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Sample records for health longitudinal observational

  1. Assessment of possible impact of a health promotion program in Korea from health risk trends in a longitudinally observed cohort

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Jee, SH; Edington, DW

    2004-01-01

    Background Longitudinally observed cohort data can be utilized to assess the potential for health promotion and healthcare planning by comparing the estimated risk factor trends of non-intervened with that of intervened. The paper seeks (1) to estimate a natural transition (patterns of movement between states) of health risk state from a Korean cohort data using a Markov model, (2) to derive an effective and necessary health promotion strategy for the population, and (3) to project a possible impact of an intervention program on health status. Methods The observed transition of health risk states in a Korean employee cohort was utilized to estimate the natural flow of aggregated health risk states from eight health risk measures using Markov chain models. In addition, a reinforced transition was simulated, given that a health promotion program was implemented for the cohort, to project a possible impact on improvement of health status. An intervened risk transition was obtained based on age, gender, and baseline risk state, adjusted to match with the Korean cohort, from a simulated random sample of a US employee population, where a health intervention was in place. Results The estimated natural flow (non-intervened), following Markov chain order 2, showed a decrease in low risk state by 3.1 percentage points in the Korean population while the simulated reinforced transition (intervened) projected an increase in low risk state by 7.5 percentage points. Estimated transitions of risk states demonstrated the necessity of not only the risk reduction but also low risk maintenance. Conclusions The frame work of Markov chain efficiently estimated the trend, and captured the tendency in the natural flow. Given only a minimally intense health promotion program, potential risk reduction and low risk maintenance was projected. PMID:15538950

  2. Determinants of health-related quality of life in older primary care patients: results of the longitudinal observational AgeCoDe Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Marion; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luppa, Melanie; Heser, Kathrin; Koppara, Alexander; Mösch, Edelgard; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Hajek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background In older patients with chronic diseases, focusing on subjective, patient-relevant outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is more pertinent than pursuing clinical or laboratory target values. Aim To investigate factors influencing the course of HRQoL in older (aged ≥78 years) primary care patients and to derive non-pharmacological recommendations for improving their quality of life. Design and setting A population-based prospective longitudinal observational study featuring data analysis from waves 2 to 5 of the AgeCoDe study, which was conducted in six cities in Germany. Method The HRQoL of 1968 patients over the course of 4.5 years was observed. Patients were, on average, aged 82.6 (±3.4) years and their HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D visual analogue scale in a face-to-face assessment. Fixed-effects regression models were calculated to examine impact of change in potential influencing factors. This method allows unobserved heterogeneity to be controlled. Results The course of the participants’ HRQoL declined with increasing age, walking and incident hearing impairment. Increasing the number of physical activities improved the HRQoL. These findings were modified by sex, education level, and depression. Especially in females and patients with rather low education levels, increased physical activity improved the subjects’ HRQoL, while hearing impairment decreased it. Moving to an institution only improved the HRQoL in patients without depression or those with a low level of education (primary education). Conclusion Motivating patients to increase their weekly physical activity and to focus on preserving their ability to walk are promising approaches to improving HRQoL in older age. Less-educated patients and those without depression can also benefit from moving into an institution (for example, a care or retirement home). PMID:26500318

  3. Baseline Regularization for Computational Drug Repositioning with Longitudinal Observational Data

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Zhaobin; Thomson, James; Caldwell, Michael; Peissig, Peggy; Stewart, Ron; Page, David

    2016-01-01

    Computational Drug Repositioning (CDR) is the knowledge discovery process of finding new indications for existing drugs leveraging heterogeneous drug-related data. Longitudinal observational data such as Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have become an emerging data source for CDR. To address the high-dimensional, irregular, subject and time-heterogeneous nature of EHRs, we propose Baseline Regularization (BR) and a variant that extend the one-way fixed effect model, which is a standard approach to analyze small-scale longitudinal data. For evaluation, we use the proposed methods to search for drugs that can lower Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) level in the Marshfield Clinic EHR. Experimental results suggest that the proposed methods are capable of rediscovering drugs that can lower FBG level as well as identifying some potential blood sugar lowering drugs in the literature.

  4. Learning from Longitudinal Research in Criminology and the Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstaay, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews longitudinal research within criminology and the health sciences on the relationship between reading and criminal, delinquent, or antisocial behavior. Longitudinal research in criminology, medicine, and psychology examines the role of reading within a broad set of interactive processes, connecting literacy to public health via…

  5. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations.

  6. Parkinson Symptoms and Health Related Quality of Life as Predictors of Costs: A Longitudinal Observational Study with Linear Mixed Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Martín, Pablo; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Paz, Silvia; Forjaz, Maria João; Frades-Payo, Belén; Cubo, Esther; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Lizán, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the magnitude in which Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms and health- related quality of life (HRQoL) determined PD costs over a 4-year period. Materials and Methods Data collected during 3-month, each year, for 4 years, from the ELEP study, included sociodemographic, clinical and use of resources information. Costs were calculated yearly, as mean 3-month costs/patient and updated to Spanish €, 2012. Mixed linear models were performed to analyze total, direct and indirect costs based on symptoms and HRQoL. Results One-hundred and seventy four patients were included. Mean (SD) age: 63 (11) years, mean (SD) disease duration: 8 (6) years. Ninety-three percent were HY I, II or III (mild or moderate disease). Forty-nine percent remained in the same stage during the study period. Clinical evaluation and HRQoL scales showed relatively slight changes over time, demonstrating a stable group overall. Mean (SD) PD total costs augmented 92.5%, from €2,082.17 (€2,889.86) in year 1 to €4,008.6 (€7,757.35) in year 4. Total, direct and indirect cost incremented 45.96%, 35.63%, and 69.69% for mild disease, respectively, whereas increased 166.52% for total, 55.68% for direct and 347.85% for indirect cost in patients with moderate PD. For severe patients, cost remained almost the same throughout the study. For each additional point in the SCOPA-Motor scale total costs increased €75.72 (p = 0.0174); for each additional point on SCOPA-Motor and the SCOPA-COG, direct costs incremented €49.21 (p = 0.0094) and €44.81 (p = 0.0404), respectively; and for each extra point on the pain scale, indirect costs increased €16.31 (p = 0.0228). Conclusions PD is an expensive disease in Spain. Disease progression and severity as well as motor and cognitive dysfunctions are major drivers of costs increments. Therapeutic measures aimed at controlling progression and symptoms could help contain disease expenses. PMID:26698860

  7. Estimation methods for marginal and association parameters for longitudinal binary data with nonignorable missing observations.

    PubMed

    Li, Haocheng; Yi, Grace Y

    2013-02-28

    In longitudinal studies, missing observations occur commonly. It has been well known that biased results could be produced if missingness is not properly handled in the analysis. Authors have developed many methods with the focus on either incomplete response or missing covariate observations, but rarely on both. The complexity of modeling and computational difficulty would be the major challenges in handling missingness in both response and covariate variables. In this paper, we develop methods using the pairwise likelihood formulation to handle longitudinal binary data with missing observations present in both response and covariate variables. We propose a unified framework to accommodate various types of missing data patterns. We evaluate the performance of the methods empirically under a variety of circumstances. In particular, we investigate issues on efficiency and robustness. We analyze longitudinal data from the National Population Health Study with the use of our methods.

  8. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  9. The Health Assessment Longitudinal File imperative: foundation for improving the health of the force.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Judith A; Donahue, Donald A; Harris, Judith S

    2003-08-01

    A smaller active duty force and an increased operational tempo have made the Reserve components (RC) essential elements in the accomplishment of the mission of the U.S. Army. One critical factor in meeting mission is maintaining the optimal health of each soldier. Baseline health data about the RC is currently not being collected, even though increasing numbers of reserve soldiers are being activated. The Annual Health Certification and Survey is being developed as a way to meet the RCs' statutory requirement for annual certification of health while at the same time generating and tracking baseline data on each reservist in a longitudinal health file, the Health Assessment Longitudinal File. This article discusses the Annual Health Certification Questionnaire/Health Assessment Longitudinal File, which will greatly enhance the Army's ability to accurately certify the health status of the RC and track health in relation to training, mission activities, and deployment.

  10. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  11. Longitudinal Evaluation of Peer Health Education on a College Campus: Impact on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sabina; Park, Yong S.; Israel, Tania; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the longitudinal impact of peer health education on the health behaviors of undergraduate students pertaining to alcohol and drug use, eating and nutrition, and sexual health. Participants: From fall 2003 to spring 2006, the authors annually administered a Web-based survey to a cohort of 2,000 randomly selected…

  12. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  13. A Model Longitudinal Observation Medicine Curriculum for an Emergency Medicine Residency.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Matthew; Baugh, Christopher; Osborne, Anwar; Clark, Carol; Shayne, Philip; Ross, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The role of observation services for emergency department patients has increased in recent years. Driven by changing health care practices and evolving payer policies, many hospitals in the United States currently have or are developing an observation unit (OU) and emergency physicians are most often expected to manage patients in this setting. Yet, few residency programs dedicate a portion of their clinical curriculum to observation medicine. This knowledge set should be integrated into the core training curriculum of emergency physicians. Presented here is a model observation medicine longitudinal training curriculum, which can be integrated into an emergency medicine (EM) residency. It was developed by a consensus of content experts representing the observation medicine interest group and observation medicine section, respectively, from EM's two major specialty societies: the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). The curriculum consists of didactic, clinical, and self-directed elements. It is longitudinal, with learning objectives for each year of training, focusing initially on the basic principles of observation medicine and appropriate observation patient selection; moving to the management of various observation appropriate conditions; and then incorporating further concepts of OU management, billing, and administration. This curriculum is flexible and designed to be used in both academic and community EM training programs within the United States. Additionally, scholarly opportunities, such as elective rotations and fellowship training, are explored.

  14. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  15. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) sibling pairs data.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the United States in 1994-1995 who have been followed for 15 years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with four in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including sibling pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community.

  16. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  17. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  18. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2017-03-17

    Higher income neighborhoods are associated with better health, a relation observed in many cross-sectional studies. However, prior research focused on the prevalence of health conditions, and examining the incidence of new health conditions may provide stronger support for a potential causal role of neighborhoods on health. We used the 2004 and 2014 waves of the Midlife in the United States Study (n = 1726; ages 34-83) to examine health condition incidence as a function of neighborhood income. Among participants who had lived in the same neighborhood across the time period, we hypothesized that higher neighborhood income would be associated with a lower incidence of health conditions ten years later. Health included 18 chronic conditions related to mental (anxiety, depression) and physical (cardiovascular, immune) health. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual income and sociodemographics indicated that the odds of developing two or more new health conditions (no new health conditions as referent), was significantly lower (OR = 0.92, CI: 0.86, 0.99) for every $10,000 increment in neighborhood income. Associations did not vary by age or neighborhood tenure. Results add to a literature documenting that higher neighborhood income is associated with better health.

  19. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  20. Considerations when using longitudinal cohort studies to assess dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and chronic health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scrafford, Carolyn G; Barraj, Leila M; Tsuji, Joyce S

    2016-07-01

    Dietary arsenic exposure and chronic health outcomes are of interest, due in part to increased awareness and data available on inorganic arsenic levels in some foods. Recent concerns regarding levels of inorganic arsenic, the primary form of arsenic of human health concern, in foods are based on extrapolation from adverse health effects observed at high levels of inorganic arsenic exposure; the potential for the occurrence of these health effects from lower levels of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure has not been established. In this review, longitudinal cohort studies are evaluated for their utility in estimating dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and quantifying statistically reliable associations with health outcomes. The primary limiting factor in longitudinal studies is incomplete data on inorganic arsenic levels in foods combined with the aggregation of consumption of foods with varying arsenic levels into a single category, resulting in exposure misclassification. Longitudinal cohort studies could provide some evidence to evaluate associations of dietary patterns related to inorganic arsenic exposure with risk of arsenic-related diseases. However, currently available data from longitudinal cohort studies limit causal analyses regarding the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and health outcomes. Any conclusions should therefore be viewed with knowledge of the analytical and methodological limitations.

  1. Recent observations of negative longitudinal magnetoresistance in semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xi-Tong; Jia, Shuang

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal has motivated a growing passion for investigating the unique magneto-transport properties in the topological materials. A Weyl semimetal can host Weyl fermions as its low-energy quasi-particle excitations, and therefore perform exotic features analogous to those in high-energy physics, such as the violation of the chiral charge conservation known as the chiral anomaly. One of the electrical transport signatures of the chiral anomaly is the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly which presents as a negative magnetoresistance when the magnetic field and the current are parallel. Very recently, numerous experiments reported negative longitudinal magnetoresistance (NLMR) in topological materials, but the details of the measurement results are various. Here the materials and the corresponding experiment results are briefly reviewed. Besides the plausible explanation of the ABJ anomaly, some other origins of the NLMR are also discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB921901 and 2014CB239302).

  2. The curious case of cyberchondria: A longitudinal study on the reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking.

    PubMed

    Te Poel, Fam; Baumgartner, Susanne E; Hartmann, Tilo; Tanis, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The current study is the first to longitudinally investigate the reciprocal relationship between online health information seeking and health anxiety, i.e., cyberchondria. Expectations were that health anxious individuals who go online to find health information, experience an increase in health anxiety, which in turn will reinforce online seeking. A 4-wave longitudinal survey study among 5322 respondents aged 16-93 was conducted. Our results showed that individuals who are more health anxious than others, search online for health information more. Moreover, the results provided initial evidence for the expected reciprocal relationship between health anxiety and online health information seeking in respondents with non-clinical levels of health anxiety at the start of the study. However, this reciprocal relationship could not be found in a subsample of clinically health anxious individuals. Although for these individuals online health information seeking did not seem to exacerbate health anxiety levels, it might still serve as a maintaining factor of clinical health anxiety.

  3. Longitudinal shower development and its signature at observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, V. R.; Bhat, P. N.

    2002-03-01

    From a study of Cverenkov photon arrival times at various core distances at the observation level it has already been established that the photon front is well fitted with a spherical surface traveling at the speed of light and originating from a fixed point on the shower axis. The radius of curvature as measured at the observation level has been found to be roughly equal to the height of shower maximum from the observation level. In the present work we study the relationship between the radius of curvature of the shower fromt (R), the height of electron maximum (he), the Cverenkov photon maximum (hCv) and the average production height of Cverenkov photons (h-). Cverenkov pulse width (w) has always ben used as a parameter to study cascade development especially at tens of PeV energies. We discuss the relation between the w and he at TeV energies for gamma-ray and proton primaries.

  4. Music Acquisition of Children in Rural Zimbabwe: A Longitudinal Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutzer, Natalie Jones

    2001-01-01

    This article provides qualitative description of behaviors that bring children to musical competence by age 5 in Nharira Communal Lands in Zimbabwe. Based on observation of three villages comprised of multiple extended family groups, the narrative focuses on area demographics, the community's people, musical influences, musical interactions of…

  5. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  6. Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U. S.; Pushpakumara, T. V.; Weerakoon, Devaka K.; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species’ remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11–60), averaging between 0.13–0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings. PMID:24376581

  7. Longitudinal observation of electroencephalograms in the Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A; Inoue, Y; Sasaki, H; Fukuyama, Y

    1989-01-01

    The long-term electroencephalographical observations were documented during the course of the Rett syndrome in 8 patients. The abnormal EEG findings changed with age and the clinical stage. In the premonitory stage (birth-1.5 years of age), EEG seemed to be normal. In the acute exacerbation stage (1.5-5 years old), occipital dominant alpha wave-like activity was characteristic and persisted for a few years, but it disappeared afterwards along with the seizure activity. At around 4 years of age, when the whole spectrum of symptoms manifested, the EEG background activity in the waking stage showed higher amplitude, lower frequency and more irregular than normal. Sleep spindles were hardly observed, while frequent seizure activity was found on sleep EEG. Before the onset of epileptic attacks, paroxysmal discharges, such as diffuse spike-and-wave complexes, were noted during sleep recordings. In the chronic stage (after age 6), a monotonous theta rhythm (MTR), which was not influenced by either opening or closing of the eyes but attenuated only by a big noise or strong pain stimuli, characteristically dominated the waking tracing. The MTR was generalized over both hemispheres. After age 20, the MTR tended to be more localized to the centro-parietal area. This suggests that a reduction in responsiveness to visual and other stimuli occurs in this disease, which may be attributable to a dysfunction of the reticular activating system in the brainstem.

  8. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  9. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Myroniuk, Tyler W; Anglewicz, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health and/or vice versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined. Little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2,328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15 to 80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians.

  10. Does Social Participation Predict Better Health? A Longitudinal Study in Rural Malawi*

    PubMed Central

    Myroniuk, Tyler W.; Anglewicz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between social capital and individual health often suffers from important limitations. Most research relies on cross-sectional data, which precludes identifying whether participation predicts health or vice-versa. Some important conceptualizations of social capital, like social participation, have seldom been examined and little is known about participation and health in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, both physical and mental health have seldom been tested together, and variation by age has rarely been examined. We use longitudinal survey data for 2328 men and women from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health, containing (1) several measures of social participation, (2) measures of physical and mental health, and (3) an age range of 15–80+ years. Our results differ by gender and age, and for mental and physical health. We find that social participation is associated with better physical health but can predict worse mental health for Malawians. PMID:26646745

  11. Trajectories of mental health over 16 years amongst young adult women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified 4 distinct trajectory groups of mental health. The mental health of most participants (55%) was consistently high, with 12% improving, 24% varying, and 9% frequently low. The authors considered characteristics at the beginning and end of the trajectory period, taking a life-course perspective to understand vulnerabilities to, and outcomes of, low or variable poor mental health trajectories. Financial difficulties, poor general health, and weight or shape dissatisfaction were characteristics at Survey 1 that distinguished all other trajectory groups from those with consistently high mental health. Other differences were specific to 1 or 2 groups. By the end of the trajectory period, the improving mental health group showed few differences from those with consistently high mental health. However, those with varying and low mental health showed evidence of social disadvantage, poor physical and emotional health, and unhealthy behaviors, and were less likely to be mothers. The ability to identify distinct trajectories of mental health in early adulthood, and their correlates, provides evidence to underpin population health interventions targeting the prevention of mental health problems among this population group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Access to Health Care by Immigrant Status among Older Adults: The Importance of Health Insurance as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined the role of health insurance in access to health care among older immigrants. Design and Methods: Using data from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging, the longitudinal trajectories of having a usual source of care were compared between 3 groups (all 70+ years): (a) late-life immigrants with less than 15…

  14. Observed Reductions in School Bullying, Nonbullying Aggression, and Destructive Bystander Behavior: A Longitudinal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Karin S.; Hirschstein, Miriam K.; Edstrom, Leihua V.; Snell, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal extension of a random control trial of the Steps to Respect antibullying program. Students in Grades 3-5 were surveyed (n = 624) and observed on the playground (n = 360). Growth curve models of intervention students showed 2-year declines in playground bullying, victimization, nonbullying aggression, destructive…

  15. A Longitudinal Analysis of Rural and Urban Veterans' Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard; MacKenzie, Todd A.; West, Alan N.; Wright, Steven; Booth, Brenda M.; Hawthorne, Kara; Weeks, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cross-sectional studies have identified rural-urban disparities in veterans' health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. Purpose: To determine whether longitudinal analyses confirmed that these disparities in veterans' HRQOL scores persisted. Methods: We obtained data from the SF-12 portion of the veterans health administration's…

  16. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  17. Regression modeling of longitudinal data with outcome-dependent observation times: extensions and comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kay See; French, Benjamin; Troxel, Andrea B

    2014-11-30

    Conventional longitudinal data analysis methods assume that outcomes are independent of the data-collection schedule. However, the independence assumption may be violated, for example, when a specific treatment necessitates a different follow-up schedule than the control arm or when adverse events trigger additional physician visits in between prescheduled follow-ups. Dependence between outcomes and observation times may introduce bias when estimating the marginal association of covariates on outcomes using a standard longitudinal regression model. We formulate a framework of outcome-observation dependence mechanisms to describe conditional independence given observed observation-time process covariates or shared latent variables. We compare four recently developed semi-parametric methods that accommodate one of these mechanisms. To allow greater flexibility, we extend these methods to accommodate a combination of mechanisms. In simulation studies, we show how incorrectly specifying the outcome-observation dependence may yield biased estimates of covariate-outcome associations and how our proposed extensions can accommodate a greater number of dependence mechanisms. We illustrate the implications of different modeling strategies in an application to bladder cancer data. In longitudinal studies with potentially outcome-dependent observation times, we recommend that analysts carefully explore the conditional independence mechanism between the outcome and observation-time processes to ensure valid inference regarding covariate-outcome associations.

  18. Genetic testing for inherited heart diseases: longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; O'Brien, Lisa; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-05-03

    Purpose:A genetic diagnosis is an extremely useful tool in the management and care of families with inherited heart diseases, particularly in allowing clarification of risk status of asymptomatic family members. The psychosocial consequences of genetic testing in this group are poorly understood. This longitudinal pilot study sought to determine changes in health-related quality of life in patients and asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for inherited heart diseases.Methods:Individuals attending two specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinics in Australia were invited to participate. Patients undergoing proband or predictive genetic testing for an inherited cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmogenic disorder were eligible. The Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (version 2) was administered before the genetic result was given, and follow-up surveys were completed 1-3, 6, and 12 months after the result was given.Results:A total of 54 individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, familial dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and long QT syndrome completed baseline and at least one follow-up survey, including 33 probands and 21 asymptomatic relatives. Physical and mental component scores analyzed at baseline and 1-3 months were found to be unchanged in all groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed up to 12 months after result.Conclusion:In this longitudinal pilot study, no change in health-related quality of life was observed up to 12 months after the result was given in patients and their asymptomatic family members undergoing genetic testing for an inherited heart disease.Genet Med 2012 advance online publication 3 May 2012.

  19. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew F.; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between the number of doctors, nurses and hospital beds per 10,000 people and individual HIV-infected patient outcomes in Botswana. Design Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 97,627 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. Doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density data at district-level were collected from various sources. Methods A multilevel, longitudinal analysis method was used to analyze the data at both patient- and district-level simultaneously to measure the impact of the health system input at district-level on probability of death or loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) at the individual level. A marginal structural model was used to account for LTFU over time. Results Increasing doctor density from one doctor to two doctors per 10,000 population decreased the predicted probability of death for each patient by 27%. Nurse density changes from 20 nurses to 25 nurses decreased the predicted probability of death by 28%. Nine percent decrease was noted in predicted mortality of an individual in the Masa program for every five hospital bed density increase. Conclusion Considerable variation was observed in doctors, nurses, and hospital bed density across health districts. Predictive margins of mortality and LTFU were inversely correlated with doctor, nurse and hospital bed density. The doctor density had much greater impact than nurse or bed density on mortality or LTFU of individual patients. While long-term investment in training more healthcare professionals should be made, redistribution of available doctors and nurses can be a feasible solution in the short term. PMID:27490477

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Career Development of Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Anne E.; And Others

    Because the demand for health services exceeds the supply, information concerning the aspirations, interests, and motivating factors which lead individuals to choose a health career and the obstacles in the path of health career development are of vital concern to counselors and guidance personnel. This paper reports the findings of three studies…

  1. The longitudinal BELLA study: design, methods and first results on the course of mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Otto, Christiane; Kriston, Levente; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Barkmann, Claus; Schön, Gerhard; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Klasen, Fionna

    2015-06-01

    The high prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in childhood and adolescence is a global health challenge of the 21st century. Information about age of onset, persistence and development of MHP in young people is necessary to implement effective prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the design and methods of the longitudinal BELLA study, which investigates developmental trajectories of MHP from childhood into adulthood, their determinants, and the utilisation of mental health services. First results on the developmental course of MHP in children and adolescents are reported over a 6-year period. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). BELLA examines the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (a representative subsample of KiGGS, n = 2,863 at baseline). Standardised screening measures served to identify MHP at baseline and at follow-ups (1, 2, and 6 years later). Among children and adolescents participating at all measurement points (n = 1,255), 10 % showed clinically significant MHP at baseline (n = 130). Over the 6-year period, 74.3 % showed no signs of MHP (n = 933), 15.5 % had remitted (n = 194), 2.9 % showed persistent (n = 36) and 7.3 % acute or recurrent MHP (n = 92). Overall, MHP were more likely to occur between the age of 7 and 12 and after the age of 19 years. Regarding mental health service use, 33 % of the participants with acute or recurrent MHP (n = 30) and 63.9 % with persistent MHP used mental health services (n = 23). Mental health problems in children and adolescents have a high risk to persist into adulthood. In children and adolescents a low rate of mental health service use was observed, even among those with mental health problems.

  2. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  3. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  4. Pets and Human Health in Germany and Australia: National Longitudinal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Grabka, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    The German and Australian "longitudinal" surveys analysed here are the first national representative surveys to show that (1) people who continuously own a pet are the healthiest group and (2) people who cease to have a pet or never had one are less healthy. Most previous studies which have claimed that pets confer health benefits were…

  5. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  7. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  8. Information Technology Management: Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-18

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of Inspector General May 18, 2006 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Acquisition of the...AND SUBTITLE Information Technology Management : Acquisition of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. The Role of Acculturative Stress on Mental Health Symptoms for Immigrant Adolescents: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included…

  10. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Interpersonal Violence in Relation to Mental Health and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedtke, Kristina A.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined longitudinally the mental health status of women as a function of different types and combinations of exposure to interpersonal violence. A structured telephone interview was administered to a household probability sample of 4,008 women (18-89 years of age), who were then recontacted for 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews.…

  12. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  13. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  14. Health Behaviors of Nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Madeleine; Jankowski, Louis W.; Bouchard, Louise; Perreault, Michel; Lepage, Yves

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 health behaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)

  15. The Longitudinal Link between Student Health and Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between health conditions suffered over time and student scores on the Stanford Achievement Test 9 in Yuma County, Arizona, public grade schools. The majority of children in Yuma County were of Hispanic origin. The poverty and low income status of most of these children placed them at greater risk for…

  16. Longitudinal structures in Mars' upper atmosphere as observed by MAVEN/NGIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiping; England, Scott; Lillis, Robert J.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Elrod, Meredith; Benna, Mehdi; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first comprehensive study of longitudinal structures in Mars' neutral upper atmosphere associated with atmospheric tides in composition, density and temperature using the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission/Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer observations during 2015. These are in situ measurements of number densities of atmospheric species (including CO2, Ar, N2, and CO) in the altitude range from 120 to 200 km above the areoid (corresponding to a total density range from 108-1011 cm-3), providing a data set that is larger than all previous measurements of these waves combined. These observations span from ±70° latitude and cover a wide range of local times and solar longitudes (Ls), allowing for the study of longitudinal structures under various conditions. Furthermore, the data in May and November 2015 are at similar latitudes and local times but different Ls ( 340° in May, close to northern spring equinox, and 70° in November, close to northern summer solstice and aphelion), ideal for studying the seasonal effects of tides. Our analysis shows that in each month the Ar density varies with longitude having a large wave structure. It is dominated by wave 2 and 3, accounting for 8-16% of the change of the mean density. Comparison shows that the longitudinal structures at a constant CO2 density level have different amplitudes at different seasons, although their patterns are similar. The temperature structure has a phase difference from the density variation, indicating the dissipation of tides in this altitude region. The longitudinal structure is seen in all species, including major and minor species, consistent with the tidal signatures.

  17. Development of the action observation network during early adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence places high demands on inter-personal interactions and, hence, on the extraction and processing of social cues. Here we assess longitudinally the development of brain activity within a network implicated in social cognition—the action observation network. We performed activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses to define regions of interest based upon the mature action observation network of adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we then examined developmental trajectories of functional brain activity within these brain regions. Using this approach, we reveal quadratic trajectories within a fronto-parietal network previously shown to demonstrate correlated morphological development. PMID:21278194

  18. Temporal change in health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study in general practice 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Hazell, Michelle L; Morris, Julie A; Linehan, Mary F; Frank, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess and plan for changing healthcare needs, the lack of available information regarding temporal changes in the health-related quality of life of a population must be addressed. Aim This paper aims to describe such changes over 5 years in a general population. Design of study Longitudinal postal questionnaire study. Setting UK general practice. Method This was a longitudinal postal questionnaire study in two general practice populations, using the generic instrument EQ-5D to measure health-related quality of life. Individuals were included if they responded to three postal surveys in 1999, 2001, and 2004 and there were three consecutive values of EQ-5Dindex available between 1999 and 2004. Results A total of 2498 subjects were included in the study. After adjustment for potential confounders (including ageing), health-related quality of life declined significantly over the observation period. The change in EQ-5Dindex was from 0.79 to 0.74 and for EQ-5Dvas 76.8 to 73.3 (P for both trends <0.001). Conclusion Health-related quality of life deteriorated in these populations over 5 years. In an era of improvements in mortality, this has important implications for the use of health-related quality of life data in healthcare planning and resource allocation. PMID:19861028

  19. Longitudinal Health Research in the U.S. Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    disciplinary problems, 4 marriage and children , isolated or unusual duty assignments, training failure,, and so forth with health and morbidity can be...Conditions 489 1,747 Accidents, Poisonings, Violence 2,010 2,904 Supplementary Classifications 321 1,347 Total incidence rate 11,020 27,693 Average population...comparison sample in rates of tuberculosis, malignant and benign neoplasms, metabolic disorders (including obesity ). and diseases of the peripheral

  20. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  1. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  2. [Participated observation of nursing child health consultation].

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Fernanda Manuela; da Silva, José António Neto Ferreira; Quitério, Margarida Maria de Sousa Lourenço; Charepe, Zaida Borges

    2012-12-01

    Situation diagnosis using exploratory and descriptive scientific methodology (participant observation with descriptive statistical treatment) in order to identify nursing' practices in the area of health promotion during a nursing child health consultation. The 31 consultations observed (n = 31) showed that the majority of observations occurred in children younger than 2 years being the most discussed topic feed with predominant use of expository methodology. There was also little use of informational support and when used relate to the themes of security and nutrition. Most providers raised questions and there was limited registration of the interaction between provider and child with an expenditure averaging of 23 minutes per consultation. Given the results and reflecting about them stands out as intervention the construction of a health promotion manual with the integration of theory and evidence of good practice in this area.

  3. Preliminary analysis of the use of smartwatches for longitudinal health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Emil

    2015-08-01

    New generations of smartwatches feature continuous measurement of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, galvanic skin resistance (GSR), and temperature. In this paper we present the results of preliminary analysis of the use of Basis Peak smartwatch for longitudinal health monitoring during a 4 month period. Physiological measurements during sleep are validated using Zephyr Bioharness 3 monitor and SOMNOscreen+ polysomnographic monitoring system from SOMNOmedics. Average duration of sequences with no missed data was 49.9 minutes, with maximum length of 17 hours, and they represent 88.88% of recording time. Average duration of the charging event was 221.9 min, and average time between charges was 54 hours, with maximum duration of the charging event of 16.3 hours. Preliminary results indicate that the physiological monitoring performance of existing smartwatches provides sufficient performance for longitudinal monitoring of health status and analysis of health and wellness trends.

  4. Engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal mental health intervention study: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa Dawn; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations, or the advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated.

  5. Observations of the longitudinal magnetic field in the transition region and photosphere of a sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, W., Jr.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; West, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacraft has observed for the first time the longitudinal component of the magnetic field by means of the Zeeman effect in the transition region above a sunspot. The data presented here were obtained on three days in one sunspot, have spatial resolutions of 10 arcsec and 3 arcsec, and yield maximum field strengths greater than 1000 G above the umbrae in the spot. The method of analysis, including a line-width calibration feature used during some of the observations, is described in some detail in an appendix; the line width is required for the determination of the longitudinal magnetic field from the observed circular polarization. The transition region data for one day are compared with photospheric magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center. Vertical gradients of the magnetic field are compared from the two sets of data; the maximum gradients of 0.41 to 0.62 G/km occur above the umbra and agree with or are smaller than values observed previously in the photosphere and low chromosphere.

  6. Elder Mistreatment Predicts Later Physical and Psychological Health: Results from a National Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jaclyn S.; Waite, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Stress process theory predicts that elder mistreatment leads to declines in health, and that social support buffers its ill effects. We test this theory using nationally representative, longitudinal data from 2,261 older adults in the National Social Life Health and Aging Project. We regress psychological and physical health in 2010/2011 on verbal and financial mistreatment experience in 2005/2006 and find that the mistreated have more anxiety symptoms, greater feelings of loneliness, and worse physical and functional health five years later, than those who did not report mistreatment. In particular, we show a novel association between financial mistreatment and functional health. Contrary to the stress buffering hypothesis, we find little evidence that social support moderates the relationship between mistreatment and health. Our findings point to the lasting impact of mistreatment on health, but show little evidence of a buffering role of social support in this process. PMID:27636657

  7. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  8. Neurodevelopmental Deceleration by Urban Fine Particles from Different Emission Sources: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Basagaña, Xavier; Esnaola, Mikel; Rivas, Ioar; Amato, Fulvio; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; López-Vicente, Mònica; Pujol, Jesús; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Querol, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few studies have reported associations between traffic-related air pollution exposure at schools and cognitive development. The role of PM components or sources other than traffic on cognitive development has been little explored. Objectives: We aimed to explore the role of PM sources in school air on cognitive development. Methods: A cohort of 2,618 schoolchildren (average age, 8.5 years) belonging to 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain) was followed up for a year. Children completed computerized tests assessing working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness during four visits. Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) was measured during two 1-week campaigns in each school, both outdoors and in the classroom. Source apportionment resulted in nine sources: mineral, organic/textile/chalk, traffic, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, road dust, metallurgy, sea spray, and heavy oil combustion. Differences in cognitive growth trajectories were assessed with mixed models with age-by-source interaction terms. Results: An interquartile range increase in indoor traffic-related PM2.5 was associated with reductions in cognitive growth equivalent to 22% (95% CI: 2%, 42%) of the annual change in working memory, 30% (95% CI: 6%, 54%) of the annual change in superior working memory, and 11% (95% CI: 0%, 22%) of the annual change in the inattentiveness scale. None of the other PM2.5 sources was associated with adverse effects on cognitive development. Conclusions: Traffic was the only source of fine particles associated with a reduction in cognitive development. Reducing air pollution from traffic at primary schools may result in beneficial effects on cognition. Citation: Basagaña X, Esnaola M, Rivas I, Amato F, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Forns J, López-Vicente M, Pujol J, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Querol X, Sunyer J. 2016. Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources: a longitudinal observational study. Environ

  9. Health impact: longitudinal analysis of employment at middle and old age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, César; WONG, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study to analyze the relationship between health and labor force participation of population aged 50 years and older in Mexico. The results confirm that health, measured through chronic diseases and difficulty to perform activities of daily living, has a powerful influence on labor force participation. We also find important differences by gender; hypertension and diabetes have effects in both, men and women; heart disease and stroke only in men. We provide concrete evidence on economic participation and highlight the importance of public policies to create adequate jobs for the population at middle and old age. PMID:25722646

  10. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of the Longitudinal Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M.; Mason, G. M.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    During the recent rise in solar activity, the twin STEREO spacecraft, in combination with near-Earth assets (e.g., ACE, GOES, RHESSI, SDO, SOHO, and Wind) have provided ~360° coverage of solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), shocks, and other aspects of solar eruptions. This combination has provided an unprecedented opportunity to observe how the properties of SEP events vary with longitude. Initial results indicate that particles are distributed in longitude more easily than was earlier appreciated. Indeed, most recent large SEP events associated with CME-driven shocks are observed by both STEREOs and ACE, even as these spacecraft are separated by >100° in longitude. This talk will discuss longitudinal, intensity, composition, and spectral variations of large SEP events and compare them with models and previous studies. Small 3He-rich flares associated with flares and coronal jets are also found to be distributed more broadly in longitude than reported in single-point studies. Recent observations, issues, and proposed explanations for SEP longitudinal variations will be reviewed.

  11. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  12. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  13. Concurrent and longitudinal associations of basal and diurnal cortisol with mental health symptoms in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J

    2008-11-01

    Recent biosocial theories postulate that both biological risk and the social context influence the development of mental health problems [Boyce and Ellis (2005) Development and Psychopathology, 17(2), 271-301]. Guided by this framework, we examined whether basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm were associated with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. Because cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations sometimes reveal different cortisol-mental health associations, we examined the association both concurrently and longitudinally when children transition to middle school, a time which entails a major change in social context from single to multiple teachers, classrooms, and sets of classmates. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day (waking, afternoon, and bedtime) across 3 days when adolescents were 5th graders. Mental health was measured when adolescents were in 5th and 7th grades, just before and after the transition to middle school. To deal with the substantial comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at this developmental stage, mental health measures distinguished overall symptom severity from the preponderance of internalizing versus externalizing symptoms (i.e., directionality). A three-level Hierarchical Linear Model was used to extract basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm separate from the day-to-day and within-the-day fluctuations in cortisol in response to daily experiences. Results were specific to symptom severity, suggesting that cortisol is a nonspecific risk factor for mental health symptoms in young adolescents. At 5th grade, low basal cortisol was associated with concurrent symptom severity. However, longitudinally, it was adolescents with high cortisol at 5th grade who were at risk for increasing mental health symptoms by 7th grade. Flat diurnal rhythms in 5th grade were related to levels of symptom severity at both 5th and 7th grades. Considering the change in social context, as defined by the transition to

  14. Patient Core Data Set. Standard for a longitudinal health/medical record.

    PubMed

    Renner, A L; Swart, J C

    1997-01-01

    Blue Chip Computers Company, in collaboration with Wright State University-Miami Valley College of Nursing and Health, with support from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, completed Small Business innovative Research research to design a comprehensive integrated Patient information System. The Wright State University consultants undertook the development of a Patient Core Data Set (PCDS) in response to the lack of uniform standards of minimum data sets, and lack of standards in data transfer for continuity of care. The purpose of the Patient Core Data Set is to develop a longitudinal patient health record and medical history using a common set of standard data elements with uniform definitions and coding consistent with Health Level 7 (HL7) protocol and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The PCDS, intended for transfer across all patient-care settings, is essential information for clinicians, administrators, researchers, and health policy makers.

  15. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. PMID:27508909

  16. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Miche, Martina; Brothers, Allyson F; Barrett, Anne E; Diehl, Manfred; Montepare, Joann M; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging-that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process-on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed resulted in 19 longitudinal studies reporting effects of subjective aging on health, health behaviors, and longevity. The authors combine the outcomes reported in these studies using a random effects meta-analysis, assuming that there would be differences in effect sizes across studies. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall significant effect of subjective aging (likelihood ratio = 1.429; 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.604; p < .001). The analyses revealed heterogeneity, with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow-up, for studies of health versus survival, for studies with younger participants (average age of the studies varies between 57 and 85 years with a median of 63 years), and for studies in welfare systems where state provisions of welfare are minimal. However, effects did not vary either across different operationalizations of subjective aging or by study quality. Subjective aging has a small significant effect on health, health behaviors, and survival. Further theoretical conceptualizations and empirical studies are needed to determine how subjective aging contributes to health and survival.

