polyherbal natural health product: report on a longitudinal clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Seely, Dugald; Singh, Rana

    2007-09-01

    Stress is a risk factor for a number of diseases and is an important predictor of health in general. Herbal medicines have been used as adaptogens to regulate and improve the stress response and there is evidence to support the use of herbal medicines for this purpose. We conducted an open-label longitudinal study on the natural health product, OCTA(c), a compound mixture of eight herbs, to determine its effects on perceptions of stress. Eighteen participants were enrolled in the study and were followed over a period of 3 months. Primary endpoints included scores from four validated questionnaires (SF-36v2, PSS, STAI and BDI-II), serum DHEA, ALT, AST and creatinine all measured at 12 weeks. Seventeen patients completed the study. Except for the physical summary score of the SF36 questionnaire, all the subjective scores indicated a highly significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in the participants' ability to cope with stress. No adverse effects were reported and there was no evidence of damage to the liver or kidney based on serum markers. Initial evidence for this polyherbal compound supports its potential as an effective 'adaptogenic' aid in dealing with stress. Further research using a randomized controlled design is necessary to confirm the findings from this pilot study.

  2. Tobacco use transitions in the United States: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Land, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate and describe transitions in cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use, including dual use, prospectively from adolescence into young adulthood. Methods The current study utilizes four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine patterns of cigarette and ST use (within 30 days of survey) over time among a cohort in the United States beginning in 7th–12th grade (1995) into young adulthood (2008–2009). Transition probabilities were estimated using Markov modeling. Results Among the cohort (N = 20,774), 48.7% reported using cigarettes, 12.8% reported using ST, and 7.2% reported dual use (cigarettes and ST in the same wave) in at least one wave. In general, the risk for transitioning between cigarettes and ST was higher for males and those who were older. Dual users exhibited a high probability (81%) of continuing dual use over time. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescents who use multiple tobacco products are likely to continue such use as they move into young adulthood. When addressing tobacco use among adolescents and young adults, multiple forms of tobacco use should be considered. PMID:26361752

  3. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND LUNG HEALTH IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Eakin, Michelle N.; Bilderback, Andrew; Boyle, Michael P.; Mogayzel, Peter J.; Riekert, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship of medication adherence to frequency of pulmonary exacerbation and rate of decline in FEV1% predicted (FEV1). Methods 95 CF patients ages 6 years or older and prescribed a pulmonary medication, enrolled in a longitudinal retrospective review of medication adherence and health outcomes (the occurrence and frequency of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatments and FEV1) over 12-months. Pharmacy refill records were used to calculate a medication possession ratio (MPR). Results Composite MPR predicted the occurrence of at least one pulmonary exacerbation requiring a course of IV antibiotics (IRR=2.34, p=0.05), but not the frequency of exacerbations, after controlling for gender, baseline FEV1, and regimen complexity. Composite MPR predicted baseline FEV1 (estimate=29.81, p=.007), but not decline in FEV1. Conclusions These results demonstrate a significant relation between medication adherence and IV antibiotics in CF patients, highlighting the importance of addressing adherence during clinic visits to improve health outcomes. PMID:21458391

  4. Factors Contributing to Dropping-out in an Online Health Community: Static and Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2016-01-01

    Dropping-out, which refers to when an individual abandons an intervention, is common in Internet-based studies as well as in online health communities. Community facilitators and health researchers are interested in this phenomenon because it usually indicates dissatisfaction towards the community and/or its failure to deliver expected benefits. In this study, we propose a method to identify dropout members from a large public online breast cancer community. We then study quantitatively what longitudinal factors of participation are correlated with dropping-out. Our experimental results suggest that dropout members discuss diagnosis- and treatment-related topics more than other topics. Furthermore, in the time before withdrawing from the community, dropout members tend to initiate more discussions but do not receive adequate response from the other members. We also discuss implications of our results and challenges in dropout-member identification. This study contributes to further understanding community participation and opens up a number of future research questions. PMID:28269969

  5. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    PubMed

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  8. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  9. Multiple Imputation based Clustering Validation (MIV) for Big Longitudinal Trial Data with Missing Values in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Fang, Hua; Wang, Honggang

    2016-06-01

    Web-delivered trials are an important component in eHealth services. These trials, mostly behavior-based, generate big heterogeneous data that are longitudinal, high dimensional with missing values. Unsupervised learning methods have been widely applied in this area, however, validating the optimal number of clusters has been challenging. Built upon our multiple imputation (MI) based fuzzy clustering, MIfuzzy, we proposed a new multiple imputation based validation (MIV) framework and corresponding MIV algorithms for clustering big longitudinal eHealth data with missing values, more generally for fuzzy-logic based clustering methods. Specifically, we detect the optimal number of clusters by auto-searching and -synthesizing a suite of MI-based validation methods and indices, including conventional (bootstrap or cross-validation based) and emerging (modularity-based) validation indices for general clustering methods as well as the specific one (Xie and Beni) for fuzzy clustering. The MIV performance was demonstrated on a big longitudinal dataset from a real web-delivered trial and using simulation. The results indicate MI-based Xie and Beni index for fuzzy-clustering are more appropriate for detecting the optimal number of clusters for such complex data. The MIV concept and algorithms could be easily adapted to different types of clustering that could process big incomplete longitudinal trial data in eHealth services.

  10. Multiple Imputation based Clustering Validation (MIV) for Big Longitudinal Trial Data with Missing Values in eHealth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Web-delivered trials are an important component in eHealth services. These trials, mostly behavior-based, generate big heterogeneous data that are longitudinal, high dimensional with missing values. Unsupervised learning methods have been widely applied in this area, however, validating the optimal number of clusters has been challenging. Built upon our multiple imputation (MI) based fuzzy clustering, MIfuzzy, we proposed a new multiple imputation based validation (MIV) framework and corresponding MIV algorithms for clustering big longitudinal eHealth data with missing values, more generally for fuzzy-logic based clustering methods. Specifically, we detect the optimal number of clusters by auto-searching and -synthesizing a suite of MI-based validation methods and indices, including conventional (bootstrap or cross-validation based) and emerging (modularity-based) validation indices for general clustering methods as well as the specific one (Xie and Beni) for fuzzy clustering. The MIV performance was demonstrated on a big longitudinal dataset from a real web-delivered trial and using simulation. The results indicate MI-based Xie and Beni index for fuzzy-clustering is more appropriate for detecting the optimal number of clusters for such complex data. The MIV concept and algorithms could be easily adapted to different types of clustering that could process big incomplete longitudinal trial data in eHealth services. PMID:27126063

  11. Cumulative sojourn time in longitudinal studies: a sequential imputation method to handle missing health state data due to dropout.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Jingchen; Duan, Naihua; Jiang, Huiping; Girgis, Ragy; Lieberman, Jeffrey

    2014-05-30

    Missing data are ubiquitous in longitudinal studies. In this paper, we propose an imputation procedure to handle dropouts in longitudinal studies. By taking advantage of the monotone missing pattern resulting from dropouts, our imputation procedure can be carried out sequentially, which substantially reduces the computation complexity. In addition, at each step of the sequential imputation, we set up a model selection mechanism that chooses between a parametric model and a nonparametric model to impute eachmissing observation. Unlike usual model selection procedures that aim at finding a single model fitting the entire data set well, our model selection procedure is customized to find a suitable model for the prediction of each missing observation.

  12. Plasticity and response to action observation: a longitudinal FMRI study of potential mirror neurons in patients with subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Iris C; Skouen, Jan Sture; Ersland, Lars; Grüner, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Action observation has been suggested as a possible gateway to retraining arm motor function post stroke. However, it is unclear if the neuronal response to action observation is affected by stroke and if it changes during the course of recovery. To examine longitudinal changes in neuronal activity in a group of patients with subacute stroke when observing and executing a bimanual movement task. Eighteen patients were examined twice using 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging; 1 to 2 weeks and 3 months post stroke symptom onset. Eighteen control participants were examined once. Image time series were analyzed (SPM8) and correlated with clinical motor function scores. During action observation and execution, an overlap of neuronal activation was observed in the superior and inferior parietal lobe, precentral gyrus, insula, and inferior temporal gyrus in both control participants and patients (P < .05; false discovery rate corrected). The neuronal response in the observation task increased from 1 to 2 weeks to 3 months after stroke. Most activated clusters were observed in the inferior temporal gyrus, the thalamus and movement-related areas, such as the premotor, supplementary and motor cortex (BA4, BA6). Increased activation of cerebellum and premotor area correlated with improved arm motor function. Most patients had regained full movement ability. Plastic changes in neurons responding to action observation and action execution occurred in accordance with clinical recovery. The involvement of motor areas when observing actions early and later after stroke may constitute a possible access to the motor system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Mental health problems among individuals with persistent health challenges from adolescence to young adulthood: a population-based longitudinal study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Sølvi; Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Andenæs, Randi

    2016-09-15

    Persistent health challenges are increasing throughout the world. It has been shown that adolescents with persistent health challenges are at greater risk of having mental health problems than their healthy peers. However, these studies are mainly cross-sectional, and little is known about the transition to adulthood. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine how mental health problems in adolescents and young adults with persistent health challenges vary during adolescence and in the transition to young adulthood. The study used longitudinal and time-series data from the "Young in Norway" study. A sample of adolescents was prospectively followed from adolescence to young adulthood with measures at four different time points (n = 3,087; T1-T4): 2921 adolescents (12-19 years) participated at T1 and T2, while 2448 young adults participated at T3 and T4. Persistent health challenges, age, gender, mental health problems and parental socio-economic status were measured in the longitudinal survey. Regression models were applied to estimate associations between persistent health challenges (understood as having a chronic health condition or disability) and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood. Different models were tested for chronic health conditions and disability. Adolescents with disability had higher scores for depressive and anxiety symptoms, loneliness and self-concept instability, and lower scores for self-worth, appearance satisfaction, scholastic competence and social acceptance compared with adolescents without disability. In young adulthood, there were also significant associations between disability and most mental health problems. The longitudinal associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems during adolescence and young adulthood showed that significant associations between chronic health conditions and mental health problems were only found during adolescence. This longitudinal survey revealed that

  14. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, L Meghan; Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    politics (P=.01) and talked more about HPV vaccine eligibility for males (P=.01). This longitudinal infodemiology study suggests that new media influences public health communication, knowledge transaction, and poses potential problems in the amount of misinformation disseminated during public health campaigns. In addition, the study calls for more research to adopt an infodemiology approach to explore relationships between online information supply and public health decisions.