  17. The quadratic hazard model for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and the life span.

    PubMed

    Yashin, A I; Arbeev, K G; Akushevich, I; Kulminski, A; Ukraintseva, S V; Stallard, E; Land, K C

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of processes and mechanisms linking human aging with changes in health status and survival requires methods capable of analyzing new data that take into account knowledge about these processes accumulated in the field. In this paper, we describe an approach to analyses of longitudinal data based on the use of stochastic process models of human aging, health, and longevity which allows for incorporating state of the art advances in aging research into the model structure. In particular, the model incorporates the notions of resistance to stresses, adaptive capacity, and "optimal" (normal) physiological states. To capture the effects of exposure to persistent external disturbances, the notions of allostatic adaptation and allostatic load are introduced. These notions facilitate the description and explanation of deviations of individuals' physiological indices from their normal states, which increase the chances of disease development and death. The model provides a convenient conceptual framework for comprehensive systemic analyses of aging-related changes in humans using longitudinal data and linking these changes with genotyping profiles, morbidity, and mortality risks. The model is used for developing new statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data on aging, health, and longevity.

  18. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  19. Adjustment Disorders as a Stress-Related Disorder: A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Stress, Resources, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Mierke, Annett; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. Methods The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients’ presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs) was performed to assess change over time. Results Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001). Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44%) of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48), taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms) into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level) at baseline (β = −0.23, R2corr = 0.56, p<0.001). With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df = 15.26; RMSEA = 0.21). Conclusions Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress. PMID:24825165

  20. The association between earlier marijuana use and subsequent academic achievement and health problems: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Stimmel, Matthew A; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W

    2008-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between marijuana use over a period of 13 years and subsequent health problems at age 27. A community sample of 749 participants from upstate New York was interviewed at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Marijuana use over time was significantly associated with increased health problems by the late twenties, including respiratory problems, general malaise, neurocognitive problems, and lower academic achievement and functioning. Effective prevention and intervention programs should consider the wide range of adverse physiological and psychosocial outcomes associated with marijuana use over time.

  1. Toward a DoD/VA longitudinal health record: politics and the policy landscape.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, Ronald W; Clyburn, Conrad A

    2009-05-01

    Policy implications of an interoperable Department of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Administration (VA) longitudinal health record (LHR) are substantial and far reaching. In this manuscript the authors explore the existing challenges and opportunities, the political landscape, and alternative solutions that have created a favorable environment for legislation and funding to support its development. The authors identify six policy themes emerging from the historic National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System held recently at Georgetown University in Washington DC.

  2. Social stressors at work, sleep quality and psychosomatic health complaints--a longitudinal ambulatory field study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana; Elfering, Achim

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that occupational stress increases psychosomatic health complaints in the long run. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The present longitudinal actigraphy field study investigated the role of sleep quality--objectively assessed sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation, and subjectively assessed sleep quality--as a mediator in the relationship between stressful work conditions at time 1 and psychosomatic health complaints at time 2. A longitudinal hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were positively related to objectively assessed sleep fragmentation and to psychosomatic health complaints. Moreover, objectively assessed sleep fragmentation mediated the effect of social stressors at work on psychosomatic health complaints. Contrary to our expectations, social stressors at work were not related to other sleep quality parameters (i.e. sleep-onset latency, sleep efficiency and subjectively assessed sleep quality) during follow-up. Sleep fragmentation is discussed as an important consequence of social stressors at work that increase the risk of psychosomatic health complaints in the long run.

  3. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  4. Gene-arsenic interaction in longitudinal changes of blood pressure: Findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Karagas, Margaret R; Jiang, Jieying; Wu, Fen; Liu, Mengling; Newman, Jonathan D; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Parvez, Faruque; Argos, Maria; Scannell Bryan, Molly; Eunus, Mahbub; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and mounting evidence indicates that toxicant exposures can profoundly impact on CVD risk. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that arsenic (As) exposure is positively related to increases in blood pressure (BP), a primary CVD risk factor. However, evidence of whether genetic susceptibility can modify the association between As and BP is lacking. In this study, we used mixed effect models adjusted for potential confounders to examine the interaction between As exposure from well water and potential genetic modifiers on longitudinal change in BP over approximately 7years of follow-up in 1137 subjects selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in Bangladesh. Genotyping was conducted for 235 SNPs in 18 genes related to As metabolism, oxidative stress and endothelial function. We observed interactions between 44 SNPs with well water As for one or more BP outcome measures (systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure (PP)) over the course of follow-up. The interaction between CYBA rs3794624 and well water As on annual PP remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons (FDR-adjusted p for interaction=0.05). Among individuals with the rs3794624 variant genotype, well water As was associated with a 2.23mmHg (95% CI: 1.14-3.32) greater annual increase in PP, while among those with the wild type, well water As was associated with a 0.13mmHg (95% CI: 0.02-0.23) greater annual increase in PP. Our results suggest that genetic variability may contribute to As-associated increases in BP over time.

  5. The concurrent and longitudinal effects of child disability types and health on family experiences.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal effects of children's disability types and health on family experiences, namely, parent divorce, mother's unemployment, and receipt of social welfare. The parent and school staff survey data for 1999 and 2004 from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study were analyzed, when the ages of children with disabilities ranged from 6 to 17. Weighted logistic regressions using Taylor Series Linearization were used to model the concurrent associations and longitudinal association between children's disability types and health and family experiences. Models were adjusted to account for other children in the family with disabilities, sociodemographic characteristics, and other family experiences variables. Family experiences varied significantly by disability type in 1999. Compared with families of children with learning disabilities, parents of children with emotional disturbances were 81% more likely to get divorced, and 2.5 times more likely to receive welfare from 1999 to 2004. Mothers of children with a secondary disability were 81% more likely to be unemployed than those of children without a secondary disability. These findings indicate that specific disability types in children have an influence on family experience, and that some of those influences may persist over time. Families of children with emotional disturbances appear to be particularly at risk for negative family experiences. Clinicians, educators, and policymakers should be aware of the complex needs of families of children with disabilities when considering the types of services and supports provided to both children with disabilities and their families.

  6. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  7. Longitudinal structure in atomic oxygen concentrations observed with WINDII on UARS. [Wind Imaging Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, G. G.; Thuillier, G.; Solheim, B. H.; Chandra, S.; Cogger, L. L.; Duboin, M. L.; Evans, W. F. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Gault, W. A.; Herse, M.

    1993-01-01

    WINDII, the Wind Imaging Interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, began atmospheric observations on September 28, 1991 and since then has been collecting data on winds, temperatures and emissions rates from atomic, molecular and ionized oxygen species, as well as hydroxyl. The validation of winds and temperatures is not yet complete, and scientific interpretation has barely begun, but the dominant characteristic of these data so far is the remarkable structure in the emission rate from the excited species produced by the recombination of atomic oxygen. The latitudinal and temporal variability has been noted before by many others. In this preliminary report on WINDII results we draw attention to the dramatic longitudinal variations of planetary wave character in atomic oxygen concentration, as reflected in the OI 557.7 nm emission, and to similar variations seen in the Meine1 hydroxyl band emission.

  8. Test of a Hadronic Interaction Model by a Multidimensional Analysis of Lateral and Longitudinal Air-Shower Observables at KASCADE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, F.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Blümer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Büttner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Feßler, F.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K-H.; Klages, H. O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Müller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; van Buren, J.; Vardanyan, A.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    2003-07-01

    The multi-detector experiment KASCADE enables simultaneous observations of parameters describing the lateral and longitudinal development of Extensive Air Showers. The present analysis is fo cused on Field Array and Muon Tracking detectors of KASCADE. The Field Array (FA) provides the numbers of electrons and muons in the shower and the Muon Tracking Detector (MTD) measures angles-of-incidence of muons which are related to the longitudinal development of EAS. An identical two step deconvolution method (on primary mass using a Bayesian approach and on primary energy) is performed to calculate the primary mass and energy of cosmic rays using the correlation of FA observables only and by adding MTD observables. The consistency of the CORSIKA/QGSJET simulation code in describing the correlation between lateral and longitudinal developments of the shower is studied by comparing the results obtained from the two sets of observables.

  9. Longitudinal Relationships Between Productive Activities and Functional Health in Later Years: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunhee; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Sung-Geun; Turk, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationships between functional health in later years and three types of productive activities: volunteering, full-time, and part-time work. Using the data from five waves (2000-2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, we applied multivariate latent growth curve modeling to examine the longitudinal relationships among individuals 50 or over. Functional health was measured by limitations in activities of daily living. Individuals who volunteered, worked either full time or part time exhibited a slower decline in functional health than nonparticipants. Significant associations were also found between initial functional health and longitudinal changes in productive activity participation. This study provides additional support for the benefits of productive activities later in life; engagement in volunteering and employment are indeed associated with better functional health in middle and old age.

  10. Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH).

    PubMed

    Kohler, Hans-Peter; Watkins, Susan C; Behrman, Jere R; Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Iliana V; Thornton, Rebecca L; Mkandawire, James; Honde, Hastings; Hawara, Augustine; Chilima, Ben; Bandawe, Chiwoza; Mwapasa, Victor; Fleming, Peter; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda

    2015-04-01

    The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing, publicly available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. The MLSFH was initially established in 1998 to study social network influences on fertility behaviours and HIV risk perceptions, and over time the focus of the study expanded to include health, sexual behaviours, intergenerational relations and family/household dynamics. The currently available data include MLSFH rounds collected in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4000 individuals, providing information about socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, marriage, household/family structure, risk perceptions, social networks and social capital, intergenerational relations, HIV/AIDS and other dimensions of health. The MLSFH public use data can be requested on the project website: http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu/.

  11. Readiness for Delivering Digital Health at Scale: Lessons From a Longitudinal Qualitative Evaluation of a National Digital Health Innovation Program in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Marilyn R; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Devlin, Alison M; O'Connor, Siobhan; O'Donnell, Catherine; Chetty, Ula; Agbakoba, Ruth; Bikker, Annemieke; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Watson, Nicholas; Wyke, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital health has the potential to support care delivery for chronic illness. Despite positive evidence from localized implementations, new technologies have proven slow to become accepted, integrated, and routinized at scale. Objective The aim of our study was to examine barriers and facilitators to implementation of digital health at scale through the evaluation of a £37m national digital health program: ‟Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale” (dallas) from 2012-2015. Methods The study was a longitudinal qualitative, multi-stakeholder, implementation study. The methods included interviews (n=125) with key implementers, focus groups with consumers and patients (n=7), project meetings (n=12), field work or observation in the communities (n=16), health professional survey responses (n=48), and cross program documentary evidence on implementation (n=215). We used a sociological theory called normalization process theory (NPT) and a longitudinal (3 years) qualitative framework analysis approach. This work did not study a single intervention or population. Instead, we evaluated the processes (of designing and delivering digital health), and our outcomes were the identified barriers and facilitators to delivering and mainstreaming services and products within the mixed sector digital health ecosystem. Results We identified three main levels of issues influencing readiness for digital health: macro (market, infrastructure, policy), meso (organizational), and micro (professional or public). Factors hindering implementation included: lack of information technology (IT) infrastructure, uncertainty around information governance, lack of incentives to prioritize interoperability, lack of precedence on accountability within the commercial sector, and a market perceived as difficult to navigate. Factors enabling implementation were: clinical endorsement, champions who promoted digital health, and public and professional willingness. Conclusions

  12. Mental and physical health consequences of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in primary care: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Neria, Yuval; Wickramaratne, Priya; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M

    2013-02-01

    The magnitude of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks was without precedent in the United States, but long-term longitudinal research on its health consequences for primary care patients is limited. We assessed the prevalence and exposure-related determinants of mental disorders, functioning, general medical conditions, and service utilization, 1 and 4 years after the 9/11 attacks, in an urban primary care cohort (N = 444) in Manhattan. Although the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and levels of functional impairment declined over time, a substantial increase in suicidal ideation and missed work was observed. Most medical outcomes and service utilization indicators demonstrated a short-term increase after the 9/11 attacks (mean change of +20.3%), followed by a minor decrease in the subsequent year (mean change of -3.2%). Loss of a close person was associated with the highest risk for poor mental health and functional status over time. These findings highlight the importance of longitudinal assessments of mental, functional, and medical outcomes in urban populations exposed to mass trauma and terrorism.

  13. China’s new cooperative medical scheme and equity in access to health care: evidence from a longitudinal household survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was brought to life in 2003 in response to the deterioration in access to health services in rural areas. Despite its fast expansion, the scheme’s impacts on access to health care have raised growing concerns, in particular regarding whether and to what extent the scheme has reduced inequity in access to health care in rural China. Methods This study examines income-related inequity in access to health care from 2004 (before the national rollout of NCMS) to 2009 (after the expansion of NCMS across the rural China) by estimating Concentration Indices over both formal health care (outpatient care, prevention care) and informal health care use (folk doctor care). Data were drawn from a longitudinal household survey dataset - China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Results The study suggested that the level of inequity remained the same for outpatient care, and an increased favouring-poor gap in terms of folk doctor care was observed. In terms of preventive care, a favouring-rich inequity was observed both in 2004 and 2009, but the effects of inequity were narrowed. The NCMS had some effects in reducing income-related health inequity in folk doctor care and preventive care, but the contribution was rather small. The study also found that the rural better-off had started to seek for commercial insurance to cover possible financial risks from the burden of diseases. Conclusion The study concludes that the impacts of the NCMS on improving access to formal care for the poor are limited. Without a more comprehensive insurance package that effectively targets the rural poor, the intended equity goals expected from the scheme will be difficult to realize. PMID:23522336

  14. Health among Swedish employees and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vingård, Eva; Lampa, Erik; Wahlstedt, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background. The present study is part of a 3-year longitudinal study on work and health among employees in the public sector in Sweden. The aim was to study associations between self-rated health (SRH) and financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Methods. Of the 9003 employees, 7533 answered the baseline questionnaires (84%). Altogether 9373 subjects received the follow-up questionnaire, and 6617 subjects responded (71%). In total 4240 completed the questionnaire on both occasions, and this group comprised the study population. SRH consisted of the response to a single question: ‘In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, poor, or very poor?' The health was investigated in terms of the development of health status in the 3-year follow-up. The exposure factors were: financial situation, education, and managerial responsibility. Odds ratios were analysed using logistic regressions. Results. Good financial situation and further education were predictors in maintaining good health and in avoiding poor health. The analysis also indicated the following determinants of sustained good SRH: having a good financial situation (OR 1.99 at baseline and OR 1.87 at follow-up), having a further education compared to lower education (OR 1.17 at baseline), and not having a worsening financial situation between baseline and follow-up (OR 0.53). Conclusion. Financial situation and educational level were important factors that influence the subjective perception of health. PMID:22862746

  15. Long-term Antifungal Treatment Improves Health Status in Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-shair, Khaled; Atherton, Graham T.; Harris, Christine; Ratcliffe, Libuse; Newton, Philippa J.; Denning, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is an infectious disease that progressively destroys lung tissue. To date, no longitudinal data on the efficacy of antifungal treatment on health status in CPA patients exist. Methods. Using the standardized St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the health status of 122 patients with was assessed at baseline and quarterly over 12 months. The score range was 0–100, where higher score indicates worse heath status, and a change of ≥4 was deemed the minimal clinically important difference. Lung function, body mass index, Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, disease severity, and demographic data were reported. Results. Mean age of patients was 59 years, and 45% were female. Overall, patients with CPA had substantial health status impairment at baseline. After treatment, 47%–50% gained substantial health improvement with a mean reduction of score of 14 at both 6 and 12 months, whereas 32% deteriorated with a mean rise of score of 11 and 14 after 6 and 12 months of treatment and observation, respectively, and 21% were not much different (stable). Patients gained therapeutic benefit irrespective of their illness severity where >50% of those who had “poor” and “very poor” status at baseline improved with score reduction of ≥4 after 6 months of treatment. Replicating this analysis using a health status category, we found that at least 50% of patients with a “poor/very poor” health status category at baseline improved significantly to “fair” or “good/very good” categories. Side effects burdened health status considerably. In multivariate analysis, dyspnea and disease severity significantly defined health status impairment. Conclusions. Antifungal therapy improved health status and prevented CPA progression in most patients. PMID:23788240

  16. Longitudinal patterns of offending during the transition to adulthood in youth from the mental health system.

    PubMed

    Davis, Maryann; Banks, Steven; Fisher, William; Grudzinskas, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Arrest rates among the population of youth who have been served in child mental health systems are known to be high during adolescence and young adulthood, but individual longitudinal patterns have not been examined. The present study used developmental trajectory modeling, a contemporary method used widely in criminology, to examine clusters of individual criminal justice involvement patterns at ages 8 through 25, from database records of 131 individuals in public adolescent mental health services. Three groups of particular concern emerged: one with increasingly high offense rates and two with moderate to high violent offense rates that did not desist. Offense patterns in these groups indicate that early intervention should occur before age 15. Some risk factors were identified. Peak offending for most groups occurred between ages 18 and 20. Implications of these findings for mental health services during the transition to adulthood are offered.

  17. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    PubMed Central

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  18. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacomb, Patricia A; Jorm, Anthony F; Korten, Ailsa E; Christensen, Helen; Henderson, A Scott

    2002-01-01

    Background The loss of participants in longitudinal studies due to non-contact, refusal or death can introduce bias into the results of such studies. The study described here examines reasons for refusal over three waves of a survey of persons aged ≥ 70 years. Methods In a longitudinal study involving three waves, participants were compared to those who refused to participate but allowed an informant to be interviewed and to those who refused any participation. Results At Wave 1 both groups of Wave 2 non-participants had reported lower occupational status and fewer years of education, had achieved lower verbal IQ scores and cognitive performance scores and experienced some distress from the interview. Those with an informant interview only were in poorer physical health than those who participated and those who refused. Depression and anxiety symptoms were not associated with non-participation. Multivariate analyses found that verbal IQ and cognitive impairment predicted refusal. Results were very similar for refusers at both Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Longitudinal studies of the elderly may over estimate cognitive performance because of the greater refusal rate of those with poorer performance. However, there is no evidence of bias with respect to anxiety or depression. PMID:11914148

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions.

  20. Is temporary employment damaging to health? A longitudinal study on Italian workers.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Elena; Salvini, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Working conditions have changed dramatically over recent decades in all the countries of European Union: permanent full-time employment characterized by job security and a stable salary is replaced more and more by temporary work, apprenticeship contracts, casual jobs and part-time work. The consequences of these changes on the general well-being of workers and their health represent an increasingly important path of inquiry. We add to the debate by answering the question: are Italian workers on temporary contracts more likely to suffer from poor health than those with permanent jobs? Our analysis is based on a sample of men and women aged 16-64 coming from the Italian longitudinal survey 2007-2010 of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. We use the method of inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to estimate the causal effect of temporary work on self-rated health, controlling for selection effects. Our major findings can be summarized as follows: firstly, we show a negative association between temporary employment and health that results from a statistical causal effect in the work-to-health direction, and does not trivially derive from a selection of healthier individuals in the group of people who find permanent jobs (selection effect). Secondly, we find that temporary employment becomes particularly negative for the individual's health when it is prolonged over time. Thirdly, whereas temporary employment does not entail significant adverse consequences for men, the link between temporary employment and health is strongly harmful for Italian women.

  1. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.

  2. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  3. An Observation of a Transverse to Longitudinal Emittance Exchange at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Koeth, Timothy W

    2009-05-01

    An experimental program to perform a proof of principle of transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (ϵxin ↔ ϵzout and ϵxin ↔ ϵzout) has been developed at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector. A new beamline, including two magnetic dogleg channels and a TM110 deflecting mode radio frequency cavity, were constructed for the emittance exchange experiment. The first priority was a measurement of the Emittance Exchange beamline transport matrix. The method of difference orbits was used to measure the transport matrix. Through varying individual beam input vector elements, such as xin, x'in, yin, y'in, zin, or δin, and measuring the changes in all of the beam output vector's elements, xout, x'out, yout, y'out, zout, δout, the full 6 x 6 transport matrix was measured. The measured emittance exchange transport matrix was in overall good agreement with our calculated transport matrix. A direct observation of an emittance exchange was performed by measuring the electron beam's characteristics before and after the emittance exchange beamline. Operating with a 14.3 MeV, 250pC electron bunch, ϵzin of 21.1 ± 1.5 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵxout of 20.8 ± 2.00 mm • mrad. Diagnostic limitations in the ϵzout measurement did not account for an energy-time correlation, thus potentially returning values larger than the actual longitudinal emittance. The ϵxin of 4.67 ± 0.22 mm • mrad was observed to be exchanged with ϵzout of 7.06 ± 0.43 mm • mrad. The apparent ϵzoutgrowth is consistent with calculated values in which the correlation term is neglected.

  4. Longitudinal intergroup contact effects on prejudice using self- and observer-reports.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Kristof; Van Hiel, Alain; De Bolle, Marleen; Roets, Arne

    2012-06-01

    Longitudinal effects of intergroup contact on prejudice were investigated in a sample of 65 young adults (Sample 1) and a sample of their close friends (Sample 2, N= 172), adopting a full cross-lagged panel design. We first validated the self-report measure of intergroup contact from Sample 1 with observer ratings from Sample 2 by demonstrating that self-reports and observer ratings of contact were highly correlated. Moreover, we obtained significant cross-lagged effects of intergroup contact on prejudice with both contact measures, thereby providing a second validation for the use of self-reports of intergroup contact. Finally, by the use of latent change modelling, we demonstrated that, although no overall significant change in contact and prejudice over time was found, there was meaningful variation in absolute change in the individual levels of intergroup contact and prejudice. In particular, some individuals showed increases while others showed decreases in contact or prejudice across time. Moreover, higher levels of intergroup contact at Time 1 were followed by larger subsequent decreases in prejudice between Time 1 and Time 2, and changes in contact were significantly and negatively related to changes in prejudice. Methodological implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Newlyweds’ Observed Communication, Partner Characteristics, and Longitudinal Marital Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lavner, Justin A.; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Given borderline personality disorder (BPD)’s relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD’s effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses’ BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds’ 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. PMID:26348097

  6. SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE-AMPLITUDE LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN A SOLAR FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2012-11-20

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations in the south and north parts (SP and NP) of a solar filament on 2012 April 7. Both oscillations are triggered by flare activities close to the filament. The period varies with filamentary threads, ranging from 44 to 67 minutes. The oscillations of different threads are out of phase, and their velocity amplitudes vary from 30 to 60 km s{sup -1}, with a maximum displacement of about 25 Mm. The oscillations of the SP repeat for about four cycles without any significant damping and then a nearby C2.4 flare causes the transition from the LAL oscillations of the filament to its later eruption. The filament eruption is also associated with a coronal mass ejection and a B6.8 flare. However, the oscillations of the NP damp with time and die out at last. Our observations show that the activated part of the SP repeatedly shows a helical motion. This indicates that the magnetic structure of the filament is possibly modified during this process. We suggest that the restoring force is the coupling of the magnetic tension and gravity.

  7. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  8. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  9. USE OF BIOMARKERS TO INDICATE EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO ORGANOPHOSPATE PESTICIDES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of their widespread use in the U.S. and unkown long-term health effects, planning for the National Children's Study (NCS) includes consideration of organophosphate pestcides (OPs) as a chemical class of interest in a longitudinal study of children's environmental health...

  10. The Effects of Adolescent Health-Related Behavior on Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Vincent; Loyen, Anne; Lodder, Mandy; Schrijvers, Augustinus J. P.; van Yperen, Tom A.; de Leeuw, Johannes R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in efforts to promote health and healthy behavior among their adolescent students, but are healthier students better learners? This synthesis of the empirical, longitudinal literature investigated the effects of the most predominant health-related behaviors--namely, alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, nutrition,…

  11. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-01-01

    Background Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Conclusions Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly

  12. Radiation Doses of Various CT Protocols: a Multicenter Longitudinal Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging concerns regarding the hazard from medical radiation including CT examinations has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to observe the longitudinal changes of CT radiation doses of various CT protocols and to estimate the long-term efforts of supervising radiologists to reduce medical radiation. Radiation dose data from 11 representative CT protocols were collected from 12 hospitals. Attending radiologists had collected CT radiation dose data in two time points, 2007 and 2010. They collected the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) of each phase, number of phases, dose length product (DLP) of each phase, and types of scanned CT machines. From the collected data, total DLP and effective dose (ED) were calculated. CTDIvol, total DLP, and ED of 2007 and 2010 were compared according to CT protocols, CT machine type, and hospital. During the three years, CTDIvol had significantly decreased, except for dynamic CT of the liver. Total DLP and ED were significantly decreased in all 11 protocols. The decrement was more evident in newer CT scanners. However, there was substantial variability of changes of ED during the three years according to hospitals. Although there was variability according to protocols, machines, and hospital, CT radiation doses were decreased during the 3 years. This study showed the effects of decreased CT radiation dose by efforts of radiologists and medical society. PMID:26908984

  13. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn. PMID:27965962

  14. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn.

  15. Hidden Criteria for Out-of-Home Day-Care Centre Admission in Pokhara, Nepal: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakahara, Shinji; Poudel, Krishna C.; Lopchan, Milan; Ichikawa, Masao; Poudel, Om R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal observational study evaluated whether admission priorities given to children on waiting lists for out-of-home day-care centres (DCCs), determined as being either an early or late admission to DCCs, are determined by actual childcare needs and are assigned to children of disadvantaged families, in public DCCs in Pokhara, Nepal,…

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Janice S; Sarracini, Karin L M; Meneghim, Marcelo C; Pereira, Antônio C; Ortega, Edwin M M; Martins, Natália S; Mialhe, Fábio L

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of dental caries treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren and the responsiveness of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 ) instrument. Brazilian schoolchildren, 8-10 yr of age, were randomly selected and assigned to two groups--dental caries treatment (DCT) and caries-free (CF)--according to their caries experience [decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing or filled secondary teeth (DMFT) values of ≥ 0]. The CPQ8-10 instrument was administered at baseline and at 4 wk of follow-up (i.e. 4 wk after completion of dental treatment). In the DCT group, increases in CPQ8-10 scores were observed between the baseline and follow-up results. However, longitudinal evaluation of the CF group demonstrated no statistically significant difference in CPQ8-10 scores. Responsiveness of the CPQ8-10 instrument (magnitude of change in CPQ8-10 scores) in the DCT group was greater (effect size >0.7) than in the CF group. The findings of this study show that dental caries treatment has an important impact on OHRQoL of children. The CPQ8-10 was considered an acceptable instrument for longitudinal measurement of changes in OHRQoL.

  17. Maternal psychological responses during pregnancy after ultrasonographic detection of structural fetal anomalies: A prospective longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kaasen, Anne; Helbig, Anne; Malt, Ulrik F.; Næs, Tormod; Skari, Hans; Haugen, Guttorm

    2017-01-01

    In this longitudinal prospective observational study performed at a tertiary perinatal referral centre, we aimed to assess maternal distress in pregnancy in women with ultrasound findings of fetal anomaly and compare this with distress in pregnant women with normal ultrasound findings. Pregnant women with a structural fetal anomaly (n = 48) and normal ultrasound (n = 105) were included. We administered self-report questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire-28, Impact of Event Scale-22 [IES], and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) a few days following ultrasound detection of a fetal anomaly or a normal ultrasound (T1), 3 weeks post-ultrasound (T2), and at 30 (T3) and 36 weeks gestation (T4). Social dysfunction, health perception, and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, and depression) were the main outcome measures. The median gestational age at T1 was 20 and 19 weeks in the group with and without fetal anomaly, respectively. In the fetal anomaly group, all psychological distress scores were highest at T1. In the group with a normal scan, distress scores were stable throughout pregnancy. At all assessments, the fetal anomaly group scored significantly higher (especially on depression-related questions) compared to the normal scan group, except on the IES Intrusion and Arousal subscales at T4, although with large individual differences. In conclusion, women with a known fetal anomaly initially had high stress scores, which gradually decreased, resembling those in women with a normal pregnancy. Psychological stress levels were stable and low during the latter half of gestation in women with a normal pregnancy. PMID:28350879

  18. Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

  19. Print news and health psychology: some observations.

    PubMed

    Thorson, Esther

    2006-03-01

    This commentary overviews the look of health news in American print journalism and the research that suggests how health news creates influence at both the individual and policy levels. Crime and violence are argued to be public health issues, but unfortunately they are often not treated as such. There is clearly room for improvement in all areas of health news, but unfortunately the extreme stress that newspapers are under to maintain their high profit margins suggests that the resources for such improvement are unlikely to be available. Examination of the Minneapolis Star Tribune's coverage of health, crime and violence exemplifies problematic aspects.

  20. Daytime longitudinal structures of electron density and temperature in the topside ionosphere observed by the Hinotori and DEMETER satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinami, Y.; Lin, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Kamogawa, M.; Watanabe, S.; Parrot, M.

    2011-05-01

    Daytime longitudinal structures of the electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) in the topside ionosphere observed by Hinotori and DEMETER are examined under various conditions of solar flux, local time, and seasons. Results from both satellites show a similar longitudinal Ne structure in the morning from July to October, although the value of Ne observed by Hinotori is higher than that of DEMETER owing to higher solar flux. This result implies that the longitudinal structure of Ne may appear in any solar cycle. Further, a negative correlation between Ne and Te in the longitudinal structures appears in the morning when Ne is low, while a positive correlation appears around the magnetic equator when Ne is sufficiently enhanced during noontime in the high solar flux. A spectrum analysis performed on the DEMETER data reveals that wave numbers 1-2 for Ne and Te are dominant and nondominant. The observed wave numbers 3-4 for Ne are dominant during November-May and June-October, while they are dominant for Te during October-June and July-September. Both Ne and Te show the largest power of wave number 3 in December and wave number 4 in September. Further, observed annual variations of wave numbers 3-4 for Ne and Te also differ from wave numbers 3-4 generated by waves in the lower thermosphere. It can be interpreted as discrepancies between the longitudinal distributions of Ne and Te caused by difference in the condition of zonal winds driving E region dynamo and meridional winds modulating the ionospheric plasma structures.

  1. Observation of guided longitudinal acoustic modes and nondestructive characterization of the elastic properties of hard films/coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chirita, M.; Sooryakumar, R.; Xia, Hua; Monteiro, O. R.; Brown, I. G.

    1999-12-02

    We report on a new high frequency excitation, identified as a longitudinal guided mode, supported in a hard isotropic film deposited on a substrate. The observation of this mode allows for a direct determination of the C{sub 11} elastic constant of the film. The remaining constant, C{sub 44}, was determined through a least square fit to the dispersion of the pseudo surface wave. Properties of the observed excitations were investigated by evaluating their mode density and polarization characteristics.

  2. Health Care Costs and the Socioeconomic Consequences of Work Injuries in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA, Vilma Sousa; FERNANDES DE SOUZA, Luis Eugênio Portela; PINTO, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2013-01-01

    Work injuries are a worldwide public health problem but little is known about their socioeconomic impact. This prospective longitudinal study estimates the direct health care costs and socioeconomic consequences of work injuries for 406 workers identified in the emergency departments of the two largest public hospitals in Salvador, Brazil, from June through September 2005. After hospital discharge workers were followed up monthly until their return to work. Most insured workers were unaware of their rights or of how to obtain insurance benefits (81.6%). Approximately half the cases suffered loss of earnings, and women were more frequently dismissed than men. The most frequently reported family consequences were: need for a family member to act as a caregiver and difficulties with daily expenses. Total costs were US$40,077.00 but individual costs varied widely, according to injury severity. Out-of-pocket costs accounted for the highest proportion of total costs (50.5%) and increased with severity (57.6%). Most out-of-pocket costs were related to transport and purchasing medicines and other wound care products. The second largest contribution (40.6%) came from the public National Health System − SUS. Employer participation was negligible. Health care funding must be discussed to alleviate the economic burden of work injuries on workers. PMID:23803496

  3. Levels of empathy in undergraduate emergency health, nursing, and midwifery students: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Etherington, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examines the extent and nature of empathy among emergency health (paramedic), nursing, and midwifery students at one Australian university and investigates the longitudinal changes in empathy levels across the course of study. Methods First-, second-, and third-year students at Monash University completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy–Health Professional (JSE-HP) in 2008, 2009, and 2010, and the resulting mean empathy scores were analyzed by course, year of course, year of study, age, and sex. Results Midwifery students were found to have higher empathy levels than nursing and emergency health students. Second- and third-year students scored higher than their counterparts in the first year. Empathy levels dipped in 2009 and rose in 2010. Students aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years recorded higher scores than their younger colleagues, and female students were found to be more empathic than their male counterparts. Conclusion The finding that empathy levels are relatively stable over the term of study contributes to the understanding of how empathy evolves over the course of study and offers insights into the importance of incorporating and promoting empathy in health care curricula. PMID:25246815

  4. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life.

  5. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and mental health. Method: The authors conducted a systematic review of 48 longitudinal studies conducted in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, and United States…

  6. The Longitudinal Stability and Dynamics of Group Membership in the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health: Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ryan M.; Hills, Kimberly J.; Huebner, E. Scott; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal stability and dynamics of group membership within the Greenspoon and Sakflofske's dual-factor model of mental health. This expanded model incorporates information about subjective well-being (SWB), in addition to psychopathological symptoms, to better identify the mental health status and current functioning of…

  7. Longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content: observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Lian; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Wan, Weixing

    2016-07-01

    Radio signals transmitted from GPS satellite going through the ionization zone above the Earth will be refracted by the ionized components in the ionosphere and the plasmasphere, which would produce additional transfer delay and generate extra errors in satellite navigation and positioning, etc. These errors have strong relation with the total electron content (TEC) along the signal's travelling path. Therefore TEC is one of the most important parameters required by many users for different modern usage purposes. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content makes a large contribution to TEC. In the present study, data for the year 2008 of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) between the height of 800-20200km above the Earth derived from the upward-looking TEC measurements of the precise orbit determination antenna on board the COSMIC low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to the GPS signals are used to study the longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of PEC. A comparison study of the observed PEC with the IZMIRAN_Plas model results is also made. Our study showed that PEC shows different seasonal variations at different longitudinal sectors: for the 240°E-60°E longitudinal sector, PEC shows a strong annual variation with lowest value in the June solstice and highest value in the December solstice months; In contrast, very weak seasonal variations are observed for PEC at 60°E-240°E longitudinal sector; Comparison study showed that this longitudinal dependence feature of the observed PEC's seasonal variation is not well captured by the IZMIRAN_Plas model result. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 41274163)

  8. A longitudinal study of dental health from the age of 14 to 41.

    PubMed

    Crossner, Claes-Göran; Unell, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of present study was to longitudinally follow dental health from the age of 14 to 41. Originally an entire age group attending one of the compulsory schools in the city of Orebro, Sweden was selected and 115 children born in 1962 were included in the study. At the last examination 27 years later, 73 (63%) individuals, 35 males and 38 females, could still be located and were willing to participate. The drop out analysis did not show any statistical difference between the drop-outs and this final material. All participants had experienced a comprehensive whole population based preventive dental care, free of charge, during the first 19 years of their lives, and after that the increment of dental diseases had been limited. Only two individuals were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis at 41, and 70% of all DMFS registered at 41 were present already at 19. This positive development during adulthood seemed to be unrelated to socio-economic status. In addition, the dental health at 41 did not seem to be obviously influenced by if the participants, as adults, had paid yearly visits to the dentist or not, and there was no evidence supporting that regularly seeing a dental hygienist or using daily inter-dental cleaning would improve dental health. The most obvious difference in dental health at 41 was due to gender where e.g. the experience of proximal caries and bleeding after probing were twice as frequent in males as in females. Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that uncritically abandoning whole population preventive strategies might not be in the best interest of public dental health. Furthermore, if already existing dental care resources should be reallocated for a better long-term dental health investment it should be on the expense of the young adults to the benefit of the young teenagers (as population sub-groups) and not the other way around based on individual indications.

  9. Methods for analyzing observational longitudinal prognosis studies for rheumatic diseases: a review & worked example using a clinic-based cohort of juvenile dermatomyositis patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lily Siok Hoon; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Moineddin, Rahim; Gladman, Dafna D; Silverman, Earl D; Feldman, Brian M

    2017-03-29

    Most outcome studies of rheumatic diseases report outcomes ascertained on a single occasion. While single assessments are sufficient for terminal or irreversible outcomes, they may not be sufficiently informative if outcomes change or fluctuate over time. Consequently, longitudinal studies that measure non-terminal outcomes repeatedly afford a better understanding of disease evolution.Longitudinal studies require special analytic methods. Newer longitudinal analytic methods have evolved tremendously to deal with common challenges in longitudinal observational studies. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used longitudinal design. This review aims to help readers understand and apply the findings from longitudinal studies. Using a cohort of children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), we illustrate how to study evolution of disease activity in JDM using longitudinal methods.

  10. Three Years of Digital Consumer Health Information: A Longitudinal Study of the Touch Screen Health Kiosk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use, over three and a half years, of a sample of 20 touch-screen health kiosks in the United Kingdom. Identifies four patterns of use over time--declining, stable, increasing, and no trend--and discusses implications of these patterns. Thumbnail use graphs for the 20 kiosks are appended. (AEF)

  11. The role of acculturative stress on mental health symptoms for immigrant adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selcuk R; Ryce, Patrice; Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren

    2013-04-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents represent the fastest growing segment of youth population in the United States, and in many urban schools they represent the majority of students. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, we explored trajectories of internalizing mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms). The participants included 332 urban-residing first-and second-generation immigrant adolescents (44% male). Participants were recruited in 10th grade (Mage = 16.20 years, SD = 1.19), and 2 additional waves of data were gathered in 12-month intervals. Both generational and racial/ethnic background of the participants reflected the general demographics of urban centers in the United States. With individual growth curve modeling, the results show significant decline in internalizing mental health problems during the high school years. At the same time, greater exposure to acculturative stress predicted significantly more withdrawn, somatic, and anxious/depressed symptoms. Gender and generation status differences in internalizing mental health problems were also identified.

  12. Exercise and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Graduate Students: A Longitudinal, Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Susan B.; Inman, Cindi L.; Clark, B. Ruth; Royer, Nathaniel K.; Steger-May, Karen; Deusinger, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cardiometabolic risk of students longitudinally and compare them with age-matched national samples. Participants: Participants are 134 graduate students enrolled between August 2005 and May 2010. Methods: Students were assessed at the beginning and end of their 3-year curriculum. Comparative samples included 966 National…

  13. Causal Latent Markov Model for the Comparison of Multiple Treatments in Observational Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We extend to the longitudinal setting a latent class approach that was recently introduced by Lanza, Coffman, and Xu to estimate the causal effect of a treatment. The proposed approach enables an evaluation of multiple treatment effects on subpopulations of individuals from a dynamic perspective, as it relies on a latent Markov (LM) model that is…

  14. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65 years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3 years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (β=−0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (β=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be

  15. Longitudinal study of rural health workforce in five counties in China: research design and baseline description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The village doctors have served rural residents for many decades in China, and their role in rural health system has been highly praised in the world; unfortunately, less attention has been paid to the health workforce during the ambitious healthcare reform in recent years. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore the current situation and track the future evolution of the rural healthcare workforce. Methods The self-administered structured Village Clinic Questionnaire and Village Doctor Questionnaire, which were modified from the official questionnaires of the Ministry of Health, were constructed after three focus groups, in-depth interviews in Hebei Province, and a pilot survey in Sichuan Province. Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, we gathered baseline data for a longitudinal survey of village doctors, village clinics from Changshu County, Liyang County, Yongchuan District, Mianzhu County, and Jingning County in China in 2011. Well-trained interviewers and strict procedures were employed to ensure the quality of this survey. Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed with Stata 12.0. Results After four months of surveying, 1,982 Village Doctor Questionnaires were collected, and the response rate was 88.1%. There were 1,507 (76.0%) male and 475 (24.0%) female doctors, with an average age of 51.3 years. The majority of village doctors (58.5%) practiced both western medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine, and 91.2% of the doctors received their education below college level. Their practice methods were not correlated with education level (P = 0.43), but closely related to the way they obtained their highest degree (that is, prior to starting work or as on-the-job training) (P < 0.01). The mean income of the village doctors was 1,817 (95% CI 1,733 to 1,900) RMB per month in 2011; only 757 (41.3%) doctors had pensions, and the self-reported expected pension was 1,965 RMB per month. Conclusions Village doctors

  16. Researching Special Populations: Retention of Latino Gay and Bisexual Men and Transgender Persons in Longitudinal Health Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, L. M.; Vazquez, R.; Ramirez-Valles, J.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have sought to assess predictors of retention of racial/ethnic or sexual minorities in longitudinal health research. The purpose of this study is to investigate predictors of retention of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender (GBT) research participants after the baseline interview. Data come from a sample of 643 Latino GBT…

  17. Health Sciences and Medical College Preadmission Criteria and Prediction of In-Course Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.