  15. Investigating Predictors of Visiting, Using, and Revisiting an Online Health-Communication Program: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; De Vries, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Background Online health communication has the potential to reach large audiences, with the additional advantages that it can be operational at all times and that the costs per visitor are low. Furthermore, research shows that Internet-delivered interventions can be effective in changing health behaviors. However, exposure to Internet-delivered health-communication programs is generally low. Research investigating predictors of exposure is needed to be able to effectively disseminate online interventions. Objective In the present study, the authors used a longitudinal design with the aim of identifying demographic, psychological, and behavioral predictors of visiting, using, and revisiting an online program promoting physical activity in the general population. Methods A webpage was created providing the public with information about health and healthy behavior. The website included a “physical activity check,” which consisted of a physical activity computer-tailoring expert system where visitors could check whether their physical activity levels were in line with recommendations. Visitors who consented to participate in the present study (n = 489) filled in a questionnaire that assessed demographics, mode of recruitment, current physical activity levels, and health motivation. Immediately after, participants received tailored feedback concerning their current physical activity levels and completed a questionnaire assessing affective and cognitive user experience, attitude toward being sufficiently physically active, and intention to be sufficiently physically active. Three months later, participants received an email inviting them once more to check whether their physical activity level had changed. Results Analyses of visiting showed that more women (67.5%) than men (32.5%) visited the program. With regard to continued use, native Dutch participants (odds ratio [OR] = 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-6.81, P = .02) and participants with a strong

  16. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    controversy, the news topic shifted towards politics (P=.01) and talked more about HPV vaccine eligibility for males (P=.01). Conclusions This longitudinal infodemiology study suggests that new media influences public health communication, knowledge transaction, and poses potential problems in the amount of misinformation disseminated during public health campaigns. In addition, the study calls for more research to adopt an infodemiology approach to explore relationships between online information supply and public health decisions. PMID:27227125

  17. Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Gillman, Matthew W; Field, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension. To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates of hypertension awareness and control in this age group. Cross-sectional study of 13,512 young adults participating in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in 2007-2008. We defined hypertension as an average of two measured systolic blood pressures (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressures (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-report of hypertension. We defined hypertension awareness as reporting having been told by a health care provider that one had high blood pressure, and assessed awareness among those with uncontrolled hypertension. We considered those aware of having hypertension controlled if their average measured SBP was < 140 mmHg and DBP was < 90 mmHg. Of the 3,303 young adults with hypertension, 2,531 (76%) were uncontrolled, and 1,893 (75%) of those with uncontrolled hypertension were unaware they had hypertension. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, income, education, alcohol and tobacco use, young adults with uncontrolled hypertension who had (vs. didn't have) routine preventive care in the past 2 years were 2.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.55) to be aware, but young adults who believed they were in excellent (vs. less than excellent) health were 64% less likely to be aware they had hypertension (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57). Neither preventive care utilization nor self-rated health was associated with blood pressure control. In this nationally representative group of young adults, rates of hypertension awareness and control were low. Efforts to increase detection of hypertension must address young adults' access to preventive care and perception of their need for care.

  18. Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health: The Role of Vulnerability and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Singham, Timothy; Viding, Essi; Schoeler, Tabea; Arseneault, Louise; Ronald, Angelica; Cecil, Charlotte M; McCrory, Eamon; Rijsdijk, Frülhing; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-10-04

    Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety (β = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33) persisted for 2 years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.20) but not

  19. Longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status in colon cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Campbell, Marci K; Galanko, Joseph A; James, Aimee; Carr, Carol; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    Lifestyle changes in persons diagnosed with cancer are important because they may impact prognosis, co-morbidities, and survival. This report describes longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status among colon cancer survivors (n = 278) and population-based controls (n = 459) in North Carolina (39% African American), and examines demographic and psychosocial correlates of healthy lifestyle changes following a colon cancer diagnosis. Data are from surveys of a population-based cohort of colon cancer patients on diagnosis (the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, NCCCS) and approximately 2 years post-diagnosis [the North Carolina Strategies to Improve Diet, Exercise, and Screening Study (NC STRIDES)], and population-based controls. Both studies collected information on demographic/lifestyle characteristics and medical history. The NCCCS reflects pre-diagnosis or pre-interview patterns, whereas NC STRIDES queried on current practices. Between the NCCCS and NC STRIDES, colon cancer survivors reported significant increases in vegetable intake, physical activity, and supplement use (all P <0.01) and a non-statistically significant increase in fruit/juice consumption (0.1 serving), with larger fruit/vegetable changes in African Americans than Whites. Controls increased physical activity and supplement use and fewer reported arthritic symptoms (P < 0.05). Survivors who were older and female had an almost 3 times higher likelihood of having used at least one new dietary supplement post-diagnosis, whereas being retired correlated with increased vegetable intake, all P < 0.05. Having more barriers to increasing fruit/vegetable intake was inversely associated with taking a new supplement (P < 0.05 only in controls). Colon cancer survivors reported making significant improvements in multiple health-related behaviors. Health care providers should communicate with persons diagnosed with colon cancer to ensure that they are making healthy lifestyle changes.

  20. Mental Health Antecedents of Early Midlife Insomnia: Evidence from a Four-Decade Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Parsons, Michael; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological vulnerability across multiple developmental periods (psychiatric diagnoses in young adulthood and adolescence, childhood behavioral problems, and familial psychiatric history) predicted subsequent insomnia in adulthood. Setting and Participants: We used data from the ongoing Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a population-representative birth cohort study of 1,037 children in New Zealand who were followed prospectively from birth (1972–1973) through their fourth decade of life with a 95% retention rate. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses, behavioral problems, and family psychiatric histories were assessed between ages 5 and 38. Results: In cross-sectional analyses, insomnia was highly comorbid with multiple psychiatric disorders. After controlling for this concurrent comorbidity, our results showed that individuals who have family histories of depression or anxiety, and who manifest lifelong depression and anxiety beginning in childhood, are at uniquely high risk for age-38 insomnia. Other disorders did not predict adulthood insomnia. Conclusions: The link between lifelong depression and anxiety symptoms and adulthood insomnia calls for further studies to clarify the neurophysiological systems or behavioral conditioning processes that may underlie this association. Citation: Goldman-Mellor S, Gregory AM, Caspi A, Harrington H, Parsons M, Poulton R, Moffitt TE. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1767-1775. PMID:25364072

  1. Cancer Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Sexual Identity in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rhonda; McNair, Ruth; Szalacha, Laura; Livingston, Patricia M; Hughes, Tonda

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine cancer diagnosis, cancer treatment, and related risk factors among Australian, middle-aged, exclusively heterosexual women compared with sexual minority women (SMW; mainly heterosexual, bisexual, mainly lesbian, and lesbian). Secondary data analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health for women born in 1946 through 1951 (n = 10,451) included bivariate tests (i.e., contingency table analyses, independent t tests). SMW did not have significantly higher cancer diagnoses compared with exclusively heterosexual women, although they were more likely to report never having had a mammogram or pap smear. SMW were also significantly more likely to be high-risk drinkers (11.1% vs. 6.8%; p < .05), current smokers (15.1% vs. 8.3%; p < .001), report significantly higher rates of depression (mean ± SD; 6.4 ± 5.5 vs. 5.4 ± 5.1; p < .01.), have experienced physical abuse (10.2% vs. 5.1%; p < .001), and been in a violent relationship (27.2% vs. 12.8%; p < .001). SMW had higher rates of several known cancer risk factors, ostensibly placing them at higher risk of cancer as well as chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine whether increased risk results in increased cancer as these women age, and to inform the development of interventions to reduce the risk of disease for SMW. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal study of religiosity and mental health of adolescents with psychiatric problems. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    van der Jagt-Jelsma, W; de Vries-Schot, M; Scheepers, P; van Deurzen, P A M; Klip, H; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-06-15

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the influence of the religiosity of pre-adolescents with psychiatric problems on the course of mental health during adolescence. In the TRAILS clinical cohort of 543 pre-adolescents (10-12 years), mental health problems were assessed using self-report at baseline, T2 (12-14 years), T3 (14-17 years), and T4 (17-21 years). The Youth Self Report (YSR) was used at baseline, T2, and T3, and the Adult Self Report (ASR) was used at T4. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using self-report and information from mothers and fathers, resulting in three categorical religiosity variables and six SOCON (Social Cultural Developments Questionnaire) religiosity scales that assess religiosity in greater detail. Repeated measure ANOVA analyses were performed for each independent religiosity variable with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior as dependent variables, gender as a factor and time (T1, T2, T3 and T4) as within factor. Results were adjusted for marital status of parents and socioeconomic status and corrected for multiple testing. There were main effects of the self-report SOCON scale "Humanistic beliefs" and gender and gender "by Humanistic beliefs" interaction effect on internalizing problems. Follow-up tests revealed that among females "high" scores on "Humanistic beliefs" were associated with increased internalizing problems. There were hardly any associations between religiosity and mental health in a clinical cohort of pre-adolescents up to adolescence. The exception being that among females strong humanistic beliefs were associated with internalizing problems. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Longitudinal measurement invariance in prospective oral health-related quality of life assessment.

    PubMed

    Reissmann, Daniel R; John, Mike T; Feuerstahler, Leah; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Szabó, Gyula; Čelebić, Asja; Waller, Niels

    2016-06-07

    Prospective assessments of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) changes are prone to response shift effects when patients reconceptualize, reprioritize, or recalibrate the perceived meanings of OHRQoL test items. If this occurs, OHRQoL measurements are not "invariant" and may reflect changes in problem profiles or perceptions of OHRQoL test items. This suggests that response shift effects must be measured and controlled to achieve valid prospective OHRQoL measurement. The aim of this study was to quantify response shift effects of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) scores in prospective studies of prosthodontic patients. Data came from the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Project. The final sample included 554 patients who completed the OHIP questionnaire on two occasions: pre- and post-treatment. Only items that compose the 14-item OHIP were analyzed. Structural equation models that included pre- and post-treatment latent factors of OHRQoL with different across-occasion constraints for factor loadings, intercepts, and residual variances were fit to the data using confirmatory factor analysis. Data fit both the unconstrained model (RMSEA = .038, SRMR = .051, CFI = .92, TLI = .91) and the partially constrained model with freed residual variances (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .064, CFI = .92, TLI = .92) well, meaning that the data are well approximated by a one-factor model at each occasion, and suggesting strong factorial across-occasion measurement invariance. The results provided cogent evidence for the absence of response shift in single factor OHIP models, indicating that longitudinal OHIP assessments of OHRQoL measure similar constructs across occasions.