    2013-01-01

    High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…

  18. Longitudinal changes in health related quality of life in children with migrant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga-Olives, Ester; Kawachi, Ichiro; Almansa, Josue; von Steinbüchel, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about longitudinal changes in the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among children with migrant backgrounds. Methods The sample comprised 350 children with predominantly migrant backgrounds enrolled in 7 kindergartens in Frankfurt and Darmstadt, Germany. At baseline, the participants’ mean age was 4.4 years (SD 0.9). Data collection started in May 2009. Two waves of data were collected one year apart (94% response rate). HRQoL was evaluated with the Kiddy-KINDL. The other variables under study were sex, age, socioeconomic status, country of origin, developmental status (WET) and individual behavior (VBV). Data were collected from the children, parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the Wilson and Cleary theoretical framework on changes in HRQoL and Generalized Estimated Equations (GEE) to model the longitudinal trend in HRQoL. Results Overall HRQoL remained stable between baseline and follow-up. SEM model fit was χ2 = 8.51; df = 5; p = 0.13; SRMR = 0.02 RMSEA = 0.06 and indicated that there were differences in kindergarten activities (p<0.05). The GEE model elucidated that the differences in HRQoL between the baseline and follow-up varied according to kindergarten activities that the children were assigned to (music, art, or no activities) (p<0.05), but that there were no differences in terms of country of origin. On average, girls reported better HRQoL. Conclusion Overall HRQoL scores remained stable over follow-up in a sample of migrant children and there were no differences in terms of origin. However, there was heterogeneity in the results depending on the kindergarten activities that the children were assigned to. PMID:28151986

  19. Longitudinal Cognitive Trajectories of Women Veterans from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Claudia B.; Weitlauf, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Reiber, Gayle; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Naughton, Michelle J.; Li, Wenjun; Rissling, Michelle; Yaffe, Kristine; Hunt, Julie R.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Goldstein, Mary K.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A comparison of longitudinal global cognitive functioning in women Veteran and non-Veteran participants in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). Design and Methods: We studied 7,330 women aged 65–79 at baseline who participated in the WHI Hormone Therapy Trial and its ancillary Memory Study (WHIMS). Global cognitive functioning (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE]) in Veterans (n = 279) and non-Veterans (n = 7,051) was compared at baseline and annually for 8 years using generalized linear modeling methods. Results: Compared with non-Veterans, Veteran women were older, more likely to be Caucasian, unmarried, and had higher rates of educational and occupational attainment. Results of unadjusted baseline analyses suggest 3MSE scores were similar between groups. Longitudinal analyses, adjusted for age, education, ethnicity, and WHI trial assignment revealed differences in the rate of cognitive decline between groups over time, such that scores decreased more in Veterans relative to non-Veterans. This relative difference was more pronounced among Veterans who were older, had higher educational/occupational attainment and greater baseline prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., angina, stroke). Implications: Veteran status was associated with higher prevalence of protective factors that may have helped initially preserve cognitive functioning. However, findings ultimately revealed more pronounced cognitive decline among Veteran relative to non-Veteran participants, likely suggesting the presence of risks that may impact neuropathology and the effects of which were initially masked by Veterans’ greater cognitive reserve. PMID:26615021

  20. Understanding the Evolution of Multimorbidity: Evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS)

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Guillaume; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Stocks, Nigel; Sirois, Caroline; Kroger, Edeltraut; Adams, Robert J.; Doucet, Mariève; Taylor, Anne W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. Study Design and Setting Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study(NWAHS) was collected between baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2008–2010). Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs) was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD) mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001) while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001), diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001) and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001) were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001), diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01) and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05). Conclusion Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs. PMID:24798485

  1. Impact of combat deployment on psychological and relationship health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cigrang, Jeffrey A; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Although previous research has indicated an elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems among veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom following deployment, most of this research has been cross-sectional and has focused on a limited range of military groups and outcome criteria. This investigation was a longitudinal study of U.S. Air Force security forces assigned to a year-long high-threat ground mission in Iraq to determine the degree to which airmen's emotional and behavioral health and committed relationships were adversely impacted by an extended deployment to a warzone. Participants were a cohort of 164 security forces airmen tasked to a 365-day deployment to train Iraqi police. Airmen completed study measures both prior to and 6-9 months following deployment. Rates of deterioration in individual and interpersonal adjustment were both significant and medium to large in magnitude of effect, d = 0.43 to 0.90. Results suggest that the negative effects of deployment are related to levels of traumatic experiences and do not spontaneously remit within the first 6-9 months following return from deployment-particularly among those service members having relatively lower levels of social support.

  2. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND LUNG HEALTH IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Eakin, Michelle N.; Bilderback, Andrew; Boyle, Michael P.; Mogayzel, Peter J.; Riekert, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationship of medication adherence to frequency of pulmonary exacerbation and rate of decline in FEV1% predicted (FEV1). Methods 95 CF patients ages 6 years or older and prescribed a pulmonary medication, enrolled in a longitudinal retrospective review of medication adherence and health outcomes (the occurrence and frequency of intravenous (IV) antibiotic treatments and FEV1) over 12-months. Pharmacy refill records were used to calculate a medication possession ratio (MPR). Results Composite MPR predicted the occurrence of at least one pulmonary exacerbation requiring a course of IV antibiotics (IRR=2.34, p=0.05), but not the frequency of exacerbations, after controlling for gender, baseline FEV1, and regimen complexity. Composite MPR predicted baseline FEV1 (estimate=29.81, p=.007), but not decline in FEV1. Conclusions These results demonstrate a significant relation between medication adherence and IV antibiotics in CF patients, highlighting the importance of addressing adherence during clinic visits to improve health outcomes. PMID:21458391

  3. Factors Contributing to Dropping-out in an Online Health Community: Static and Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2016-01-01

    Dropping-out, which refers to when an individual abandons an intervention, is common in Internet-based studies as well as in online health communities. Community facilitators and health researchers are interested in this phenomenon because it usually indicates dissatisfaction towards the community and/or its failure to deliver expected benefits. In this study, we propose a method to identify dropout members from a large public online breast cancer community. We then study quantitatively what longitudinal factors of participation are correlated with dropping-out. Our experimental results suggest that dropout members discuss diagnosis- and treatment-related topics more than other topics. Furthermore, in the time before withdrawing from the community, dropout members tend to initiate more discussions but do not receive adequate response from the other members. We also discuss implications of our results and challenges in dropout-member identification. This study contributes to further understanding community participation and opens up a number of future research questions. PMID:28269969

  4. Observations on a rural health manpower project.

    PubMed

    Pinchoff, D M; Ingall, J R; Crage, W D

    1977-02-01

    The Rural Externship Program was developed by the Lakes Area Regional Medical Program in conjunction with the State University of New York at Buffalo and the health professionals of western New York and northwestern Pennsylvania. It was designed to encourage health science students to practice in a rural area following graduation. This interdisciplinary program provides health science students with an eight-week summer living-working experience in a rural environment, supervised by practitioner-preceptors. The intent is to develop their appreciation of rural health care and life-styles. Since the summer of 1970, 240 students have participated. This paper describes and discusses the project and presents measures of the externs' changes in attitudes toward rural practice which occurred after they participated in the program. A survey of externs who have graduated shows the effect of the program on their decision to locate. Of the 61 externs contacted, 55 percent indicated that they were in rural practice, and 53 percent of the latter indicated that their experience in the Rural Externship Program was an important factor in their decision to practice in a rural area.

  5. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers.

  6. CGH observes National Women’s Health Week

    Cancer.gov

    This week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is observing the 17th annual National Women’s Health Week. The goal of the National Women's Health Week is to empower women to make their health a priority. In celebration, the NCI Center for Global Health held a seminar on the Knowledge Summaries for Comprehensive Breast Cancer Control: Pathways for Advanced Cancer Planning.

  7. Multiple Imputation based Clustering Validation (MIV) for Big Longitudinal Trial Data with Missing Values in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Fang, Hua; Wang, Honggang

    2016-06-01

    Web-delivered trials are an important component in eHealth services. These trials, mostly behavior-based, generate big heterogeneous data that are longitudinal, high dimensional with missing values. Unsupervised learning methods have been widely applied in this area, however, validating the optimal number of clusters has been challenging. Built upon our multiple imputation (MI) based fuzzy clustering, MIfuzzy, we proposed a new multiple imputation based validation (MIV) framework and corresponding MIV algorithms for clustering big longitudinal eHealth data with missing values, more generally for fuzzy-logic based clustering methods. Specifically, we detect the optimal number of clusters by auto-searching and -synthesizing a suite of MI-based validation methods and indices, including conventional (bootstrap or cross-validation based) and emerging (modularity-based) validation indices for general clustering methods as well as the specific one (Xie and Beni) for fuzzy clustering. The MIV performance was demonstrated on a big longitudinal dataset from a real web-delivered trial and using simulation. The results indicate MI-based Xie and Beni index for fuzzy-clustering are more appropriate for detecting the optimal number of clusters for such complex data. The MIV concept and algorithms could be easily adapted to different types of clustering that could process big incomplete longitudinal trial data in eHealth services.

  8. The Digital Distribution of Public Health News Surrounding the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Longitudinal Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tang; Ji, Kai; Ulrich-Schad, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    controversy, the news topic shifted towards politics (P=.01) and talked more about HPV vaccine eligibility for males (P=.01). Conclusions This longitudinal infodemiology study suggests that new media influences public health communication, knowledge transaction, and poses potential problems in the amount of misinformation disseminated during public health campaigns. In addition, the study calls for more research to adopt an infodemiology approach to explore relationships between online information supply and public health decisions. PMID:27227125

  9. Longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status in colon cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Campbell, Marci K; Galanko, Joseph A; James, Aimee; Carr, Carol; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-06-01

    Lifestyle changes in persons diagnosed with cancer are important because they may impact prognosis, co-morbidities, and survival. This report describes longitudinal changes in lifestyle behaviors and health status among colon cancer survivors (n = 278) and population-based controls (n = 459) in North Carolina (39% African American), and examines demographic and psychosocial correlates of healthy lifestyle changes following a colon cancer diagnosis. Data are from surveys of a population-based cohort of colon cancer patients on diagnosis (the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study, NCCCS) and approximately 2 years post-diagnosis [the North Carolina Strategies to Improve Diet, Exercise, and Screening Study (NC STRIDES)], and population-based controls. Both studies collected information on demographic/lifestyle characteristics and medical history. The NCCCS reflects pre-diagnosis or pre-interview patterns, whereas NC STRIDES queried on current practices. Between the NCCCS and NC STRIDES, colon cancer survivors reported significant increases in vegetable intake, physical activity, and supplement use (all P <0.01) and a non-statistically significant increase in fruit/juice consumption (0.1 serving), with larger fruit/vegetable changes in African Americans than Whites. Controls increased physical activity and supplement use and fewer reported arthritic symptoms (P < 0.05). Survivors who were older and female had an almost 3 times higher likelihood of having used at least one new dietary supplement post-diagnosis, whereas being retired correlated with increased vegetable intake, all P < 0.05. Having more barriers to increasing fruit/vegetable intake was inversely associated with taking a new supplement (P < 0.05 only in controls). Colon cancer survivors reported making significant improvements in multiple health-related behaviors. Health care providers should communicate with persons diagnosed with colon cancer to ensure that they are making healthy lifestyle changes.

  10. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Outcomes in Children: A Seven Year Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3–26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3–27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0–23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6–73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263

  11. Longitudinal and secular trends in dietary supplement use: Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, 1986-2006.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-03-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of supplement use in the United States were cross-sectional or evaluated trends in limited variety of supplements. The objective of this study was to describe the longitudinal and secular trend of dietary supplement use over the past 20 years in health professionals using data from two large prospective cohorts. We analyzed cohort data from 1986 to 2006 in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). In 1986, 74,194 women aged 40 to 65 years in the NHS and 50,497 men aged 40 to 75 years in the HPFS were included. Use of dietary supplements including multivitamins, vitamins, and minerals was repeatedly asked every 4 years. Generalized estimating equation models were used for repeated analysis. Prevalence of use of any supplement increased among both women (71.3% to 88.3%) and men (56.4% to 80.7%) from 1986 to 2006. Notably, longitudinal increases in the prevalence of use of vitamin D (2.2% to 32.2% for women and 1.1% to 6.7% for men), folic acid (0.8% to 10.7% for women and 1.1% to 13.8% for men), and fish oil (1.6% to 18.1% for women and 3.3% to 22.2% for men) supplements were observed from 1990 to 2006. However, the use of vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E supplements peaked in 1994 or 1998, then declined steadily. A secular increase in use of multivitamins, vitamin D, folic acid, and fish oil across same age group was noted. In conclusion, the use of many types of dietary supplements has increased over time, but the use of antioxidant supplements has declined. The secular increase in the prevalence of use of supplements across the same age group suggests that aging of the population is not the primary reason for the increase. These findings in health professionals need to be replicated in the general populations.

  12. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953

  13. The effect of unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece from 2008 to 2013: a longitudinal study before and during the financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2015-03-01

    The current study uses six annual waves of the Longitudinal Labor Market Study (LLMS) covering the 2008-2013 period to obtain longitudinal estimations suggesting statistically significant negative effects from unemployment on self-reported health and mental health in Greece. The specifications suggest that unemployment results in lower health and the deterioration of mental health during the 2008-2009 period compared with the 2010-2013 period, i.e., a period in which the country's unemployment doubled as a consequence of the financial crisis. Unemployment seems to be more detrimental to health/mental health in periods of high unemployment, suggesting that the unemployment crisis in Greece is more devastating as it concerns more people. Importantly, in all specifications, comparable qualitative patterns are found by controlling for unemployment due to firm closure, which allows us to minimize potential bias due to unemployment-health related reverse causality. Moreover, in all cases, women are more negatively affected by unemployment in relation to their health and mental health statuses than are men. Greece has been more deeply affected by the financial crisis than any other EU country, and this study contributes by offering estimates for before and during the financial crisis and considering causality issues. Because health and mental health indicators increase more rapidly in a context of higher surrounding unemployment, policy action must place greater emphasis on unemployment reduction and supporting women's employment.

  14. Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko

    2011-06-01

    To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials.

  15. Observations and implications of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a solar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Knizhnik, K.; Muglach, K.; Karpen, J.; Gilbert, H.; Kucera, T. A.; Uritsky, V.

    2014-04-10

    On 2010 August 20, an energetic disturbance triggered large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a nearby filament. The triggering mechanism appears to be episodic jets connecting the energetic event with the filament threads. In the present work, we analyze this periodic motion in a large fraction of the filament to characterize the underlying physics of the oscillation as well as the filament properties. The results support our previous theoretical conclusions that the restoring force of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations is solar gravity, and the damping mechanism is the ongoing accumulation of mass onto the oscillating threads. Based on our previous work, we used the fitted parameters to determine the magnitude and radius of curvature of the dipped magnetic field along the filament, as well as the mass accretion rate onto the filament threads. These derived properties are nearly uniform along the filament, indicating a remarkable degree of cohesiveness throughout the filament channel. Moreover, the estimated mass accretion rate implies that the footpoint heating responsible for the thread formation, according to the thermal nonequilibrium model, agrees with previous coronal heating estimates. We estimate the magnitude of the energy released in the nearby event by studying the dynamic response of the filament threads, and discuss the implications of our study for filament structure and heating.

  16. Longitudinal intensity oscillations in coronal loops observed with TRACE I. Overview of Measured Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moortel, I.; Ireland, J.; Walsh, R. W.; Hood, A. W.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we aim to give a comprehensive overview of geometric and physical properties of longitudinal oscillations in large coronal loops. The 38 examples of propagating disturbances were obtained from the analysis of high cadence, 171 Å TRACE data (JOP 83 and JOP 144). The majority of these outward propagating oscillations are found in the footpoints of large diffuse coronal loop structures, close to active regions. The disturbances travel outward with a propagation speed of the order of v≈122±43 km s-1. The variations in intensity are estimated to be roughly 4.1±1.5% of the background loop brightness. The propagating disturbances are found to be damped very quickly and are typically only detected in the first 8.9±4.4 Mm along the loop. Using a wavelet analysis, periods of the order of 282±93 s are found and the energy flux was estimated as 342±126 erg cm-2 s-1. We found highly filamentary behavior in the lower part of the coronal loops and showed that the intensity oscillations can be present for several consecutive hours, with a more or less constant period. It is evident that the longitudinal oscillations are a widespread, regularly occurring coronal phenomena. A companion paper is devoted to the interpretation and discussion of the results.

  17. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  18. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  19. Digital divide 2.0: the role of social networking sites in seeking health information online from a longitudinal perspective.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Xie, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a longitudinal angle, this study analyzed data from the Pew Internet's Health Tracking Survey in 2006, 2008, and 2010 to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use. Results showed that with the growing role of social networking site use in predicting people's likelihood of seeking health information online, the socioeconomic and demographic factors that contributed to the disparities in social networking site use could also lead to disparities in seeking health information online. Also, results indicated that people are more likely to seek heath-related information online if they or their close family or friends have a chronic disease situation.

  20. Longitudinal omics modeling and integration in clinical metabonomics research: challenges in childhood metabolic health research

    PubMed Central

    Sperisen, Peter; Cominetti, Ornella; Martin, François-Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology is an important approach for deciphering the complex processes in health maintenance and the etiology of metabolic diseases. Such integrative methodologies will help better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in growth and development throughout childhood, and consequently will result in new insights about metabolic and nutritional requirements of infants, children and adults. To achieve this, a better understanding of the physiological processes at anthropometric, cellular and molecular level for any given individual is needed. In this respect, novel omics technologies in combination with sophisticated data modeling techniques are key. Due to the highly complex network of influential factors determining individual trajectories, it becomes imperative to develop proper tools and solutions that will comprehensively model biological information related to growth and maturation of our body functions. The aim of this review and perspective is to evaluate, succinctly, promising data analysis approaches to enable data integration for clinical research, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Approaches based on empirical and mechanistic modeling of omics data are essential to leverage findings from high dimensional omics datasets and enable biological interpretation and clinical translation. On the one hand, empirical methods, which provide quantitative descriptions of patterns in the data, are mostly used for exploring and mining datasets. On the other hand, mechanistic models are based on an understanding of the behavior of a system's components and condense information about the known functions, allowing robust and reliable analyses to be performed by bioinformatics pipelines and similar tools. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of empirical and mechanistic modeling in the context of childhood metabolic health research. PMID:26301225

  1. Is retirement good or bad for mental and physical health functioning? Whitehall II longitudinal study of civil servants

    PubMed Central

    Mein, G; Martikainen, P; Hemingway, H; Stansfeld, S; Marmot, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: To determine whether retirement at age 60 is associated with improvement or deterioration in mental and physical health, when analysed by occupational grade and gender. Methods: Longitudinal study of civil servants aged 54 to 59 years at baseline, comparing changes in SF-36 health functioning in retired (n=392) and working (n=618) participants at follow up. Data were collected from self completed questionnaires. Results: Mental health functioning deteriorated among those who continued to work, but improved among the retired. However, improvements in mental health were restricted to those in higher employment grades. Physical functioning declined in both working and retired civil servants. Conclusion: The study found that retirement at age 60 had no effects on physical health functioning and, if anything, was associated with an improvement in mental health, particularly among high socioeconomic status groups. PMID:12490648

  2. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children’s Potential and Attained Secondary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children’s health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 participants of the Dutch PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between indicators of physical health, psychosocial health, lifestyle, sleeping patterns and stressful life events and attending a higher or lower level of secondary education than indicated by the cognitive test. Results We found no evidence that physical health contributes to discrepancies between the potential and attained level of secondary education, but attention disorders and stressful life events (nasty experiences and parents’ divorce) were associated with educational attainment below children’s potential level. Furthermore, substance use (alcohol, drugs and smoking) were strongly associated with attending a lower level of secondary education than expected (odds ratios from 2.2 (CI: 1.5–3.3) to 5.0 (CI: 2.8–8.7)). Conclusion In this general population study, attention disorders, stressful life events and especially substance use seemed to be more important than physical health for the discrepancy between expected and attained level of secondary education. The longitudinal design of the present study and the broad range of health-related factors that were studied, adds insights to the process of health-selection. PMID:28005962

  3. The sand seas of Titan: Cassini RADAR observations of longitudinal dunes.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, R D; Wall, S; Radebaugh, J; Boubin, G; Reffet, E; Janssen, M; Stofan, E; Lopes, R; Kirk, R; Elachi, C; Lunine, J; Mitchell, K; Paganelli, F; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H; Anderson, Y; Ostro, S; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Ori, G G; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Stiles, B; Vetrella, S; Flamini, E; West, R

    2006-05-05

    The most recent Cassini RADAR images of Titan show widespread regions (up to 1500 kilometers by 200 kilometers) of near-parallel radar-dark linear features that appear to be seas of longitudinal dunes similar to those seen in the Namib desert on Earth. The Ku-band (2.17-centimeter wavelength) images show approximately 100-meter ridges consistent with duneforms and reveal flow interactions with underlying hills. The distribution and orientation of the dunes support a model of fluctuating surface winds of approximately 0.5 meter per second resulting from the combination of an eastward flow with a variable tidal wind. The existence of dunes also requires geological processes that create sand-sized (100- to 300-micrometer) particulates and a lack of persistent equatorial surface liquids to act as sand traps.

  4. The sand seas of titan: Cassini RADAR observations of longitudinal dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, R.D.; Wall, S.; Radebaugh, J.; Boubin, G.; Reffet, E.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.; Mitchell, Ken; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Ori, G.G.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; Flamini, E.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    The most recent Cassini RADAR images of Titan show widespread regions (up to 1500 kilometers by 200 kilometers) of near-parallel radar-dark linear features that appear to be seas of longitudinal dunes similar to those seen in the Namib desert on Earth. The Ku-band (2.17-centimeter wavelength) images show ???100-meter ridges consistent with duneforms and reveal flow interactions with underlying hills. The distribution and orientation of the dunes support a model of fluctuating surface winds of ???0.5 meter per second resulting from the combination of an eastward flow with a variable tidal wind. The existence of dunes also requires geological processes that create sand-sized (100- to 300-micrometer) particulates and a lack of persistent equatorial surface liquids to act as sand traps.

  5. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined. Methods The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). Functional health was assessed by the subscale “physical functioning” of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = -11.8), predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = 4.8) on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance) to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men) and depressive symptoms (women). Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards. PMID:27213731

  6. Kinematic Analysis of Subsurface Structures of the Northern Longitudinal Valley From Geodetic and Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. Y.; Chang, W. L.; Chang, C. P.; Kuochen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal Valley (LV), extended form Hualien to Taitung between the Central Range (CR) and the Coastal Range in the eastern Taiwan, is considered as a plate boundary formed by the convergence between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Previous studies reveal ~30 mm/yr shortening in the southern part of the LV; however, many interesting tectonic and geologic features in the northern LV are worth to discuss. Our relocation of M>2.0 background seismicity in the northern LV using HypoDD revealed an east dipping LV fault and a west-dipping lineament beneath the middle Central Range, while the lineament gradually becomes horizontal as extended to the east (Fig. 1). In Oct. 31, 2013, a NNE-strike earthquake of Mw=6.4 occurred near the town of Ruisui (Fig. 1), which is the largest event of the northern LV area since the 1972 M=7.2 earthquake. . The focal mechanism indicates that the earthquake is a high angle thrusting fault dipping to west, consistent with the aforementioned west-dipping seismic lineament beneath CR. In this study, we analyzed GPS data from 38 continuous stations together with ERS and Envisat images processed by PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterers InSAR) technique to study the interseismic and the post-Ruisui ground deformation of the northern LV area (Fig. 2). Our geodetic analysis reveal that the GPS horizontal velocity field decreases toward the north from ~25 mm/yr to <10 mm/yr across the latitude of ~23.5°, with a clockwise rotation of velocity directions from northwest to north and further to east in the Hualien area. In addition, the vertical velocities show subsidence in the most of the area with rates up to 10 mm/yr. Moreover, the mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity of ERS from 1993-2001 reveals subsidence rates of up to 8 mm/yr in the Longitudinal Valley and an uplift up to 5 mm/yr at the west of the Milun fault (Fig. 2). Besides, the 2004-2008 Envisat data show an uplift of ~3 mm/yr in most of the Milun fault area. A couple of two

  7. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  8. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Niizeki, Tomohiko; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-05-15

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (V{sub LSSE}) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H∥[11{sup -}0] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of V{sub LSSE} has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT), giving the relatively large V{sub LSSE} /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  9. Observation of longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in cobalt-ferrite epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niizeki, Tomohiko; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Oka, Mineto; Suzuki, Kazuya Z.; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kita, Eiji; Saitoh, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    The longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect (LSSE) has been investigated in cobalt ferrite (CFO), an exceptionally hard magnetic spinel ferrite. A bilayer of a polycrystalline Pt and an epitaxially-strained CFO(110) exhibiting an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy was prepared by reactive rf sputtering technique. Thermally generated spin voltage in the CFO layer was measured via the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer. External-magnetic-field (H) dependence of the LSSE voltage (VLSSE) in the Pt/CFO(110) sample with H ∥ [001] was found to exhibit a hysteresis loop with a high squareness ratio and high coercivity, while that with H ∥ [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] shows a nearly closed loop, reflecting the different anisotropies induced by the epitaxial strain. The magnitude of VLSSE has a linear relationship with the temperature difference (ΔT), giving the relatively large VLSSE /ΔT of about 3 μV/K for CFO(110) which was kept even at zero external field.

  10. Forms of attrition in a longitudinal study of religion and health in older adults and implications for sample bias

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, R. David; Krause, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased towards more educated and more religiously-involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results. PMID:25257794

  11. Forms of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Religion and Health in Older Adults and Implications for Sample Bias.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    The use of longitudinal designs in the field of religion and health makes it important to understand how attrition bias may affect findings in this area. This study examines attrition in a 4-wave, 8-year study of older adults. Attrition resulted in a sample biased toward more educated and more religiously involved individuals. Conditional linear growth curve models found that trajectories of change for some variables differed among attrition categories. Ineligibles had worsening depression, declining control, and declining attendance. Mortality was associated with worsening religious coping styles. Refusers experienced worsening depression. Nevertheless, there was no evidence of bias in the key religion and health results.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Cancer: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Brad J; Block, Rebecca; Embry, Leanne; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2017-02-20

    Purpose To examine changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its predictors during the first 2 years after initial cancer diagnosis in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. Patients and Methods A multicenter, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted among a diverse sample of AYA patients with cancer ages 15 to 39 years. One hundred seventy-six patients (75% response) completed a self-report measure of HRQoL (Short Form-36 [SF-36]) within the first 4 months after diagnosis and again 12 and 24 months later. Linear mixed models with random intercepts and slopes estimated changes in QoL. Results Recently diagnosed AYA patients with cancer had significantly worse physical component scale (PCS) scores (38.7 v 52.8; P < .001) and mental component scale (MCS) scores (42.9 v 48.9; P < .001) when compared with population norms. Significant improvements in PCS and MCS scores from baseline to 24-month follow-up were observed; however, these increases were largest during the first 12 months. At the 24-month follow-up, AYA patients still had significantly lower PCS scores (48.0 v 52.8; P < .001) and MCS scores (45.8 v 48.9; P = .002) when compared with population norms. Multivariable analyses revealed that improvements in PCS and MCS scores were primarily a function of being off-treatment and being involved in school or work. PCS but not MCS scores were worse for AYA patients diagnosed with cancers with poorer prognoses. Conclusion Although HRQoL improved over time, it was still compromised 24 months after primary diagnosis. Given relatively little observed improvement in HRQoL during the 12- to 24-month period after diagnosis, AYA patients may benefit from supportive care interventions administered during the second year after diagnosis.

  13. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  14. Online and Offline Recruitment of Young Women for a Longitudinal Health Survey: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 1989-95 Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Jennifer; Anderson, Amy E; Townsend, Natalie; Harris, Melissa L; Tuckerman, Ryan; Pease, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Byles, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, we set out to recruit a cohort of at least 10,000 women aged 18-23 from across Australia. With recent research demonstrating the inadequacy of traditional approaches to recruiting women in this age group, we elected to conduct open recruiting. Objective Our aim was to report on the overall success of open recruiting and to evaluate the relative success of a variety of recruitment methods in terms of numbers and demographics. Methods We used referrals, Facebook, formal advertising, and incentives in order to recruit the cohort. Results In all, 17,069 women were recruited for the longitudinal online survey, from 54,685 initiated surveys. Of these women, most (69.94%, n=11,799) who joined the longitudinal cohort were recruited via Facebook, 12.72% (n=2145) via the fashion promotion, 7.02% (n=1184) by referral, 4.9% (n=831) via other Web activities, and 5.4% (n=910) via traditional media. Conclusions Facebook was by far the most successful strategy, enrolling a cohort of women with a similar profile to the population of Australian women in terms of age, area of residence, and relationship status. Women recruited via fashion promotion were the least representative. All strategies underrepresented less educated women—a finding that is consistent with more traditional means of recruiting. In conclusion, flexibility in recruitment design, embracing new and traditional media, adopting a dynamic responsive approach, and monitoring the results of recruiting in terms of sample composition and number recruited led to the successful establishment of a new cohort. PMID:25940876

  15. The Asthma Mobile Health Study, a large-scale clinical observational study using ResearchKit.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng Yvonne; Wang, Pei; Rogers, Linda; Tignor, Nicole; Zweig, Micol; Hershman, Steven G; Genes, Nicholas; Scott, Erick R; Krock, Eric; Badgeley, Marcus; Edgar, Ron; Violante, Samantha; Wright, Rosalind; Powell, Charles A; Dudley, Joel T; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e.g., surveys, devices, geolocation, and air quality) in a subset of users over the 6-month study period. Consistent trending and correlation of interrelated variables support the quality of data obtained via this method. We detected increased reporting of asthma symptoms in regions affected by heat, pollen, and wildfires. Potential challenges with this technology include selection bias, low retention rates, reporting bias, and data security. These issues require attention to realize the full potential of mobile platforms in research and patient care.

  16. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  17. Longitudinal Oscillations in Coronal Loops - Joint Observations with SOHO/CDS and TRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W.; De Moortel, I.; Ireland, J.

    2004-01-01

    Joint Observing Program (JOP) 83 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) data is analysed for evidence of propagating intensity oscillations along loop structures in the solar corona. A propagating intensity oscillation with a minimum estimated speed of 50-195 km s is observed within a TRACE 171 Å coronal loop using a running difference method. Co-spatial and co-temporal CDS and TRACE observations of this loop are analysed using a wavelet analysis method. The TRACE data shows a propagating oscillation with a period of 300 s. This period is also observed with CDS suggesting propagating oscillations at chromospheric, transition region and coronal temperatures in the He I, O V and Mg IX lines.

  18. Moving to Serene Nature May Prevent Poor Mental Health--Results from a Swedish Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Matilda Annerstedt; Östergren, Per-Olof; Grahn, Patrik; Skärbäck, Erik; Währborg, Peter

    2015-07-14

    Green spaces are recognized for improving mental health, but what particular kind of nature is required is yet not elucidated. This study explores the effect of specific types of recreational nature qualities on mental health. Longitudinal data (1999/2000 and 2005) from a public health survey was distributed to a stratified sample (n = 24,945) of a Swedish population. People from rural or suburban areas (n = 9230) who had moved between baseline and follow-up (n = 1419) were studied. Individual geographic residence codes were linked to five predefined nature qualities, classified in geographic information systems (GIS). Any change in the amount of or type of qualities within 300 m distance between baseline and follow-up was correlated to any change in mental health (as measured by the General Health Questionnaire) by logistic regression models. On average, the population had limited access to nature qualities both pre- and post-move. There was no significant correlation between change in the amount of qualities and change in mental health. However, the specific quality "serene" was a significant determinant with a significantly decreased risk for women of change to mental ill-health at follow-up. The objective definition of the potentially health-promoting quality may facilitate implication in landscape practice and healthy planning.

  19. Observation of the Faraday effect via beam deflection in a longitudinal magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ambarish; Hill, Winfield; Fischer, Peer

    2007-11-15

    We show that magnetic-field-induced circular differential deflection of light can be observed in reflection or refraction at a single interface. The difference in the reflection or refraction angles between the two circular polarization components is a function of the magnetic-field strength and the Verdet constant, and permits the observation of the Faraday effect not via polarization rotation in transmission, but via changes in the propagation direction. Deflection measurements do not suffer from n-{pi} ambiguities and are shown to be another means to map magnetic fields with high axial resolution, or to determine the sign and magnitude of magnetic-field pulses in a single measurement.

  20. Development of Functional Connectivity during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Using an Action-Observation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Successful interpersonal interactions rely on an ability to read the emotional states of others and to modulate one's own behavior in response. The actions of others serve as valuable social stimuli in this respect, offering the observer an insight into the actor's emotional state. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence. Here…

  1. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  2. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  3. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sullins, Donald Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss). Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001). Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001) overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3) of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:27781096

  4. Change and stability in work-family conflict and mothers' and fathers' mental health: Longitudinal evidence from an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A R; Dinh, H; Strazdins, L; Westrupp, E; Leach, L S; Nicholson, J M

    2016-04-01

    Work-family conflict (WFC) occurs when work or family demands are 'mutually incompatible', with detrimental effects on mental health. This study contributes to the sparse longitudinal research, addressing the following questions: Is WFC a stable or transient feature of family life for mothers and fathers? What happens to mental health if WFC increases, reduces or persists? What work and family characteristics predict WFC transitions and to what extent are they gendered? Secondary analyses of 5 waves of data (child ages 4-5 to 12-13 years) from employed mothers (n = 2693) and fathers (n = 3460) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were conducted. WFC transitions, across four two-year intervals (Waves 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5) were classified as never, conscript, exit or chronic. Significant proportions of parents experienced change in WFC, between 12 and 16% of mothers and fathers for each transition 'type'. Parents who remained in chronic WFC reported the poorest mental health (adjusted multiple regression analyses), followed by those who conscripted into WFC. When WFC was relieved (exit), both mothers' and fathers' mental health improved significantly. Predictors of conscript and chronic WFC were somewhat distinct for mothers and fathers (adjusted logit regressions). Poor job quality, a skilled occupation and having more children differentiated chronic fathers' from those who exited WFC. For mothers, work factors only (skilled occupation; work hours; job insecurity) predicted chronic WFC. Findings reflect the persistent, gendered nature of work and care shaped by workplaces, but also offer tailored opportunities to redress WFC for mothers and fathers. We contribute novel evidence that mental health is directly influenced by the WFC interface, both positively and negatively, highlighting WFC as a key social determinant of health.

  5. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  6. Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierschke, Nicole; Lowe, Diana; Plastino, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether a sexual health education intervention reduces pregnancy rates in high school students. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year quasi-experimental study performed in South Texas from 2011 to 2015 in which 1437 students without a history of pregnancy at baseline were surveyed each fall and spring. Potentially confounding risk factors considered included sexual behaviors, intentions, and demographics. The outcome measure was self-reported pregnancy status for male and female students. We performed analyses for male and female students using separate discrete time-to-event models. Results. We found no difference in pregnancy rates between intervention and comparison students within the first 3 years of high school. Female and male students in the intervention groups had pregnancy hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.62 (95% CI = 0.9, 2.61; P = .1) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44, 1.48; P = .4) relative to the comparison groups. Conclusions. The educational intervention had no impact on the pregnancy rate. Social media tools in pregnancy prevention programs should be adaptive to new technologies and rapidly changing adolescent preferences for these services. PMID:27689503

  7. SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY OBSERVATIONS OF A REFLECTING LONGITUDINAL WAVE IN A CORONAL LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.; Inhester, B.

    2013-12-10

    We report high resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) of intensity oscillations in a hot, T ∼ 8-10 MK, loop. The AIA images show a large coronal loop that was rapidly heated following plasma ejection from one of the loop's footpoints. A wave-like intensity enhancement, seen very clearly in the 131 and 94 Å channel images, propagated ahead of the ejecta along the loop, and was reflected at the opposite footpoint. The wave reflected four times before fading. It was only seen in the hot, 131 and 94 Å channels. The characteristic period and the decay time of the oscillation were ∼630 and ∼440 s, respectively. The phase speed was about 460-510 km s{sup –1} which roughly matches the sound speed of the loop (430-480 km s{sup –1}). The observed properties of the oscillation are consistent with the observations of Dopper-shift oscillations discovered by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation and with their interpretation as slow magnetoacoustic waves. We suggest that the impulsive injection of plasma, following reconnection at one of the loop footpoints, led to rapid heating and the propagation of a longitudinal compressive wave along the loop. The wave bounces back and forth a couple of times before fading.

  8. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  9. A Big Five Approach to Self-Regulation: Personality Traits and Health Trajectories in the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Edmonds, Grant W.; Barckley, Maureen; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Dubanoski, Joan P.; Hillier, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulatory processes influencing health outcomes may have their origins in childhood personality traits. The Big Five approach to personality was used here to investigate the associations between childhood traits, trait-related regulatory processes, and changes in health across middle age. Participants (N = 1,176) were members of the Hawaii longitudinal study of personality and health. Teacher assessments of the participants’ traits when they were in elementary school were related to trajectories of self-rated health measured on 6 occasions over 14 years in middle age. Five trajectories of self-rated health were identified by latent class growth analysis: Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, Good, Decreasing, and Poor. Childhood Conscientiousness was the only childhood trait to predict membership in the Decreasing class versus the combined healthy classes (Stable Excellent, Stable Very Good, and Good), even after controlling for adult Conscientiousness and the other adult Big Five traits. The Decreasing class had poorer objectively assessed clinical health measured on one occasion in middle age, was less well-educated, and had a history of more lifespan health-damaging behaviors compared to the combined healthy classes. These findings suggest that higher levels of childhood Conscientiousness (i.e., greater self-discipline and goal-directedness) may prevent subsequent health decline decades later through self-regulatory processes involving the acquisition of lifelong healthful behavior patterns and higher educational attainment. PMID:26196294

  10. Safety and Health Hazard Observations in Hmong Farming Operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, R. L.; Krenz, J.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation. PMID:24911689

  11. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R L; Krenz, J; de Castro, A B

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural workers have a high risk of occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. However, there are very few standardized tools available to assess safety and health in agricultural operations. Additionally, there are a number of groups of agricultural workers, including Hmong refugees and immigrants, for which virtually no information on safety and health conditions is available. This study developed an observation-based methodology for systematically evaluating occupational health and safety hazards in agriculture, and pilot-tested this on several small-scale Hmong farming operations. Each observation assessed of range of safety and health hazards (e.g., musculoskeletal hazards, dust and pollen, noise, and mechanical hazards), as well as on factors such as type of work area, presence of personal protective equipment, and weather conditions. Thirty-six observations were collected on nine farms. The most common hazards observed were bending at the back and lifting <50 pounds. Use of sharp tools without adequate guarding mechanisms, awkward postures, repetitive hand motions, and lifting >50 pounds were also common. The farming activities observed involved almost no power equipment, and no pesticide or chemical handling was observed. The use of personal protective equipment was uncommon. The results of this assessment agreed well with a parallel study of perceived safety and health hazards among Hmong agricultural workers. This study suggests that small-scale Hmong farming operations involve a variety of hazards, and that occupational health interventions may be warranted in this community. The study also demonstrates the utility of standardized assessment tools and mixed-method approaches to hazard evaluation.

  12. Lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related dysfunction in older persons; Findings from the longitudinal SMILE study

    PubMed Central

    Groffen, Daniëlle AI; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Eijk, Jacques TM

    2008-01-01

    Background More so than the traditional socioeconomic indicators, such as education and income, wealth reflects the accumulation of resources and makes socioeconomic ranking manifest and explicitly visible to the outside world. While the lack of basic goods, such as a refrigerator, may affect health directly, via biological pathways, the lack of luxury goods, such as an LCD television, may affect health indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. We set out to examine, firstly, the relevance of both basic and luxury goods in explaining health-related dysfunction in older persons, and, secondly, the extent to which these associations are independent of traditional socioeconomic indicators. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 2067 men and women aged 55 years and older who participated in the Study on Medical Information and Lifestyles Eindhoven (SMILE) were gathered. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the relation between a lack of basic and luxury goods and health-related function, assessed with two sub-domains of the SF-36. Results The lack of basic goods was closely related to incident physical (OR = 2.32) and mental (OR = 2.12) dysfunction, even when the traditional measures of socioeconomic status, i.e. education or income, were taken into account. Cross-sectional analyses, in which basic and luxury goods were compared, showed that the lack of basic goods was strongly associated with mental dysfunction. Lack of luxury goods was, however, not related to dysfunction. Conclusion Even in a relatively wealthy country like the Netherlands, the lack of certain basic goods is not uncommon. More importantly, lack of basic goods, as an indicator of wealth, was strongly related to health-related dysfunction also when traditional measures of socioeconomic status were taken into account. In contrast, no effects of luxury goods on physical or mental dysfunction were found. Future longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the precise mechanisms

  13. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  14. Change of glycaemic control and predictors in diabetes patients: longitudinal observational study during the one year after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Tai, Li-Ai; Tsai, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) might reflect glycaemic control in persons with diabetes. Study aims were to identify changes in glycated haemoglobin values and predictors (baseline coping behaviour, fasting plasma glucose, disease-related and demographic factors) in patients during 1 year after hospital discharge. A longitudinal prospective design with convenience sampling was used. Subjects were recruited from a community hospital in Taiwan. Measures included Jalowiec Coping Scale, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c values, and demographics. Generalized estimating equation was used to determine factors of change in glycated haemoglobin. A total of 57 patients completed 1 year of follow-up. Half did not receive diabetes mellitus education and regular exercise. Patients' glycated haemoglobin levels follow controls at 6 months after discharge. Patients with higher levels of blood glucose, less problem-focused coping and greater emotion-focused coping were associated with poor glycaemic control. Education programmes should involve individual-centred care and health behaviours for prevention of diabetes complications.

  15. Continuities and changes in the friendships of children with and without ADHD: a longitudinal, observational study.

    PubMed

    Normand, Sébastien; Schneider, Barry H; Lee, Matthew D; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Chupetlovska-Anastasova, Angelina; Kuehn, Sally M; Robaey, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    We examined how the real-life dyadic friendships of 87 children with ADHD and 46 comparison children (76 % boys) aged 7-13 years evolved during a 6-month follow-up period. The methods included friendship quality self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. At Time 2, the friends of the participants with ADHD reported less positive friendship quality and more conflict with their friends than at Time 1. They were also considerably less satisfied with their friendship than 6 months prior. In contrast, the friends of comparison children reported fewer negative friendship features, more positive friendship features and a slightly greater friendship satisfaction than at Time 1. In sharp contrast with the invited friends' reports, referred children with ADHD did not report deterioration in their friendship quality over time. Unlike comparison children who significantly reduced violations of game rules between Time 1 and Time 2, children with ADHD broke more game rules during the same period. In negotiating with friends, comparison children, but not children with ADHD, reduced the number of self-centered and insensitive proposals at Time 2. Controlling for Time 1 variance, violations of game rules and a self-centered, insensitive negotiation approach predicted deterioration in friendship quality for children with and without ADHD over time.

  16. Longitudinal observation of influence of "taspo" on smoking behavior among high school students.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Sayo; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Yoshimi, Itsuro; Hayashi, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    A system with an adult discrimination IC card "taspo" was introduced in 2008 to prevent minors from purchasing cigarettes in Japan. This study aimed to elucidate the short-term change in smoking behavior among a cohort of high school students through the introduction of the taspo system. We conducted a questionnaire survey in students at one high school in the metropolitan area of Japan in 2008. In this area, the taspo system was introduced on July 1, and the survey was conducted before and after its introduction (June and September). Change in smoking behavior was examined by linking the two questionnaires using a unique identification number for each participant. The questionnaire included basic characteristics, smoking-related behavior, and means of obtaining tobacco. Of 133 students, 123 (response rate 84.7%) completed the before and after questionnaire forms and could be linked. The smoking rate was 22.8% in June and 25.2% in September, with no statistically significant change. Vending machines were the major means of obtaining tobacco in June, while the use of cigarette shops and supermarkets increased after the introduction of taspo. The introduction of taspo hardly influenced underage smoking behavior during the observation period in our study subjects. The only significant change was in the means of obtaining tobacco. To prevent underage smoking, the importance of comprehensive restriction of the procurement route was suggested.

  17. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes with the Support of a Lay Health Advisor: Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Health Trainer Services in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Visram, Shelina; Clarke, Charlotte; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and document the experiences of those receiving support from a lay health trainer, in order to inform the optimisation and evaluation of such interventions. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with up to four serial interviews conducted over 12 months. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative approach associated with grounded theory. Participants 13 health trainers, 5 managers and 26 clients. Setting Three health trainer services targeting disadvantaged communities in northern England. Results The final dataset comprised 116 interviews (88 with clients and 28 with staff). Discussions with health trainers and managers revealed a high degree of heterogeneity between the local services in terms of their primary aims and activities. However, these were found to converge over time. There was agreement that health trainer interventions are generally ‘person-centred’ in terms of being tailored to the needs of individual clients. This led to a range of self-reported outcomes, including behaviour changes, physical health improvements and increased social activity. Factors impacting on the maintenance of lifestyle changes included the cost and timing of health-promoting activities, ill-health or low mood. Participants perceived a need for ongoing access to low cost facilities to ensure that any lifestyle changes can be maintained in the longer term. Conclusions Health trainers may be successful in terms of supporting people from socio-economically disadvantaged communities to make positive lifestyle changes, as well as achieving other health-related outcomes. This is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach; commissioners and providers should select the intervention models that best meet the needs of their local populations. By delivering holistic interventions that address multiple lifestyle risks and incorporate relapse prevention strategies, health trainers could potentially have a significant impact on health

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Observed and Perceived Neighborhood Food Availability and Body Mass Index in a Multiethnic Urban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Mentz, Graciela; Schulz, Amy J.; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Gaines, Causandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks, Hispanics, and women of lower socioeconomic status tend to have a higher risk of obesity. Numerous studies over the past decade examined the role of the neighborhood food environment in body weight. However, few were longitudinal. Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether multiple measures of neighborhood food…

  19. Active Vitamin D and Accelerated Progression of Aortic Stiffness in Hemodialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Mac-Way, Fabrice; De Serres, Sacha A.; Marquis, Karine; Douville, Pierre; Desmeules, Simon; Larivière, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that high-dose active vitamin D therapy in the form of alphacalcidol (α-calcidol), used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease, could lead to vascular calcification and accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. METHODS We conducted an observational study in 85 patients on chronic hemodialysis, among which 70 were taking a weekly dose of α-calcidol of <2 µg and 15 were taking a weekly dose of ≥2 µg (pharmacological dose). Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho were determined. Aortic stiffness was assessed by determination of carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 1.2 years. A multivariable regression model was used to evaluate the impact of pharmacological dose of α-calcidol on the progression of aortic stiffness. RESULTS At baseline, clinical, biological, and hemodynamic parameters were similar. At follow-up, cf-PWV increased more in patients with pharmacological dose of α-calcidol (0.583±2.291 m/s vs. 1.948±1.475 m/s; P = 0.04). After adjustment for changes in mean blood pressure and duration of follow-up, pharmacological dose of α-calcidol was associated with a higher rate of progression of cf-PWV (0.969 m/s; 95% confidence interval = 0.111–1.827; P = 0.03), and this association persisted after further adjustments for parameters of mineral metabolism. CONCLUSIONS In this study, pharmacological dose of α-calcidol was associated with accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. This study suggest that the vascular safety of active vitamin D posology may need to be specifically addressed in the treatment of chronic kidney disease–related bone mineral disorder. PMID:24695980

  20. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study

    PubMed Central

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O.; Toriola, Abel L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Setting A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Results Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal body weight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years’ measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of −0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Conclusion Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children

  1. Does Anger Regulation Mediate the Discrimination-Mental Health Link among Mexican-Origin Adolescents? A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis Using Multilevel Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Irene J. K.; Wang, Lijuan; Williams, David R.; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has consistently documented the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and poor mental health outcomes, the mechanisms that underlie this link are still unclear. The present 3-wave longitudinal study tested the mediating role of anger regulation in the discrimination-mental health link among 269 Mexican-origin…

  2. Large-scale Observations of a Subauroral Polarization Stream by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars: Instantaneous Longitudinal Velocity Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Baker, J. B. H.; Sazykin, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Thomas, E. J.; Shepherd, S. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Bristow, W. A.; Zheng, Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of flow velocities inside a subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) made by six midlatitude high-frequency SuperDARN radars. The instantaneous observations cover three hours of universal time and six hours of magnetic local time (MLT). From velocity variations across the field-of-view of the radars we infer the local 2D flow direction at three different longitudes. We find that the local flow direction inside the SAPS channel is remarkably constant over the course of the event. The flow speed, however, shows significant temporal and spatial variations. After correcting for the radar look direction we are able to accurately determine the dependence of the SAPS velocity on magnetic local time. We find that the SAPS velocity variation with magnetic local time is best described by an exponential function. The average velocity at 00 MLT was 1.2 km/s and it decreased with a spatial e-folding scale of two hours of MLT toward the dawn sector. We speculate that the longitudinal distribution of pressure gradients in the ring current is responsible for this dependence and find these observations in good agreement with results from ring current models. Using TEC measurements we find that the high westward velocities of the SAPS are - as expected - located in a region of low TEC values, indicating low ionospheric conductivities.

  3. Lifestyle, nutritional status, health, and mortality in elderly people across Europe: a review of the longitudinal results of the SENECA study.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Lisette C P M G; Verheijden, Marieke W; de Henauw, Stefaan; Schroll, Marianne; van Staveren, Wija A

    2004-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the longitudinal Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly: a Concerted Action (SENECA) study, which was designed to assess differences in dietary and lifestyle factors among elderly Europeans, and to identify the factors that contribute to healthy aging. Elderly people from Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and The Netherlands participated in the SENECA study. Standardized measurements were conducted at baseline in 1988-1989 and were repeated in 1993 and 1999. Diet, physical activity, and smoking, as well as maintenance of health and survival, were assessed. At baseline, considerable differences in lifestyle factors existed among elderly people. Mealtime patterns as well as dietary intake varied across Europe, and geographical patterns were apparent. Similar results were found for engagement in sport or professional activities. The smoking prevalence among women was generally low. Distinct geographical differences were also observed in percentages of deaths during the SENECA study and in overall survival time. A healthy lifestyle was related to stable self-perceived health, a delay in functional dependence, and mortality. Inactivity and smoking, and to a lesser extent a low-quality diet, increased mortality risk. A combined effect of multiple unhealthy lifestyle factors was also observed. The SENECA study showed that a healthy lifestyle at older ages is related to a delay in the deterioration of health status and a reduced mortality risk. Improving and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in elderly people across Europe is a great challenge for the European Community.

  4. Analysis of Binary Multivariate Longitudinal Data via 2-Dimensional Orbits: An Application to the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Visaya, Maria Vivien; Sherwell, David; Sartorius, Benn; Cromieres, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    We analyse demographic longitudinal survey data of South African (SA) and Mozambican (MOZ) rural households from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa. In particular, we determine whether absolute poverty status (APS) is associated with selected household variables pertaining to socio-economic determination, namely household head age, household size, cumulative death, adults to minor ratio, and influx. For comparative purposes, households are classified according to household head nationality (SA or MOZ) and APS (rich or poor). The longitudinal data of each of the four subpopulations (SA rich, SA poor, MOZ rich, and MOZ poor) is a five-dimensional space defined by binary variables (questions), subjects, and time. We use the orbit method to represent binary multivariate longitudinal data (BMLD) of each household as a two-dimensional orbit and to visualise dynamics and behaviour of the population. At each time step, a point (x, y) from the orbit of a household corresponds to the observation of the household, where x is a binary sequence of responses and y is an ordering of variables. The ordering of variables is dynamically rearranged such that clusters and holes associated to least and frequently changing variables in the state space respectively, are exposed. Analysis of orbits reveals information of change at both individual- and population-level, change patterns in the data, capacity of states in the state space, and density of state transitions in the orbits. Analysis of household orbits of the four subpopulations show association between (i) households headed by older adults and rich households, (ii) large household size and poor households, and (iii) households with more minors than adults and poor households. Our results are compared to other methods of BMLD analysis. PMID:25919116

  5. Different outcomes for different health measures in immigrants: evidence from a longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006).

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2012-02-01

    The response of immigrants to new societies is dynamic. There may be an initial period of happiness followed by peaks of stressful periods. These reactions along with socio-economic changes are likely to influence their health, which may start converging towards the average health of the host population. We used a longitudinal analysis to assess the differences in health outcomes (mental health and self-rated health), separately in men and women, in Canadian born and immigrants over a 12-year period (and the associated socio-economic factors). We used random effects logistic regression models for evaluation of these health outcomes in 3,081 men and 4,187 women from the National Population Health Survey (1994/95 to 2006/07). After adjusting for all the covariates, non-white immigrants were less likely to have severe psychological distress compared with the Canadian born individuals [odds ratio (OR) Men: 0.49, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24-1.00, Women-OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32-0.92]. Immigrant women (white and non-white) were more likely to rate their health as poor through this 12-year period than the Canadian born women (White-OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.17-2.64; Non-white-OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.01-3.28). Immigrants in the lowest income adequacy category reported higher psychological distress and poorer health than those in the highest income categories. We did not find any significant differences in the mental health and self-rated health of Canadian men and white male immigrants throughout this 12-year period. Though, non-white immigrant women were less likely to have severe psychological distress through this 12 year period, they were the ones most likely to rate their health as poor.

  6. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Widmer, Mariana; Neerup Jensen, Lisa; Giordano, Daniel; Abdel Aleem, Hany; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Benachi, Alexandra; Diemert, Anke; Tshefu Kitoto, Antoinette; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Tabor, Ann; Kriplani, Alka; Gonzalez Perez, Rogelio; Hecher, Kurt; Hanson, Mark A.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin; Platt, Lawrence D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made it a high priority to provide the present fetal growth charts for estimated fetal weight (EFW) and common ultrasound biometric measurements intended for worldwide use. Methods and Findings We conducted a multinational prospective observational longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) recruited participants who had reliable information on last menstrual period and gestational age confirmed by crown–rump length measured at 8–13 wk of gestation. Participants had anthropometric and nutritional assessments and seven scheduled ultrasound examinations during pregnancy. Fifty-two participants withdrew consent, and 1,387 participated in the study. At study entry, median maternal age was 28 y (interquartile range [IQR] 25–31), median height was 162 cm (IQR 157–168), median weight was 61 kg (IQR 55–68), 58% of the women were nulliparous, and median daily caloric intake was 1,840 cal (IQR 1,487–2,222). The median pregnancy duration was 39 wk (IQR 38–40) although there were significant differences between countries, the largest difference being 12 d (95% CI 8–16). The median birthweight was 3,300 g (IQR 2,980–3,615). There were differences in birthweight between countries, e.g., India had significantly smaller neonates than the other countries, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had

  7. Patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics associated with the use of observation stays in veterans health administration hospitals, 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brad; O'Shea, Amy M.J.; Glasgow, Justin M.; Ayyagari, Padmaja; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have documented that a significant increase in the use of observation stays along with extensive variation in patterns of use across hospitals. The objective of this longitudinal observational study was to examine the extent to which patient, hospital, and local health system characteristics explain variation in observation stay rates across Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals. Our data came from years 2005 to 2012 of the nationwide VHA Medical SAS inpatient and enrollment files, American Hospital Association Survey, and Area Health Resource File. We used these data to estimate linear regression models of hospitals’ observation stay rates as a function of hospital, patient, and local health system characteristics, while controlling for time trends and Veterans Integrated Service Network level fixed effects. We found that observation stay rates are inversely related to hospital bed size and that hospitals with a greater proportion of younger or rural patients have higher observation stay rates. Observation stay rates were nearly 15 percentage points higher in 2012 than 2005. Although we identify several characteristics associated with variation in VHA hospital observation stay rates, many factors remain unmeasured. PMID:27603391

  8. An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two. Methods Data from phases 5 (1997 to 1999), 7 (2002 to 2004), and 9 (2007 to 2009) of the Whitehall II prospective cohort study were used, providing approximately 10 years of follow-up for 6,330 participants (73% men; mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 6.0 years). Mental health was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-36 mental health component score. Alcohol consumption was defined as the number of UK units of alcohol drunk per week. Four dynamic latent change score models were compared: 1) a baseline model in which alcohol consumption and mental health trajectories did not influence each other, 2) and model in which alcohol consumption influenced changes in mental health but mental health exerted no effect on changes in drinking and 3) vice versa, and (4) a reciprocal model in which both variables influenced changes in each other. Results The third model, in which mental health influenced changes in alcohol consumption but not vice versa, was the best fit. In this model, the effect of previous mental health on upcoming change in alcohol consumption was negative (γ = -0.31, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.10), meaning that those with better mental health tended to make greater reductions (or shallower increases) in their drinking between occasions. Conclusions Mental health appears to be the leading indicator of change in the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and weekly alcohol consumption in this sample of middle-aged adults. In addition to fuelling increases in alcohol consumption among low-level consumers, poor mental health may also be a maintaining factor for heavy alcohol consumption. Future work

  9. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: A longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J. Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia; Dunn, Erin C.; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The world’s largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life, SFL], has been operating at a national scale in Chile for fifteen years. SFL’s activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL’s data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students’ academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

  10. Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes.

  11. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  12. Health care access, utilization, and problems in a sample of former foster children: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Loring

    2014-01-01

    Three years of descriptive data that describe health problems and access to care for former foster youth are presented (n = 92). Findings were that most youths had health coverage at emancipation, but the proportion with coverage shrinks after three years to 57%. Youths generally reported good health despite the loss of Medicaid and increasing difficulties with access to care. However, mental health problems and substance abuse problems in the sample remained high over the three years of study. Most of the mental health and substance abuse problems remained untreated. The policy implications of findings are discussed.

  13. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995–2008)

    PubMed Central

    TEIMOURIZAD, Abedin; HADIAN, Mohamad; REZAEI, Satar; HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. Methods We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. Results The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. Conclusion When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation. PMID:26060721

  14. A three dimensional observation of palatal vault growth in children using mixed effect analysis: a 9 year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lim, Young Seol; Chang, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Park, Young-Seok

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of palatine vault growth in normal subjects is important to orthodontists. The aim of this study was to evaluate three dimensional (3D) longitudinal changes in the palatal vault from 6 to 14 years of age. Complete dental stone casts were biennially prepared for 50 subjects (25 girls and 25 boys) followed up from 6 to 14 years of age. Virtual casts were constructed using 3D laser scanning and reconstruction software. The reference gingival plane was constructed. The palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 quadrisectional points between the most gingival points of the palatal dentogingival junctions from the canine to the first molar. In addition, the palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 lateral and medial endpoints of the palatine rugae. The measurement changes over time were analyzed using a mixed-effect analysis. There were significant annual increases in all of the variables related to palatal height. However, the individual random variability at baseline was quite large. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the linear measurements or in the annual increases as fixed effects in the model. During the observation period, increases in palatal vault height were significant in all regions. The growth pattern seemed to differ between genders even though it was not significant. More elaborate methodology is necessary to gain a better understanding of 3D palatal growth.

  15. An Observational Longitudinal Study Investigating the Effectiveness of 75 mg Pregabalin Post-Hemodialysis among Uremic Pruritus Patients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han; Alhafez, Abdul Aziz; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2016-11-08

    A prospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 75 mg pregabalin (PG) post-hemodialysis (pHD) for treatment-resistant uremic pruritus (UP). A total of forty-five patients completed the entire six week follow-up. At the baseline assessment, the majority of the patients were distressed by the UP frequency and intensity. Sleep (mean = 3.30 ± 1.1), leisure/social activities (mean = 2.90 ± 0.80) and distribution (mean = 2.92 ± 0.34) were the three domains that were primarily effected by the UP. Overall, further reduction in the 5D-itching scale (IS) was noted at day 42, which confirmed a sustained (B = -12.729, CI -13.257 to -12.201, p < 0.001) relief of pruritus severity among patients with treatment-resistant pruritus. Patients with a higher serum calcium level had a score difference of +1 from the other patients (B = 1.010, p = 0.061). There was a reduction of 12 points compared to the baseline 5D-IS for each patient on day 42 after using pregabalin 75 mg PD pHD for 42 days, which represented major relief. Among the demographic factors, only gender was significantly associated with the 5D-IS score.

  16. Longitudinal relationships between glycemic status and body mass index in a multiethnic study: evidence from observational and genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Adeola F; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Engert, James C; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2016-08-02

    We investigated the relationship between glycemic status and BMI and its interaction with obesity single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort at high-risk for dysglycemia. We studied 17 394 participants from six ethnicities followed-up for 3.3 years. Twenty-three obesity SNPs were genotyped and an unweighted genotype risk score (GRS) was calculated. Glycemic status was defined using an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex and population stratification. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to dysglycemia transition was associated with baseline BMI and BMI change. Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes transition was associated with baseline BMI but not BMI change. No simultaneous significant main genetic effects and interactions between SNPs/GRS and glycemic status or transition on BMI level and BMI change were observed. Our data suggests that the interplay between glycemic status and BMI trajectory may be independent of the effects of obesity genes. This implies that individuals with different glycemic statuses may be combined together in genetic association studies on obesity traits, if appropriate adjustments for glycemic status are performed. Implementation of population-wide weight management programs may be more beneficial towards individuals with NGT than those at a later disease stage.

  17. A hidden Markov model approach to analyze longitudinal ternary outcomes when some observed states are possibly misclassified.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julia S; Chan, Wenyaw; Luo, Sheng; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Doody, Rachelle

    2016-04-30

    Understanding the dynamic disease process is vital in early detection, diagnosis, and measuring progression. Continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) methods have been used to estimate state-change intensities but challenges arise when stages are potentially misclassified. We present an analytical likelihood approach where the hidden state is modeled as a three-state CTMC model allowing for some observed states to be possibly misclassified. Covariate effects of the hidden process and misclassification probabilities of the hidden state are estimated without information from a 'gold standard' as comparison. Parameter estimates are obtained using a modified expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and identifiability of CTMC estimation is addressed. Simulation studies and an application studying Alzheimer's disease caregiver stress-levels are presented. The method was highly sensitive to detecting true misclassification and did not falsely identify error in the absence of misclassification. In conclusion, we have developed a robust longitudinal method for analyzing categorical outcome data when classification of disease severity stage is uncertain and the purpose is to study the process' transition behavior without a gold standard.

  18. Longitudinal Spiritual Coping with Trauma in People with HIV: Implications for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  19. Predicting Continuance—Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Older Adults Using an eHealth Newsletter

    PubMed Central

    Forquer, Heather A.; Christensen, John L.; Tan, Andy S.L.

    2014-01-01

    While eHealth technologies are promisingly efficient and widespread, theoretical frameworks capable of predicting long-term use, termed continuance, are lacking. Attempts to extend prominent information technology (IT) theories to the area of eHealth have been limited by small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, self-reported as opposed to actual use measures, and a focus on technology adoption rather than continuance. To address these gaps in the literature, the present analysis includes empirical evidence of actual use of an eHealth technology over the course of one year. This large (n=4,570) longitudinal study focuses on older adults, a population with many health needs, and among whom eHealth use may be particularly important. With three measurement points over the course of a year, this study examined the effects of utilitarian and hedonic beliefs on the continued use of an eHealth newsletter using constructs from IT adoption and continuance theories. Additional analyses compared the relative strength of intentions compared to earlier use in predicting later use. Usage intention was strongly predicted by both hedonic beliefs and utilitarian beliefs. In addition, utilitarian beliefs had both direct effects on intention, as well as indirect effects, mediated by hedonic beliefs. While intention predicted subsequent use, earlier use was a significantly stronger predictor of use than intention. These findings make a theoretical contribution to an emerging literature by shedding light on the complex interplay of reasoned action and automaticity in the context of eHealth continuance. PMID:24446900

  20. The impact of the housing crisis on self-reported health in Europe: multilevel longitudinal modelling of 27 EU countries

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin; Dorling, Danny; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many EU nations experienced a significant housing crisis during the Great Recession of 2008–10. We evaluated the consequences of housing payment problems for people’s self-reported overall health. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey covering 27 countries from 2008 to 2010 to follow a baseline sample of persons who did not have housing debt and who were employed (45 457 persons, 136 371 person–years). Multivariate linear regression and multilevel models were used to evaluate the impact of transitions into housing arrears on self-reported health, correcting for the presence of chronic illness, health limitations, and other potential socio-demographic confounders. Results: Persons who transitioned into housing arrears experienced a significant deterioration in self-reported overall health by − 0.03 U (95% CI − 0.01 to − 0.04), even after correcting for chronic illness, disposable income and employment status, and individual fixed effects. This association was independent and similar in magnitude to that for job loss (−0.02, 95% CI: −0.01 to − 0.04). We also found that the impact of housing arrears was significantly worse among renters, corresponding to a mean 0.11 unit additional drop in health as compared with owner-occupiers. These adverse associations were only evident in persons below the 75th percentile of disposable income. Discussion: Our analysis demonstrates that persons who suffer housing arrears experience increased risk of worsening self-reported health, especially among those who rent. Future research is needed to understand the role of alternative housing support systems and available strategies for preventing the health consequences of housing insecurity. PMID:27221606

  1. Relations between Concurrent Longitudinal Changes in Cognition, Depressive Symptoms, Self-Rated Health and Everyday Function in Normally Aging Octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens. PMID:27551749

  2. Repeated cross-sectional study of the longitudinal changes in attitudes toward interprofessional health care teams amongst undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Kururi, Nana; Makino, Takatoshi; Kazama, Hiroko; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Matsui, Hiroki; Lee, Bumsuk; Kanaizumi, Shiomi; Abe, Yumiko; Uchida, Yoko; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Tozato, Fusae; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2014-07-01

    The interprofessional education (IPE) program at Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan, uses a lecture style for first-year students and a training style for third-year students. To investigate the comprehensive implications of IPE, the change pattern of attitudes toward health care teams was examined longitudinally in pre-qualified students. The modified Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale (mATHCTS) was used. The overall mean score of the mATHCTS improved significantly after the training-style IPE in their third year. Two individual items in the factor "quality of care delivery" decreased significantly during the first year. In contrast, two individual items in the factor "patient-centered care" increased significantly during the third year. These changes over time were confirmed by analyses using regression factor scores. There are at least two independent attitudes toward collaborative practice (CP) or IPE in response to IPE interventions: the attitude toward "value of IPE for health care providers" may response negatively to IPE in the early stages, and the attitude toward "value of IPE for health care receivers" positively in the later stages. These findings suggest that the continuation of mandatory IPE, which must be designed on the basis of students' high expectations for IPE and CP on entry, may result in profound changes in attitudes amongst participating students.

  3. Use of biomarkers to indicate exposure of children to organophosphate pesticides: implications for a longitudinal study of children's environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Denise; Barr, Dana B; Mendola, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    Because of their history of widespread use in the United States and unknown long-term health effects, organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are being considered as a chemical class of interest in planning for the National Children's Study, a longitudinal study of children's environmental health. The availability and appropriate use of biomarkers to determine absorbed doses of environmental chemicals such as OPs are critical issues. Biomarkers of OP exposure are typically measured in blood and urine; however, postpartum meconium has been shown to be a promising matrix for assessing cumulative in utero exposure to the fetus, and studies are currently in progress to determine the utility of using saliva and amniotic fluid as matrices. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available OP exposure monitoring methods (cholinesterase inhibition in blood, pesticides in blood, metabolites in urine and alternative matrices); study design issues for a large, long-term study of children's environmental health; and current research and future research needs. Because OPs are rapidly metabolized and excreted, the utility of one-time spot measurements of OP biomarkers is questionable unless background exposure levels are relatively stable over time or a specific time frame of interest for the study is identified and samples are collected accordingly. Biomarkers of OP exposure can be a valuable tool in epidemiology of children's environmental health, as long as they are applied and interpreted appropriately. PMID:14644670

  4. Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Longitudinal Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Schmitt, Eric; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    The advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which safely allows in vivo quantification of anatomical and physiological features of the brain, has revolutionized pediatric neuroscience. Longitudinal studies are useful for the characterization of developmental trajectories (ie, changes in imaging measures by age). Developmental trajectories (as opposed to static measures) have proven to have greater power in discriminating healthy from clinical groups and in predicting cognitive/behavioral measures, such as IQ. Here we summarize results from an ongoing longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study that has been conducted at the Child Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health since 1989. Developmental trajectories of structural MRI brain measures from healthy youth are compared and contrasted with trajectories in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset schizophrenia. Across ages 5–25 years, in both healthy and clinical populations, white matter volumes increase and gray matter volumes follow an inverted U trajectory, with peak size occurring at different times in different regions. At a group level, differences related to psychopathology are seen for gray and white matter volumes, rates of change, and for interconnectedness among disparate brain regions. PMID:25195638

  5. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…

  6. School Health Screening of a Birth Cohort: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, Joav; And Others

    1983-01-01

    School-age illnesses in Denmark, coded from information in 4,327 school health records, are reported for a perinatal cohort comprising 9,125 successive live births. Although characteristic somatic disorders continue to rise, problems of a psycho-social nature dominate. Findings suggest that the school health service should be adapted towards…

  7. The Benefits of Dispositional Mindfulness in Physical Health: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Megan J.; Mermelstein, Liza C.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (e.g., sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants: Participants included 441 college women. Methods: Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5…

  8. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design"…

  9. Health Habits of Nursing versus Non-nursing Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Cathy B.; Scott-Stiles, Anne

    2000-01-01

    The Health Habits Inventory was completed at two time intervals by 71 nursing and 83 other students. Nursing students scored higher in health habits and improved significantly over 2 years, especially in such behaviors as eating breakfast, performing self-exams, reading food labels, wearing seatbelts, and exercising. (SK)

  10. The Canadian community health survey as a potential recruitment vehicle for the Canadian longitudinal study on aging.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Christina; Raina, Parminder S; Kirkland, Susan A; Pelletier, Amélie; Uniat, Jennifer; Furlini, Linda; Angus, Camille L; Strople, Geoff; Keshavarz, Homa; Szala-Meneok, Karen

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe goal of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is to recruit 50,000 participants aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. The sampling and recruitment processes for a study of this scope and magnitude present important challenges. Statistics Canada was approached to collaborate with the CLSA with the goal of determining whether the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) could be used as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA. In this pilot study conducted in 2004, it was determined that 63.8 per cent and 75.8 per cent of the respondents agreed to share their contact information and their survey responses with the CLSA, respectively. The most commonly reported concerns were confidentiality/privacy issues, lack of interest, and commitment issues. This pilot study identified some challenges to the use of the CCHS as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA.

  11. Are people who claim compensation "cured by a verdict"? A longitudinal study of health outcomes after whiplash.

    PubMed

    Spearing, Natalie M; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Pobereskin, Louis H; Rowell, David S; Connelly, Luke B

    2012-09-01

    This study examines whether the lure of injury compensation prompts whiplash claimants to overstate their symptoms. Claim settlement is the intervention of interest, as it represents the point at which there is no further incentive to exaggerate symptoms, and neck pain at 24 months is the outcome of interest. Longitudinal data on neck pain scores and timing of claim settlement were regressed, controlling for the effect of time on recovery, to compare outcomes in claimants who had and had not settled their compensation claims. The results show clearly that removing the financial incentive to over-report symptoms has no effect on self-reported neck pain in a fault-based compensation scheme, and this finding concurs with other studies on this topic. Policy decisions to limit compensation in the belief that claimants systematically misrepresent their health status are not supported empirically Claimants do not appear to be "cured by a verdict".

  12. Effects of Internet Use on Health and Depression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bessière, Katie; Pressman, Sarah; Kiesler, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of the Internet has increased the ease with which the public can obtain medical information. Most research on the utility of the Internet for health purposes has evaluated the quality of the information itself or examined its impact on clinical populations. Little is known about the consequences of its use by the general population. Objective Is use of the Internet by the general population for health purposes associated with a subsequent change in psychological well-being and health? Are the effects different for healthy versus ill individuals? Does the impact of using the Internet for health purposes differ from the impact of other types of Internet use? Methods Data come from a national US panel survey of 740 individuals conducted from 2000 to 2002. Across three surveys, respondents described their use of the Internet for different purposes, indicated whether they had any of 13 serious illnesses (or were taking care of someone with a serious illness), and reported their depression. In the initial and final surveys they also reported on their physical health. Lagged dependent variable regression analysis was used to predict changes in depression and general health reported on a later survey from frequency of different types of Internet use at an earlier period, holding constant prior depression and general health, respectively. Statistical interactions tested whether uses of the Internet predicted depression and general health differently for people who initially differed on their general health, chronic illness, and caregiver status. Results Health-related Internet use was associated with small but reliable increases in depression (ie, increasing use of the Internet for health purposes from 3 to 5 days per week to once a day was associated with .11 standard deviations more symptoms of depression, P = .002). In contrast, using the Internet for communication with friends and family was associated with small but reliable decreases in

  13. Benefits Gained, Benefits Lost: Comparing Baby Boomers to Other Generations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    BADLEY, ELIZABETH M; CANIZARES, MAYILEE; PERRUCCIO, ANTHONY V; HOGG-JOHNSON, SHEILAH; GIGNAC, MONIQUE AM

    2015-01-01

    Policy Points Despite beliefs that baby boomers are healthier than previous generations, we found no evidence that the health of baby boomers is substantially different from that of the previous or succeeding cohorts. The effects of increased education, higher income, and lower smoking rates on improving self-rated health were nearly counterbalanced by the adverse effect of increasing body mass index (BMI). Assumptions that baby boomers will require less health care as they age because of better education, more prosperity, and less propensity to smoke may not be realized because of increases in obesity. Context Baby boomers are commonly believed to be healthier than the previous generation. Using self-rated health (SRH) as an indicator of health status, this study examines the effects of age, period, and birth cohort on the trajectory of health across 4 generations: World War II (born between 1935 and 1944), older baby boomers (born between 1945 and 1954), younger baby boomers (born between 1955 and 1964), and Generation X (born between 1965 and 1974). Methods We analyzed Canada’s longitudinal National Population Health Survey 1994-2010 (n = 8,570 at baseline), using multilevel growth models to estimate the age trajectory of SRH by cohort, accounting for period and incorporating the influence of changes in education, household income, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI) on SRH over time. Findings SRH worsened with increasing age in all cohorts. Cohort differences in SRH were modest (p = 0.034), but there was a significant period effect (p = 0.002). We found marked cohort effects for increasing education, income, and BMI, and decreasing smoking from the youngest to the oldest cohorts, which were much reduced (education and smoking) or removed (income and BMI) once period was taken into account. At the population level, multivariable analysis showed the benefits of increasing education and income and declines in smoking on the trajectory of improving SRH were

  14. Longitudinal follow-up of the mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Marianne; Lammertyn, Jan; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Despite growing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UMs) in Europe, and evidence that this group is at risk of developing mental health problems, there still remain important knowledge gaps regarding the development of UMs' mental health during their trajectories in the host country and, in particular, the possible influencing role of traumatic experiences and daily stressors therein. This study therefore followed 103 UMs from the moment they arrived in Belgium until 18 months later. Traumatic experiences (SLE), mental health symptoms (HSCL-37A, RATS) and daily stressors (DSSYR) were measured at arrival in Belgium, after 6 and 18 months. UMs reported generally high scores on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Linear mixed model analysis showed no significant differences in mental health scores over time, pointing towards the possible long-term persistence of mental health problems in this population. The number of traumatic experiences and the number of daily stressors leaded to a significant higher symptom level of depression (daily stressors), anxiety and PTSD (traumatic experiences and daily stressors). European migration policies need to reduce the impact of daily stressors on UMs' mental health by ameliorating the reception and care facilities for this group. Moreover, regular mental health screenings are needed, in combination with, if needed, adapted psychosocial and therapeutic care.