  4. How Health Behaviors Relate to Academic Performance via Affect: An Intensive Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students’ affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. Methods On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Results Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Conclusion Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students. PMID:25353638

  5. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Mata, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  6. Kinematic Analysis of Subsurface Structures of the Northern Longitudinal Valley From Geodetic and Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. Y.; Chang, W. L.; Chang, C. P.; Kuochen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal Valley (LV), extended form Hualien to Taitung between the Central Range (CR) and the Coastal Range in the eastern Taiwan, is considered as a plate boundary formed by the convergence between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Previous studies reveal ~30 mm/yr shortening in the southern part of the LV; however, many interesting tectonic and geologic features in the northern LV are worth to discuss. Our relocation of M>2.0 background seismicity in the northern LV using HypoDD revealed an east dipping LV fault and a west-dipping lineament beneath the middle Central Range, while the lineament gradually becomes horizontal as extended to the east (Fig. 1). In Oct. 31, 2013, a NNE-strike earthquake of Mw=6.4 occurred near the town of Ruisui (Fig. 1), which is the largest event of the northern LV area since the 1972 M=7.2 earthquake. . The focal mechanism indicates that the earthquake is a high angle thrusting fault dipping to west, consistent with the aforementioned west-dipping seismic lineament beneath CR. In this study, we analyzed GPS data from 38 continuous stations together with ERS and Envisat images processed by PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterers InSAR) technique to study the interseismic and the post-Ruisui ground deformation of the northern LV area (Fig. 2). Our geodetic analysis reveal that the GPS horizontal velocity field decreases toward the north from ~25 mm/yr to <10 mm/yr across the latitude of ~23.5°, with a clockwise rotation of velocity directions from northwest to north and further to east in the Hualien area. In addition, the vertical velocities show subsidence in the most of the area with rates up to 10 mm/yr. Moreover, the mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity of ERS from 1993-2001 reveals subsidence rates of up to 8 mm/yr in the Longitudinal Valley and an uplift up to 5 mm/yr at the west of the Milun fault (Fig. 2). Besides, the 2004-2008 Envisat data show an uplift of ~3 mm/yr in most of the Milun fault area. A couple of two

  7. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  8. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niizeki, Tomohiko; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (VLSSE) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H ∥ [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of VLSSE has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT), giving the relatively large VLSSE /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  9. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Niizeki, Tomohiko; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-05-15

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (V{sub LSSE}) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H∥[11{sup -}0] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of V{sub LSSE} has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT), giving the relatively large V{sub LSSE} /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  10. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  11. Longitudinal and secular trends in dietary supplement use: Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, 1986-2006.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-03-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of supplement use in the United States were cross-sectional or evaluated trends in limited variety of supplements. The objective of this study was to describe the longitudinal and secular trend of dietary supplement use over the past 20 years in health professionals using data from two large prospective cohorts. We analyzed cohort data from 1986 to 2006 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). In 1986, 74,194 women aged 40 to 65 years in the NHS and 50,497 men aged 40 to 75 years in the HPFS were included. Use of dietary supplements including multivitamins, vitamins, and minerals was repeatedly asked every 4 years. Generalized estimating equation models were used for repeated analysis. Prevalence of use of any supplement increased among both women (71.3% to 88.3%) and men (56.4% to 80.7%) from 1986 to 2006. Notably, longitudinal increases in the prevalence of use of vitamin D (2.2% to 32.2% for women and 1.1% to 6.7% for men), folic acid (0.8% to 10.7% for women and 1.1% to 13.8% for men), and fish oil (1.6% to 18.1% for women and 3.3% to 22.2% for men) supplements were observed from 1990 to 2006. However, the use of vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E supplements peaked in 1994 or 1998, then declined steadily. A secular increase in use of multivitamins, vitamin D, folic acid, and fish oil across same age group was noted. In conclusion, the use of many types of dietary supplements has increased over time, but the use of antioxidant supplements has declined. The secular increase in the prevalence of use of supplements across the same age group suggests that aging of the population is not the primary reason for the increase. These findings in health professionals need to be replicated in the general populations.

  12. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question "How would you rate your health compared with other people your age" (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB.

  13. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953

  14. Regulation and dysregulation of esophageal peristalsis by the integrated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively. Studies in patients with various types of esophageal motor disorders reveal temporal disassociation between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. We suggest that the discoordination between the two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain. Certain pathologies may selectively target one and not the other muscle layer, e.g., in eosinophilic esophagitis there is a selective dysfunction of the longitudinal muscle layer. In achalasia esophagus, swallows are accompanied by the strong contraction of the longitudinal muscle without circular muscle contraction. The possibility that the discoordination between two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain are discussed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the regulation and dysregulation of peristalsis by the coordinated and discoordinated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and diseased states. PMID:27445346

  15. Regulation and dysregulation of esophageal peristalsis by the integrated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-09-01

    Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively. Studies in patients with various types of esophageal motor disorders reveal temporal disassociation between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. We suggest that the discoordination between the two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain. Certain pathologies may selectively target one and not the other muscle layer, e.g., in eosinophilic esophagitis there is a selective dysfunction of the longitudinal muscle layer. In achalasia esophagus, swallows are accompanied by the strong contraction of the longitudinal muscle without circular muscle contraction. The possibility that the discoordination between two muscle layers plays a role in the genesis of esophageal symptoms, i.e., dysphagia and esophageal pain are discussed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the regulation and dysregulation of peristalsis by the coordinated and discoordinated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and diseased states.

  16. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-10-24

    To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers' agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Longitudinal study (2007-2010). 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65 years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3 years. The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers' health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (β=-0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (β=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers' health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be functional in the social reproduction process of the communities studied. Results highlight

  17. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  18. Does disability status modify the association between psychosocial job quality and mental health? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p < 0.001). The relative difference in mental health was less in relation to NILF and unemployment (-0.39 and -0.66 respectively). For those with consistent disability, the difference in mental health when employed in an optimal job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other

  19. The effect of unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece from 2008 to 2013: a longitudinal study before and during the financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2015-03-01

    The current study uses six annual waves of the Longitudinal Labor Market Study (LLMS) covering the 2008-2013 period to obtain longitudinal estimations suggesting statistically significant negative effects from unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece. The specifications suggest that unemployment results in lower health and the deterioration of mental health during the 2008-2009 period compared with the 2010-2013 period, i.e., a period in which the country's unemployment doubled as a consequence of the financial crisis. Unemployment seems to be more detrimental to health/mental health in periods of high unemployment, suggesting that the unemployment crisis in Greece is more devastating as it concerns more people. Importantly, in all specifications, comparable qualitative patterns are found by controlling for unemployment due to firm closure, which allows us to minimize potential bias due to unemployment-health related reverse causality. Moreover, in all cases, women are more negatively affected by unemployment in relation to their health and mental health statuses than are men. Greece has been more deeply affected by the financial crisis than any other EU country, and this study contributes by offering estimates for before and during the financial crisis and considering causality issues. Because health and mental health indicators increase more rapidly in a context of higher surrounding unemployment, policy action must place greater emphasis on unemployment reduction and supporting women's employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    PubMed

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  1. Longitudinal relations between observed parenting behaviors and dietary quality of meals from ages 2 to 5.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Zorash; Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-04-01

    Parents influence a child's diet by modeling food choices, selecting the food they make available, and controlling the child's intake. Few studies have examined the covariation between parent's behavior management practices and their guidance and support for a young child's nutritional environment in early childhood. We hypothesized that parents' positive behavior support (PBS), characterized as skillful behavior management and proactive structuring of children's activities, would predict dietary quality over the course of early childhood (age 2 to 5 years), a critical period for the development of a dietary lifestyle. Participants included 731 culturally diverse, low-income families in a randomized, controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Families participated in a yearly home visit videotaped assessment PBS and dietary quality of meals parents served to their children were assessed by coding videotapes of structured parent-child interactions. A cross-lagged panel model was used to evaluate the longitudinal relation between PBS and the dietary quality of meals served during a meal preparation task. Analyses revealed that PBS repeatedly predicted meals' dietary quality the following year: age 2-3 (β = .30), age 3-4 (β = 0.14), age 4-5 (β = 0.37). Dietary quality significantly predicted PBS 1 year later: age 3-4 (β = 0.16), age 4-5 (β = 0.14). As expected, the relative strength of the relationship from PBS to dietary quality was significantly stronger than the reverse, from dietary quality to PBS. Positive behavior management and proactive parenting practices are an important foundation for establishing a healthy nutritional environment for young children. These findings suggest that family-centered prevention interventions for pediatric obesity may benefit from targeting PBS in service of promoting better dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal Relations Between Observed Parenting Behaviors and Dietary Quality of Meals From Ages 2 to 5

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Zorash; Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Parents influence a child’s diet by modeling food choices, selecting the food they will make available, and controlling the child’s intake. Few studies have examined the covariation between parent’s behavior management practices and their guidance and support for a young child’s nutritional environment in early childhood. We hypothesized that parents’ positive behavior support (PBS), characterized as skillful behavior management and proactive structuring of children’s activities, would predict dietary quality over the course of early childhood (age 2 to 5 years), a critical period for the development of a dietary lifestyle through the lifespan. Methods Participants included 731 culturally diverse, low-income families in a randomized, controlled trial of the Family Check-Up. Families participated in a yearly home visit videotaped assessment when children were 2 to 5 years. PBS and dietary quality of meals parents served to their children were assessed by coding videotapes of structured parent–child interactions, including a meal preparation task. A cross-lagged panel model was used to evaluate the longitudinal relation between PBS and the dietary quality of meals served during the meal preparation task. Results Analyses revealed that PBS repeatedly predicted meals’ dietary quality the following year: age 2–3 (β = .30), age 3–4 (β = 0.14), age 4–5 (β = 0.37). Dietary quality significantly predicted PBS 1 year later: age 3–4 (β = 0.16), age 4–5 (β = 0.14). As expected, the relative strength of the relationship from PBS to dietary quality was significantly stronger than the reverse, from dietary quality to PBS. Conclusions Positive behavior management and proactive parenting practices are an important foundation for establishing a healthy nutritional environment for young children. These findings suggest that family-centered prevention interventions for pediatric obesity may benefit from targeting PBS in service of promoting

  3. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  4. Longitudinal Study of Emerging Mental Health Concerns in Youth Perinatally Infected With HIV and Peer Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Angelidou, Konstantia; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Heston, Jerry; Hodge, Janice; Nachman, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional research indicates high rates of mental health concerns among youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), but few studies have examined emerging psychiatric symptoms over time. Methods Youth with PHIV and peer comparisons who were HIV-exposed but uninfected or living in house-holds with HIV-infected family members (HIV-affected) and primary caregivers participated in a prospective, multisite, longitudinal cohort study. Groups were compared for differences in the incidence of emerging psychiatric symptoms during 2 years of follow-up and for differences in psychotropic drug therapy. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of emerging symptoms with HIV status and psychosocial risk factors. Results Of 573 youth with study entry assessments, 92% attended at least 1 annual follow-up visit (PHIV: 296; comparisons: 229). A substantial percentage of youth who did not meet symptom criteria for a psychiatric disorder at study entry did so during follow-up (PHIV = 36%; comparisons = 42%). In addition, those who met criteria at study entry often met criteria during follow-up (PHIV = 41%; comparisons = 43%). Asymptomatic youth with PHIV were significantly more likely to receive psychotropic medication during follow-up than comparisons. Youth with greater HIV disease severity (entry CD4% <25% vs 25% or more) had higher probability of depression symptoms (19% vs 8%, respectively). Conclusions Many youth in families affected by HIV are at risk for development of psychiatric symptoms. PMID:22772819

  5. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  6. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  7. Digital divide 2.0: the role of social networking sites in seeking health information online from a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Xie, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a longitudinal angle, this study analyzed data from the Pew Internet's Health Tracking Survey in 2006, 2008, and 2010 to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use. Results showed that with the growing role of social networking site use in predicting people's likelihood of seeking health information online, the socioeconomic and demographic factors that contributed to the disparities in social networking site use could also lead to disparities in seeking health information online. Also, results indicated that people are more likely to seek heath-related information online if they or their close family or friends have a chronic disease situation.

  8. Longitudinal omics modeling and integration in clinical metabonomics research: challenges in childhood metabolic health research

    PubMed Central

    Sperisen, Peter; Cominetti, Ornella; Martin, François-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modeling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modeling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system's components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modeling in the context of childhood metabolic health research. PMID:26301225

  9. Longitudinal Effects of Air Pollution on Exhaled Nitric Oxide: The Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Zhang, Yue; Salam, Muhammad T.; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Linn, William S.; Rappaport, Edward B.; Bastain, Theresa M; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of long-term variations in ambient air pollutants on longitudinal changes in exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a potentially useful biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, based on data from the southern California Children’s Health Study. METHODS Based on a cohort of 1,211 schoolchildren from 8 Southern California communities with FeNO measurements in 2006/07 and 2007/08, regression models adjusted for short-term effects of air pollution were fitted to assess the association between changes in annual long-term exposures and changes in FeNO. RESULTS Increases in annual average concentrations of 24-hr average NO2 and PM2.5 (scaled to the interquartile range (IQR) of 1.8 ppb and 2.4 μg/m3, respectively) were associated with a 2.29 ppb (CI=[0.36,4.21]; p =0.02) and a 4.94 ppb (CI=[1.44,8.47]; p = 0.005) increase in FeNO, respectively, after adjustments for short term effects of the respective pollutants. In contrast, changes in annual averages of PM10 and O3 were not significantly associated with changes in FeNO. These findings did not differ significantly by asthma status. CONCLUSIONS Changes in annual average exposure to current levels of ambient air pollutants are significantly associated with changes in FeNO levels in children, independent of short-term exposures and asthma status. Use of this biomarker in population-based epidemiologic research has great potential for assessing the impact of changing real world mixtures of ambient air pollutants on children’s respiratory health. PMID:24696513

  10. Longitudinal effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide: the Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Kiros; Zhang, Yue; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Linn, William S; Rappaport, Edward B; Bastain, Theresa M; Lurmann, Fred; Gilliland, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effects of long-term variations in ambient air pollutants on longitudinal changes in exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a potentially useful biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, based on data from the southern California Children's Health Study. Based on a cohort of 1211 schoolchildren from eight Southern California communities with FeNO measurements in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, regression models adjusted for short-term effects of air pollution were fitted to assess the association between changes in annual long-term exposures and changes in FeNO. Increases in annual average concentrations of 24-h average NO2 and PM2.5 (scaled to the IQR of 1.8 ppb and 2.4 μg/m(3), respectively) were associated with a 2.29 ppb (CI 0.36 to 4.21; p=0.02) and a 4.94 ppb (CI 1.44 to 8.47; p=0.005) increase in FeNO, respectively, after adjustments for short-term effects of the respective pollutants. In contrast, changes in annual averages of PM10 and O3 were not significantly associated with changes in FeNO. These findings did not differ significantly by asthma status. Changes in annual average exposure to current levels of ambient air pollutants are significantly associated with changes in FeNO levels in children, independent of short-term exposures and asthma status. Use of this biomarker in population-based epidemiological research has great potential for assessing the impact of changing real world mixtures of ambient air pollutants on children's respiratory health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a longitudinal study of risk, protective factors, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Brennan, Robert T; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline) were recruited from the roster of an non-governmental organization (NGO)-run Interim Care Center in Kono District and interviewed in 2002, 2004, and 2008. The retention rate was 69%. Linear growth models were used to investigate trends related to war and postconflict experiences. The long-term mental health of former child soldiers was associated with war experiences and postconflict risk factors, which were partly mitigated by postconflict protective factors. Increases in externalizing behavior were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and postconflict stigma, whereas increased community acceptance was associated with decreases in externalizing problems (b = -1.09). High baseline levels of internalizing problems were associated with being raped, whereas increases were associated with younger involvement in armed groups and social and economic hardships. Improvements in internalizing problems were associated with higher levels of community acceptance and increases in community acceptance (b = -0.86). Decreases in adaptive/prosocial behaviors were associated with killing/injuring others during the war and postconflict stigma, but partially mitigated by social support, being in school and increased community acceptance (b = 1.93). Psychosocial interventions for former child soldiers may be more effective if they account for postconflict factors in addition to war exposures. Youth with accumulated risk factors, lack of protective factors, and persistent distress should be identified. Sustainable services to promote community acceptance, reduce stigma, and expand social supports and educational access are recommended. 2010

  12. Does Further Education in Adulthood Improve Physical and Mental Health among Australian Women? A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Tooth, Leigh; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed whether further education in young adult and mid-life [adult educational mobility] influences physical functioning and depressive symptoms in women. 14247 women born 1973-78 (younger cohort) and 13715 women born 1946-51 (mid-aged cohort) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were followed for 14-16 years. Measures were the Short-Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF) and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD-10). Linear mixed modelling, accounting for time varying covariates, assessed the influence of further education on physical functioning and depressive symptoms over time. Sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of missing data was conducted using multiple imputation. Compared to younger women with a pre-existing high level of education, women gaining further education (up to age 39 years) from low levels had lower SF-36 PF scores (poorer physical functioning) (fully adjusted beta estimates (95%CIs) -1.52 (-2.59, -0.44)) while those gaining further education from middle to high levels showed equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.08 (-0.61, 0.44)). A similar pattern was shown for CESD-10 scores (0.78 (0.29, 1.25); -0.02 (-0.26, 0.21), respectively) where higher scores represented more depressive symptoms. For mid-age women, further education from a middle to high level resulted in equivalent SF-36 PF scores (-0.61 (-1.93,0.71)) but higher CESD-10 scores (0.49 (0.11, 0.86)), compared to highly educated women. Women who delay further education until they are aged between their 40s and 60s can improve or maintain their physical functioning but may have missed the critical time to minimise depressive symptomatology. Public health policy should focus on encouraging women to upgrade their educational qualifications earlier in life in order to potentially offset the negative associations between their initial lower socio-economic position class of origin and their mental health.

  13. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p < 0.001). Those with lower mood were fatter (r = -0.24, p < 0.001), had higher HOMA-IR (r = -0.12, p = 0.05), higher cholesterol:HDL ratio (r = -0.14, p = 0.02), were less active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Asthma Mobile Health Study, a large-scale clinical observational study using ResearchKit.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng Yvonne; Wang, Pei; Rogers, Linda; Tignor, Nicole; Zweig, Micol; Hershman, Steven G; Genes, Nicholas; Scott, Erick R; Krock, Eric; Badgeley, Marcus; Edgar, Ron; Violante, Samantha; Wright, Rosalind; Powell, Charles A; Dudley, Joel T; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e.g., surveys, devices, geolocation, and air quality) in a subset of users over the 6-month study period. Consistent trending and correlation of interrelated variables support the quality of data obtained via this method. We detected increased reporting of asthma symptoms in regions affected by heat, pollen, and wildfires. Potential challenges with this technology include selection bias, low retention rates, reporting bias, and data security. These issues require attention to realize the full potential of mobile platforms in research and patient care.

  15. Refugees and health care--the need for data: understanding the health of government-assisted refugees in Canada through a prospective longitudinal cohort.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Patricia S; Morgan-Jonker, Cecily; Phung, Charlene M W; Barrios, Rolando; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Canada is a country with large populations of immigrants and refugees. These populations face unique health challenges and barriers to accessing health care services. Amendments to the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act in 2002 have resulted in an increase in refugees with complex medical needs. However, little is known about the health of refugees on arrival and their subsequent health care trajectories. There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of refugee demographics and health status on arrival, changes in health status over time, utilization of health services, and characteristics associated with optimal health outcomes. This knowledge gap could be addressed through the creation of a longitudinal cohort study of government-assisted refugees (CARs) in British Columbia (BC). The provision of services for CARs in BC lends itself readily to the creation of a prospective CAR cohort. This, combined with access to highly reliable, valid and comprehensive administrative databases available through Population Data BC, would allow for longitudinal follow-up, and ensure low attrition rates. Establishment of such a cohort would improve knowledge of refugee health and could guide health service providers and policy-makers in providing optimal services to GARs.