  15. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

    2013-04-01

    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  16. An Observational Longitudinal Study Investigating the Effectiveness of 75 mg Pregabalin Post-Hemodialysis among Uremic Pruritus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han; Alhafez, Abdul Aziz; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, observational, longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of 75 mg pregabalin (PG) post-hemodialysis (pHD) for treatment-resistant uremic pruritus (UP). A total of forty-five patients completed the entire six week follow-up. At the baseline assessment, the majority of the patients were distressed by the UP frequency and intensity. Sleep (mean = 3.30 ± 1.1), leisure/social activities (mean = 2.90 ± 0.80) and distribution (mean = 2.92 ± 0.34) were the three domains that were primarily effected by the UP. Overall, further reduction in the 5D-itching scale (IS) was noted at day 42, which confirmed a sustained (B = −12.729, CI −13.257 to −12.201, p < 0.001) relief of pruritus severity among patients with treatment-resistant pruritus. Patients with a higher serum calcium level had a score difference of +1 from the other patients (B = 1.010, p = 0.061). There was a reduction of 12 points compared to the baseline 5D-IS for each patient on day 42 after using pregabalin 75 mg PD pHD for 42 days, which represented major relief. Among the demographic factors, only gender was significantly associated with the 5D-IS score. PMID:27824127

  17. Female stress urinary incontinence: clinical efficacy and satisfaction after transobturator adjustable tape sling. An observational longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Dall'Asta, Andrea; Musarò, Andrea; Faioli, Raffaele; Zanni, Giuliano Carlo; Piantelli, Giovanni; Lukanovic, Adolf; Bacchi Modena, Alberto; Berretta, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    We performed an observational longitudinal cohort study on patients affected by stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and surgically treated with a transobturator adjustable tape sling (TOA) in order to evaluate this surgical procedure in terms of efficacy, safety, quality of life (QoL) improvement, and patient satisfaction. For all patients, we recorded: general features, preoperative SUI risk factors, obstetrics history, preoperative urodynamic tests, intraoperative/postoperative complications, number of postoperative sling regulations, postmicturition residue, and hospital stay. All patients were asked to complete the validated short version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) questionnaire 18 months after discharge to evaluate the efficacy of the TOA system. We added 2 adjunctive items to the UDI-6 in order to evaluate patient satisfaction and QoL. All 77 surgical procedures were performed under locoregional anesthesia without complications. Postoperative TOA regulations were performed in 46.8% of patients immediately after the procedure and in 14.3% during hospitalization. Before discharge, postmicturition residue was negative in 67 cases and less than 50 cc in 10 cases. Mean hospital stay was 2.18 days. From the questionnaire evaluation, we found that after the procedure, 90.9% of patients showed a complete regression of urinary symptoms, 1.3% obtained considerable relief from preoperative symptoms, and 6.6% reported poor or absent symptom improvements; 75.3% of patients were totally satisfied and 5.2% totally disappointed. The possibility of modulating postoperative sling tension and reusing the surgical materials in association with short hospitalization as well as high patient satisfaction render TOA a safe, effective, and low-cost technique for the treatment of female SUI.

  18. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  19. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  20. A longitudinal study of the impact of village health education on environmental sanitation.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Marilyn A

    Health educators working in developing nations commonly encounter administrative constraints and methodological problems which prevent rigorous program evaluation. Using a time-series design, this study followed approximately 600 families in two Guatemalan villages during a four-year period to measure the impact of community health education on seven indicators of change in environmental sanitation. Adoption of new behavior was accompanied by widespread change in village attitudes and perceptions of health benefits. At the level of the family, change in perception was not predictive of change in behavior. A strong relationship between participation in planned educational events and the adoption of sanitation changes suggests that the formative educational strategy was responsible for stimulating change for five of seven indicators. Suggestions are made about the usefulness of the methodology, ways that private behavioral changes may be measured are discussed, and the advantages of the time-series design for health education evaluation and monitoring are noted.

  1. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed.

  2. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  3. Sexual Hookups and Adverse Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year College Women

    PubMed Central

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    “Hookups” are sexual encounters between partners who are not in a romantic relationship and do not expect commitment. We examined the associations between sexual hookup behavior and depression, sexual victimization (SV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among first-year college women. In this longitudinal study, 483 women completed 13 monthly surveys assessing oral and vaginal sex with hookup and romantic partners, depression, SV, and self-reported STIs. Participants also provided biological specimens that were tested for STIs. During the study, 50% of participants reported hookup sex, and 62% reported romantic sex. Covariates included previous levels of the outcome, alcohol use, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and romantic sex. Autoregressive cross-lagged models showed that controlling for covariates, hookup behavior during college was correlated with depression, Bs = .21, ps < .05, and SV, Bs = .19, ps < .05. Additionally, pre-college hookup behavior predicted SV early in college, B = .62, p < .05. Hookup sex, OR 1.32, p < .05, and romantic sex, OR 1.19, p < .05, were associated with STIs. Overall, sexual hookup behavior among college women was positively correlated with experiencing depression, SV, and STIs, but the nature of these associations remains unclear, and hooking up did not predict future depression. PMID:24350600

  4. Parental Strain, Mental Health Problems, and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Although poor parenting practices place youth living in under resourced communities at heightened risk for adjustment difficulties, less is known about what influences parenting practices in those communities. The present study examines prospective linkages between three latent constructs: parental strain, mental health problems and parenting practices. Parental victimization by community violence and life stressors were indicative of parental strain; depressive, anxious, and hostile symptoms were indicators of parental mental health; and parental knowledge of their child's activities and child disclosure were indicators of parenting practices. Interviews were conducted annually for 3 waves with 316 female caregivers (92% African American) parenting youth in low-income inner-city communities. Structural equation modeling revealed that parental strain, assessed at Wave 1, predicted changes in mental health problems one year later, which in turn predicted parenting practices at Wave 3. These results suggest that parental strain can compromise a caregiver's ability to parent effectively by impacting their mental health. Opportunities for intervention include helping caregivers process trauma and mental health problems associated with parental strain.

  5. Parental Strain, Mental Health Problems, and Parenting Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Although poor parenting practices place youth living in under resourced communities at heightened risk for adjustment difficulties, less is known about what influences parenting practices in those communities. The present study examines prospective linkages between three latent constructs: parental strain, mental health problems and parenting practices. Parental victimization by community violence and life stressors were indicative of parental strain; depressive, anxious, and hostile symptoms were indicators of parental mental health; and parental knowledge of their child's activities and child disclosure were indicators of parenting practices. Interviews were conducted annually for 3 waves with 316 female caregivers (92% African American) parenting youth in low-income inner-city communities. Structural equation modeling revealed that parental strain, assessed at Wave 1, predicted changes in mental health problems one year later, which in turn predicted parenting practices at Wave 3. These results suggest that parental strain can compromise a caregiver's ability to parent effectively by impacting their mental health. Opportunities for intervention include helping caregivers process trauma and mental health problems associated with parental strain. PMID:24976666

  6. The limits of global health diplomacy: Taiwan's observer status at the world health assembly.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan; Lee, Kelley

    2014-10-01

    In 2009, health authorities from Taiwan (under the name "Chinese Taipei")a formally attended the 62nd World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization as observers, marking the country's participation for the first time since 1972. The long process of negotiating this breakthrough has been cited as an example of successful global health diplomacy. This paper analyses this negotiation process, drawing on government documents, formal representations from both sides of the Taiwan Strait, and key informant interviews. The actors and their motivations, along with the forums, practices and outcomes of the negotiation process, are detailed. While it is argued that non-traditional diplomatic action was important in establishing the case for Taiwan's inclusion at the WHA, traditional concerns regarding Taiwanese sovereignty and diplomatic representation ultimately played a decisive role. The persistent influence of these traditional diplomatic questions illustrates the limits of global health diplomacy.

  7. Are Parental Health Habits Transmitted to Their Children? An Eight Year Longitudinal Study of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Norman; Wold, Bente; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2006-01-01

    Parents are believed to play a role in influencing their children's health behaviours. This longitudinal study of two generations (parents and their children) examined associations between parents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity changes and the self-reported physical activity changes of their offspring in a sample of 557 adolescents…

  8. Prognosis and Continuity of Child Mental Health Problems from Preschool to Primary School: Results of a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Muller, Jorg M.; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing…

  9. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  10. Symposium Overview: Preliminary Report on the Longitudinal Comparison Study of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, E. Wayne; Osher, Trina W.; Santiago, Rolando L.; Hernandez, Mario; Brannan, Ana Maria

    This brief paper summarizes three papers and a response presented at a symposium examining longitudinal comparison studies of federally funded community mental health services (CMHS) for children and their families. Emphasis was on comparing the system of care approach to a more traditional approach. The symposium provided an update on the status…

  11. Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in

  12. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency.

  13. Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation U.S. immigrants: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M; Udry, J R

    1998-04-01

    Little is known concerning obesity patterns of ethnic subpopulations in the U.S. and the effects of acculturation on these patterns. Adolescent obesity, a major public health problem, has important health, social and economic consequences for the adolescent. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health survey is unique in the size of the adolescent sample and in its ability to provide large representative samples of Anglo, African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 13,783 adolescents was studied. Measurements of weight and height collected in the second wave of the survey were used to study adolescent obesity. Multivariate logit techniques were used to provide an understanding of the ethnic, age, gender and intergenerational patterns of adolescent obesity. Comparisons are presented between the NHANES III results and those from the Adolescent Health Survey. The smoothed version of the NHANES I 85th percentile cut-off was used for the measure of obesity in this paper. For the total sample, 26.5% were obese. The rates were as follows: white non-Hispanics, 24.2%; black non-Hispanics, 30.9%; all Hispanics, 30.4%; and all Asian-Americans, 20.6%. Important variations within the Hispanic and Asian-American subpopulations are presented. The Chinese (15.3%) and Filipino (18.5%) samples showed substantially lower obesity than non-Hispanic whites. All groups showed more obesity among males than among females, except for blacks (27.4% for males and 34.0% for females). Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents born in the U.S. are more than twice as likely to be obese as are first generation residents of the 50 states.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of unhealthy weight control behaviors: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates, age trends, and stability of unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB; purging and diet pill use) in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to provide similar, comparative analyses for a nationally representative sample of American youth. Methods Data were extracted from the restricted use data files of survey Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), selecting all participants who at Wave I had provided information on age, sex, and UWCB. Using UWCB information, three groups were created (purging, diet pill use, and no recent UWCB “controls”) and compared on indicators of adverse health or mental health. Results Girls consistently were more likely than boys to report UWCB. UWCB were significantly associated with higher body mass index, self-perception of being overweight, low self-esteem, depression, and delinquency. Prevalence estimates for purging remained relatively constant across the three survey waves; in contrast, diet pill use was especially common at Wave III. Conclusions Age trends, gender differences, and clinical correlates of change in the likelihood of UWCB between Waves I-III were all identified in analyses comparing purging and diet pill use in American adolescents. Females and older adolescents were specifically more likely to engage in pill use than purging, and individuals with increased weight dissatisfaction, a history of delinquent behaviors, more depression symptoms, or lower self-esteem were more likely to engage in an unhealthy weight control behavior over time. While the Norwegian study found that prevalence of purging was lower among young adult participants, our results suggested that there were no significant differences in prevalence between age groups. PMID:24940509

  15. The New Mexico aging process study (1979-2003). A longitudinal study of nutrition, health and aging.

    PubMed

    Garry, P J; Wayne, S J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    In 1979, Dr. James S. Goodwin, M.D., assisted by Philip J. Garry, Ph.D., submitted a grant proposal to the United States Public Health Service/ National Institute on Aging (NIA) entitled, "A prospective study of nutrition in the elderly". This study was approved and funded by the NIA beginning in 1979. Initially, approximately 300 men and women over 65 years of age with no known medical illnesses and no prescription medications were selected for this study. The primary purpose of this multi disciplinary study, known in the literature as the New Mexico Aging Process Study (NMAPS), was to examine the role of nutrition and resultant changes in body composition and organ function in relation to the aging process and health status of the elderly. This was accomplished by following prospectively healthy elderly volunteers, obtaining in-depth information about dietary habits, lifestyle, body composition, organ function, cognitive status, vitamin metabolism, genetic markers, and biochemical measures of nutritional status and then examining these data in relationship to age and health status and changes in health status. Some of the specific aims of the study were modified over the course of this longitudinal study because of availability of University of New Mexico School of Medicine faculty with expertise in different areas of aging research. In 1988, Dr. Bruno Vellas from the University Hospital in Toulouse, France became an on-going visiting professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. From 1988, until the study was terminated in 2003, Dr. Vellas has collaborated with the faculty involved in the NMAPS on a number of research projects. In this article, we provide information about the studies overall design and briefly describe some of the major finding of the NMAPS.

  16. Longitudinal data collection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis infections in dairy herds. Collection and use of observational data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longitudinal infection data on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was collected on three dairy farms in Northeastern United States during approximately 10 years. Precise data on animal characteristics and animal location within farm were collected on these farms. Cows were followe...

  17. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  18. Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: Longitudinal Findings from the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca; Chen, Baibing; Fried, Terri; Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard; Doyle, Margaret; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Background When examining older adults’ health behaviors and psychological health it is important to consider the social context. Purpose To examine in older adult marriages whether each spouse’s physical activity predicted changes in their own (actor effects) and their partner’s (partner effects) depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined. Method Each spouse within 1,260 married couples (at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study completed self-report measures at wave 1 (1989–1990), wave 3 (1992–1993), and wave 7 (1996–1997). Dyadic path analyses were performed. Results Husbands’ physical activity significantly predicted own decreased depressive symptoms (actor effect). For both spouses, own physical activity did not significantly predict the spouse’s depressive symptoms (partner effects). However, husbands’ physical activity and depressive symptoms predicted wives’ physical activity and depressive symptoms (partner effects), respectively. Depressive symptoms did not predict physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that husbands’ physical activity is particularly influential for older married couples’ psychological health. PMID:25868508

  19. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  20. Social organizational stressors and post-disaster mental health disturbances: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; Bogaerts, Stefan; van Veldhoven, Marc J P M

    2014-09-30

    Social organizational stressors are well-known predictors of mental health disturbances (MHD). However, to what extent these stressors predict post-disaster MHD among employed victims hardly received scientific attention and is clearly understudied. For this purpose we examined to what extent these stressors independently predict MHD 1.5 years post-disaster over and above well-known risk factors such as disaster exposure, initial MHD and lack of general social support, life-events in the past 12 months and demographics (N=423). Exposure, social organizational stressors and support were significantly associated with almost all examined mental health disturbances on a bi-variate level. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that these stressors, i.e. problems with colleagues, independently predicted anxiety (Adj. OR=5.93), depression (Adj. OR=4.21), hostility (Adj. OR=2.85) and having two or more mental health disturbances (Adj. OR=3.39) in contrast to disaster exposure. Disaster exposure independently predicted symptoms of PTSD symptoms (Adj. OR=2.47) and agoraphobia (Adj. OR=2.15) in contrast to social organizational stressors. Importantly, levels of disaster exposure were not associated nor correlated with (levels of) social organizational stressors. Findings suggest that post-disaster mental health care programs aimed at employed affected residents, should target social organizational stressors besides disaster-related stressors and lack of general social support.

  1. Longitudinal Mental Health Service and Medication Use of ADHD among Puerto Rican Youth in Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Canino, Glorisa

    2008-01-01

    The study discusses the differences in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Puerto Rican children and the influence of risk factors on mental health services, medication and psychostimulant use among them in two different contexts. The conclusion states that prevalence was similar regardless of context and…

  2. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  3. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385

  4. Digital video analysis of health professionals' interactions with an electronic whiteboard: a longitudinal, naturalistic study of changes to user interactions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rasmus; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-12-01

    As hospital departments continue to introduce electronic whiteboards in real clinical settings a range of human factor issues have emerged and it has become clear that there is a need for improved methods for designing and testing these systems. In this study, we employed a longitudinal and naturalistic method in the usability evaluation of an electronic whiteboard system. The goal of the evaluation was to explore the extent to which usability issues experienced by users change as they gain more experience with the system. In addition, the paper explores the use of a new approach to collection and analysis of continuous digital video recordings of naturalistic "live" user interactions. The method developed and employed in the study included recording the users' interactions with system during actual use using screen-capturing software and analyzing these recordings for usability issues. In this paper we describe and discuss both the method and the results of the evaluation. We found that the electronic whiteboard system contains system-related usability issues that did not change over time as the clinicians collectively gained more experience with the system. Furthermore, we also found user-related issues that seemed to change as the users gained more experience and we discuss the underlying reasons for these changes. We also found that the method used in the study has certain advantages over traditional usability evaluation methods, including the ability to collect analyze live user data over time. However, challenges and drawbacks to using the method (including the time taken for analysis and logistical issues in doing live recordings) should be considered before utilizing a similar approach. In conclusion we summarize our findings and call for an increased focus on longitudinal and naturalistic evaluations of health information systems and encourage others to apply and refine the method utilized in this study.

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents With Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Ros, Anna M.; Flores, Donna M.; Mir, Sophie A.; Varni, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined (1) spina bifida (SB) youths’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with nonclinical and chronic health condition (CHC) samples, (2) parent–child agreement regarding HRQOL, and (3) prospective changes in HRQOL. Methods Child and parent-proxy reports of Pediatric Quality of Life were collected at two time waves (Time 1: N = 134, ages 8–15 years; Time 2: N = 109, ages 10–17 years) as part of a larger longitudinal study. Results SB youth had statistically and clinically reduced physical HRQOL compared with the nonclinical and CHC samples at both time points. There were significant discrepancies between youth and parent-proxy reports of HRQOL; youth reported higher levels of physical and social HRQOL than parents. The majority of parent- and child-reported HRQOL domains remained stable, yet youth-reported social HRQOL increased over time. Conclusions Youth with SB are at risk for poor HRQOL. Examining modifiable condition and social–environmental predictors of youth HRQOL will be important in informing future interventions. PMID:25434043

  6. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    PubMed

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research.

  7. Longitudinal Associations between Sex, Diabetes Self-Care, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Youth with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Michelle J.; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Morgan, Timothy M.; Seid, Michael; Lawrence, Jean M.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Waitzfelder, Beth; Standiford, Debra A.; Loots, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal associations between sex, diabetes self-care and the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Study design The sample included 910 Type 1 and 241 Type 2 participants, ages 10–22 at baseline, from SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth, a longitudinal observational study. The primary outcome measure was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Repeated measures, mixed model regression analysis was conducted using data from baseline and at least one follow-up assessment, spanning approximately 4 years. Results HRQL was higher among those with Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Among Type 1 participants, higher (better) PedsQL total scores over time were related to higher parent education (p=0.0007), lower HbA1c values (p<.0001), and greater physical activity during the past 7 days (p=0.0001). There was a significant interaction between sex and age (p<0.0001); girls’ HRQL remained stable or decreased over time, whereas males’ HRQL increased. For participants with Type 2 diabetes, there was no significant interaction by age and sex, but lower total HRQL was related to being female (p=0.011) and higher BMI-z scores (p=0.014). Conclusions HRQL in this cohort varied by diabetes type. The interaction between sex and age for Type 1 participants, coupled with poorer HRQL among females than males with Type 2 diabetes, suggests the impacts of diabetes on HRQL differ by sex and should be considered in clinical management. Encouraging physical activity and weight control continue to be important in improving HRQL. PMID:24582483

  8. Access to health-care in Canadian immigrants: a longitudinal study of the National Population Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants often lose their health advantage as they start adapting to the ways of the new society. Having access to care when it is needed is one way that individuals can maintain their health. We assessed the healthcare access in Canadian immigrants and the socioeconomic factors associated with access over a 12-year period. We compared two measures of healthcare access (having a regular doctor and reporting an unmet healthcare need in the past 12 months) among immigrants and Canadian-born men and women, aged more than 18 years. We applied a logistic random effects model to evaluate these outcomes separately, in 3081 males and 4187 females from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006). Adjusting for all covariates, immigrant men and women (white and non-white) had similar odds of having a regular doctor than the Canadian-born individuals (white immigrants: males OR: 1.32, 95% C.I.: 0.89-1.94, females OR: 1.14, 95% C.I.: 0.78-1.66; non-white immigrants: males OR: 1.28, 95% C.I.: 0.73-2.23, females OR: 1.23, 95% C.I.: 0.64-2.36). Interestingly, non-white immigrant women had significantly fewer unmet health needs (OR: 0.32, 95% C.I.: 0.17-0.59). Among immigrants, time since immigration was associated with having access to a regular doctor (OR per year: 1.02, 95% C.I.: 1.00-1.04). Visible minority female immigrants were least likely to report an unmet healthcare need. In general, there is little evidence that immigrants have worse access to health-care than the Canadian-born population.

  9. Redefining Gulf War Illness Using Longitudinal Health Data: The Fort Devens Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    deficits, skin rash, gastrointestinal difficulties and sleep problems. The initial attempts at identifying case definition used a one-time cross...sectional health symptom report, which is insufficient for determining a case definition given that symptoms often show remitting and relapsing tendencies...more appropriate treatment avenues for ill veterans, it is essential that a refined case definition be found taking change over time into account and

  10. Measuring the Strategic Value of the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    blood glucose for diabetics or peak flow for asthmat- ics) when the EMR possesses a patient portal . There is little direct evidence that patients...AHLTA to send reminders to patients. However, the TRICARE Management Activity (TMA) offers a patient portal called TRICARE-Online, which allows...patients to make appointments online and access health-related content. In principle, the portal could eventually incorporate two-way access to the

  11. Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-12-01

    Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescents (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Parents' reports of discrimination, negative context of reception, and acculturative stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  13. Sexual (Minority) Trajectories, Mental Health, and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study of Youth as They Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica N; Pasley, Kay

    2015-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning youth health disparities are well documented; however, study limitations restrict our understanding of how the temporal interplay among domains of sexuality (attraction, behavior, and identity) situate individuals to be more or less at risk for poor mental health and alcohol use across the transition to adulthood. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 12,679; 51.29 % female) were used with repeated measures latent class analysis to estimate sexual trajectory groups designated by prospective reports of romantic attraction, sexual/romantic behavior, and sexual identity from adolescence to adulthood. Five unique trajectories emerged: two heterosexual groups (heterosexual early daters [58.37 %] and heterosexual later daters [29.83 %]) and three sexual minority groups (heteroflexible [6.44 %], later bisexually identified [3.32 %], and LG[B] identified [2.03 %]). These sexual trajectories differentiate risk for depressive symptomology, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and alcohol use during adolescence and early adulthood. Groups where individuals first reported same-sex attraction and sexual minority identities in adulthood (heteroflexible and later bisexually identified) had similar levels of depression, suicidality, and greater substance use than those who largely reported same-sex attraction and behavior during adolescence (the LG[B] identified group). These later recognition groups showed greater risk for poor outcomes in waves where they also first reported these changes in attraction, behaviors, and identities. The emergence of three sexual minority groups reveal within-group differences in sexuality and sexual trajectories and how these experiences relate to risk and timing of risk across the transition to adulthood.

  14. The impact of socioeconomic status on changes in the general and mental health of women over time: evidence from a longitudinal study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Generally, men and women of higher socioeconomic status (SES) have better health. Little is known about how socioeconomic factors are associated with changes in health as women progress through mid-life. This study uses data from six survey waves (1996 to 2010) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) to examine associations between SES and changes in the general health and mental health of a cohort of women progressing in years from 45–50 to 59–64. Methods Participants were 12,709 women (born 1946–51) in the ALSWH. Outcome measures were the general health and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36). The measure of SES was derived from factor analysis of responses to questions in the ALSWH baseline survey (1996) on school leaving age, highest qualifications, and current or last occupation. Multi-level random coefficient models, adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health behaviors, were used to analyze repeated measures of general health and mental health. Survey year accounted for changes in factors across time. In the first set of analyses we investigated associations between the SES index, used as a “continuous” variable, and general health and mental health changes over time. To illuminate the impact of different levels of SES on health, a second analysis was conducted in which SES scores were grouped into three approximately equal sized categories or “tertiles” as reported in an earlier ALSWH study. The least square means of general and mental health scores from the longitudinal models were plotted for the three SES tertiles. Results The longitudinal analysis showed that, after adjusting for the effects of time and possible confounders, the general (mental) health of this cohort of mid-aged women declined (increased) over time. Higher SES women reported better health than lower SES women, and SES significantly modified the effects of time on both general

  15. Research Reproducibility in Longitudinal Multi-Center Studies Using Data from Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Richesson, Rachel L.; Walden, Anita; Tenenbaum, Jessie D.; Hammond, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental premise of scientific research is that it should be reproducible. However, the specific requirements for reproducibility of research using electronic health record (EHR) data have not been sufficiently articulated. There is no guidance for researchers about how to assess a given project and identify provisions for reproducibility. We analyze three different clinical research initiatives that use EHR data in order to define a set of requirements to reproduce the research using the original or other datasets. We identify specific project features that drive these requirements. The resulting framework will support the much-needed discussion of strategies to ensure the reproducibility of research that uses data from EHRs. PMID:27570682

  16. Research Reproducibility in Longitudinal Multi-Center Studies Using Data from Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Zozus, Meredith N; Richesson, Rachel L; Walden, Anita; Tenenbaum, Jessie D; Hammond, W E

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental premise of scientific research is that it should be reproducible. However, the specific requirements for reproducibility of research using electronic health record (EHR) data have not been sufficiently articulated. There is no guidance for researchers about how to assess a given project and identify provisions for reproducibility. We analyze three different clinical research initiatives that use EHR data in order to define a set of requirements to reproduce the research using the original or other datasets. We identify specific project features that drive these requirements. The resulting framework will support the much-needed discussion of strategies to ensure the reproducibility of research that uses data from EHRs.

  17. Variable Selection and Inference Procedures for Marginal Analysis of Longitudinal Data with Missing Observations and Covariate Measurement Error

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Grace Y.; Tan, Xianming; Li, Runze

    2015-01-01

    Summary In contrast to extensive attention on model selection for univariate data, research on model selection for longitudinal data remains largely unexplored. This is particularly the case when data are subject to missingness and measurement error. To address this important problem, we propose marginal methods that simultaneously carry out model selection and estimation for longitudinal data with missing responses and error-prone covariates. Our method have several appealing features: the applicability is broad because the methods are developed for a unified framework with marginal generalized linear models; model assumptions are minimal in that no full distribution is required for the response process and the distribution of the mismeasured covariates is left unspecified; and the implementation is straightforward. To justify the proposed methods, we provide both theoretical properties and numerical assessments. PMID:26877582

  18. A longitudinal study of health professional students' attitudes towards interprofessional education at an American university.

    PubMed

    Wong, Risa Liang; Fahs, Deborah Bain; Talwalkar, Jaideep S; Colson, Eve R; Desai, Mayur M; Kayingo, Gerald; Balanda, Matthew; Luczak, Anthony G; Rosenthal, Marjorie S

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to improve interprofessional education (IPE) are informed by attitudes of health professional students, yet there are limited US data on student characteristics and experiences associated with positive attitudes towards IPE. A cohort of US medical, nursing, and physician associate students was surveyed in their first and third years, using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Information was also collected on demographics and experiences during training. Health professional students differed in their attitudes towards IPE; characteristics associated with having more positive attitudes at both time points included being a nursing student, female, older, and having more previous healthcare experience. Students who participated in interprofessional extracurricular activities (particularly patient-based activities) during training reported more positive attitudes in the third year than those who did not participate in such activities. Based on these findings, schools may consider how student characteristics and participation in interprofessional extracurricular activities can affect attitudes regarding IPE. Building on the positive elements of this interprofessional extracurricular experience, schools may also want to consider service-learning models of IPE where students work together on shared goals.

  19. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  20. Recent im/migration to Canada linked to unmet health needs among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada: Findings of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sou, Julie; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate

    2017-03-16

    Despite universal health care in Canada, sex workers (SWs) and im/migrants experience suboptimal health care access. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of unmet health needs among SWs in Metro Vancouver over time. Data from a longitudinal cohort of women SWs (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access [AESHA]) were used. Of 742 SWs, 25.5% reported unmet health needs at least once over the 4-year study period. In multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, recent im/migration had the strongest impact on unmet health needs; long-term im/migration, policing, and trauma were also important determinants. Legal and social supports to promote im/migrant SWs' access to health care are recommended.

  1. Investigating Longitudinal Tobacco Use Information from Social History and Clinical Notes in the Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Pakhomov, Serguei; Lindemann, Elizabeth; Melton, Genevieve B

    2016-01-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) provides an opportunity for improved use of clinical documentation including leveraging tobacco use information by clinicians and researchers. In this study, we investigated the content, consistency, and completeness of tobacco use data from structured and unstructured sources in the EHR. A natural language process (NLP) pipeline was utilized to extract details about tobacco use from clinical notes and free-text tobacco use comments within the social history module of an EHR system. We analyzed the consistency of tobacco use information within clinical notes, comments, and available structured fields for tobacco use. Our results indicate that structured fields for tobacco use alone may not be able to provide complete tobacco use information. While there was better consistency for some elements (e.g., status and type), inconsistencies were found particularly for temporal information. Further work is needed to improve tobacco use information integration from different parts of the EHR.

  2. Investigating Longitudinal Tobacco Use Information from Social History and Clinical Notes in the Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Pakhomov, Serguei; Lindemann, Elizabeth; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) provides an opportunity for improved use of clinical documentation including leveraging tobacco use information by clinicians and researchers. In this study, we investigated the content, consistency, and completeness of tobacco use data from structured and unstructured sources in the EHR. A natural language process (NLP) pipeline was utilized to extract details about tobacco use from clinical notes and free-text tobacco use comments within the social history module of an EHR system. We analyzed the consistency of tobacco use information within clinical notes, comments, and available structured fields for tobacco use. Our results indicate that structured fields for tobacco use alone may not be able to provide complete tobacco use information. While there was better consistency for some elements (e.g., status and type), inconsistencies were found particularly for temporal information. Further work is needed to improve tobacco use information integration from different parts of the EHR. PMID:28269918

  3. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern-The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Bronwyn K; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Duncan, Mitch J; Brown, Wendy

    2017-03-10

    Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31-36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59-64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer), work hours (part-time; full-time) and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night). The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women.

  4. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a community-based elderly cohort: the korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains.

  5. Health Disparities in Drug- and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A 12-Year Longitudinal Study of Youths After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Leah J.; Harrison, Anna J.; Abram, Karen M.; Olson, Nichole D.; Aaby, David A.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Washburn, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine sex and racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of 9 substance-use disorders (SUDs)—alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine, inhalant, sedative, and unspecified drug— in youths during the 12 years after detention. Methods. We used data from the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1829 youths randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois, starting in 1995 and reinterviewed up to 9 times in the community or correctional facilities through 2011. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs with Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 (baseline) and Diagnostic Interview Schedule version IV (follow-ups). Results. By median age 28 years, 91.3% of males and 78.5% of females had ever had an SUD. At most follow-ups, males had greater odds of alcohol- and marijuana-use disorders. Drug-use disorders were most prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, followed by Hispanics, then African Americans (e.g., compared with African Americans, non-Hispanic Whites had 32.1 times the odds of cocaine-use disorder [95% confidence interval = 13.8, 74.7]). Conclusions. After detention, SUDs differed markedly by sex, race/ethnicity, and substance abused, and, contrary to stereotypes, did not disproportionately affect African Americans. Services to treat substance abuse—during incarceration and after release—would reach many people in need, and address health disparities in a highly vulnerable population. PMID:26985602

  6. New York City young adults' psychological reactions to 9/11: findings from the Reach for Health longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Agronick, Gail; Stueve, Ann; Vargo, Sue; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2007-03-01

    This research examines psychological distress among 955 economically disadvantaged New York City residents surveyed during high school and again after the September 11th terrorist attacks (9/11), when they were young adults. As part of the longitudinal Reach for Health study, young adult surveys were conducted from 6-19 months post-9/11 (average 8 months), providing opportunity to assess types of exposures and psychological distress, including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, hopelessness, and anger. Regressions of psychological distress on 9/11 exposure were performed, controlling for high school distress, prior exposure to violence victimization, and socio-demographic characteristics. Exposure to 9/11 was positively associated with anger, hopelessness, and PTSD symptoms and a measure of global distress. The relationship was greater among women for PTSD symptoms. Although those who reported high school distress also reported more distress in young adulthood, prior psychological distress did not moderate the relationship between exposure and psychological outcomes. Greater exposure is related to distress among those who, during high school, reported lower distress, as well as among those who reported prior greater distress.

  7. Child abuse and neglect: relations to adolescent binge drinking in the national longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.

  8. Conditional Disease Development extracted from Longitudinal Health Care Cohort Data using Layered Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Venkateshan; Swartz, Fredrik; Kiani, Narsis A.; Silberberg, Gilad; Tsipras, Giorgos; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Alexanderson, Kristina; Tegnèr, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Health care data holds great promise to be used in clinical decision support systems. However, frequent near-synonymous diagnoses recorded separately, as well as the sheer magnitude and complexity of the disease data makes it challenging to extract non-trivial conclusions beyond confirmatory associations from such a web of interactions. Here we present a systematic methodology to derive statistically valid conditional development of diseases. To this end we utilize a cohort of 5,512,469 individuals followed over 13 years at inpatient care, including data on disability pension and cause of death. By introducing a causal information fraction measure and taking advantage of the composite structure in the ICD codes, we extract an effective directed lower dimensional network representation (100 nodes and 130 edges) of our cohort. Unpacking composite nodes into bipartite graphs retrieves, for example, that individuals with behavioral disorders are more likely to be followed by prescription drug poisoning episodes, whereas women with leiomyoma were more likely to subsequently experience endometriosis. The conditional disease development represent putative causal relations, indicating possible novel clinical relationships and pathophysiological associations that have not been explored yet. PMID:27211115

  9. Child Maltreatment and Pediatric Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Low-income Children

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Paul; Stahlschmidt, Mary Jo; Drake, Brett; Constantino, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if maltreatment predicted increased risk of hospital-based treatment prior to age 18 years for asthma, cardio-respiratory, and non-sexually transmitted infectious disease in a sample of low-income children. Methods This study used administrative data from multiple systems to follow children for 12–18 years (N = 6,282). Cox regression was used to explore the risk of first hospital treatment by disease category. Negative binomial regression was used to explore the relationship between recurrent maltreatment and total hospital care episodes. Results Controlling for individual, family, and community factors, children with maltreatment reports had a 74–100% higher risk of hospital treatment. Recurrent reports predicted a higher count of hospital care episodes. Conclusions The negative health impact of maltreatment prior to adulthood supports the need for early prevention and intervention to prevent initial and recurrent child abuse and improve capacity to meet healthcare needs of maltreated children. PMID:19797405

  10. Evaluation of dietary cholesterol intake in elderly Chinese: a longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaofang; Su, Chang; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Huijun; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate daily cholesterol intake across demographic factors and its food sources in elderly Chinese. Design A longitudinal study was conducted using demographic and dietary data for elders aged 60 and above from eight waves (1991–2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Setting The data were derived from urban and rural communities of nine provinces (autonomous regions) in China. Participants There were 16 274 participants (7657 male and 8617 female) in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome was daily cholesterol intake, which was calculated by using the Chinese Food Composition Table, based on dietary data. Results Daily consumption of cholesterol in the elderly significantly increased by 34% from 1991 to 2011 (p<0.0001) and reached 253.9 mg on average in 2011. Secular trends in the proportion of subjects with an intake of >300 mg/day increased significantly during 1991–2011 (p<0.0001). The major food sources of cholesterol by ranked order were eggs, pork, and fish and shellfish in 1991 and 2011, while organ meats which ranked fourth in the contribution to total intake in 1991 was replaced by poultry in 2011. Moreover, younger elders, male elders and elders from a high-income family or a highly urbanised community had higher cholesterol intakes and larger proportions of subjects with excessive cholesterol consumption in each survey year. Conclusions The large growth in daily cholesterol intake may pose major challenges for the health of elders in China. Reduced exposure to food enriched in cholesterol is required for elderly Chinese. PMID:27507232

  11. Affordability, availability and acceptability barriers to health care for the chronically ill: Longitudinal case studies from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Goudge, Jane; Gilson, Lucy; Russell, Steven; Gumede, Tebogo; Mills, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an increasing burden of chronic illness in low and middle income countries, driven by TB/HIV, as well as non-communicable diseases. Few health systems are organized to meet the needs of chronically ill patients, and patients' perspectives on the difficulties of accessing care need to be better understood, particularly in poor resourced settings, to achieve this end. This paper describes the experience of poor households attempting to access chronic care in a rural area of South Africa. Methods A household survey (n = 1446 individuals) was combined with qualitative longitudinal research that followed 30 case study households over 10 months. Illness narratives and diaries provided descriptive textual data of household interactions with the health system. Results In the survey 74% of reported health problems were 'chronic', 48% of which had no treatment action taken in the previous month. Amongst the case study households, of the 34 cases of chronic illness, only 21 (62%) cases had an allopathic diagnosis and only 12 (35%) were receiving regular treatment. Livelihoods exhausted from previous illness and death, low income, and limited social networks, prevented consultation with monthly expenditure for repeated consultations as high as 60% of income. Interrupted drug supplies, insufficient clinical services at the clinic level necessitating referral, and a lack of ambulances further hampered access to care. Poor provider-patient interaction led to inadequate understanding of illness, inappropriate treatment action, 'healer shopping', and at times a break down in cooperation, with the patient 'giving up' on the public health system. However, productive patient-provider interactions not only facilitated appropriate treatment action but enabled patients to justify their need for financial assistance to family and neighbours, and so access care. In addition, patients and their families with understanding of a disease became a community resource drawn on

  12. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Leif E.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. A total of 18 deaths occurred during the 32-year follow-up period for which the all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 142 (95 percent confidence interval 84 225). There was one cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharynegeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 59 percent lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 41; 95 percent confidence limit 5 147). The crude death rate for 10 occupationally related accidents was 400 deaths per 100,000 person-years, which is an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in mining industries. The SMR of 1027 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (14 deaths; 95 percent confidence limit 561 1723) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applications. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10 percent. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 145; 95 percent confidence limit 2 808). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. The results of the study do not confirm the impression that astronauts are at increased risk of cancer, but this does not obviate the need for further study. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  13. Longitudinal study of astronaut health: Mortality in the years 1959-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.E.; Pepper, L.J.; Hamm, P.B.; Gilbert, S.L. )

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a historical cohort study of mortality among 195 astronauts who were exposed to space and medical sources of radiation between 1959 and 1991. Cumulative occupational and medical radiation exposures were obtained from the astronaut radiation exposure history data base. Causes of death were obtained from obligatory death certificates and autopsy reports that were on file in the medical records. There was a total of 20 deaths that occurred during the 32-year follow-up period of which 16 were due to accidents. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 181 (95% confidence interval 110, 279). There was 1 cancer death in the buccal cavity and pharyngeal ICD-9 rubric whose occurrence was significantly beyond expectation. Mortality for coronary disease was 53% lower than expected (2 deaths; SMR = 47; 95% confidence limits 5, 168). The crude death rate for 12 occupationally related accidents was 445 deaths per 100,000 person-years and was an order of magnitude greater than accidental death rates in the mining industries. The SMR of 1346 for fatal accidents was significantly beyond expectation (16 deaths; 95% confidence limits 769, 2168) and was similar to SMRs for accidents among aerial pesticide applicators. The 10-year cumulative risk of occupational fatalities based on the exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and linear-exponential distributions was 10%. Mortality from motor vehicle accidents was slightly higher than expected, but was not significant (1 death; SMR = 165; 95% confidence limits 2,922). Radiation exposures from medical procedures accounted for a majority of cumulative dose when compared with space radiation exposures. Overall, it was found that astronauts are at a health disadvantage as a result of catastrophic accidents.

  14. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  16. Social determinants of health: from observation to policy.

    PubMed

    Marmot, M

    2000-04-17

    Differences in the health of individuals reflect inherent features of the societies in which they live. The way a society organizes itself and delivers wellbeing to its members are major determinants of health. Social, economic and political factors have an important influence on health and longevity. Social position and lifestyle only partially explain ill health. Psychosocial factors, such as a sense of isolation, deprivation or loss of control, are also important. Governments can reduce health inequalities by ensuring that all policies are assessed for their potential impact on the health of all sectors of society.

  17. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  18. Longitudinal in vivo transcutaneous observation of Raman signals from breast cancer during chemotherapy in small animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Myeongsu; Myoung, NoSoung; Yim, Sang-Youp; Kim, Jae G.