  16. Performance of Gout Impact Scale in a longitudinal observational study of patients with gout.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Beth; Khanna, Dinesh; Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra; Singh, Jasvinder A; Duffy, Erin; Elashoff, David; Khanna, Puja P

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the reliability, validity and responsiveness to change of the Gout Impact Scale (GIS), a disease-specific measure of patient-reported outcomes, in a multicentre longitudinal prospective cohort of gout patients. Subjects completed the GIS, a 24-item instrument with five scales: Concern Overall, Medication Side Effects, Unmet Treatment Need, Well-Being during Attack, and Concern Over Attack. The total GIS score was calculated by averaging the GIS scale scores. HAQ-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form (SF)-36 physical and mental component summaries (PCS and MCS) and physician and patient gout severity assessments were also completed. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach's α. Baseline GIS scores were compared in subjects with and without gout attacks in the past 3 months using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate predictors of total GIS. Pearson's correlation coefficients 0.24-0.36 were considered moderate and >0.37 considered large. The effect size for responsiveness to change was interpreted as follows: 0.20-0.49 small, 0.50-0.79 medium and >0.79 large. In 147 subjects, reliability was acceptable for total GIS (0.93) and all GIS scales (0.82-0.94) except Medication Side Effects and Unmet Treatment Need. Total GIS and all scales except Medication Side Effects discriminated between subjects with and without recent gout attacks (P < 0.05). Total GIS showed moderate-to-large correlations with HAQ-DI, SF-36 PCS and MCS (0.33-0.46). Improvement in total GIS tracked with improved physician and patient severity scores. Worsening physician severity score and recent gout attack predicted worsening total GIS. Total GIS score is reliable, valid and responsive to change in patients with gout, and differentiates between subjects with and without recent gout attacks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Is retirement good or bad for mental and physical health functioning? Whitehall II longitudinal study of civil servants

    PubMed Central

    Mein, G; Martikainen, P; Hemingway, H; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: To determine whether retirement at age 60 is associated with improvement or deterioration in mental and physical health, when analysed by occupational grade and gender. Methods: Longitudinal study of civil servants aged 54 to 59 years at baseline, comparing changes in SF-36 health functioning in retired (n=392) and working (n=618) participants at follow up. Data were collected from self completed questionnaires. Results: Mental health functioning deteriorated among those who continued to work, but improved among the retired. However, improvements in mental health were restricted to those in higher employment grades. Physical functioning declined in both working and retired civil servants. Conclusion: The study found that retirement at age 60 had no effects on physical health functioning and, if anything, was associated with an improvement in mental health, particularly among high socioeconomic status groups. PMID:12490648

  18. Longitudinal Oscillations in Coronal Loops - Joint Observations with SOHO/CDS and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.; De Moortel, I.; Ireland, J.

    2004-01-01

    Joint Observing Program (JOP) 83 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) data is analysed for evidence of propagating intensity oscillations along loop structures in the solar corona. A propagating intensity oscillation with a minimum estimated speed of 50-195 km s is observed within a TRACE 171 Å coronal loop using a running difference method. Co-spatial and co-temporal CDS and TRACE observations of this loop are analysed using a wavelet analysis method. The TRACE data shows a propagating oscillation with a period of 300 s. This period is also observed with CDS suggesting propagating oscillations at chromospheric, transition region and coronal temperatures in the He I, O V and Mg IX lines.

  19. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children’s Potential and Attained Secondary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children’s health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 participants of the Dutch PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between indicators of physical health, psychosocial health, lifestyle, sleeping patterns and stressful life events and attending a higher or lower level of secondary education than indicated by the cognitive test. Results We found no evidence that physical health contributes to discrepancies between the potential and attained level of secondary education, but attention disorders and stressful life events (nasty experiences and parents’ divorce) were associated with educational attainment below children’s potential level. Furthermore, substance use (alcohol, drugs and smoking) were strongly associated with attending a lower level of secondary education than expected (odds ratios from 2.2 (CI: 1.5–3.3) to 5.0 (CI: 2.8–8.7)). Conclusion In this general population study, attention disorders, stressful life events and especially substance use seemed to be more important than physical health for the discrepancy between expected and attained level of secondary education. The longitudinal design of the present study and the broad range of health-related factors that were studied, adds insights to the process of health-selection. PMID:28005962

  20. Application of person-centered analytic methodology in longitudinal research: exemplars from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial data.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cochrane, Barbara B; Herting, Jerald R; Thompson, Hilaire J; Woods, Nancy F; Lacroix, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Despite the variety of available analytic methods, longitudinal research in nursing has been dominated by use of a variable-centered analytic approach. The purpose of this article is to present the utility of person-centered methodology using a large cohort of American women 65 and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (N = 19,891). Four distinct trajectories of energy/fatigue scores were identified. Levels of fatigue were closely linked to age, socio-demographic factors, comorbidities, health behaviors, and poor sleep quality. These findings were consistent regardless of the methodological framework. Finally, we demonstrated that energy/fatigue levels predicted future hospitalization in non-disabled elderly. Person-centered methods provide unique opportunities to explore and statistically model the effects of longitudinal heterogeneity within a population. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social support and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janni; Pachana, Nancy A; McLaughlin, Deirdre

    2014-09-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis is a distressing event that impacts on physical and psychological functioning. This study examined the longitudinal relationships among a diagnosis of breast cancer, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were 412 women from the 1946-1951 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health who self-reported a new diagnosis of breast cancer between 1998 and 2007. The three surveys of longitudinal data analyzed included data 3 years before diagnosis, at diagnosis (baseline), and 3 years after diagnosis (follow-up). Social support was measured using the 19-item Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey; HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Compared with pre-diagnosis HRQOL, women newly diagnosed with breast cancer reported significantly poorer HRQOL in subscales related to pain, physical functioning, and health and vitality. At 3-year follow-up, HRQOL had improved in most domains to levels consistent with pre-diagnosis. Levels of social support remained stable across time. The structural equation model showed that social support was positively predictive of better physical and mental HRQOL at 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal analyses indicate that social support appears to be an important predictor of HRQOL in women diagnosed with breast cancer. In particular, positive emotional and informational support that may normally be provided by a partner is important in maintaining HRQOL. Identification of those lacking social support, especially patients without partners, will enable them to be guided to appropriate support networks and programs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Observation of the Faraday effect via beam deflection in a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Hill, Winfield; Fischer, Peer

    2007-11-15

    We show that magnetic-field-induced circular differential deflection of light can be observed in reflection or refraction at a single interface. The difference in the reflection or refraction angles between the two circular polarization components is a function of the magnetic-field strength and the Verdet constant, and permits the observation of the Faraday effect not via polarization rotation in transmission, but via changes in the propagation direction. Deflection measurements do not suffer from n-{pi} ambiguities and are shown to be another means to map magnetic fields with high axial resolution, or to determine the sign and magnitude of magnetic-field pulses in a single measurement.

  3. [Longitudinality, prestige, good reputation (social and professional) and general/family medicine. Clinical and public health aspects. SESPAS Report 2012].

    PubMed

    Gérvas, Juan; Pérez Fernández, Mercedes; Sánchez Sánchez, Roberto José

    2012-03-01

    The reform of primary care in Spain in 1984 focussed mainly on skills and knowledge (physician training and working hours) and material resources (new buildings). The reform did not succeed in improving longitudinal care nor did it give primary care physicians greater power, that is, the reform did not increase coordination or strengthen the central role of the family physician in services provision. The lack of longitudinality has persisted over the years since the working methods that encourage it (and its resulting clinical and public health benefits) have not been stimulated. Longitudinality is the personal relationship established over the years between general practitioners and their patients and is defined as (a) care by the same family physician of most of the patient's problems throughout his or her life, and (b) the recognition by patients and the population of a stable source of care to be used for initial contact and for the follow-up of problems. The tendency in the medical profession and society at large is to respond to an increasing number of health problems more quickly and intensely, with increasingly powerful means and with a greater number of specialists. In turn, this tendency makes medical activities dangerous. To counteract this tendency, a motto of "less is better" should be adopted, implying greater longitudinality. Many initiatives could improve longitudinality, such as incentives for not moving, increasing the capitation component of remuneration to nearly 50%, broadening the range of general practitioners' skills, including family members in the same patient list, and transforming the role of specialists into that of consultants. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of health insurance status changes on healthcare utilisation patterns: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study examined medical care utilisation by health insurance status changes. Setting The Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePs) was used. Participants This study analysed 14 267 participants at baseline (2006). Interventions The individuals were categorised into four health insurance status groups: continuous health insurance, change from health insurance to Medical Aid, change from Medical Aid to health insurance, or continuous Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Three dependent variables were also analysed: days spent in hospital; number of outpatient visits; and hospitalisations per year. Longitudinal data analysis was used to determine whether changes in health insurance status were associated with healthcare utilisation. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.1.363 times higher (p<0.0001) in the continuous Medical Aid than in the continuous health insurance group. The number of hospitalisations per year was 1.560 times higher (p<0.001) in new Medical Aid and −0.636 times lower (p<0.001) in new health insurance than in continuous health insurance group. The number of days spent in hospital per year was −0.567 times lower (p=0.021) in the new health insurance than in the continuous health insurance group. Conclusions Health insurance beneficiaries with a coverage level lower than Medical Aid showed lower healthcare utilisation, as measured by the number of hospitalisations and days spent in hospital per year. PMID:27036140

  5. Development of Functional Connectivity during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Using an Action-Observation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Successful interpersonal interactions rely on an ability to read the emotional states of others and to modulate one's own behavior in response. The actions of others serve as valuable social stimuli in this respect, offering the observer an insight into the actor's emotional state. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence. Here…

  6. Development of Functional Connectivity during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Using an Action-Observation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Successful interpersonal interactions rely on an ability to read the emotional states of others and to modulate one's own behavior in response. The actions of others serve as valuable social stimuli in this respect, offering the observer an insight into the actor's emotional state. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence. Here…

  7. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. Methods. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Results. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. Conclusions. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health. PMID:25521873

  8. Cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of racism on mental health among residents of Black neighborhoods in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health.

  9. Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS national study of health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Radler, Barry T; Ryff, Carol D

    2010-04-01

    This article uses data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans (N = 7,108), to investigate factors that predict longitudinal retention. With its extensive age range (25-75 at Time 1) and long-term design (9- to 10-year survey interval), MIDUS is useful for investigating common sociodemographic and health predictors of continuing participation. The authors conducted logistic regression analyses of baseline sociodemographic and health variables predicting retention. Select interaction terms examined the interplay between targeted variables. Consistent with prior research, higher retention rates were found among Whites, females, and married individuals as well as those with better health and more education. Interaction analyses further clarified that (a) health status better predicted retention among older compared to younger respondents and among women compared to men, (b) marital status better predicted retention among Whites compared to non-Whites and among women compared to men, and (c) economic status better predicted retention among those with poorer functional health status. The authors' analyses clarify that longitudinal retention varied depending on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and their health status. The unique contribution of this article is that factors predicting nonparticipation can be offset by, or compensated for, other factors.

  10. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS.

    PubMed

    Ryff, Carol D; Radler, Barry T; Friedman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society.

  11. [Longitudinal study of health related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: correlation with MRI parameters].