    2015-02-01

    Because mammography, the gold standard of breast cancer screening and monitoring treatment efficacy, has limitations, there is a necessity to have a new method for breast cancer patients. Raman spectroscopy is considered as one of the best alternative approaches due to its ability of visualizing (bio)chemical information of a matter. In this study, we hypothesized that the change of biochemical composition occurs earlier than morphological change in breast cancer during chemotherapy, and attempted to prove it by employing fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for longitudinal Raman measurement in small animal breast cancer model. To confirm the hypothesis, we measured Raman spectra of a tumor breast and the contralateral breast during chemotherapy for 4 fisher 344 female rats longitudinally. Principal component analysis and Raman spectral differences between breast tumor and contralateral normal breast did not show a clear difference between them which may have been caused by interference from skin. Thus, spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy will be employed in order to acquire the Raman signal directly from tumor while suppressing Raman signal from skin for the future study.

  19. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity) were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance) and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings) were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-1.49), poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60), more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73), and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41). The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio

  20. Observations of Health Care in China: Four Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attwood, Madge, Ed.

    This collection consists of four papers dealing with the delivery of health care in the People's Republic of China. The papers resulted from a study tour of the Chinese health care system in June 1980. Included in the volume are the following papers: "A Comparison of Selected Aspects of the Health Care Systems of the Socialist Federal…

  1. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  2. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  3. Outcomes of interprofessional education for Community Mental Health Services in England: the longitudinal evaluation of a postgraduate programme.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, John; Barnes, Di; Dickinson, Claire; Wooff, David

    2006-03-01

    We report a comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation of a two-year, part-time postgraduate programme designed to enable health and social care professionals in England to work together to deliver new community mental health services, including psychosocial interventions (PSIs). The study tracked three successive cohorts of students (N = 111) through their learning. Outcomes were assessed according to the Kirkpatrick/Barr et al. framework using a mixed methodology, which employed both quantitative measures and interviews. The students evaluated the programme positively and appreciated its focus on interprofessional learning and partnership with services users, but mean levels of stress increased and almost one quarter dropped out. There was considerable evidence of professional stereotyping but little evidence of change in these during the programme. Students reported substantial increases in their knowledge and skills in multidisciplinary team working and use of PSIs (p < 0.001). Experiences in the implementation of learning varied; in general, students reported significantly greater role conflict (p = 0.01) compared to a sample of their team colleagues (N = 62), but there was strong evidence from self-report measures (p < 0.001) and work-place interviews that the students' use of PSIs had increased. Users with severe mental health problems (N = 72) randomly selected from caseloads of two cohorts of students improved over six months in terms of their social functioning (p = 0.047) and life satisfaction (p = 0.014). Having controlled statistically for differences in baseline score, those in the intervention (programme) group retained a significant advantage in terms of life skills (p < 0.001) compared to service users in two non-intervention comparison groups (N = 133). Responses on a user-defined measure indicated a high level of satisfaction with students' knowledge, skills and personal qualities. We conclude that that there is strong evidence that a well

  4. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation.

  5. Sex-specific associations of low birth weight with adult-onset diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Chor, Dóra; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Appel, Lawrence J; Barreto, Sandhi M; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests sex differences in the early origins of adult metabolic disease, but this has been little investigated in developing countries. We investigated sex-specific associations between low birth weight (LBW; <2.5 kg) and adult-onset diabetes in 12,525 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Diabetes was defined by self-reported information and laboratory measurements. In confounder-adjusted analyses, LBW (vs. 2.5–4 kg) was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes in women (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32–1.79), not in men (PR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.91–1.25; Pheterogeneity = 0.003). The association was stronger among participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.35–1.91), than those without (PR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.99–1.32; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). When jointly stratified by sex and maternal diabetes, the association was observed for women with (PR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.37–2.29) and without (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.20–1.75) maternal diabetes. In contrast, in men, LBW was associated with diabetes in participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83), but not in those without (PR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.74–1.14). These sex-specific findings extended to continuous measures of glucose homeostasis. LBW was associated with higher diabetes prevalence in Brazilian women, and in men with maternal diabetes, suggesting sex-specific intrauterine effects on adult metabolic health. PMID:27845438

  6. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  7. Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenwen; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Youfa; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China. Design A longitudinal study using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was conducted. Participants aged 18 and older from the 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 CHNS were recruited Separate sex-stratified random intercept-slope growth models of repeated BMI observations were estimated in the study. Setting The data were derived from rural communities in nine provinces in China. Participants There were 11 835 male and 12 561 female person-years assessed in this study. Outcomes The primary outcome of this study was weight status. It is defined as a BMI value, a continuous variable which is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m2). Results The study indicated that among men an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.01 kg/m2 decrease in BMI, whereas among women, an increase of one indoor restaurant in the neighbourhood was associated with a 0.005 kg/m2 increase in BMI, and an increase of one fast-food restaurant and one fixed outdoor food stall was associated with a 0.02 and 0.004 kg/m2 decline in BMI, respectively. Conclusions The density of neighbourhood restaurants was found to be significantly related to BMI in rural China. The results indicated that providing healthy food choices and developing related public health policies are necessary to tackle obesity among rural Chinese adults. PMID:24755211

  8. Reconsidering the effects of poverty and social support on health: a 5-year longitudinal test of the stress-buffering hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Schmidt, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Prior research in the general population has found that social support can buffer the adverse effects of stressors on health. However, both stressors and social support may be qualitatively different for those living in urban poverty. We examined the effects of social support and poverty-specific stressors on self-rated health. We used data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Survey (WCLS), a 5-year longitudinal study of 718 public aid recipients. We measured received social support and "net social support," defined as the difference between support received and that given to others. We used restricted cubic splines to model the stress-buffering effects of social support on self-rated health as a function of stressful life events and neighborhood disorder. Increased exposure to stressors was associated with poorer self-rated health. Evidence of stress buffering was confined to those with the heaviest exposure to stressors, and its effects decreased across increasing levels of social support. Analyses using net social support had generally more modest effects than those using received social support. Social support does not buffer the effects of stressors on health uniformly for individuals living in conditions of urban poverty. Researchers and policymakers should be cautious in overestimating the beneficial effects that social support may have on health for marginalized populations.

  9. Longitudinal trends in use and costs of targeted therapies for common cancers in Taiwan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jason C; Lu, Christine Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Some targeted therapies have improved survival and overall quality of cancer care generally, but these increasingly expensive medicines have led to increases in pharmaceutical expenditure. This study examined trends in use and expenditures of antineoplastic agents in Taiwan, and estimated market shares by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies over time. We also determined which cancer types accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Design This is a retrospective observational study focusing on the utilisation of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer. Setting The monthly claims data for antineoplastic agents were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2009–2012). Main outcome measures We calculated market shares by prescription volume and costs for each class of antineoplastic agent by cancer type. Using a time series design with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, we estimated trends in use and costs of targeted therapies. Results Among all antineoplastic agents, use of targeted therapies grew from 6.24% in 2009 to 12.29% in 2012, but their costs rose from 26.16% to 41.57% in that time. Monoclonal antibodies and protein kinase inhibitors contributed the most (respectively, 23.84% and 16.12% of costs for antineoplastic agents in 2012). During 2009–2012, lung (44.64% of use; 28.26% of costs), female breast (16.49% of use; 27.18% of costs) and colorectal (12.11% of use; 13.16% of costs) cancers accounted for the highest use of targeted therapies. Conclusions In Taiwan, targeted therapies are increasingly used for different cancers, representing a substantial economic burden. It is important to establish mechanisms to monitor their use and outcomes. PMID:27266775

  10. Polarization observables in the longitudinal basis for pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction using a density matrix approach

    SciTech Connect

    Biplab Dey, Michael E. McCracken, David G. Ireland, Curtis A. Meyer

    2011-05-01

    The complete expression for the intensity in pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction with a polarized beam, target, and recoil baryon is derived using a density matrix approach that offers great economy of notation. A Cartesian basis with spins for all particles quantized along a single direction, the longitudinal beam direction, is used for consistency and clarity in interpretation. A single spin-quantization axis for all particles enables the amplitudes to be written in a manifestly covariant fashion with simple relations to those of the well-known CGLN formalism. Possible sign discrepancies between theoretical amplitude-level expressions and experimentally measurable intensity profiles are dealt with carefully. Our motivation is to provide a coherent framework for coupled-channel partial-wave analysis of several meson photoproduction reactions, incorporating recently published and forthcoming polarization data from Jefferson Lab.

  11. Polarization observables in the longitudinal basis for pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction using a density matrix approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Biplab; Meyer, Curtis A.; McCracken, Michael E.; Ireland, David G.

    2011-05-15

    The complete expression for the intensity in pseudo-scalar meson photoproduction with a polarized beam, target, and recoil baryon is derived using a density matrix approach that offers great economy of notation. A Cartesian basis with spins for all particles quantized along a single direction, the longitudinal beam direction, is used for consistency and clarity in interpretation. A single spin-quantization axis for all particles enables the amplitudes to be written in a manifestly covariant fashion with simple relations to those of the well-known Chew-Goldberger-Low-Nambu formalism. Possible sign discrepancies between theoretical amplitude-level expressions and experimentally measurable intensity profiles are dealt with carefully. Our motivation is to provide a coherent framework for coupled-channel partial-wave analysis of several meson photoproduction reactions, incorporating recently published and forthcoming polarization data from Jefferson Lab.

  12. Observation, control, and modal analysis of longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS via a digital feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Claus, R.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Ross, W.; Teytelman, D.; Drago, A.; Serio, M.; Byrd, J.; Corlett, J.; Stover, G.

    1997-01-01

    The operation of a longitudinal multibunch damping system using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques is shown via measurements from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS). The feedback system (developed for use by PEP-II, ALS, and DA{Phi}NE) uses a parallel array of signal processors to implement a bunch-by-bunch feedback system for sampling rates up to 500 MHz. The programmable DSP system allows feedback control as well as accelerator diagnostics. A diagnostic technique is illustrated which uses the DSP system to excite and then damp the beam. The resulting 12-ms time domain transient is Fourier analyzed to provide the simultaneous measurement of growth rates and damping rates of all unstable coupled-bunch beam modes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend<0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15-1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27-1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (-10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80-1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94-1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10-1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As.

  14. Acculturation and overweight-related behaviors among Hispanic immigrants to the US: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Ward, Dianne S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the factors underlying the striking increase in overweight occurring between first and second generation US immigrants. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addressed two goals. First, we determined which measures of acculturation (defined as the acquisition of dominant cultural norms by members of a non-dominant group) were important. Second, we determined how the acculturation process affected differences in overweight and its proximate determinants (e.g., physical activity, diet, and smoking) as immigrants acculturated to American society. In addition, we sought to elucidate the role of underlying structural factors (e.g., family income and crime) and acculturation factors (e.g., language spoken at home and proportion of foreign-born neighbors) in generation differences in overweight. Results showed clear structural and acculturation differences between foreign and US-born immigrants to the US. Foreign-born immigrants were more likely to have lower family income and maternal education, and to live in areas of higher immigrant density and greater linguistic isolation. In addition, results suggested rapid acculturation of overweight-related behaviors, such as diet, smoking, and inactivity, in US-born relative to foreign-born immigrants. Multivariate analysis indicated that longer US residence was associated with increased overweight among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. Predicted probabilities showed that controlling for acculturation and proximate factors increased overweight among foreign-born adolescents, but had minimal impact for US-born adolescents. Thus, without the beneficial pattern of: acculturation factors, diet, and physical activity, first generation Hispanic adolescents would have higher overweight prevalence. We found important generation differences in structural, acculturation, and proximate overweight determinants. These lifestyle differences between foreign- and US-born Hispanic

  15. The Impact of Occupation on Self-Rated Health: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence from the Health and Retirement Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; Falba, Tracy A.; Fletcher, Jason M.; Keenan, Patricia; Wu, Ran; Gallo, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to estimate occupational differences in self-rated health, both in cross-section and over time, among older individuals. Methods We use hierarchical linear models to estimate self-reported health as a function of 8 occupational categories and key covariates. We examine self-reported health status over 7 waves (12 years) of the Health and Retirement Study. Our study sample includes 9,586 individuals with 55,389 observations. Longest occupation is used to measure the cumulative impact of occupation, address the potential for reverse causality, and allow the inclusion of all older individuals, including those no longer working. Results Significant baseline differences in self-reported health by occupation are found even after accounting for demographics, health habits, economic attributes, and employment characteristics. But contrary to our hypothesis, there is no support for significant differences in slopes of health trajectories even after accounting for dropout. Conclusions Our findings suggest that occupation-related differences found at baseline are durable and persist as individuals age. PMID:19196689

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  17. Observers see Clinton moving quickly on health care reform.

    PubMed

    Hagland, M; Hudson, T; Lumsdon, K

    1992-11-20

    The 1992 presidential election was about a lot of things, from the economy to taxes to education. Health care reform played a major role in the public policy debate, and the different approaches taken by the candidates on that issue helped define them. A look at the result and what it may mean for the health care field.

  18. Comprehensive Health Assessments During De-Institutionalization: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, N.; Rey-Conde, T.; Cooling, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) leaving institutions pass through a transition stage that makes them vulnerable to inadequate health care. They enter into community care under general practitioners (GPs) who are often untrained and inexperienced in their needs. Specifically designed health reviews may be of assistance to both…

  19. Application of lean thinking to health care: issues and observations

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Tom; Bongers, Inge; Janssen, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Incidents and quality problems are a prime cause why health care leaders are calling to redesign health care delivery. One of the concepts used is lean thinking. Yet, lean often leads to resistance. Also, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting lean premises. In this paper, we present an overview of lean thinking and its application to health care. Development, theory and application of lean thinking to health care Lean thinking evolved from a tool designed to improve operational shop-floor performance at an automotive manufacturer to a management approach with both operational and sociotechnical aspects. Sociotechnical dynamics have until recently not received much attention. At the same time a balanced approach might lead to a situation where operational and sociotechnial improvements are mutually reinforcing. Application to health care has been limited and focussed mainly on operational aspects using original lean tools. A more integrative approach would be to pay more attention to sociotechnical dynamics of lean implementation efforts. Also, the need to use the original lean tools may be limited, because health care may have different instruments and tools already in use that are in line with lean thinking principles. Discussion We believe lean thinking has the potential to improve health care delivery. At the same time, there are methodological and practical considerations that need to be taken into account. Otherwise, lean implementation will be superficial and fail, adding to existing resistance and making it more difficult to improve health care in the long term. PMID:19696048

  20. Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Marisela B

    2016-04-01

    Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.

  1. Age dependency of peripheral and central systolic blood pressures: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Staessen, Jan A; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; O'Rourke, Michael; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have described the age-related changes in both peripheral and central systolic blood pressures (SBPs) in populations. We addressed this issue in 1066 women and 978 men, all untreated (mean age, 45.1 years; 27.2% hypertensive) and randomly selected from a Chinese population, of whom 369 and 330 underwent a repeat examination after 3.6 years (median). In cross-sectional analyses, central SBP increased more with age than peripheral SBP in women below age 50 (1.21 vs. 1.01 mm Hg per year; P<0.001) and in men below age 60 (0.73 vs. 0.48 mm Hg per year; P<0.001), whereas in older women (0.64 vs. 0.58 mm Hg per year; P=0.27) and older men (0.45 vs. 0.44 mm Hg per year; P=0.79), the slopes of central and peripheral SBPs on age were similar. Compared with men, women had steeper (P<0.001) age-related increases in peripheral and central SBPs. Systolic augmentation pressure increased with age, but this increase was substantially smaller (P<0.0001) for peripheral than central augmentation (women, 0.086 vs. 0.45 mm Hg per year; men, 0.083 vs. 0.39 mm Hg per year). In multivariable-adjusted regression, age contributed ≥89.7% of the explained variance in peripheral and central SBPs. In longitudinal analyses, the annual percentage increases from baseline to follow-up in peripheral and central SBP were similar (P≥0.76) in both women (2.14% vs. 2.16 % per year) and men (1.33% vs. 1.34 % per year; P-values for sex difference ≤0.044). In conclusion, in younger subjects assessed cross-sectionally, the age-related increase was larger for central than peripheral SBP, whereas the corresponding cross-sectional estimates in older subjects and the longitudinal estimates in all subjects showed similar age-related increases in central and peripheral SBP.

  2. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional.

  3. Longitudinal data subject to irregular observation: A review of methods with a focus on visit processes, assumptions, and study design.

    PubMed

    Pullenayegum, Eleanor M; Lim, Lily Sh

    2016-12-01

    When data are collected longitudinally, measurement times often vary among patients. This is of particular concern in clinic-based studies, for example retrospective chart reviews. Here, typically no two patients will share the same set of measurement times and moreover, it is likely that the timing of the measurements is associated with disease course; for example, patients may visit more often when unwell. While there are statistical methods that can help overcome the resulting bias, these make assumptions about the nature of the dependence between visit times and outcome processes, and the assumptions differ across methods. The purpose of this paper is to review the methods available with a particular focus on how the assumptions made line up with visit processes encountered in practice. Through this we show that no one method can handle all plausible visit scenarios and suggest that careful analysis of the visit process should inform the choice of analytic method for the outcomes. Moreover, there are some commonly encountered visit scenarios that are not handled well by any method, and we make recommendations with regard to study design that would minimize the chances of these problematic visit scenarios arising.

  4. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Safety and Health Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Sue Smith, a medical clinic employee at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, takes the temperature of colleague Karen Badon during 2009 Safety and Health Day activities Oct. 22. Safety Day activities included speakers, informational sessions and a number of displays on safety and health issues. Astronaut Dominic Gorie also visited the south Mississippi rocket engine testing facility during the day to address employees and present several Silver Snoopy awards for outstanding contributions to flight safety and mission success. The activities were part of an ongoing safety and health emphasis at Stennis.

  5. Myocardial infarction in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: the interaction among environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Tina K; Yonker, James A; Chang, Vicky; Roan, Carol L; Herd, Pamela; Atwood, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors interact to contribute to myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Design Survey data collected by Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), USA, from 1957 to 2011, including 235 environmental, health, social and behavioural factors, and 77 single- nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed for association with MI. To identify associations with MI we utilized recursive partitioning and random forest prior to logistic regression and chi-squared analyses. Participants 6198 WLS participants (2938 men; 3260 women) who (1) had a MI before 72 years and (2) had a MI between 65 and 72 years. Results In men, stroke (LR OR: 5.01, 95% CI 3.36 to 7.48), high cholesterol (3.29, 2.59 to 4.18), diabetes (3.24, 2.53 to 4.15) and high blood pressure (2.39, 1.92 to 2.96) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. For those with high cholesterol, the interaction of smoking and lower alcohol consumption increased prevalence from 23% to 41%, with exposure to dangerous working conditions, a factor not previously linked with MI, further increasing prevalence to 50%. Conversely, MI was reported in <2.5% of men with normal cholesterol and no history of diabetes or depression. Only stroke (4.08, 2.17 to 7.65) and diabetes (2.71, 1.81 to 4.04) by 65 remained significantly associated with MI for men after age 65. For women, diabetes (5.62, 4.08 to 7.75), high blood pressure (3.21, 2.34 to 4.39), high cholesterol (2.03, 1.38 to 3.00) and dissatisfaction with their financial situation (4.00, 1.94 to 8.27) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. Conversely, often engaging in physical activity alone (0.53, 0.32 to 0.89) or with others (0.34, 0.21 to 0.57) was associated with the largest reduction in odds of MI. Being non-diabetic with normal blood pressure and engaging in physical activity often lowered prevalence of MI to 0.2%. Only diabetes by 65 (4.25, 2.50 to 7

  6. Health and Exercise-Related Medical Issues among 1,212 Ultramarathon Runners: Baseline Findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Martin D.; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001) and less experienced (p<0.01) than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01) among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the

  7. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001) and less experienced (p<0.01) than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01) among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the

  8. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; and others

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low-to-moderate exposed

  9. Impact of a type 2 diabetes diagnosis on mental health, quality of life, and social contacts: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim was to examine whether a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis increases the odds of psychological distress, a worsening in overall quality of life, and a potential reduction in social contacts. Method Longitudinal data were obtained from the 45 and Up Study (baseline 2006–2008; 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time). Fixed effects logistic and negative binomial regression models were fitted on a complete case on outcome sample that did not report T2DM at baseline (N=26 344), adjusted for time-varying confounders. The key exposure was doctor-diagnosed T2DM at follow-up. Outcome variables examined included the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, self-rated quality of life, and four indicators of social contacts. Results A modest increase in the odds of psychological distress associated with T2DM diagnosis (OR=1.30) was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.75 to 2.25). A T2DM diagnosis was associated with a fivefold increase in the odds of a participant reporting that their quality of life had become significantly poorer (OR 5.49, 95% CI 1.26 to 23.88). T2DM diagnosis was also associated with a reduction in times spent with friends and family (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95), contacts by telephone (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.02), attendance at social clubs or religious groups (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91), and the number of people nearby but outside the home that participants felt they could rely on (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.98). Conclusions A T2DM diagnosis can have important impacts on quality of life and on social contacts, which may have negative impacts on mental health and T2DM management in the longer term. PMID:28243446

  10. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7,843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (−10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  11. Childhood Peer Rejection and Aggression as Predictors of Adolescent Girls' Externalizing and Health Risk Behaviors: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined girls' peer-nominated social preference and aggression in childhood as predictors of self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms, substance use (i.e.. cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use), and sexual risk behavior in adolescence. Participants were 148 girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds, who were…

  12. Risk factors of Internet addiction and the health effect of internet addiction on adolescents: a systematic review of longitudinal and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T

    2014-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.

  13. Body mass index moderates the relationship between C-reactive protein and depressive symptoms: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tingting; Liu, Wenhua; Yin, Minghui; Shu, Chang; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Yin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of abnormal body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in the depression-CRP (C-reactive protein) relationship in a healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Analytical samples were drawn from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and participants were categorized by different BMI levels. Depressive subtypes were evaluated both at baseline and follow-up using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale. Hs-CRP and other variables were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between depression and baseline hs-CRP. Depression was significantly negatively associated with BMI (ρ = −0.077, p < 0.0001), with underweight associated with worse depressive symptoms than other BMI groups. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum hs-CRP and depressive subtypes were significantly positive in the underweight group (p < 0.05). However, in the other BMI groups (from normal weight to obesity), the CRP-depression relationship was no longer significant (p > 0.05). The significant relationship between CRP and depression in the underweight group suggested that not only obesity but also a low BMI could explain a substantial portion of the inflammation-depression link. PMID:28128231

  14. Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Mona; Gilbody, Simon; Ronzi, Sara; Hanratty, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of social relationships on morbidity is widely accepted, but the size of the risk to cardiovascular health is unclear. Objective We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between loneliness or social isolation and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Methods Sixteen electronic databases were systematically searched for longitudinal studies set in high-income countries and published up until May 2015. Two independent reviewers screened studies for inclusion and extracted data. We assessed quality using a component approach and pooled data for analysis using random effects models. Results Of the 35 925 records retrieved, 23 papers met inclusion criteria for the narrative review. They reported data from 16 longitudinal datasets, for a total of 4628 CHD and 3002 stroke events recorded over follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 21 years. Reports of 11 CHD studies and 8 stroke studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis. Poor social relationships were associated with a 29% increase in risk of incident CHD (pooled relative risk: 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.59) and a 32% increase in risk of stroke (pooled relative risk: 1.32, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.68). Subgroup analyses did not identify any differences by gender. Conclusions Our findings suggest that deficiencies in social relationships are associated with an increased risk of developing CHD and stroke. Future studies are needed to investigate whether interventions targeting loneliness and social isolation can help to prevent two of the leading causes of death and disability in high-income countries. Study registration number CRD42014010225. PMID:27091846

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Nursing--Patient Observation and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Freda; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct nurses and nursing students in patient observation and assessment skills. The first module, "The ABC's of Observation" by Freda Cooper, provides psychiatric nurses and technicians with guidelines for determining the mental status of incoming…

  16. INTEGRATED EARTH OBSERVATIONS: APPLICATION TO AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2005, ministers from 60 countries and the European Commission met in Brussels, Belgium to endorse the 10-year plan for a Global Earth Observation System of Systems(GEOSS) prepared by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), a partnership of nations and international org...

  17. Longitudinal Functional Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana-Maria

    We consider dependent functional data that are correlated because of a longitudinal-based design: each subject is observed at repeated times and at each time a functional observation (curve) is recorded. We propose a novel parsimonious modeling framework for repeatedly observed functional observations that allows to extract low dimensional features. The proposed methodology accounts for the longitudinal design, is designed to study the dynamic behavior of the underlying process, allows prediction of full future trajectory, and is computationally fast. Theoretical properties of this framework are studied and numerical investigations confirm excellent behavior in finite samples. The proposed method is motivated by and applied to a diffusion tensor imaging study of multiple sclerosis.

  18. Using longitudinal data from the Health Survey for England to resolve discrepancies in thresholds for haemoglobin in older adults.

    PubMed

    Mindell, Jennifer; Moody, Alison; Ali, Ayesha; Hirani, Vasant

    2013-02-01

    Anaemia increases with age and is common among older people. Due to its relationship with morbidity and mortality, accurate diagnosis is important. Thresholds defining the diagnosis of anaemia have been the subject of considerable scientific debate, with both higher and lower cut-offs proposed. High haemoglobin is also a health risk in some but not all studies. Using nationally representative data of 5,329 adults aged 65 + years (Health Survey for England 1998, 2005, 2006), linked to administrative mortality data, this paper describes the relationship between haemoglobin levels and mortality, adjusted for age and other confounders. Among men, a reverse J shaped relationship was observed: relative to the modal group (140-149 g/l), those with 'mild anaemia' of 120-129 g/l haemoglobin had a 56% (95% confidence interval 24-96%) greater mortality hazard, and those with 'severe anaemia', haemoglobin <120 g/l, had an 87% (39-153%) greater hazard. At the other end of the range, those with haemoglobin ≥160 g/l had 32% (2-70%) greater mortality hazard. Haemoglobin levels in women showed a similar but smaller, non-significant pattern: hazard ratio 1·32 (0·91-1·92) for severe anaemia (<110 g/l), and 1·30 (0·95-1·79) for high haemoglobin (≥150 g/l). This research supports the use of the World Health Organization thresholds (130 g/l for men, 120 g/l for women).

  19. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures.

  20. Living into the story: agency and coherence in a longitudinal study of narrative identity development and mental health over the course of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jonathan M

    2012-02-01

    Narrative identity is the internalized, evolving story of the self that each person crafts to provide his or her life with a sense of purpose and unity. A proliferation of empirical research studies focused on narrative identity have explored its relationship with psychological well-being. The present study is the first prospective, multiwave longitudinal investigation to examine short-term personality change via an emphasis on narrative identity as it relates to mental health. Forty-seven adults wrote rich personal narratives prior to beginning psychotherapy and after every session over 12 assessment points while concurrently completing a measure of mental health. Narratives were coded for the themes of agency and coherence, which capture the dual aims of narrative identity: purpose and unity. By applying in-depth thematic coding to the stories of participants, the present study produced 47 case studies of intraindividual personality development and mental health. By employing multilevel modeling with the entire set of nearly 600 narratives, the present study also identified robust trends of individual differences in narrative changes as they related to improvements in mental health. Results indicated that, across participants, the theme of agency, but not coherence, increased over the course of time. In addition, increases in agency were related to improvements in participants' mental health. Finally, lagged growth curve models revealed that changes in the theme of agency occurred prior to the associated improvements in mental health. This finding remained consistent across a variety of individual-difference variables including demographics, personality traits, and ego development.

  1. The distinct roles of spirituality and religiosity in physical and mental health after collective trauma: a national longitudinal study of responses to the 9/11 attacks.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Daniel N; Poulin, Michael J; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have identified health implications of religiosity and spirituality but have rarely addressed differences between these dimensions. The associations of religiosity and spirituality with physical and mental health were examined in a national sample (N = 890) after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11). Health information was collected before 9/11 and health, religiosity, and spirituality were assessed longitudinally during six waves of data collection over the next 3 years. Religiosity (i.e., participation in religious social structures) predicted higher positive affect (β = .12), fewer cognitive intrusions (β = -.07), and lower odds of new onset mental (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = .88) and musculoskeletal (IRR = .94) ailments. Spirituality (i.e., subjective commitment to spiritual or religious beliefs) predicted higher positive affect (β = .09), lower odds of new onset infectious ailments (IRR = 0.83), more intrusions (β = .10) and a more rapid decline in intrusions over time (β = -.10). Religiosity and spirituality independently predict health after a collective trauma, controlling for pre-event health status; they are not interchangeable indices of religion.

  2. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  3. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  4. Moderators, mediators, and bidirectional relationships in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: An empirical investigation using a longitudinal design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Badley, Elizabeth M; Falissard, Bruno; Dub, Timothée; Leplege, Alain; Coste, Joël

    2015-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) published in 2001 describes the consequences of health conditions with three components of impairments in body structures or functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Two of the new features of the conceptual model were the possibility of feedback effects between each ICF component and the introduction of contextual factors conceptualized as moderators of the relationship between the components. The aim of this longitudinal study is to provide empirical evidence of these two kinds of effect. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a French population-based cohort of 548 patients with knee osteoarthritis recruited between April 2007 and March 2009 and followed for three years. Indicators of the body structure and function, activity and participation components of the ICF were derived from self-administered standardized instruments. The measurement model revealed four separate factors for body structures impairments, body functions impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The classic sequence from body impairments to participation restrictions through activity limitations was found at each assessment time. Longitudinal study of the ICF component relationships showed a feedback pathway indicating that the level of participation restrictions at baseline was predictive of activity limitations three years later. Finally, the moderating role of personal (age, sex, mental health, etc.) and environmental factors (family relationships, mobility device use, etc.) was investigated. Three contextual factors (sex, family relationships and walking stick use) were found to be moderators for the relationship between the body impairments and the activity limitations components. Mental health was found to be a mediating factor of the effect of activity limitations on participation restrictions.

  5. Trypanosoma-Cruzi Cross-Reactive Antibodies Longitudinal Follow-Up: A Prospective Observational Study in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Esber S.; Gueyffier, Lucie; Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Vanhems, Philippe; Pozzetto, Bruno; Sobh, Mohamad; Pottel, Hans; Michallet, Mauricette; Zrein, Maan A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies named TcCRA “Trypanosoma cruzi Cross Reactive Antibodies” were detected in 47% of blood donors from French population unexposed to the parasite. In order to evaluate the passive or active transmissibility of TcCRA and further characterize its role and etiology, we have conducted a study in a cohort of 47 patients who underwent allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations (allo-HSCT). Donors and recipients were tested for TcCRA prior to transplantation. Recipients were further tested during follow-up after transplantation. Demographical, clinical and biological data were collected. Our primary end-point was to assess the risk of TcCRA acquisition after transplantation. During this initial analysis, we observed no seroconversion in patients receiving cells from TcCRA negative donors (n = 23) but detected seroconversion in 4 out of 24 patients who received hematopoietic stem cells from positive donors. Here, we are discussing possible scenarios to explain TcCRA-immune status in recipient after transplantation. PMID:26351849

  6. Inflammation and positive affect: Examining the stress-buffering hypothesis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Cara L; Sagui, Sara J; Bennett, Jeanette M

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the influence of positive affect (PA) on levels of inflammation within the context of Pressman and Cohen's (2005) stress-buffering model, which suggests that PA confers protective health benefits through its ability to mitigate the pathogenic influence of stress. We hypothesized that greater PA would buffer against the influence of perceived psychological stress (PPS) on systemic inflammation, operationalized as C-reactive protein (CRP, mg/L). Specifically, we predicted that PA would moderate the relationship between PPS and CRP. Cross-sectional data were drawn from Wave IV (2008-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Participants (n=3093) ranged in age from 25 to 34years old (M=29.0±1.79). Using a moderated hierarchical regression analysis, PPS and PA significantly interacted to predict levels of CRP (p<0.05). Examination of the simple slopes revealed a disordinal interaction between PPS and PA, such that higher PA was protective against elevated CRP levels, but only when individuals also reported greater levels of PPS. Thus, the data partially support the stress-buffering model of PA and extend existing evidence regarding the complexity by which PPS and PA influence health. Findings also provide caution of future assumptions that relationships among PA, PPS, and physical health markers, such as CRP, are always positive (e.g., PA) or negative (e.g., PPS) in nature.

  7. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  8. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  9. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models and Decisions Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. M.; Haynes, J. A.; Omar, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Health and Air Quality providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential of utilizing Earth Observations in studying health. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the public health and air quality research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Public Health and Air Quality Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide an overview of projects dealing with infectious diseases, water borne diseases and air quality and how many environmental variables effect human health. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in public health research.

  10. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families’ wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. PMID:25814338

  11. Nonlocal Heat Transport by Longitudinal/Transverse EM Waves in Magnetically Confined Plasmas and Modelling of the Observed Nonlocal Phenomena in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.

    1996-11-01

    The nonlocal transport approach is formulated, based on anomalous cross-field energy transport (ACFET) by the longitudinal/tranverse EM waves of the mean free path of the order and much larger than plasma characteristic size and, correspondingly, on integral equation in space variables. Self-consistency of this approach is shown in interpreting those observed phenomena of nonlocality whose interpretation in "local", diffusion-like approaches gives instant jumps of thermal diffusivities in a large part of plasma volume. The modelling is carried out of the initial stage of recently observed phenomena of fast nonlocal energy transport: (i) net inward flux of energy during off-axis heating (vs. ECRH experiments on D-III-D); (ii) prompt rise of temperature in the core in "cold pulse" experiments (fast cooling of the periphery) on TEXT and TFTR; (iii) fast "volumetric" response of energy transport to plasma edge behavior during L-H transitions (in JET and JT-60U). The results suggest (a) universal and transparent physical explanation of the mechanism of nonlocal inward energy flux, which is lost in diffusion-like approaches, and (b) necessity to append existing numerical codes with nonlocal transport term, an integral in space variables.

  12. IDENTIFYING GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS WITH VARIABILITY IN METABOLIC HEALTH AND BLOOD COUNT LABORATORY VALUES: DIVING INTO THE QUANTITATIVE TRAITS BY LEVERAGING LONGITUDINAL DATA FROM AN EHR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shefali S; Lucas, Anastasia M; Lavage, Daniel R; Leader, Joseph B; Metpally, Raghu; Krishnamurthy, Sarathbabu; Dewey, Frederick; Borecki, Ingrid; Lopez, Alexander; Overton, John; Penn, John; Reid, Jeffrey; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Breitwieser, Gerda; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of patient health data is recorded in Electronic Health Records (EHR). This data includes diagnosis, surgical procedures, clinical laboratory measurements, and medication information. Together this information reflects the patient's medical history. Many studies have efficiently used this data from the EHR to find associations that are clinically relevant, either by utilizing International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) codes or laboratory measurements, or by designing phenotype algorithms to extract case and control status with accuracy from the EHR. Here we developed a strategy to utilize longitudinal quantitative trait data from the EHR at Geisinger Health System focusing on outpatient metabolic and complete blood panel data as a starting point. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) as well as Complete Blood Counts (CBC) are parts of routine care and provide a comprehensive picture from high level screening of patients' overall health and disease. We randomly split our data into two datasets to allow for discovery and replication. We first conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with median values of 25 different clinical laboratory measurements to identify variants from Human Omni Express Exome beadchip data that are associated with these measurements. We identified 687 variants that associated and replicated with the tested clinical measurements at p<5×10-08. Since longitudinal data from the EHR provides a record of a patient's medical history, we utilized this information to further investigate the ICD-9 codes that might be associated with differences in variability of the measurements in the longitudinal dataset. We identified low and high variance patients by looking at changes within their individual longitudinal EHR laboratory results for each of the 25 clinical lab values (thus creating 50 groups - a high variance and a low variance for each lab variable). We then performed a PheWAS analysis with ICD-9 diagnosis codes

  13. An exploratory study on risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among adolescents in Malaysia: overview of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health & Morbidity Survey (NHMS) IV (2011) observed that the prevalence of obese children aged less than 18 years in Malaysia is 6.1% compared to 5.4% overweight and obese in NHMS III (2006). As such, this observation is of public health importance as obesity is a forewarning risk factor for chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and certain types of cancers. This MyHeART (Malaysian Health and Adolescents longitudinal Research Team) study aims to examine risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among adolescents. Methods/design The MyHeART study is longitudinal cohort study of 1361 schoolchildren (13-years old) attending 15 public secondary schools from the central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and northern (Perak) regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The study used a stratified sampling design to select the study participants. Data collected at baseline included socio-economic, lifestyle (e.g. smoking, physical activity assessment, fitness assessment, seven-day diet history), and environmental information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, handgrip strength and bone mineral density. Blood samples for fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles, full blood count, renal profile, as well as bone profile and serum vitamin D were taken. This study cohort will be followed up again when participants turn 15, 17 and lastly, after a period of ten years (around the age of 27). Results Nine percent of the adolescents from this study were obese. More male participants smoked compared to female participants (15.4% vs. 4.7%). Adolescent males had higher fasting blood glucose but the female participants had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and higher low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol). In addition, adolescents from the rural area had higher fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Discussion Our results demonstrated that adolescents from the

  14. Development and tracking of body mass index from preschool age into adolescence in rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Monyeki, M A; Brits, S J; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this observational prospective cohort study was to investigate the development and tracking of body mass index (BMI) of Ellisras rural children from preschool age into late adolescence from the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Heights and weights of children were measured according to the standard procedures recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry twice a year from 1996 to 2003. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986) were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. The prevalence of overweight was significantly higher among girls (range 1.6-15.5%) compared to boys (range 0.3-4.9%) from age 9.1 years to 14.9 years. The prevalence of thinness (severe, moderate, and mild) ranged from 7.1% to 53.7% for preschool children and from 8.0% to 47.6% for primary school children. Both preschool and primary school children showed a significant association between the first measurements of BMI and the subsequent measurement which ranged from B=0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.4) to B=0.8 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) for preschool and B=0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3) to B=0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8) for primary children. A significant tracking of BMI during 4-12 years of life was more consistent for preschool children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.6-0.7) and for primary school children (B=0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.6). Investigation of nutritional intake and physical activity patterns will shed light on how healthy these children are and their lifestyle.

  15. Workplace Participatory Occupational Health/Health Promotion Program: Facilitators and Barriers Observed in Three Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.].

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Status in Pregnancy Determines the Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status 3-, 6- and 12 Months Postpartum. Results from a Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Rasinger, Josef Daniel; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Frøyland, Livar; Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Graff, Ingvild Eide

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential fatty acid status as well as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) declines during pregnancy and lactation. As a result, the DHA status may not be optimal for child development and may increase the risk for maternal postpartum depression. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the maternal fatty acid status from pregnancy to 12 months postpartum, and to study the impact of seafood consumption on the individual fatty acid status. Methods Blood samples and seafood consumption habits (gestation week 28, and three-, six- and 12 months postpartum) were collected in a longitudinal observational study of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 118). Multilevel linear modeling was used to assess both changes over time in the fatty acid status of red blood cells (RBC), and in the seafood consumption. Results Six fatty acids varied the most (>80%) across the four time points analyzed, including the derivative of the essential α-linoleic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), DHA; the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6); and the LA derivative, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). Over all, a large variation in individuals’ DHA- and AA status was observed; however, over the 15-month study period only small inter-individual differences in the longitudinal trajectory of DHA- and AA abundance in the RBC were detected. The median intake of seafood was lower than recommended. Regardless, the total weekly frequency of seafood and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)/DHA-supplement intake predicted the maternal level of DHA (μg/g RBC). Conclusion The period of depletion of the maternal DHA status during pregnancy and lactation, seem to turn to repletion from about six months postpartum towards one year after childbirth, irrespective of RBC concentration of DHA during pregnancy. Seafood and EPA/DHA-supplement intake predicted the DHA levels over time. Trial Registration www.helseforskning.etikkom.no 2009/570/REC, project number: 083.09 PMID:26331947

  17. [From Chernobyl to Morsleben--a public health observation].

    PubMed

    Thriene, B

    1999-11-01

    On April 26, 1986, a serious reactor accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A total radioactivity of 2 x 10(18) becquerel, i.e. 3.5% of the reactor inventory were released spreading throughout Europe. Radioactive tracers were iodine 131 (with a half-life of 8 days) and caesium 137 (with a half-life of 30 years). Measurements made in Magdeburg by the Institute of Hygiene on May 5th after a heavy thunderstorm indicated a considerable radioactive contamination. Measurements revealed 75,000 bq/kg in grasses, 44,000 bq/litre in storm water and 40,000 bq/kg in garden soil, however, these high values decreased to normal by the end of 1986. The paper describes a stay in Chernobyl in 1989 and the environmental and working conditions prevailing at site. An increase of the cancer rate in the contaminated areas was not observed until 1990; however, thyroid tumours increased in children in Belorussia after that time. The current caesium load of the soils in the area is 10(6) becquerel/cubic metre. As much as 480,000 bq/kg were measured in dried mushrooms picked in the autumn of 1997. Assuming a mean natural exposure to radiation of the population in Germany of 2.4 millisievert/year (mSv/a), the additional load caused by the Chernobyl accident was 5% in 1986, falling to below 0.1% in 1996. Today, 19 nuclear power plants are operating in Germany for power generation. Radioactive substances are used in medicine, research and industry. An opinion on the safety of transports and final dumping of radioactive waste is given, based on a visit to the Morsleben final dump site. The use of nuclear energy and a percentage replacement by renewable energies are discussed from a regional and global perspective (climate protection).

  18. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stefanick, Marcia L.; Johnson, Karen C.; Lane, Dorothy S.; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Prentice, Ross; Rohan, Thomas E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Vitolins, Mara; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    more pronounced in women who never used postmenopausal hormones. This study has limitations because some of the anthropometric information was obtained from retrospective self-reports. Furthermore, data from longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up and repeated anthropometric measures are typically subject to missing data at various time points, which was also the case in this study. Yet, this limitation was partially overcome by using growth curve models, which enabled us to impute data at missing time points for each participant. Conclusions In summary, this study showed that a longer duration of overweight and obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several forms of cancer. Furthermore, the degree of overweight experienced during adulthood seemed to play an important role in the risk of developing cancer, especially for endometrial cancer. Although the observational nature of our study precludes inferring causality or making clinical recommendations, our findings suggest that reducing overweight duration in adulthood could reduce cancer risk and that obesity prevention is important from early onset. If this is true, health care teams should recognize the potential of obesity management in cancer prevention and that excess body weight in women is important to manage regardless of the age of the patient. PMID:27529652

  19. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study national baseline.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Strauss, John; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-11-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors.

  20. The role of social support in protecting mental health when employed and unemployed: A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis using 12 annual waves of the HILDA cohort.

    PubMed

    Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Butterworth, Peter; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2016-03-01

    Perceived social support is associated with overall better mental health. There is also evidence that unemployed workers with higher social support cope better psychologically than those without such support. However, there has been limited research about the effect of social support among people who have experienced both unemployment and employment. We assessed this topic using 12 years of annually collected cohort data. The sample included 3190 people who had experienced both unemployment and employment. We used longitudinal fixed-effects modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing the role of social support when a person was unemployed to when they were employed. Compared to when a person reported low social support, a change to medium (6.35, 95% 5.66 to 7.04, p < 0.001) or high social support (11.58, 95%, 95% CI 10.81 to 12.36, p < 0.001) was associated with a large increase in mental health (measured on an 100 point scale, with higher scores representing better mental health). When a person was unemployed but had high levels of social support, their mental health was 2.89 points (95% CI 1.67 to 4.11, p < 0.001) higher than when they were employed but had lower social support. The buffering effect of social support was confirmed in stratified analysis. There was a strong direct effect of social support on mental health. The magnitude of these differences could be considered clinically meaningful. Our results also suggest that social support has a significant buffering effect on mental health when a person is unemployed.

  1. Are Mental Health Effects of Internet Use Attributable to the Web-Based Content or Perceived Consequences of Usage? A Longitudinal Study of European Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. Methods A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Results Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (P<.001), explaining 1.4% and 2.8% variance, respectively. However, the consequences of engaging in those activities were more important predictors, explaining 11.1% variance. Only Web-based gaming, gambling, and targeted searches had mental health effects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, P<.01) were the only consequences that had a direct effect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. Conclusions The magnitude of Internet use is

  2. Faith after an Earthquake: A Longitudinal Study of Religion and Perceived Health before and after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On 22 February 2011, Christchurch New Zealand (population 367,700) experienced a devastating earthquake, causing extensive damage and killing one hundred and eighty-five people. The earthquake and aftershocks occurred between the 2009 and 2011 waves of a longitudinal probability sample conducted in New Zealand, enabling us to examine how a natural disaster of this magnitude affected deeply held commitments and global ratings of personal health, depending on earthquake exposure. We first investigated whether the earthquake-affected were more likely to believe in God. Consistent with the Religious Comfort Hypothesis, religious faith increased among the earthquake-affected, despite an overall decline in religious faith elsewhere. This result offers the first population-level demonstration that secular people turn to religion at times of natural crisis. We then examined whether religious affiliation was associated with differences in subjective ratings of personal health. We found no evidence for superior buffering from having religious faith. Among those affected by the earthquake, however, a loss of faith was associated with significant subjective health declines. Those who lost faith elsewhere in the country did not experience similar health declines. Our findings suggest that religious conversion after a natural disaster is unlikely to improve subjective well-being, yet upholding faith might be an important step on the road to recovery. PMID:23227147

  3. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences.

  4. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between disease progression and different health-related quality of life domains in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Imelda J M; Post, Marcel W M; van Heuveln, Tineke; Van den Berg, Leonard H; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-12-01

    In ALS it would be expected that quality of life (QoL) would be decreased. However, studies to date show diverging results. Our study focuses on how ALS affects QoL on the different domains of the SF-36 cross-sectionally and during progression. The method used was a prospective cohort study, with assessments at baseline, at six months, and at one year. Patients were included with possible, probable or definite ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria and were between 30 and 70 years of age. ALS functional rating scale was used to establish disease status, SF-36 as QoL scale. At baseline 73 completed ALSFRS forms were available and 62 completed SF-36 forms. The ALSFRS showed disease progression. SF-36 scores showed lower QoL scores of persons with ALS compared to the general population both in cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects in the domains of Physical Functioning, Role Physical, and Social Functioning, but similar compared with the general population in the Mental Health and Role Emotional domains. This study shows deteriorating physical health but stable mental health, thereby illustrating the diverging correlations between ALS severity and HRQoL. The diverging pattern of physical and mental health suggests a frame-shift in the experience of HRQoL.

  5. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research.

  6. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudmundsson, Kristjan G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants.

  7. In the shadowlands of global health: Observations from health workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Ruth J.; Otieno, Phelgona

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, donor funding for health interventions in Kenya and other African countries has risen sharply. Focused on high-profile diseases such as HIV/AIDS, these funds create islands of intervention in a sea of under-resourced public health services. This paper draws on ethnographic research conducted in HIV clinics and in a public hospital to examine how health workers experience and reflect upon the juxtaposition of ‘global’ medicine with ‘local’ medicine. We show that health workers face an uneven playing field. High-prestige jobs are available in HIV research and treatment, funded by donors, while other diseases and health issues receive less attention. Outside HIV clinics, patient's access to medicines and laboratory tests is expensive, and diagnostic equipment is unreliable. Clinicians must tailor their decisions about treatment to the available medical technologies, medicines and resources. How do health workers reflect on working in these environments and how do their experiences influence professional ambitions and commitments? PMID:25203252

  8. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  9. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Ayala-Castillo, Miguel; Forero-Naranjo, Leonardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in a Colombian population. METHODS: This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects (age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital’s database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. RESULTS: A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population. PMID:26675051

  10. Slope estimation for informatively right censored longitudinal data modelling the number of observations using geometric and Poisson distributions: application to renal transplant cohort.

    PubMed

    Jaffa, Miran A; Lipsitz, Stuart; Woolson, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data is often complicated by the presence of informative right censoring. This type of censoring should be accounted for in the analysis so that valid slope estimates are attained. In this study, we developed a new likelihood-based approach wherein the likelihood function is integrated over random effects to obtain a marginal likelihood function. Maximum likelihood estimates for the population slope were acquired by direct maximisation of the marginal likelihood function and empirical Bayes estimates for the individual slopes were generated using Gaussian quadrature. The performance of the model was assessed using the geometric and Poisson distributions to model the number of observations for every individual subject. Our model generated valid estimates for the slopes under both distributions with minimal bias and mean squared errors. Our sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model to assumptions pertaining to the underlying distribution and demonstrated its insensitivity to normality assumptions. Moreover, superiority of the model in terms of accuracy of slope estimates was consistently shown across the different levels of censoring in comparison to the naïve and bootstrap approaches. This model was illustrated using the cohort of renal transplant patients and estimates of the slopes that are adjusted for informative right censoring were acquired.

  11. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago) is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (re)victimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients. PMID:21067566

  12. CHIP Utilization in South Texas: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of the Children's Health Insurance Program. JSRI Research Report No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Ann V.; Mier, Nelda; Gabriel, Olga; Flores, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) began as a federal stopgap measure to assist families whose incomes were too high to qualify for Medicaid, but too low to make health insurance for their children affordable. In 2002, efforts were launched around the United States to recruit eligible children into the program. This pilot study…

  13. Relationship between fat patterns, physical fitness and blood pressure of rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Kemper, H C G; Makgae, P J

    2008-05-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP), fat patterns and fitness parameters of Ellisras children aged 7-13 years. Furthermore, an assessment of body fat patterns was done to determine the subjects with the highest risk of overweight, hypertension and waist-to-hip ratio above the 90th percentile. Data were collected from 1,817 subjects (938 boys and 879 girls), aged 7-13 years, participating in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the standard procedure of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. The EUROFIT test items were used to test the physical fitness of 1,192 subjects (634 boys and 558 girls). Obesity was defined using the international recommended cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) in children. Hypertension was defined as the occurrence of BP levels greater or equal to the 95th percentile of height- and sex-adjusted reference levels. The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 1 to 11.4% and that of overweight 0.6-4.6%. Waist girth, BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold showed significant (P<0.001-0.05) correlation with other fat pattern parameters (r ranging from -0.157 to 0.978) compared with significant correlations (P<0.001-0.05) with BP (r ranging from -0.071 to 0.164). Children with waist girth greater than the 90th percentile are more likely to have multiple risk factors than the children with a waist girth that is less than or equal to the 90th percentile. Longitudinal studies should verify whether changes in waist girth and skinfolds will indicate changes in cardiovascular risk factors during growth.

  14. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  15. Mental health recovery and economic recovery after the tsunami: high-frequency longitudinal evidence from Sri Lankan small business owners.

    PubMed

    de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    A sample of 561 Sri Lanka microenterprise owners affected to various extents by the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami were surveyed five times at quarterly intervals between March 2005 and April 2006. Mental health recovery was measured through questions on return to normalcy and change in life outlook. Business profits were used to measure livelihoods recovery. We find that these mental health process measures are correlated with post-traumatic stress disorder and general mental health in a validation survey, and display similar correlates to both in the cross-section. However, socioeconomic factors are not found to be significant in predicting the dynamics of mental health recovery in a fixed effects logistic regression. Mental health recovery from a given initial level therefore appears to depend largely on time since the disaster, and not on economic recovery of an individual's livelihood.

  16. Understanding observed and unobserved health care access and utilization disparities among US Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2009-10-01

    This study hypothesizes that differences in health care access and utilization exist across Latino adults (>18 years), with U.S. Latino adults of Mexican ancestry demonstrating the worst patterns of access and utilization. The analyses use the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 1999 to 2007 (N = 33,908). The authors first estimate the disparities in health care access and utilization among different categories of Latinos. They also implement Blinder-Oaxaca techniques to decompose disparities into observed and unobserved components, comparing Latinos of Mexican ancestry with non-Mexican Latinos. Latinos of Mexican ancestry consistently demonstrate lower health care access and utilization patterns than non-Mexican Latinos. Health insurance and region of residence were the most important factors that explained observable differences. In contrast, language and citizenship status were relatively unimportant. Although a significant share of these disparities may be explained by observed characteristics, disparities because of unobserved heterogeneity among the different Latino cohorts are also considerable.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  18. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level.

    PubMed

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-09-01

    low (0.90-0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83-0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91-1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93-0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. CONCLUSIONS : This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda.

  19. Did PEPFAR investments result in health system strengthening? A retrospective longitudinal study measuring non-HIV health service utilization at the district level

    PubMed Central

    Luboga, Samuel Abimerech; Stover, Bert; Lim, Travis W; Makumbi, Frederick; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lubega, Flavia; Ndizihiwe, Assay; Mukooyo, Eddie; Hurley, Erin K; Borse, Nagesh; Wood, Angela; Bernhardt, James; Lohman, Nathaniel; Sheppard, Lianne; Barnhart, Scott; Hagopian, Amy

    2016-01-01

    with low (0.90–0.96). Similarly, 22% fewer TB sputum tests were performed in high investment districts compared with low investment, [IRR 0.78 (0.72–0.85)] and 13% fewer in medium compared with low, [IRR 0.88 (0.83–0.94)]. Districts with medium and high ART investment had 5% fewer in-facility deliveries compared with low investment districts [IRR 0.95 for high compared with low, (91–1.00) and 0.96 for medium compared with low (0.93–0.99)]. Although not statistically significant, the rate of maternal deaths in high investment district-months was 13% lower than observed in low investment districts. Conclusions This study sought to understand whether PEPFAR, as a vertical programme, may have had a spill-over effect on the health system generally, as measured by utilization. Our conclusion is that it did not, at least not in Uganda. PMID:27017824

  20. Health Mentor-Reported Outcomes and Perceptions of Student Team Performance in a Longitudinal Interprofessional Education Program.

    PubMed

    Umland, Elena; Collins, Lauren; Baronner, Ashley; Lim, Edwin; Giordano, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The need to evaluate the impact of interprofessional education (IPE) on learner outcomes is clear, but assessment of IPE's impact on patient health and well-being is lacking. This mixed-methods study evaluated perspectives of community volunteers, health mentors (HMs) who have at least one chronic condition, who participated in an IPE curriculum. In May 2014, 93 HMs concluding the Health Mentors Program completed a survey evaluating their student teams according to the Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies' four domains and program impact on health/wellbeing using a 4-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree; 4=strongly agree). The average response to statements regarding the four domains of values/ethics, roles/responsibilities, communication, and teamwork statements were all >3.0. HMs rated program satisfaction on a 10-point scale (1=least satisfied, 10=most satisfied) and answered open-ended outcome questions. The average program satisfaction score was 9.13±1.43; increased motivation to make and maintain healthy behaviors was reported. In a follow-up focus group with 10 mentors, high satisfaction levels from working with interprofessional student teams were reported, and substantial improvements in managing health conditions and improving overall health status were relayed. Further studies will determine if the patient-reported outcomes of the mentors correlate with objective health measures.

  1. Observations and lessons learnt from non health professionals evaluating a health search engine.

    PubMed

    Pletneva, Natalia; Uresova, Zdenka; Altman, Jean-Jacques; Postel Vinay, Nicolas; Degoulet, Patrice; Hajic, Jan; Boyer, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of one of the stages of the user-centered evaluation conducted in a framework of the EU project Khresmoi. In a controlled environment, users were asked to perform health-related tasks using a search engine specifically developed for trustworthy online health information. Twenty seven participants from largely the Czech Republic and France took part in the evaluation. All reported overall a positive experience, while some features caused some criticism. Learning points are summed up regarding running such types of evaluations with the general public and specifically with patients.

  2. ‘First, do no harm’: are disability assessments associated with adverse trends in mental health? A longitudinal ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Barr, B; Taylor-Robinson, D; Stuckler, D; Loopstra, R; Reeves, A; Whitehead, M

    2016-01-01

    Background In England between 2010 and 2013, just over one million recipients of the main out-of-work disability benefit had their eligibility reassessed using a new functional checklist—the Work Capability Assessment. Doctors and disability rights organisations have raised concerns that this has had an adverse effect on the mental health of claimants, but there are no population level studies exploring the health effects of this or similar policies. Method We used multivariable regression to investigate whether variation in the trend in reassessments in each of 149 local authorities in England was associated with differences in local trends in suicides, self-reported mental health problems and antidepressant prescribing rates, while adjusting for baseline conditions and trends in other factors known to influence mental ill-health. Results Each additional 10 000 people reassessed in each area was associated with an additional 6 suicides (95% CI 2 to 9), 2700 cases of reported mental health problems (95% CI 548 to 4840), and the prescribing of an additional 7020 antidepressant items (95% CI 3930 to 10100). The reassessment process was associated with the greatest increases in these adverse mental health outcomes in the most deprived areas of the country, widening health inequalities. Conclusions The programme of reassessing people on disability benefits using the Work Capability Assessment was independently associated with an increase in suicides, self-reported mental health problems and antidepressant prescribing. This policy may have had serious adverse consequences for mental health in England, which could outweigh any benefits that arise from moving people off disability benefits. PMID:26573235

  3. Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2015-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared.

  4. Parental health and children's cognitive and noncognitive development: New evidence from the longitudinal survey of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong Thu; Nguyen, Ha Trong

    2017-02-23

    This paper examines the effects of parental health on cognitive and noncognitive development in Australian children. The underlying nationally representative panel data and a child fixed effects estimator are used to deal with unobserved heterogeneity. We find that only father's serious mental illness worsens selected cognitive and noncognitive skills of children. Maternal poor health also deteriorates some cognitive and noncognitive outcomes of children of lone mothers only. Our results demonstrate that either failing to account for parent-child fixed effects or using child noncognitive skills reported by parents could overestimate the harmful impact of poor parental health on child development.

  5. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  6. Community and household socioeconomic factors associated with pesticide-using, small farm household members' health: a multi-level, longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies using multi-level models to examine health inequalities in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) are rare. We explored socio-economic gradients in health among small farm members participating in a pesticide-related health and agriculture program in highland Ecuador. Methods We profiled 24 communities through key informant interviews, secondary data (percent of population with unsatisfied basic needs), and intervention implementation indicators. Pre (2005) and post (2007) surveys of the primary household and crop managers included common questions (education, age, and the health outcome - digit span scaled 0-10)) and pesticide-related practice questions specific to each. Household assets and pesticide use variables were shared across managers. We constructed multi-level models predicting 2007 digit span for each manager type, with staged introduction of predictor variables. Results 376 household managers (79% of 2005 participants) and 380 crop managers (76% of 2005 participants) had complete data for analysis. The most important predictor of 2007 digit span was 2005 digit span: β (Standard Error) of 0.31(0.05) per unit for household and 0.17(0.04) for crop managers. Household asset score was next most important: 0.14(0.06) per unit for household and 0.14(0.05) for crop managers. Community percent with unsatisfied basic needs was associated with reductions in 2007 digit span: -0.04(0.01) per percent for household and -0.03(0.01) for crop managers. Conclusions The important roles of life endowments and/or persistent neurotoxicity were exemplified by limited change in the health outcome. Gradients by household assets and community deprivation were indicative of ongoing, structural inequities within this LMIC. PMID:22094171

  7. Violent Offending Among Juveniles: A 7-year Longitudinal Study of Recidivism, Desistance, and Associations With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Barbot, Baptiste; Square, Amanda; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine Foley; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-04-06

    Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years). This unique dataset provided several key findings: First, results from a latent class growth analysis showed that violent crimes peaked at age 14-15, with high-rate adolescent offenders (3.7% of the sample) accounting for 31.9% of all violent offenses. Further, 74.2% of this group desisted from violent crimes in adulthood. Higher levels of self-reported anger/irritability slightly increased the odds of violent recidivism (odds ratio, OR = 1.09), where higher levels of depression/anxiety depressed the odds (OR = 0.89). The overrepresentation of males, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic youth among high-rate adolescence offenders were traceable through adolescence but not beyond the age of 18. Together, these finding may help to inform new delinquency interventions that target the needs of this proportionally small group of violent adolescent offenders accounting for a large amount of violent crimes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. The global financial crisis and psychological health in a sample of Australian older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-10-01

    Economic stress and uncertainty is argued to increase older adults' vulnerability to physical health decline and mental distress. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research that examines the relationship between a large historical economic event, such as the recent global financial crisis (GFC), and health outcomes for older adults. This study provides a unique opportunity to compare self-reported health status and psychological functioning (number of depression and anxiety symptoms) in 1973 older Australian adults (mean age of 66.58 years (SD = 1.5)) prior to the GFC (2005-2006), with their status four years later during the GFC period (2009-2010). Latent difference score models revealed a significant difference in depression and anxiety symptoms over the two measurement occasions, indicating poorer psychological functioning for those who reported an impact as a result of the economic slowdown. These effects were not explained by demographic or socio-economic factors. Interaction effects showed that those participants who were surveyed within the acute salience period of the GFC (April to September 2009) were significantly less likely to report poorer psychological health over time compared to those who were surveyed after September 2009. This interesting timing effect is discussed in terms of potential time-lags in the negative effects of economic stress on health outcomes, as well as the possible protective effects of social norms that may be created by a large scale economic crisis.

  9. Internet Searching About Disease Elicits a Positive Perception of Own Health When Severity of Illness Is High: A Longitudinal Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Greving, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the primary sources for health information. However, in research, the effects of Internet use on the perception of one’s own health have not received much attention so far. Objective This study tested how Internet use for acquiring health information and severity of illness influence patients with a chronic disease with regard to the perception of their own health. Negative psychological states are known to lead to preferential processing of positive information. In particular, the self-directed nature of Internet use provides room for such biases. Therefore, we predicted that patients experiencing negative health states more frequently, due to more frequent episodes of a chronic illness, will gain a more positive perception of their health if they use the Internet frequently to gain health information, but not if they use the Internet rarely. This effect was not expected for other sources of information. Methods A longitudinal questionnaire study with two measurement points—with a 7-month time lag—tested the hypothesis in a sample of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n=208). This study assessed patients’ frequency of Internet use, their participation in online social support groups, their use of other sources of health information, and several indicators of the participants’ perceptions of their own health. A structure equation model (SEM) was used to test the predictions separately for Internet searches and other sources of information. Results Data analysis supported the prediction; the interaction between frequency of health-related information searches and frequency of episodes at the first measurement point (T1) was related to participants’ positive perceptions of their own health at the second measurement point (T2) (B=.10, SE=.04, P=.02) above and beyond the perceptions of their own health at T1. When participants used the Internet relatively rarely (-1 SD), there was no relationship between

  10. Participant Observation as a Method for Evaluating a Mental Health Promotion Program with Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindale, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    A researcher observed older adults participating in planning meetings and a Search Conference to identify community needs. Participants were successfully engaged in addressing important health and social needs. Participant observation was validated as a flexible, effective means of collecting data on older persons whose circumstances might make…

  11. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  12. Preschool hyperactivity specifically elevates long-term mental health risks more strongly in males than females: a prospective longitudinal study through to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth; Meyer, Brenda J; Koerting, Johanna; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Lee, Louise; Jefferson, Harriet; Sayal, Kapil; Treglown, Luke; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of continuities between preschool hyperactivity and adult mental health problems highlights the potential value of targeting early identification and intervention strategies. However, specific risk factors are currently unclear. This large-scale prospective longitudinal study aimed to identify which hyperactive preschoolers are at the greatest long-term risk of poor mental health. One hundred and seventy children (89 females) rated as hyperactive by their parents, and 88 non-hyperactive controls (48 females) were identified from a community sample of 4215 3-year-olds. Baseline data relating to behavioral/emotional problems and background characteristics were collected. Follow-up mental health and functional impairment outcomes were collected between 14 and 25 years of age. At age 3 years, males and females in the hyperactive group had similarly raised levels of hyperactivity and other behavior problems. In adolescence/young adulthood, these individuals showed elevated symptoms of ADHD, conduct disorder, mood disorder, anxiety and autism, as well as functional impairment. Preschool hyperactivity was strongly predictive of poor adolescent/adult outcomes for males across domains with effects being specifically driven by hyperactivity. For females, the effects of preschool hyperactivity were smaller and dropped to non-significant levels when other preschool problems were taken into account. Environmental risk factors also differed between the sexes, although these may also have been mediated by genetic risk. In conclusion, these results demonstrate marked sex differences in preschool predictors of later adolescent/adult mental health problems. Future research should include a measure of preschool inattention as well as hyperactivity. The findings highlight the potential value of tailored approaches to early identification strategies.

  13. Linking Exposure and Health Outcomes to a Large Population-based Longitudinal Study: The Millennium Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    year. 25 With nearly 1 million infants in this reg- istry, there is considerable power to conduct robust research, even on the rarest birth outcomes...2003 . 33. Department of Defense . Policy for pre- and post-deployment health assess- ments and blood samples [memorandum] . Washington, DC

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives: Part V--Outcomes at 3-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Ochocka, Joanna; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John; Goering, Paula; Lomotey, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs), organizations run by and for people with mental illness. A nonequivalent comparison group design was used to compare three groups of participants: (a) those who were continually active in CSIs over a 36-month period (n =…

  15. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Delinquency among Truant Youth in a Brief Intervention Project: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Schmeidler, James; Ungaro, Rocio Aracelis; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Gulledge, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between substance use, mental health disorders, and delinquency among youth is well documented. What has received far less attention from researchers is the relationship between these issues among truant youth, in spite of studies that document truants are a population at risk for negative outcomes. This study bridges this gap by…

  16. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study.

    PubMed

    Haas, Emily J; Cecala, Andrew B; Hoebbel, Cassandra L

    2016-01-06

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help managers and workers communicate about and reduce respirable silica dust exposures at their mine sites. A dust assessment technology, the Helmet-CAM, was used to identify and encourage communication about potential problem areas and tasks on site that contributed to elevated exposures. The intervention involved pre- and post-assessment field visits, four weeks apart that included multiple forms of data collection from workers and managers. Results revealed that mine management can utilize dust assessment technology as a risk communication tool to prompt and communicate about healthier behaviors with their workforce. Additionally, when workers were debriefed with the Helmet-CAM data through the device software, the dust exposure data can help improve the knowledge and awareness of workers, empowering them to change subtle behaviors that could reduce future elevated exposures to respirable silica dust. This case study demonstrates that incorporating social scientific methods into the application of health and safety management strategies, such as behavioral modification and technology integration, can leverage managers' communication practices with workers, subsequently improving health and safety behaviors.

  17. Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: a longitudinal study of urban youth.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the "well-adjusted" class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the "academic-peer risk" class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the "behavior-academic-peer risk" class in the first grade; the "academic-peer risk" class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes.

  18. Stability of Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Factors and Their Relation to General Mental Health Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…

  19. Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-Year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Kennedy, Jeanne D.

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income…

  20. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Emily J.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help managers and workers communicate about and reduce respirable silica dust exposures at their mine sites. A dust assessment technology, the Helmet-CAM, was used to identify and encourage communication about potential problem areas and tasks on site that contributed to elevated exposures. The intervention involved pre- and post-assessment field visits, four weeks apart that included multiple forms of data collection from workers and managers. Results revealed that mine management can utilize dust assessment technology as a risk communication tool to prompt and communicate about healthier behaviors with their workforce. Additionally, when workers were debriefed with the Helmet-CAM data through the device software, the dust exposure data can help improve the knowledge and awareness of workers, empowering them to change subtle behaviors that could reduce future elevated exposures to respirable silica dust. This case study demonstrates that incorporating social scientific methods into the application of health and safety management strategies, such as behavioral modification and technology integration, can leverage managers’ communication practices with workers, subsequently improving health and safety behaviors. PMID:26807445

  1. Parenting Styles and Health-Related Behavior in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Vierhaus, Marc; Ball, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the development of health-related behavior during childhood and adolescence and the protective influence of an authoritative parenting style. The study is based on two samples followed from Grades 2 through 5 and from Grades 4 through 7. The first sample consisted of 432 second graders with a mean age of 7.9 years at the…

  2. Longitudinal Evaluation of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Sleep Symptoms with Change in Quality of Life: The Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; An, Ming-Wen; Goodwin, James L.; Shahar, Eyal; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine; Baldwin, Carol M.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Findings from population studies evaluating the progression and incidence of sleep disordered breathing have shown evidence of a longitudinal increase in the severity of sleep disordered breathing. The present study evaluates the association among changes in sleep disordered breathing, sleep symptoms, and quality of life over time. Design: Prospective cohort study. Data were from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Setting: Multicenter study. Participants: Three thousand seventy-eight subjects aged 40 years and older from the baseline and follow-up examination cycles were included. Measurements: The primary outcomes were changes in the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales obtained from the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey. The primary exposure was change in the respiratory disturbance index obtained from unattended overnight polysomnograms performed approximately 5 years apart. Other covariates included measures of excessive daytime sleepiness and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Results: Mean respiratory disturbance index increased from 8.1 ± 11 SD at baseline to 10.9 ± 14 (P < 0.0001) at follow-up. The mean Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores were 48.5 and 54.1 at baseline and 46.3 and 54.8 at follow-up. No associations between change in respiratory disturbance index and changes in Physical Component Summary or Mental Component Summary scores were seen. However, worsening of difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with lower quality of life. Conclusions: A slight increase in severity of sleep disordered breathing was seen over 5 years; this was not associated with worsening of quality of life. However, subjective symptoms of quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness were associated with declining quality of life. Citation: Silva GE; An MW; Goodwin JL; Shahar E; Redline S; Resnick H; Baldwin CM; Quan SF

  3. Determinants of participation in a longitudinal two-stage study of the health consequences of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Guey, Lin T; Bromet, Evelyn J; Gluzman, Semyon F; Zakhozha, Victoria; Paniotto, Vlodomyr

    2008-01-01

    Background The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors associated with participation in a longitudinal two-stage study conducted in Kyiv following the 1986 Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident. Methods Six hundred child-mother dyads (300 evacuees and 300 classmate controls) were initially assessed in 1997 when the children were 11 years old, and followed up in 2005–6 when they were 19 years old. A population control group (304 mothers and 327 children) was added in 2005–6. Each assessment point involved home interviews with the children and mothers (stage 1), followed by medical examinations of the children at a clinic (stage 2). Background characteristics, health status, and Chornobyl risk perceptions were examined. Results The participation rates in the follow-up home interviews were 87.8% for the children (88.6% for evacuees; 87.0% for classmates) and 83.7% for their mothers (86.4% for evacuees and 81.0% for classmates). Children's and mothers' participation was predicted by one another's study participation and attendance at the medical examination at time 1. Mother's participation was also predicted by initial concerns about her child's health, greater psychological distress, and Chornobyl risk perceptions. In 1997, 91.2% of the children had a medical examination (91.7% of evacuees and 90.7% of classmates); in 2005–6, 85.2% were examined (83.0% of evacuees, 87.7% of classmates, 85.0% of population controls). At both times, poor health perceptions were associated with receiving a medical examination. In 2005–6, clinic attendance was also associated with the young adults' risk perceptions, depression or generalized anxiety disorder, lower standard of living, and female gender. Conclusion Despite our low attrition rates, we identified several determinants of selective participation consistent

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Housing Stability, Housing Quality, and Mental Health Functioning Among Single Homeless Individuals Staying in Emergency Shelters.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Tim; Duhoux, Arnaud; Klodawsky, Fran; Ecker, John; Hay, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined risk and resilience factors at multiple levels that affect homeless individuals' ability to exit homelessness and achieve housing stability. It also examined the relationship between housing status, housing quality and mental health functioning. The methodology is a longitudinal study of single homeless individuals staying in emergency shelters in a medium-sized Canadian city who were followed for a 2 year period. Data were collected from participants at a baseline interview when they were homeless and at a 2-year follow-up. There were 329 participants interviewed at baseline and 197 (59.9%) participants interviewed at follow-up. Results from a structural equation modelling analysis found that having interpersonal and community resources were predictive of achieving housing stability. Specifically, having a larger social support network, access to subsidized housing, and greater income was related to achieving housing stability. On the other hand, having a substance use problem was a risk factor associated with a failure to achieving housing stability. Being female, feeling personally empowered, having housing that is perceived of being of higher quality were directly predictive of mental health functioning at follow-up. Findings are discussed in the context of previous research and their policy implications.

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Latino Parent Cultural Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Family Functioning on Youth Emotional Well-Being and Health Risk Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Meca, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B; Romero, Andrea; Szapocznik, José; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Pattarroyo, Monica; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-10-23

    U.S. Latino parents can face cultural stressors in the form of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and a negative context of reception. It stands to reason that these cultural stressors may negatively impact Latino youth's emotional well-being and health risk behaviors by increasing parents' depressive symptoms and compromising the overall functioning of the family. To test this possibility, we analyzed data from a six-wave longitudinal study with 302 recently immigrated (<5 years in the United States) Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage  = 41.09 years) and their adolescent children (47% female, Mage  = 14.51 years). Results of a cross-lagged analysis indicated that parent cultural stress predicted greater parent depressive symptoms (and not vice versa). Both parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms, in turn, predicted lower parent-reported family functioning, which mediated the links from parent cultural stress and depressive symptoms to youth alcohol and cigarette use. Parent cultural stress also predicted lower youth-reported family functioning, which mediated the link from parent cultural stress to youth self-esteem. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that parent cultural stress predicted youth alcohol use by a way of parent depressive symptoms and parent-reported family functioning. Our findings point to parent depressive symptoms and family functioning as key mediators in the links from parent cultural stress to youth emotional well-being and health risk behaviors. We discuss implications for research and preventive interventions.

  6. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  7. Parental incarceration and gender-based risks for increased body mass index: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roettger, Michael E; Boardman, Jason D

    2012-04-01

    Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women.

  8. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference.

  9. Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Health Care Workers in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; A Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jafar; Jamil Amjadi, Mohamad

    2014-03-01

    We studied the safety of a trivalent inactivated surface antigen (split virion, inactivated) influenza vaccine, Begrivac® (Novartis Company), widely used in health care workers in Kurdistan. A longitudinal follow-up study was performed in Sanandaj city, west of Iran, recruiting 936 people. A questionnaire was completed for each participant, and all symptoms or abnormal physical findings were recorded. In part 1 of the study, the post-vaccination complaints were headache (5.3%), fever (7.9%), weakness (9.6%), chills (10.1%), sweating (10.5%), arthralgia (20.2%), and malaise (21.5%). Swelling of the injection site was seen in 267 (30.3%) participants, and pruritus of the injection site was seen in 290 (32.9%) participants. Redness and induration were also reported in 42.5% of the participants. Local reactions were mainly mild and lasted for 1-2 days. No systemic reactions were reported in the second part of the study. None of the participants experienced any inconvenience. We concluded that local adverse reactions after the trivalent inactivated split influenza vaccine, Begrivac®, in health care workers were far more common than expected. Continuous surveillance is needed to assess the potential risks and benefits of newly produced influenza vaccines.

  10. Longitudinal Risk and Resilience Factors Predicting Psychiatric Disruption, Mental Health Service Utilization & Military Retention in OIF National Guard Troops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    mental health diagnosis; however among those with a diagnosis, mood disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder ) and non-PTSD anxiety disorders (e.g...particularly damaging effect upon quality of life, such that disorders co-occurring with PTSD were not found to add to its effect incrementally. 9 Analyses of...later be diagnosed with PTSD or other mental heath issues, such as other anxiety disorders (Kushner, Abrams, & Borchardt, 2000). More recent work has

  11. Demographic and Occupational Predictors of Early Response to a Mailed Invitation to Enroll in a Longitudinal Health Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-18

    reminders anger refusers to the point of spreading negative press , potential responders may be swayed into nonparticipation, increas- ing the...1990, 43(12):1427-1430. 6. Paganini -Hill A, Hsu G, Chao A, Ross RK: Comparison of early and late respondents to a postal health survey questionnaire...National Academy Press ; 1999. 16. Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, Amoroso P, Boyko EJ, Gray GC, Gack- stetter GD, Riddle JR, Wells T, Gumbs G, Corbeil T

  12. A Two Year Longitudinal Outcome Study of Addicted Health Care Professionals: An Investigation of the Role of Personality Variables

    PubMed Central

    Angres, Daniel; Bologeorges, Stephanie; Chou, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The co-morbidity of personality disorders (PDs) and other dysregulatory personality patterns with addiction have been well-established, although few studies have examined this interplay on long-term sobriety outcome. In addition, health care professionals suffering from addiction have both a significant public health impact and a unique set of treatment and recovery challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate if personality variables differentiated sobriety outcome in this population over a two year interval. A clinical sample of health care professionals participated in a substance abuse hospital treatment program individually tailored with respect to personality. Participants took the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory at intake, and were tracked two years post-discharge to determine sobriety status. Univariate analyses showed antisocial personality, female gender, and alcohol dependence were independent predictors of relapse, however a significant relationship between personality and substance use did not exist in multivariate analysis when controlling for demographic variables The lack of multivariate relationships demonstrates the heterogeneity in self-report measures of personality, which suggests the interplay of personality and addiction is complex and individualized. PMID:23531922

  13. Family history of chronic disease and meeting public health guidelines for physical activity: the cooper center longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess whether a family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer is linked to meeting public health guidelines for health-promoting physical activity. To achieve this objective, we analyzed data on 29,513 adults who came to the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2010, for a preventive medicine visit. Patients completed a comprehensive medical survey including information on family medical history, physical activity, and other lifestyle behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between having a family history of chronic disease and meeting physical activity guidelines. The results indicated that individuals with a family history of disease had reduced odds for meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines. For example, participants with a family history of 3 diseases were 36% less likely to meet or exceed physical activity guidelines than their counterparts without a family history of disease (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.72), while controlling for covariates. Among this large sample of adults, those with a family history of chronic disease were less inclined to regularly engage in physical activity. Thus, targeted programs encouraging adoption and maintenance of health-promoting physical activity might be warranted, specifically targeting individuals with familial history of disease.