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Lebrun, C; Aufauvre, D; Chanalet, S; Filleau-Bertogliatti, C; Camu, W; Thomas, P; Malandain, G; Clavelou, P

    2010-11-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is often affected in multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there is no longitudinal study in the literature about the correlation between MRI parameters and HRQOL in MS patients. We included 28 patients with clinically definite relapsing remitting MS. All patients initiated subcutaneous interferon beta-1a therapy. To assess HRQOL, we used the SEP-59 scale, the French validated translation of MSQOL-54, and the MusiQoL scale. Conventional MRI was performed every year. Lesion load (LL) and brain atrophy were automatically measured using SepINRIA, a free software developed by INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. The mean EDSS score was 1.7 and disease duration was 2.5 years. Our results revealed that HRQOL was significantly correlated to T1 and T2-LL with both SEP-59 and MusiQoL scales. T1-LL was better correlated with physical dimensions and T2-LL was better correlated with mental components. At 1-year follow-up, patients whose MRI showed either an increase of T1 LL or at least one gadolinium enhancing lesion had a worse HRQOL at the end of the study. Initial brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) measure was also correlated with the long-term follow-up HRQOL. EDSS scored at the end of the study had not significantly changed (1.3; P>0.05). Our study revealed pertinent clinicoradiological correlations between HRQOL and MRI parameters in our cohort. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent–child agreement on health-related quality of life (HRQOL): a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated changes on parent–child agreement in HRQOL over time. The objectives of the study were to assess parent–child agreement on child’s HRQOL in a 3-year longitudinal study, and to identify factors associated with possible disagreement. Methods A sample of Spanish children/adolescents aged 8–18 years and their parents both completed the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Data on age, gender, family socioeconomic status (SES), and mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) was also collected at baseline (2003), and again after 3 years (2006). Changes in family composition were collected at follow-up. Agreement was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman plots. Generalizing Estimating Equation (GEE) models were built to analyze factors associated with parent–child disagreement. Results A total of 418 parent–child pairs were analyzed. At baseline the level of agreement on HRQOL was low to moderate and it was related to the level of HRQOL reported. Physical well-being at baseline showed the highest level of parent–child agreement (ICC=0.59; 0.53-0.65) while less “observable” dimensions presented lower levels of agreement, (i.e. Psychological well-being: ICC= 0.46; 0.38-0.53). Agreement parent–child was lower at follow-up. Some interactions were found between rater and child’s age; with increasing age, child scored lower than parents on Parents relationships and Autonomy (Beta [B] -0.47; -0.71 / -0.23) and the KIDSCREEN-10 (−0.49; -0.73 /-0.25). Conclusions Parent–child agreement on child’s HRQOL is moderate to low and tends to diminish with children age. Measuring HRQOL of children/adolescents mainly in healthy population samples might require direct self-assessments. PMID:23786901

  13. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Merrill, David A; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I; Lopez, Oscar L; Becker, James T; Carmichael, Owen T; Gach, H Michael; Thompson, Paul M; Longstreth, W T; Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status.

  14. Financial position and adoption of electronic health records: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jay J; Ginn, Gregory O

    2012-01-01

    Financial barriers are a major factor of slow electronic health record (EHR) adoption among US hospitals. All existing literature focuses on relationships between current or short-term financial position and EHR adoption. This study examines relationship between financial position in previous years and the current level of EHR adoption. Retrospective longitudinal data were extracted from (1) the 2009 American Hospital Association (AHA) EHR implementation survey; (2) the 2002 and 2006 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Cost Reports; and (3) the 2002 and 2006 AHA Annual Survey containing organizational and operational data. The final sample was 2,701 acute care hospitals in the United States. General ordinal logistic regression was used for data analysis with a three-level dependent variable to measure adoption, five independent variables to measure financial position, and 11 control variables to measure structure and environment. For 2006, higher total margin was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption, but higher asset turnover was significantly and negatively associated with EHR adoption. For 2002, higher total margin was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption, but higher asset turnover and higher equity multiplier were both significantly and negatively associated with EHR adoption. In addition, lower net days revenue in accounts receivable was significantly and positively associated with EHR adoption. For both the 2002 and 2006 control variables, human resource intensity and bed size were significant and positively related to adoption, and percentage Medicare patients and investor ownership were significant and negatively related to adoption. Financial position does relate to EHR adoption in mid-term and long-term planning.

  15. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  16. IUE observations of longitudinal and temporal variations in the Jovian auroral emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, T. E.; Durrance, S. T.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The IUE's short wavelength spectrograph has been used to monitor the auroral emissions from Jupiter's northern hemisphere, yielding eight observations between January 1981 and January 1982 of H I Lyman-alpha and the H2 Lyman and Werner bands. Attention is given to an apparent periodic emission flux fluctuation, through detailed modeling of the emission geometry. Two possible auroral zones are defined at the north pole by mapping the magnetic field lines from the Io torus and the magnetotail onto the planet's atmosphere. The observed variation in flux with central meridian longitude is not consistent with a uniform brightness as a function of magnetic longitude in either auroral zone. The data can be fitted by confining the emissions to the region of the northern torus auroral zone, in qualitative agreement with the magnetic anomaly model. A similar emission from the magnetotail auroral zone cannot be ruled out.

  17. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined. Methods The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). Functional health was assessed by the subscale “physical functioning” of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = -11.8), predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = 4.8) on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance) to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men) and depressive symptoms (women). Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards. PMID:27213731

  18. Longitudinal associations between mental health conditions and overactive bladder in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Catherine S; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Hillis, Stephen L; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2017-10-01

    One in 5 recently deployed US women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions. We sought to estimate the 1-year incidence and remission of overactive bladder and to identify the impact of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and prior sexual assault on 1-year overactive bladder incidence and remission rates. Participants of this 1-year prospective cohort study were female veterans separated from military service who had returned from Iraq or Afghanistan deployment within the previous 2 years. Eligible women were identified through the Defense Manpower Data Center and recruited by mail and telephone. Telephone screening confirmed participants were ambulatory, community-dwelling veterans and excluded those with urinary tract fistula, congenital abnormality, or cancer; pelvic radiation; spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson disease; stroke; or current/recent pregnancy. Data collection included computer-assisted telephone interviews performed at enrollment and 1 year later. The interview assessed demographic and military service characteristics; urinary symptoms and treatment; depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and treatment; and a lifetime history of sexual assault. Overactive bladder was identified if at least moderately bothersome urgency urinary incontinence and/or urinary frequency symptoms were reported on Urogenital Distress Inventory items. Exposures included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime sexual assault, assessed at

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Cancer: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Brad J; Block, Rebecca; Embry, Leanne; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2017-02-20

    Purpose To examine changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its predictors during the first 2 years after initial cancer diagnosis in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. Patients and Methods A multicenter, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted among a diverse sample of AYA patients with cancer ages 15 to 39 years. One hundred seventy-six patients (75% response) completed a self-report measure of HRQoL (Short Form-36 [SF-36]) within the first 4 months after diagnosis and again 12 and 24 months later. Linear mixed models with random intercepts and slopes estimated changes in QoL. Results Recently diagnosed AYA patients with cancer had significantly worse physical component scale (PCS) scores (38.7 v 52.8; P < .001) and mental component scale (MCS) scores (42.9 v 48.9; P < .001) when compared with population norms. Significant improvements in PCS and MCS scores from baseline to 24-month follow-up were observed; however, these increases were largest during the first 12 months. At the 24-month follow-up, AYA patients still had significantly lower PCS scores (48.0 v 52.8; P < .001) and MCS scores (45.8 v 48.9; P = .002) when compared with population norms. Multivariable analyses revealed that improvements in PCS and MCS scores were primarily a function of being off-treatment and being involved in school or work. PCS but not MCS scores were worse for AYA patients diagnosed with cancers with poorer prognoses. Conclusion Although HRQoL improved over time, it was still compromised 24 months after primary diagnosis. Given relatively little observed improvement in HRQoL during the 12- to 24-month period after diagnosis, AYA patients may benefit from supportive care interventions administered during the second year after diagnosis.

  20. Forms of attrition in a longitudinal study of religion and health in older adults and implications for sample bias

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, R. David; Krause, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased towards more educated and more religiously-involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results. PMID:25257794

  1. Forms of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Religion and Health in Older Adults and Implications for Sample Bias.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased toward more educated and more religiously involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results.

  2. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  3. Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierschke, Nicole; Lowe, Diana; Plastino, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether a sexual health education intervention reduces pregnancy rates in high school students. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year quasi-experimental study performed in South Texas from 2011 to 2015 in which 1437 students without a history of pregnancy at baseline were surveyed each fall and spring. Potentially confounding risk factors considered included sexual behaviors, intentions, and demographics. The outcome measure was self-reported pregnancy status for male and female students. We performed analyses for male and female students using separate discrete time-to-event models. Results. We found no difference in pregnancy rates between intervention and comparison students within the first 3 years of high school. Female and male students in the intervention groups had pregnancy hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.62 (95% CI = 0.9, 2.61; P = .1) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44, 1.48; P = .4) relative to the comparison groups. Conclusions. The educational intervention had no impact on the pregnancy rate. Social media tools in pregnancy prevention programs should be adaptive to new technologies and rapidly changing adolescent preferences for these services. PMID:27689503

  4. OBSERVING THE INFLUENCE OF MINDFULNESS AND ATTACHMENT STYLES THROUGH MOTHER AND INFANT INTERACTION: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Judy A; Townsend, Michelle; Caputi, Peter; Grenyer, Brin F S

    2017-05-01

    The cross-generational influence of attachment security or insecurity on caregiving is well-established. Recently, research has focused on mindfulness as a potential variable to interrupt the transmission of insecure attachment and disrupt its effect across generations. Thirty-six pregnant female participants completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire and Relationship Questionnaire-Clinical Version at 30 weeks' gestation. Following the infant's birth, mothers and their babies participated in a video-recorded feeding session at 7 to 10 weeks' postpartum. It was predicted that a secure attachment style and higher levels of mindfulness measured prenatally would be associated with greater maternal responsiveness postpartum. The hypothesis was supported for both the secure and insecure (fearful and profoundly distrustful) attachment styles. Mindfulness did not mediate the relationship between attachment and maternal distress. The mindfulness subscale Non-Reacting was significantly associated with maternal response to distress. These findings support the role of prenatal mindfulness skills and attachment security for later postnatal maternal sensitivity to baby. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pregnant Women regarding Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs following Oral Health Education in Pune District of Maharashtra: A Longitudinal Hospital-based Study.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Roshani M; Shetiya, Sahana H; Agarwal, Deepti R; Mitra, Pranjan; Bomble, Nikhil A; Narayana, D Satya

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy is a natural process that may create some changes in different parts of the body including the oral cavity. These changes will lead to oral diseases if enough and timely care of oral cavity is not taken. Women may experience increased gingivitis or pregnancy gingivitis beginning in the second or third month of pregnancy that increases in severity throughout the duration of pregnancy. To motivate the patient toward oral health and implement the needed prophylactic measures, a longitudinal study was planned to observe the effect of oral health education during pregnancy on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and treatment needs (TNs) of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups. A longitudinal study was conducted among 112 pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups to assess the effect of oral health education on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and TNs. The demographic details, knowledge, attitude, and practice of pregnant women, and oral health status were collected through a predesigned questionnaire by a principal investigator through an interview. Oral health examination was carried out to assess oral health status using revised World Health Organization Proforma 1997, and oral health education was given through PowerPoint presentation to the participants in local language, i.e., Marathi, after collecting the baseline data. Reinforcement of oral health education and blanket referral was done at 14th week, and follow-up data were collected at 28th week of gestation. The demographic details, such as age, sex, education, occupation, income, and the questions based on knowledge, attitude, and practice among participants were analyzed using number, percentage, and mean. At baseline, knowledge was limited, attitude was positive, while the practice was poor regarding oral health care during pregnancy in pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups. After oral health education and

  6. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  7. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health 1989-95 Cohort.

    PubMed

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-05-04

    In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women-a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort.

  8. Safety and Health Hazard Observations in Hmong Farming Operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, R. L.; Krenz, J.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  9. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  10. SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY OBSERVATIONS OF A REFLECTING LONGITUDINAL WAVE IN A CORONAL LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.; Inhester, B.

    2013-12-10

    We report high resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) of intensity oscillations in a hot, T ∼ 8-10 MK, loop. The AIA images show a large coronal loop that was rapidly heated following plasma ejection from one of the loop's footpoints. A wave-like intensity enhancement, seen very clearly in the 131 and 94 Å channel images, propagated ahead of the ejecta along the loop, and was reflected at the opposite footpoint. The wave reflected four times before fading. It was only seen in the hot, 131 and 94 Å channels. The characteristic period and the decay time of the oscillation were ∼630 and ∼440 s, respectively. The phase speed was about 460-510 km s{sup –1} which roughly matches the sound speed of the loop (430-480 km s{sup –1}). The observed properties of the oscillation are consistent with the observations of Dopper-shift oscillations discovered by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation and with their interpretation as slow magnetoacoustic waves. We suggest that the impulsive injection of plasma, following reconnection at one of the loop footpoints, led to rapid heating and the propagation of a longitudinal compressive wave along the loop. The wave bounces back and forth a couple of times before fading.

  11. Fatigue in Ankylosing Spondylitis and Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: Analysis from a Longitudinal Observation Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bedaiwi, Mohamed; Sari, Ismail; Thavaneswaran, Arane; Ayearst, Renise; Haroon, Nigil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to address the prevalence of fatigue, its associated factors, and the effect of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) on this subgroup of patients in a large axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) cohort. The study included 681 patients [ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nonradiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA)]. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Bath AS Disease Activity Index question 1 (BASDAI Q1) indices were used for fatigue assessment. Severe fatigue was defined as an FSS ≥ 4 or a BASDAI Q1 ≥ 5. Disease activity, function, and quality of life (QoL) measures were recorded. Patients who had been treated with TNFi were identified, and baseline and followup data were analyzed. Of the cohort, 67.3% had severe fatigue, and the prevalence was similar between AS (67.2%) and nr-axSpA (68.2%). Severely fatigued patients tended to have higher disease activity scores, increased acute-phase proteins, and decreased QoL measures. TNFi therapy was associated with improvement in disease activity, and although this treatment led to significantly decreased fatigue scores, this reduction was not optimal in the majority of patients with 80% continuing to have severe fatigue according to their posttreatment scores. Health Assessment Questionnaire, mean scores of BASDAI Q5 and Q6, and BASDAI enthesitis were independent predictors of fatigue severity. Fatigue is a common symptom in axSpA, and the burden of fatigue among patients with nr-axSpA is similar to that seen in AS. While biologics are effective in improving disease activity, their effect on fatigue is more limited. In axSpA, fatigue remains unresponsive to TNFi in nearly 80% of patients.

  12. Employment contracts: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations with quality of working life, health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Janssen, Julia; Taris, Toon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance (i) insight in the relationship between different types of employment contract and the quality of working life, health and well-being, and (ii) our causal understanding of these relationships by comparing employees whose contract type changes across time. Analyses were based on a two-year prospective cohort study. Cross-sectional analyses were based upon a sample of 2,454 Dutch employees (2004). Longitudinal data were available for 1,865 respondents (2004-2006). We distinguished among 5 contract types, and subgroups of 'Upward' (i.e., towards permanent employment) and 'Downward' (towards temporary employment) movers across time. Data were analysed with analysis of variance and cross table analysis. Cross-sectionally, we found differences between contract types in quality of working life: generally permanent employees had better jobs, whereas temporary agency workers and on call workers had more 'bad work characteristics'. We also found a difference in health behaviour (smoking) and that psychological health was worst among temporary agency workers. In longitudinal analyses we found some evidence that a positive change in employment contract was associated with a better quality of working life and better psychological health, whereas the opposite was true for a negative contract change. The quality of working life, health and well-being are unequally distributed over employment contract groups. Temporary agency workers and on-call workers deserve special attention in terms of job design and human resource management.

  13. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  14. Longitudinal observation of influence of "taspo" on smoking behavior among high school students.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Sayo; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Yoshimi, Itsuro; Hayashi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    A system with an adult discrimination IC card "taspo" was introduced in 2008 to prevent minors from purchasing cigarettes in Japan. This study aimed to elucidate the short-term change in smoking behavior among a cohort of high school students through the introduction of the taspo system. We conducted a questionnaire survey in students at one high school in the metropolitan area of Japan in 2008. In this area, the taspo system was introduced on July 1, and the survey was conducted before and after its introduction (June and September). Change in smoking behavior was examined by linking the two questionnaires using a unique identification number for each participant. The questionnaire included basic characteristics, smoking-related behavior, and means of obtaining tobacco. Of 133 students, 123 (response rate 84.7%) completed the before and after questionnaire forms and could be linked. The smoking rate was 22.8% in June and 25.2% in September, with no statistically significant change. Vending machines were the major means of obtaining tobacco in June, while the use of cigarette shops and supermarkets increased after the introduction of taspo. The introduction of taspo hardly influenced underage smoking behavior during the observation period in our study subjects. The only significant change was in the means of obtaining tobacco. To prevent underage smoking, the importance of comprehensive restriction of the procurement route was suggested.

  15. Trouble Sleeping Associated With Lower Work Performance and Greater Health Care Costs: Longitudinal Data From Kansas State Employee Wellness Program.

    PubMed

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationships between employees' trouble sleeping and absenteeism, work performance, and health care expenditures over a 2-year period. Utilizing the Kansas State employee wellness program (EWP) data set from 2008 to 2009, multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with trouble sleeping as the predictor and absenteeism, work performance, and health care costs as the outcomes. EWP participants (N = 11,698 in 2008; 5636 followed up in 2009) who had higher levels of sleep disturbance were more likely to be absent from work (all P < 0.0005), have lower work performance ratings (all P < 0.0005), and have higher health care costs (P < 0.0005). Longitudinally, more trouble sleeping was significantly related to negative changes in all outcomes. Employees' trouble sleeping, even at a subclinical level, negatively impacts on work attendance, work performance, and health care costs.

  16. Tobacco price boards as a promotional strategy-a longitudinal observational study in Australian retailers.

    PubMed

    Bayly, Megan; Scollo, Michelle; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-07-22

    Price boards in tobacco retailers are one of the few forms of tobacco promotion remaining in Australia. This study aimed to examine how these boards were used to promote products over a period of rapidly rising taxes. Observations were made in a panel of 350 stores in Melbourne, Australia, in November of 2013 (just before) and in 2014 and 2015 (after 12.5% increases in tobacco duty). Fieldworkers unobtrusively noted the presence and characteristics of price boards, and the brand name, size and price of the product at the top of each board. Price boards were common in all store types apart from newsagent/lottery agents. The characteristics of the top-listed product changed notably over time: premium brands accounted for 66% of top-listed products in 2013, significantly declining to 43% in 2015, while packs of 20 cigarettes increased in prominence from 32% to 45%. The prevalence of packs of 20 cigarettes in budget market segments tripled from 2013 (13%) and 2014 (11%) to 32% in 2015, with no change in the proportion of packs that were under $A20 from 2014 (37%) to 2015 (36%). The rate of increase in the average price of the top-listed pack correspondingly flattened from 2014 to 2015 compared with 2013-2014. Price boards promote tobacco products in ways that undermine the effectiveness of tax policy as a means of discouraging consumption. Communication to consumers about prices should be restricted to information sheets provided to adult smokers on request at the point of sale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Use of the Internet by print medical journals in 2003 to 2009: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Schriger, David L; Chehrazi, Ariana C; Merchant, Rashida M; Altman, Douglas G

    2011-02-01

    To determine how a sample of medical journals use the Internet to provide additional content and features to readers and how this has changed since 2003. In 2005, we surveyed 2003 and 2005 issues of 138 high-impact print medical journals to determine to what extent they were using the Internet to provide online-only articles and supplementary content to print articles (sampled 28 journals), and electronic space for the postpublication critique of their articles (sampled all 138 journals). We used the same methodology to determine what kinds of Web-only supplementary material were provided with each print article in March 2007 and 2009 issues of the same 28 journals used for the 2003 to 2005 study. As before, we also determined which of the 138 journals offered rapid response pages and how those pages were being used. The proportion of the 28 journals providing Web-only supplementary material increased from 32% (2003) to 50% (2005) to 61% (2007) to 64% (2009), and the percentage of articles that contained supplementary material increased from 7% to 14% to 20% to 25%, respectively. We observed a marked increase in the number of video supplements. In contrast, journals offering online postpublication review decreased from 17 of 138 (12%) to 12 of 138 (9%) to 11 of 138 (8%) from 2005 to 2007 to 2009, and the percentage of articles with no responses was unchanged at 82%. The use of online-only articles and online-only supplements by print journals continues to increase. Postpublication critique of articles in online pages provided by the journal does not seem to be taking hold. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Active Vitamin D and Accelerated Progression of Aortic Stiffness in Hemodialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Mac-Way, Fabrice; De Serres, Sacha A.; Marquis, Karine; Douville, Pierre; Desmeules, Simon; Larivière, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that high-dose active vitamin D therapy in the form of alphacalcidol (α-calcidol), used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease, could lead to vascular calcification and accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. METHODS We conducted an observational study in 85 patients on chronic hemodialysis, among which 70 were taking a weekly dose of α-calcidol of <2 µg and 15 were taking a weekly dose of ≥2 µg (pharmacological dose). Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho were determined. Aortic stiffness was assessed by determination of carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 1.2 years. A multivariable regression model was used to evaluate the impact of pharmacological dose of α-calcidol on the progression of aortic stiffness. RESULTS At baseline, clinical, biological, and hemodynamic parameters were similar. At follow-up, cf-PWV increased more in patients with pharmacological dose of α-calcidol (0.583±2.291 m/s vs. 1.948±1.475 m/s; P = 0.04). After adjustment for changes in mean blood pressure and duration of follow-up, pharmacological dose of α-calcidol was associated with a higher rate of progression of cf-PWV (0.969 m/s; 95% confidence interval = 0.111–1.827; P = 0.03), and this association persisted after further adjustments for parameters of mineral metabolism. CONCLUSIONS In this study, pharmacological dose of α-calcidol was associated with accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. This study suggest that the vascular safety of active vitamin D posology may need to be specifically addressed in the treatment of chronic kidney disease–related bone mineral disorder. PMID:24695980

  19. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation was used (N=8411). Using three annual online questionnaires, we assessed the presence of seven chronic health problems, work ability (scale 0-10), and productivity at work (scale 0-10). Three linear regression generalized estimating equations were used. The time-lag model analyzed the relation of health problems with work ability and productivity at work after one year; the autoregressive model adjusted for work ability and productivity in the preceding year; and the third model assessed the relation of incidence and recovery with changes in work ability and productivity at work within the same year. Workers with health problems had lower work ability at one-year follow-up than workers without these health problems, varying from a 2.0% reduction with diabetes mellitus to a 9.5% reduction with psychological health problems relative to the overall mean (time-lag). Work ability of persons with health problems decreased slightly more during one-year follow-up than that of persons without these health problems, ranging from 1.4% with circulatory to 5.9% with psychological health problems (autoregressive). Incidence related to larger decreases in work ability, from 0.6% with diabetes mellitus to 19.0% with psychological health problems, than recovery related to changes in work ability, from a 1.8% decrease with circulatory to an 8.5% increase with psychological health problems (incidence-recovery). Only workers with musculoskeletal and psychological health problems had lower productivity at work at one-year follow-up than workers without those health problems (1.2% and 5.6%, respectively, time-lag). All methodological approaches indicated that chronic

  20. Change of glycaemic control and predictors in diabetes patients: longitudinal observational study during the one year after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Tai, Li-Ai; Tsai, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) might reflect glycaemic control in persons with diabetes. Study aims were to identify changes in glycated haemoglobin values and predictors (baseline coping behaviour, fasting plasma glucose, disease-related and demographic factors) in patients during 1 year after hospital discharge. A longitudinal prospective design with convenience sampling was used. Subjects were recruited from a community hospital in Taiwan. Measures included Jalowiec Coping Scale, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c values, and demographics. Generalized estimating equation was used to determine factors of change in glycated haemoglobin. A total of 57 patients completed 1 year of follow-up. Half did not receive diabetes mellitus education and regular exercise. Patients' glycated haemoglobin levels follow controls at 6 months after discharge. Patients with higher levels of blood glucose, less problem-focused coping and greater emotion-focused coping were associated with poor glycaemic control. Education programmes should involve individual-centred care and health behaviours for prevention of diabetes complications.

  1. Retina and Choroid of Diabetic Patients Without Observed Retinal Vascular Changes: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Tavares Ferreira, Joana; Proença, Rita; Alves, Marta; Dias-Santos, Arnaldo; Santos, Bruno Oliveira; Cunha, João Paulo; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Abegão Pinto, Luís

    2017-04-01

    To identify changes in choroidal thickness (CT) and all retinal layers of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) after 1 year of follow-up. Prospective observational cohort study. Overall, 125 diabetic patients without DR were included. Two visits were scheduled: the first visit (V1) and a second visit after 12 months (V2). At both visits, patients received a complete ophthalmologic evaluation that included OCT. Each retinal layer thickness was calculated for 9 ETDRS sectors, and CT was measured at 13 locations. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used. Of the 125 patients, 103 completed the study, and 9 of the 103 developed DR (8.7%). CT was significantly higher at V2 than at V1, with an average value of 10-17 μm at almost half the locations (500, 1000, and 1500 μm temporal; 500 and 1000 μm nasal; and 1000 μm superior to the fovea) (P < .001-.003). The thicknesses of the ganglion cell layer (I3 and N6 sectors), inner plexiform layer (S6 and N6 sectors), inner nuclear layer (T6 and N6 sectors), and outer plexiform layer (S6 sector), as well as the overall retinal thickness (RT) (S3, N3, I3, S6, and T6 sectors), were decreased at V2 (P < .001). Visible retinopathy was negatively associated with overall RT (central, S3, T3, I3, and N3 sectors, P = .004-.024) and the thickness of the ONL (T6 and I6 sectors, P = .007 and P = .009) and photoreceptor layer (N6 sector, P = .038). The presence of DR decreased the overall RT by 13.04-16.63 μm. Diabetic patients without DR showed a thicker choroid and a thinner retina, particularly in inner layers, after 1 year of follow-up. These structural changes may correspond to the early neurodegenerative phase of DR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  3. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  4. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  5. Social Capital and Oral Health Among Adults 50 Years and Older: Results From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the differential associations of structural and functional social capital with objective and subjective measures of oral health, and the interactions between social capital and other sociodemographic and health factors. Secondary analysis of data on 8552 adults 50 years and older from the third wave (2006-2007) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was conducted. Oral health outcomes were self-rated oral health, edentulousness (having no natural teeth), and Oral Impacts on Daily Performances. Structural social capital was measured by membership of social organizations and volunteering. Functional social capital was measured by the number of close ties and perceived emotional social support. Logistic regression models were sequentially adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, health-related factors, and smoking status. Structural social capital was primarily associated with edentulousness. Not being a member of any organization was associated with higher odds of being edentate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43-2.16). Functional social capital was associated with self-rated oral health and oral impacts. Low social support was associated with poor self-rated oral health (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.16-1.72) and Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24). The association of structural social capital with edentulousness may reflect health selection effects. The availability of a supportive social network seems to be the aspect of social capital most strongly associated with oral health.

  6. Large-scale Observations of a Subauroral Polarization Stream by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars: Instantaneous Longitudinal Velocity Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Baker, J. B. H.; Sazykin, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Thomas, E. J.; Shepherd, S. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Bristow, W. A.; Zheng, Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of flow velocities inside a subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) made by six midlatitude high-frequency SuperDARN radars. The instantaneous observations cover three hours of universal time and six hours of magnetic local time (MLT). From velocity variations across the field-of-view of the radars we infer the local 2D flow direction at three different longitudes. We find that the local flow direction inside the SAPS channel is remarkably constant over the course of the event. The flow speed, however, shows significant temporal and spatial variations. After correcting for the radar look direction we are able to accurately determine the dependence of the SAPS velocity on magnetic local time. We find that the SAPS velocity variation with magnetic local time is best described by an exponential function. The average velocity at 00 MLT was 1.2 km/s and it decreased with a spatial e-folding scale of two hours of MLT toward the dawn sector. We speculate that the longitudinal distribution of pressure gradients in the ring current is responsible for this dependence and find these observations in good agreement with results from ring current models. Using TEC measurements we find that the high westward velocities of the SAPS are - as expected - located in a region of low TEC values, indicating low ionospheric conductivities.

  7. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  8. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Béatrice, Nikiéma; Lise, Gauvin; Victoria, Zunzunegui Maria; Louise, Séguin

    2012-09-04

    Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood - maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disentangle time-specific from

  9. A longitudinal study of mental health symptoms in young prisoners: exploring the influence of personal factors and the correctional climate.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Leonel C; Endrass, Jérôme; Rossegger, Astrid; Dirkzwager, Anja J E

    2016-04-06

    Despite the high prevalence rate of mental health problems among young prisoners, little is known about the longitudinal course and covariates of their mental health symptoms during incarceration, especially the influence of the correctional climate. The current study aimed: (1) to examine changes in young prisoners' mental health symptoms during incarceration, (2) to identify personal factors associated with their mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate, and (3) to test the incremental effect of perceptions of the correctional climate on mental health symptoms. Data were obtained from a sample of 75 youths (aged 17 to 22 years) detained in a Portuguese young offender prison. Data were gathered 1, 3, and 6 months after their admission in this facility. Socio-demographic, clinical and criminological variables were collected. Mental health symptoms and perceptions of the correctional climate were assessed through self-report assessment tools. Linear and logistic (multi-level) regressions and tests for differences between means were performed to analyze the data. Overall, mental health symptoms marginally declined by the sixth month in prison. Prisoners with a history of mental health treatment were more likely to have increased symptoms. Higher levels of mental health symptoms were associated with a history of mental health treatment, remand status, and a lower educational level. Better perceptions of the correctional climate were associated with Black race and participation in prison activities. A negative perception of the correctional climate was the strongest covariate of young prisoners' mental health symptoms and had incremental validity over that of personal variables. The results highlight that both characteristics of the prisoners and of the prison environment influence young prisoners' mental health. Prison management can try to reduce young prisoners' mental health problems by developing scientific procedures for their mental

  10. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Pain persists in DAS28 rheumatoid arthritis remission but not in ACR/EULAR remission: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne C; Cui, Jing; Lu, Bing; Frits, Michelle L; Iannaccone, Christine K; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; Solomon, Daniel H

    2011-06-08

    Disease remission has become a feasible goal for most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; however, patient-reported symptoms, such as pain, may persist despite remission. We assessed the prevalence of pain in RA patients in remission according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP4) and the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) remission criteria. Data were analyzed from RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study with data at baseline and 1 year. DAS28 remission was defined as DAS28-CRP4 <2.6. The ACR/EULAR remission criteria included (a) one or more swollen joints, (b) one or more tender joints, (c) C-reactive protein ≤1 mg/dl, and (d) patient global assessment score ≤1. Pain severity was measured by using the pain score from the Multi-Dimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ). The associations between baseline clinical predictors and MDHAQ pain at baseline and 1 year were assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Among the 865 patients with data at baseline and 1 year, 157 (18.2%) met DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria at both time points. Thirty-seven (4.3%) met the ACR/EULAR remission criteria at baseline and 1 year. The prevalence of clinically significant pain (MDHAQ pain ≥4) at baseline ranged from 11.9% among patients meeting DAS28-CRP4 remission criteria to none among patients meeting ACR/EULAR remission criteria. Patient global assessment, MDHAQ function, MDHAQ fatigue, MDHAQ sleep, and arthritis self-efficacy were significantly associated with MDHAQ pain in cross-sectional (P ≤ 0.0005) and longitudinal analyses (P ≤ 0.03). Low swollen-joint counts were associated with high MDHAQ pain in longitudinal analyses (P = 0.02) but not cross-sectional analyses. Other measures of inflammatory disease activity and joint damage were not significantly associated with MDHAQ pain at baseline or at 1 year. Clinically significant pain continues among a substantial prop