  14. Regional health expenditure and health outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Yusuke; Hasegawa, Kohei; Hiraide, Atsushi; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Japan is considering policies to set the target health expenditure level for each region, a policy approach that has been considered in many other countries. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between regional health expenditure and health outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), which incorporates the qualities of prehospital, in-hospital and posthospital care systems. Design We examined the association between prefecture-level per capita health expenditure and patients’ health outcomes after OHCA. Setting We used a nationwide, population-based registry system of OHCAs that captured all cases with OHCA resuscitated by emergency responders in Japan from 2005 to 2011. Participants All patients with OHCA aged 1–100 years were analysed. Outcome measures The patients’ 1-month survival rate, and favourable neurological outcome (defined as cerebral performance category 1–2) at 1-month. Results Among 618 154 cases with OHCA, the risk-adjusted 1-month survival rate varied from 3.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 3.7%) to 8.4% (95% CI 7.7% to 9.1%) across prefectures. The risk-adjusted probabilities of favourable neurological outcome ranged from 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%) to 3.7% (95% CI 3.4% to 3.9%). Compared with prefectures with lowest tertile health expenditure, 1-month survival rate was significantly higher in medium-spending (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.66, p=0.03) and high-spending prefectures (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.64, p=0.02), after adjusting for patient characteristics. There was no difference in the survival between medium-spending and high-spending regions. We observed similar patterns for favourable neurological outcome. Additional adjustment for regional per capita income did not affect our overall findings. Conclusions We observed a wide variation in the health outcomes after OHCA across regions. Low-spending regions had significantly worse health outcomes compared with medium-spending or high

  15. Increasing Diversity in Science and Health Professions: A 21-Year Longitudinal Study Documenting College and Career Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Ned, Judith; Ahn, David; Koehler, Alana; Kennedy, Jeanne D.

    2009-12-01

    Despite decades of precollege science education programs, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans remain critically underrepresented in science and health professions. This report describes college and career outcomes among graduates of the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program (SMYSP), a 5-week summer residential program for low-income high school students among whom 97% have been followed for up to 21 years. Approximately 24 students are selected annually, with participation limited to low-income students who have faced substantial personal hardships. Undergraduate and medical students provide key program leadership and training. The curriculum is based on science inquiry education and includes hospital internships, anatomy practicums, research projects, faculty lectures, college admissions/standardized test preparation, and long-term college and career guidance. A total of 476 high school students participated between 1988 and 2008, with 61% from underrepresented ethnic minority groups. Overall, 78% of African American, 81% of Latino, and 82% of Native American participants have earned a 4-year college degree (among those admitted to college, and excluding those currently attending college). In contrast, among 25-34-year old California adults, 16% of African Americans, 8% of Latinos, and 10% of Native Americans earn a 4-year college degree. Among SMYSP's 4-year college graduates, 47% are attending or have completed medical or graduate school, and 43% are working as or training to become health professionals. SMYSP offers a model that expands inquiry-based science education beyond the classroom, and recognizes the role of universities as "high school interventionists" to help diversify health professions.

  16. Make vitamin D while the sun shines, take supplements when it doesn't: a longitudinal, observational study of older adults in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Jane K; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Beckett, Jeffrey M; Bird, Marie-Louise; Robertson, Iain K; Ball, Madeleine J

    2013-01-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with a number of chronic conditions, particularly in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify how best to maintain optimum vitamin D status throughout the year in this high-risk population. The main objectives of the study were to assess seasonal vitamin D status; identify the main determinants of vitamin D status; determine if taking part in the study led to alterations in participant behaviour and vitamin D status. A longitudinal design across four consecutive seasons observed ninety-one 60-85 year old community-dwelling adults in Tasmania (41π S) over 13 consecutive months, with a follow-up assessment at next winter's end. Associations between solar UVB exposure, sun protection behaviours, dietary and supplemental vitamin D with serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. Variation in serum 25(OH)D demonstrated an identical pattern to solar UVB, lagging 8-10 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with summer UVB (mean 15.9 nmol/L; 95%CI 11.8-19.9 nmol/L, p<0.001) and vitamin D supplementation (100-600 IU/day: 95%CI 10.2 nmol/L; 0.8-19.6 nmol/L; p = 0.03; 800 IU/day: 21.0 nmol/L; 95%CI 8.1-34.0 nmol/L; p = 0.001). Seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D was greatly diminished in supplement users. The most common alteration in participant behaviour after the study was ingesting vitamin D supplements. Post-study vitamin D supplementation ℘800 IU/day was seven times more likely than during the study resulting in mean difference in serum 25(OH)D between supplement and non-supplement users of 30.1 nmol/L (95%CI 19.4-40.8 nmol/L; p<0.001). The main limitation was homogeneity of participant ethnicity. Solar exposure in summer and ingestion of vitamin D supplements in other seasons are the most effective ways of achieving and maintaining year-round vitamin D sufficiency in older adults in the Southern hemisphere. Vitamin D supplementation has greatest effect on vitamin D status if ingested during and

  17. Impact of rapid ultrafiltration rate on changes in the echocardiographic left atrial volume index in patients undergoing haemodialysis: a longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Song, Young Rim; Park, GunHa; Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Sung Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Optimal fluid management is essential when caring for a patient on haemodialysis (HD). However, if the fluid removal is too rapid, the resultant higher ultrafiltration rate (UFR) disadvantageously promotes haemodynamic instability and cardiac injury. We evaluated the effects of a rapid UFR on changes in the echocardiographic left atrial volume index (LAVI) over a period of time. Design Longitudinal observational study. Setting and participants A total of 124 new patients on HD. Interventions Echocardiography was performed at baseline and repeated after 19.7 months (range 11.3–23.1 months). Changes in LAVI (ΔLAVI/year, mL/m2/year) were calculated. The UFR was expressed in mL/hour/kg, and we used the mean UFR over 30 days (∼12–13 treatments). Main outcome measures The 75th centile of the ΔLAVI/year distribution was regarded as a ‘pathological’ increment. Results The mean interdialytic weight gain was 1.73±0.94 kg, and the UFR was 8.01±3.87 mL/hour/kg. The significant pathological increment point in ΔLAVI/year was 4.89 mL/m2/year. Correlation analysis showed that ΔLAVI/year was closely related to the baseline blood pressure, haemoglobin level, residual renal function and UFR. According to the receiver operating characteristics curve, the ‘best’ cut-off value of UFR for predicting the pathological increment was 10 mL/hour/kg, with an area under the curve of 0.712. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, a history of coronary artery disease, haemoglobin <10 g/dL and high UFR were significant predictors. An increase of 1 mL/hour/kg in the UFR was associated with a 22% higher risk of a worsening LAVI (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.41). Conclusions An increased haemodynamic load could affect left atrial remodelling in incident patients on HD. Thus, close monitoring and optimal control of UFR are needed. PMID:28148536

  18. Longitudinal Patterns of Active Leisure among South African Youth: Gender Differences and Associations with Health Risk Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Melissa K; Caldwell, Linda L; Smith, Edward A; Vergnani, Tania; Wegner, Lisa

    This study identified adolescents' patterns of active leisure participation over two years and five waves of data and how those patterns were related to substance use and sexual activity. Participants included 3581 primarily Colored (mixed race) South African adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to determine patterns of active leisure patterns and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the patterns and substance use and sexual activity. Four patterns were identified: Non-Participants; Early Participants; Late Participants; and Consistent Participants. Most males were Consistent Participants, whereas most females were Non-participants. Female Consistent Participants had the lowest odds of tobacco use, marijuana use, and sexual activity by the tenth grade relative to the other patterns, whereas Early Participants had the highest odds. In contrast, male Consistent Participants were at moderate risk of engaging in health risk behaviors relative to the other patterns. These findings suggest the need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviors.

  19. Longitudinal Patterns of Active Leisure among South African Youth: Gender Differences and Associations with Health Risk Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Melissa K.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Vergnani, Tania; Wegner, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study identified adolescents’ patterns of active leisure participation over two years and five waves of data and how those patterns were related to substance use and sexual activity. Participants included 3581 primarily Colored (mixed race) South African adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to determine patterns of active leisure patterns and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the patterns and substance use and sexual activity. Four patterns were identified: Non-Participants; Early Participants; Late Participants; and Consistent Participants. Most males were Consistent Participants, whereas most females were Non-participants. Female Consistent Participants had the lowest odds of tobacco use, marijuana use, and sexual activity by the tenth grade relative to the other patterns, whereas Early Participants had the highest odds. In contrast, male Consistent Participants were at moderate risk of engaging in health risk behaviors relative to the other patterns. These findings suggest the need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviors. PMID:27019655

  20. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity

  1. Prevalence, Motivations, and Social, Mental Health and Health Consequences of Cyberbullying Among School-Aged Children and Youth: Protocol of a Longitudinal and Multi-Perspective Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    McInroy, Lauren B; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Bhole, Payal; Van Wert, Melissa; Schwan, Kaitlin; Birze, Arija; Daciuk, Joanne; Beran, Tanya; Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra J; Wiener, Judith; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Johnston, David

    2016-01-01

    Background While the online environment may promote important developmental and social benefits, it also enables the serious and rapidly growing issue of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying constitutes an increasing public health problem – victimized children and youth experience a range of health and mental health concerns, including emotional and psychosomatic problems, maladaptive behaviors, and increased suicidality. Perpetrators demonstrate a lack of empathy, and may also struggle with health and mental health issues. Objective This paper describes the protocols applied in a longitudinal and multi-perspective mixed-methods study with five objectives: (1) to explore children/youth’s experiences, and children/youth’s, parents’, and teachers’ conceptions, definitions, and understanding of cyberbullying; (2) to explore how children/youth view the underlying motivations for cyberbullying; (3) to document the shifting prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization, witnessing, and perpetration; (4) to identify risk and protective factors for cyberbullying involvement; and (5) to explore social, mental health, and health consequences of cyberbullying. Methods Quantitative survey data were collected over three years (2012-2014) from a stratified random baseline sample of fourth (n=160), seventh (n=243), and tenth (n=267) grade children/youth, their parents (n=246), and their teachers (n=103). Quantitative data were collected from students and teachers during in-person school visits, and from parents via mail-in surveys. Student, parent, and teacher surveys included questions regarding: student experiences with bullying/cyberbullying; student health, mental health, and social and behavioral issues; socio-demographics; and information and communication technology use. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted twice with a sub-sample of students (n=57), purposively selected based on socio-demographics and cyberbullying experience, twice with

  2. [A longitudinal study of the relationship between support reciprocity and mental health among elementary and high school students].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2003-04-01

    At both the beginning and the end of a school year, 124 sixth-year elementary school students and 242 first-year high school students completed questionnaires regarding mutual support in friendships and stress responses. For elementary school students, support reciprocity did not correlate significantly with stress responses at either the beginning or end of the school year. For high school students, support reciprocity related significantly to stress responses at the end of the year but not at the beginning. These results suggest that the relationship between support reciprocity and mental health is influenced by the developing relationship between two people as well as the state of each individual's development at the time of mutual support.

  3. Trajectories of physical and mental health among persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD: a longitudinal comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Fagermoen, May Solveig; Lerdal, Anners

    2016-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent diseases associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Research generally indicates that persons with morbid obesity increase their HRQoL following intervention, whereas evidence of increases in HRQoL in persons with COPD is mixed. Examining the patterns of change over time instead of merely examining whether HRQoL changes will add to the knowledge in this field. Methods A sample of persons with morbid obesity and persons with COPD was recruited from learning and mastery courses and rehabilitation centers in Norway. The data were collected by self-report questionnaires at the start of patient education and at four subsequent time points during the 1-year follow-up. HRQoL was measured with the Short Form 12, version 2, and repeated measures analysis of variance was employed in the statistical analysis. Results Participants with morbid obesity linearly increased their physical HRQoL during the 1-year follow-up, whereas participants with COPD showed no change. None of the groups changed their mental HRQoL during follow-up. In all subdomains of HRQoL, the participants with morbid obesity showed favorable, linearly increasing trajectories across the follow-up period. Among the participants with COPD, no change patterns occurred in the subdomains of HRQoL, except for a fluctuating pattern in the mental health domain. Age, sex, and work status did not influence the trajectories of HRQoL in any of the domains. Conclusion A more favorable trajectory of HRQoL was found for persons with morbid obesity than for persons with COPD, possibly due to the obese persons’ better chances of recovery. PMID:27175082

  4. The effect of the National Essential Medicines Policy on health expenditures and service delivery in Chinese township health centres: evidence from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Guoxiang; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Guo, Bin; Fu, Wenqi; Hao, Yanhua; Cui, Yu; Huang, Weidong; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The government of China has introduced a National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in the new round of health system reform. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the NEMP can play a role in curbing the rise of medical expenditures without disrupting the availability of healthcare services at township hospitals in China. Design This study adopted a pre–post treatment-control study design. A difference-in-differences method and fixed-effects model for panel data were employed to estimate the effect of the NEMP. Setting Chongqing, Jiangsu and Henan Province, in China, in 2009 and 2010. Participants 296 township health centres. Outcome measures Outcomes for health expenditures were average outpatient drug expenses per visit, average inpatient drug expenses per discharged patient, average outpatient expenses per visit and average inpatient expenses per discharged patient. Outcomes for care delivery were the numbers of visits per certified doctor per day and the numbers of hospitalised patients per certified doctor per day. Results The township health centres that were enrolled in the NEMP reported 26% (p<0.01) lower drug expenditures for inpatient care. An 11% (p<0.05) decrease in average inpatient expenditures per discharged patient was found following the implementation of the NEMP. The impacts of the NEMP on average outpatient expenditures and outpatient drug expenditures were not statistically significant at the 5% level. No statistically significant associations were found between the NEMP and reduction in quantity of health service delivery. Conclusions The NEMP was significant in its effect in reducing inpatient medication and health service expenditures. This study shows no evidence that the quantity of healthcare service declined significantly after introduction of the NEMP over the study period, which suggests that if appropriate matching policies are introduced, the side effects of the NEMP can be counteracted to some degree

  5. Assessing the Use of Mobile Health Technology by Patients: An Observational Study in Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emily; Gonzalez, Cesar; Ramirez, Vanessa; Rubino, Barbara; Rossetti, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significant potential for mobile health technology to improve health outcomes for patients with chronic diseases. However, there is a need for further development of mobile health technology that would help to improve the health of lower-income communities. Objective The study objective was to assess mobile phone and app usage among a culturally diverse patient population, and to determine whether patients would be interested in using mobile health technology to help manage their chronic diseases. Methods An observational study was conducted with patients of the Internal Medicine resident primary care clinics of Los Angeles County and University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center. Self-reported information regarding demographics, current mobile phone usage, current mobile health app and social media usage, barriers to using mobile phones or mobile health apps, and interest in using a mobile health app was collected. Results Ninety-one percent of patients owned a mobile phone, with 76% (169/223) of these reporting having a mobile phone with Internet capability. Fifty-seven percent of subjects used mobile apps on their mobile phones, and 32% (41/130) of these used mobile apps related to their health. Eighty-six percent (207/241) of respondents voiced interest in using a mobile app to improve their health, and 40% (88/221) stated they would use such an app daily. Patients stated they would find the mobile health app most useful for nutrition, exercise, and obtaining general information on medical conditions. Conclusions Despite the fact that the majority of our primary care patients were of lower socioeconomic status, they utilized mobile phones with Internet and mobile app capabilities to a great extent. There was substantial interest among our patients in using mobile health technology to both manage chronic disease and improve overall health. Given that cultural, educational, and socioeconomic disparities strongly correlate with

  6. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  7. Diet and growth in infancy: relationship to socioeconomic background and to health and development in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M; Jones, Louise R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and socioeconomic background, all publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) covering breastfeeding, diet and growth in infancy, and the associations of these factors with socioeconomic background and later health and developmental outcomes were reviewed. Diet was assessed by parent-completed food records and parent-completed food frequency questionnaires covering infant feeding practices. Infancy growth was monitored through routine screening and by standardized measurements. Indicators of socioeconomic background were obtained by parent-completed questionnaires. Childhood outcomes were measured by standardized procedures. Rapid early weight gain was associated with later obesity. Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with lower body fat, but not lower body mass index, and with higher IQ in mid-childhood. Breastfed infants were better at regulating their energy intake than bottle-fed infants. In bottle-fed infants, energy intake at 4 months was associated with greater weight gain up to 5 years of age. Feeding cow's milk as a main drink in infancy was associated with anemia and high salt intake. Maternal education was a strong determinant of dietary differences: low education was associated with never breastfeeding and not following feeding guidelines. ALSPAC has provided unique insights into the relationship between diet and growth in infancy and later developmental outcomes.

  8. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern—The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bronwyn K.; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L.; Duncan, Mitch J.; Brown, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA), in working women. Young (31–36 years; 2009) and mid-aged (59–64 years; 2010) women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day) and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time) on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines) in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer), work hours (part-time; full-time) and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night). The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women. PMID:28287446

  9. Socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after radical prostatectomy: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jens; Hofreuter-Gätgens, Kerstin; Lüdecke, Daniel; Fisch, Margit; Graefen, Markus; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the explanatory contribution of disease, patient and healthcare factors among patients with prostate cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants In all, 246 patients from 2 hospitals in Hamburg/Germany who underwent radical prostatectomy completed a questionnaire shortly before discharge from hospital and again 6 months later. Outcome measures HRQOL as assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C-30 including global quality of life, 5 functional scales and 9 symptom scales/items. Generalised estimating equations were calculated to analyse longitudinal data. Results Lower SES measured by income, education and occupational status is significantly associated with lower HRQOL 6 months after treatment. This especially holds true for the functional scales. After introducing disease, patient and healthcare factors, associations remain significant in the majority of cases. The explanatory contribution of patient factors such as comorbidity or psychosocial characteristics and of healthcare factors is slightly stronger than that of disease factors. Conclusions We identified strong social inequalities in HRQOL among patients with prostate cancer 6 months after surgery, in Germany. The underlying causes could not be sufficiently identified, and further research regarding these associations and their explanatory factors is needed. PMID:27259527

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Psychosocial Mediators of Allostatic Load in Midlife Women: Findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Dawn M.; Stein, Judith; Greendale, Gail A.; Chyu, Laura; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Huang, Mei-Hua; Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This research sought to assess racial and SES differences in level and change in allostatic load (AL) over time in midlife women and to test whether psychosocial factors mediate these relationships. These factors were: discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility. Methods Longitudinal data obtained from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation SWAN were used (n = 2063; mean age at baseline = 46.0). Latent growth curve (LGC) models evaluated the impact of demographic, menopausal, and psychosocial variables on level and change in AL over 8 years. Results Direct effects: High levels of discrimination and hostility significantly predicted higher AL (path coefficients 0.05, 0.05 respectively). High perceived stress significantly predicted a faster rate of increase of AL (path coefficient 0.06). Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differentials were present, with African American race (path coefficient 0.23), low income (path coefficient −0.15), and low education (path coefficient −0.08) significantly predicted high AL level. Indirect effects: Significant indirect effects were found for African American race, less income, and lower education through higher discrimination, perceived stress, and hostility on level and rate of AL. Conclusion This was one of the first studies that investigated AL over multiple time periods and results supported AL as a cumulative phenomenon, affected by multiple psychosocial and demographic factors. The results suggest the complex ways in which race, SES, and psychosocial factors operate to influence AL. PMID:25886828

  11. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood.

  12. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.72 m(2) ), 1.95 (1.60-2.38); albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage.

  13. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bawah, Ayaga; Houle, Brian; Alam, Nurul; Razzaque, Abdur; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Debpuur, Cornelius; Welaga, Paul; Oduro, Abraham; Hodgson, Abraham; Tollman, Stephen; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Toan, Tran Khan; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Sankoh, Osman; Clark, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa), Navrongo (Ghana) in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam), Matlab (Bangladesh) in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community. PMID:27304429

  14. ARE HEALTH VISITORS' OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY PARENT-INFANT INTERACTIONS RELIABLE? A CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Ingeborg H; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Simonsen, Marianne; Kronborg, Hanne

    2017-03-01

    Health visitors need competences to promote healthy early parent-infant relationships. The aims of this study were to explore whether there are differences between groups of health visitors with and without additional parenting program education in terms of their knowledge of infant-parent interaction and their observation and assessment skills of such interactions. The cross-sectional study included 36 health visitors' certified Marte Meo therapists and 85 health visitors without additional parenting program education. Health visitors' observation skills were measured assessing five video-recorded mother-infant interactions. A questionnaire was used to measure their intention, self-efficacy, and knowledge. More certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a significantly higher mean level of knowledge of the early relationship, 6.42 (95% CI; 6.18-6.66) versus 5.05 (95% CI; 4.86-6.10), p = .04; and more certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a higher mean level of knowledge of infant self-regulation, 2.44 (95% CI; 2.18-2.71) versus 1.83 (95% CI; 1.62-2.03), p < .001. In the latter group, 54% (95% CI; 0.43-0.64) reported a significantly higher need for further education versus 22% (95% CI; 0.11-0.39), p = .001. Compared to health visitors without any parenting program education, health visitors certified as Marte Meo therapists reported a significantly higher frequency of correct assessment of mothers' sensitivity in two of five video-recordings, with 77.78% (95% CI; 0.61-0.87) compared to 45.88% (95% CI; 0.35-0.57) in Video 3, p = .001, and 69.44% (95% CI; 0.52-0.82) compared to 49.41% (95% CI; 0.39-0.60) in Video 4, p = .04, respectively. The results of the present study support the use of video-based education of health visitors to increase their knowledge of and skills in assessing parent-infant interactions. Randomized controlled

  15. Drinking Patterns and the Development of Functional Limitations in Older Adults: Longitudinal Analyses of the Health and Retirement Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lin, James C.; Guerrieri-Bang, Joy; Moore, Alison A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether consistent low-risk drinking is associated with lower risk of developing functional limitations among older adults. METHODS Data were obtained from five waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Function was assessed by questions measuring four physical abilities and five instrumental activities of daily living. Five different drinking patterns were determined using data over two consecutive survey periods. RESULTS Over the follow-up periods, 38.6% of older adults developed functional limitations. Consistent low-risk drinkers had lower odds of developing functional limitations compared to consistent abstainers, and the effect of consistent low-risk drinking was greater among those 50–64 years compared to those ≥65 years. Other drinking patterns were not associated with lower odds of incident functional limitation. DISCUSSION Consistent low-risk drinking was associated with lower odds of developing functional limitations, and this association was greater among older middle-aged adults 50–64 years of age. PMID:21311049

  16. Health-related quality of life and functional changes in DMD: A 12-month longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Sonia; Vita, Gian Luca; Sframeli, Maria; Mondello, Stefania; Mazzone, Elena; D'Amico, Adele; Berardinelli, Angela; La Rosa, Matteo; Bruno, Claudio; Distefano, Maria Grazia; Baranello, Giovanni; Barcellona, Costanza; Scutifero, Marianna; Marcato, Sonia; Palmieri, Arianna; Politano, Luisa; Morandi, Lucia; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Pane, Marika; Rodolico, Carmelo; Minetti, Carlo; Bertini, Enrico; Vita, Giuseppe; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) little has been reported on the association between clinical outcome measures and patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tools. Our study evaluated the relationship between 12 month changes on the Generic Core Scales (GCS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and the Neuromuscular Module of the PedsQLTM with several outcome measures (6 minute walk test, North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed items) in ambulatory DMD. Ninety-eight ambulatory DMD in a multicentric setting were included in the study. At baseline, the PedsQLTM inventories correlated with almost all the functional measures On the Child Self-Report there was a significant decrease between baseline and 12 months on the PedsQLTM GCS and its first domain, in parallel with the decrement in the functional outcome measures. Correlation between the 12 month changes on the PedsQLTM inventories and functional measures were almost all negligible. Similar results were obtained on the Parent Proxy-Report. In conclusion, PedsQLTM correlates with the level of impairment at baseline, but this does not hold true when 12 month changes are considered. Further studies comparing different tools are needed to better elucidate the complexity of the relationship between HRQOL and functional performances. PMID:26916554

  17. The inter-relationship among economic activities, environmental degradation, material consumption and population health in low-income countries: a longitudinal ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Huang, Ya-Li; Hu, Ching-Yao; Chen, Ssm-Ching; Tseng, Kuo-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The theory of ecological unequal exchange explains how trade and various forms of economic activity create the problem of environmental degradation, and lead to the deterioration of population health. Based on this theory, our study examined the inter-relationship among economic characteristics, ecological footprints, CO2 emissions, infant mortality rates and under-5 mortality rates in low-income countries. Design A longitudinal ecological study design. Setting Sixty-six low-income countries from 1980 to 2010 were included in the analyses. Data for each country represented an average of 23 years (N=1497). Data sources Data were from the World Development Indicators, UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database, Global Footprint Network and Polity IV Project. Analyses Linear mixed models with a spatial power covariance structure and a correlation that decreased over time were constructed to accommodate the repeated measures. Statistical analyses were conducted separately by sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and other regions. Results After controlling for country-level sociodemographic characteristics, debt and manufacturing, economic activities were positively associated with infant mortality rates and under-5 mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, export intensity and foreign investment were beneficial for reducing infant and under-5 mortality rates in Latin America and other regions. Although the ecological footprints and CO2 emissions did not mediate the relationship between economic characteristics and health outcomes, export intensity increased CO2 emissions, but reduced the ecological footprints in sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, although export intensity was positively associated with the ecological footprints and also CO2 emissions, the percentage of exports to high-income countries was negatively associated with the ecological footprints. Conclusions This study suggested that environmental

  18. Capitals diminished, denied, mustered and deployed. A qualitative longitudinal study of women's four year trajectories after acute health crisis, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Susan F.; Akoum, Mélanie S.; Storeng, Katerini T.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004–2010. Guided by an analytic focus on patterns of continuity and change, and drawing on recent discussions on the notion of ‘resilience’, and the concepts of ‘social capital’ and ‘bodily capital’, we explore the trajectories of 16 women in the aftermath of costly acute healthcare episodes. The synthesis of case studies shows that, in conditions of structural inequity and great insecurity, an individual's social capital ebbs and flow over time, resulting in a trajectory of multiple adaptations. Women's capacity to harness or exploit bodily capital in its various forms (beauty, youthfulness, physical strength, fertility) to some extent determines their ability to confront and overcome adversities. With this, they are able to further mobilise social capital without incurring excessive debt, or to access and accumulate significant new social capital. Temporary self-displacement, often to the parental home, is also used as a weapon of negotiation in intra-household conflict and to remind others of the value of one's productive and domestic labour. Conversely, diminished bodily capital due to the physiological impact of an obstetric event or its complications can lead to reduced opportunities, and to further disadvantage. PMID:23063215

  19. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  20. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  1. Ideal cardiovascular health score and incident end-stage renal disease in a community-based longitudinal cohort study: the Kailuan Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Quan Le; Wu, Shou Ling; Liu, Xiao Xue; An, Sha Sha; Wu, Yun Tao; Gao, Jing Sheng; Chen, Shuo Hua; Liu, Xiao Kun; Zhang, Qi; Mao, Rui Ying; Shang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate an association between ideal cardiovascular health metrics (CVH) and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Setting Community of Kailuan in Tangshan/China. Participants We examined in a community-based longitudinal cohort study 91 443 participants without history of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline in 2006–2007, with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥15 mL/min at baseline, and who participated in at least 1 of 3 follow-up examinations in 2008–2009, 2010–2011 and 2012–2013. Interventions CVH was measured by 7 key health factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, healthy dietary score, total cholesterol blood concentration, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose) each of which ranged between ‘ideal’ (2) and ‘poor’ (0). With a maximal CVH score of 14, the study participants were divided into categories of <5, 5–9 and 10–14 points. Primary and secondary outcome measures CHV, incidence of ESRD. Results Incidence of ESRD ranged from 7.06‰ in the lowest CVH category to 2.34‰ in the highest CVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, educational level, income, alcohol consumption and GFR, the lowest CVH category as compared with the highest CVH category had a significantly higher risk of incident ESRD (adjusted HR 2.87; 95% CI 1.53 to 5.39). For every decrease in group number of the cum-CVH score, the risk of ESRD increased by 20% (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.28). The effect was consistent across sex and all age groups. Conclusions A low CVH score significantly increased the risk of incident ESRD. Risk factors for cardiovascular events may also be associated with an increased risk for kidney failure. PMID:27899399

  2. Leveraging ongoing research to evaluate the health impacts of South Africa's salt reduction strategy: a prospective nested cohort within the WHO-SAGE multicountry, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Karen; Menyanu, Elias; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Pieterse, Chiné; Madurai, Savathree (Lorna); Baumgartner, Jeannine; Asare, George A; Thiele, Elizabeth; Schutte, Aletta E; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study. Methods and analysis Baseline sodium intake was assessed in a nested cohort of the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) wave 2 (2014–2015), a multinational longitudinal study on the health and well-being of adults and the ageing process. The South African cohort consisted of randomly selected households (n=4030) across the country. Spot and 24-hour urine samples are collected in a random subsample (n=1200) and sodium, potassium, creatinine and iodine analysed. Salt behaviour and sociodemographic data are captured using face-to-face interviews, alongside blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Ghana, the selected control country with no formal salt policy, provided a nested subsample (n=1200) contributing spot and 24-hour urine samples from the SAGE Ghana cohort (n=5000). Follow-up interviews and urine collection (wave 3) in both countries will take place in 2017 (postlegislation) to assess change in population-level sodium intake and blood pressure. Ethics and dissemination SAGE was approved by the WHO Ethics Review Committee (reference number RPC149) with local approval from the North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee and University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (South Africa), and University of Ghana Medical School Ethics and Protocol Review Committee (Ghana). The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed international journals

  3. Revealing "The Space Between": Creating an Observation Scale to Understand Infant Mental Health Reflective Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Christopher L.; Harrison, Mary E.; Hennes, Jill E.; Harris, Maren M.

    2016-01-01

    The Reflective Interaction Observation Scale (RIOS) describes and operationalizes the nature of the interactions between a supervisor and supervisee(s) during reflective supervision. Developed in collaboration among researchers and clinicians from the University of Minnesota, the Minnesota Association for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health,…

  4. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  5. NASA Satellite Observations: A Unique Asset for the Study of the Environment and Implications for Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes Sue M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation highlights how satellite observation systems are assets for studying the environment in relation to public health. It includes information on current and future satellite observation systems, NASA's public health and safety research, surveillance projects, and NASA's public health partners.

  6. Obesity, health-care utilization, and health-related quality of life after fracture in postmenopausal women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Frederick H; Anderson, Frederick A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Gehlbach, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    Fractures may be associated with higher morbidity in obese postmenopausal women than in nonobese women. We compared health-care utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, nonobese, and underweight women with fractures. Information from the GLOW study, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, health-care utilization, HRQL, and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 nonobese, and 941 obese women with one or more incident clinical fractures during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than nonobese women (6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in nonobese women, both before and after fracture; but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of antiosteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than nonobese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established.

  7. Leveraging Electronic Health Care Record Information to Measure Pressure Ulcer Risk in Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Susan S; Sabharwal, Sunil; Finch, Dezon K; McCart, James; Toyinbo, Peter; Bouayad, Lina; Matheny, Michael E; Gobbel, Glenn T; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are a frequent, serious, and costly complication for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). The health care team should periodically identify PrU risk, although there is no tool in the literature that has been found to be reliable, valid, and sensitive enough to assess risk in this vulnerable population. Objective The immediate goal is to develop a risk assessment model that validly estimates the probability of developing a PrU. The long-term goal is to assist veterans with SCI and their providers in preventing PrUs through an automated system of risk assessment integrated into the veteran’s electronic health record (EHR). Methods This 5-year longitudinal, retrospective, cohort study targets 12,344 veterans with SCI who were cared for in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and had no record of a PrU in the prior 12 months. Potential risk factors identified in the literature were reviewed by an expert panel that prioritized factors and determined if these were found in structured data or unstructured form in narrative clinical notes for FY 2009-2013. These data are from the VHA enterprise Corporate Data Warehouse that is derived from the EHR structured (ie, coded in database/table) or narrative (ie, text in clinical notes) data for FY 2009-2013. Results This study is ongoing and final results are expected in 2017. Thus far, the expert panel reviewed the initial list of risk factors extracted from the literature; the panel recommended additions and omissions and provided insights about the format in which the documentation of the risk factors might exist in the EHR. This list was then iteratively refined through review and discussed with individual experts in the field. The cohort for the study was then identified, and all structured, unstructured, and semistructured data were extracted. Annotation schemas were developed, samples of documents were extracted, and annotations are ongoing. Operational

  8. Naturalistic Observation of Health-Relevant Social Processes: The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) Methodology in Psychosomatics

    PubMed Central

    Mehl, Matthias R.; Robbins, Megan L.; Deters, Fenne große

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a novel, observational ambulatory monitoring method called the Electronically Activated Recorder or EAR. The EAR is a digital audio recorder that runs on a handheld computer and periodically and unobtrusively records snippets of ambient sounds from participants’ momentary environments. In tracking moment-to-moment ambient sounds, it yields acoustic logs of people’s days as they naturally unfold. In sampling only a fraction of the time, it protects participants’ privacy and makes large observational studies feasible. As a naturalistic observation method, it provides an observer’s account of daily life and is optimized for the objective assessment of audible aspects of social environments, behaviors, and interactions (e.g., habitual preferences for social settings, idiosyncratic interaction styles, and subtle emotional expressions). The article discusses the EAR method conceptually and methodologically, reviews prior research with it, and identifies three concrete ways in which it can enrich psychosomatic research. Specifically, it can (a) calibrate psychosocial effects on health against frequencies of real-world behavior, (b) provide ecological, observational measures of health-related social processes that are independent of self-report, and (c) help with the assessment of subtle and habitual social behaviors that evade self-report but have important health implications. An important avenue for future research lies in merging traditional, self-report based ambulatory monitoring methods with observational approaches such as the EAR to allow for the simultaneous yet methodologically independent assessment of inner, experiential (e.g., loneliness) and outer, observable aspects (e.g., social isolation) of real-world social processes to reveal their unique effects on health. PMID:22582338

  9. Common normal variants of pediatric vertebral development that mimic fractures: a pictorial review from a national longitudinal bone health study

    PubMed Central

    Jaremko, Jacob Lester; Siminoski, Kerry; Firth, Gregory; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Konji, Victor N.; Roth, Johannes; Sbrocchi, Anne Marie; Reed, Martin; O’Brien, Kathleen; Nadel, Helen; McKillop, Scott; Kloiber, Reinhard; Dubois, Josée; Coblentz, Craig; Charron, Martin; Ward, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with glucocorticoid-treated illnesses are at risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures and growing awareness has led to increased monitoring for these fractures. However scant literature describes developmental changes in vertebral morphology that can mimic fractures. The goal of this paper is to aid in distinguishing between normal variants and fractures. We illustrate differences using lateral spine radiographs obtained annually from children recruited to the Canada-wide STeroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) observational study, in which 400 children with glucocorticoid-treated leukemia, rheumatic disorders, and nephrotic syndrome were enrolled near glucocorticoid initiation and followed prospectively for 6 years. Normal variants mimicking fractures exist in all regions of the spine and fall into two groups. The first group comprises variants mimicking pathological vertebral height loss, including not-yet-ossified vertebral apophyses superiorly and inferiorly which can lead to a vertebral shape easily over-interpreted as anterior wedge fracture, physiologic beaking, and spondylolisthesis associated with shortened posterior vertebral height. The second group includes variants mimicking other radiologic signs of fractures: anterior vertebral artery groove resembling an anterior buckle fracture, Cupid’s bow balloon disk morphology, Schmorl nodes mimicking concave endplate fractures, and parallax artifact resembling endplate interruption or biconcavity. If an unexpected vertebral body contour is detected, careful attention to its location, detailed morphology, and (if available) serial changes over time may clarify whether it is a fracture requiring change in management or simply a normal variant. Awareness of the variants described in this paper can improve accuracy in the diagnosis of pediatric vertebral fractures. PMID:25828359

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. Objective The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. Methods We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. Results On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: “positive emotion,” “negative emotion,” “anxiety,” “anger,” “sadness,” “first person singular,” “negation,” “swear words,” and “death.” Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. Conclusions We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the

  11. Recruitment via the Internet and Social Networking Sites: The 1989-1995 Cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Hockey, Richard; Powers, Jennifer; Loxton, Deborah; Tooth, Leigh; Rowlands, Ingrid; Byles, Julie; Dobson, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Faced with the challenge of recruiting young adults for health studies, researchers have increasingly turned to the Internet and social networking sites, such as Facebook, as part of their recruitment strategy. As yet, few large-scale studies are available that report on the characteristics and representativeness of the sample obtained from such recruitment methods. Objective The intent of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of a national sample of young Australian women recruited mainly through the Internet and social networking sites and to discuss the representativeness of their sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics relative to the population. Methods A cohort of 17,069 women (born between 1989 and 1995) was recruited in 2012-13 for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Sociodemographic characteristics (percentages, means, and 95% confidence intervals) from the online survey data were compared with women aged 18-23 years from the 2011 Australian Census. Sample data were compared by age and education level with data from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). Results Compared to the Australian Census data, study participants were broadly representative in terms of geographical distribution across Australia, marital status (95.62%, 16,321/17,069) were never married), and age distribution. A higher percentage had attained university (22.52%, 3844/17,069) and trade/certificate/diploma qualifications (25.94%, 4428/17,069) compared with this age group of women in the national population (9.4% and 21.7% respectively). Among study participants, 22.05% (3721/16,877) were not in paid employment with 35.18% (5931/16,857) studying 16 or more hours a week. A higher percentage of study participants rated their health in the online survey as fair or poor (rather than good, very good, or excellent) compared with those participating in face-to-face interviews in the AHS (18.77%, 3203

  12. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  13. A prospective longitudinal study of voice characteristics and health-related quality of life outcomes following laryngeal cancer treatment with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Therese; Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth; Finizia, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Background To investigate potential changes in perceptual, acoustic and patient-reported outcomes over 12 months for laryngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and methods A total of 40 patients with Tis-T3 laryngeal cancer treated with curative intent by radiotherapy were included in this prospective longitudinal descriptive study. Patients were followed pre-radiotherapy, one month, six months and 12 months post-radiotherapy, where voice recordings and patient-reported outcome instruments (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core30, Head and Neck35, Swedish Self-Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer) were completed at each appointment. Perceptual analysis, using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain scale and vocal fry parameters, and acoustic measures including harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR), jitter, shimmer and mean spoken fundamental frequency (MSFF) were produced from voice recordings. Results All patients presented with dysphonic voices pre-radiotherapy, where 95% demonstrated some degree of vocal roughness. This variable improved significantly immediately post-radiotherapy, however, then deteriorated again between six and 12 months. Vocal fry also increased significantly at 12 months. Acoustic measures were abnormal pre- and post-treatment with no significant change noted except for MSFF, which lowered significantly by 12 months. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) deteriorated post-radiotherapy but returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months. Conclusion By 12 months, most perceptual, acoustic, patient-reported voice and HRQL outcomes for laryngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy had showed no significant improvements compared to pretreatment function. Further studies are required to investigate potential benefits of voice rehabilitation following radiotherapy.

  14. The contribution of pre- and postdisaster social support to short- and long-term mental health after Hurricanes Katrina: A longitudinal study of low-income survivors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Lowe, Sarah R; Weber, Elyssa; Rhodes, Jean E

    2015-08-01

    A previous study of Hurricane Katrina survivors found that higher levels of predisaster social support were associated with lower psychological distress one year after the storm, and that this pathway was mediated by lower exposure to hurricane-related stressors. As a follow-up, we examined the impact of pre- and postdisaster social support on longer-term of mental health-both psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. In this three-wave longitudinal study, 492 residents in the region affected by Hurricane Katrina reported levels of perceived social support and symptoms of psychological distress prior to the storm (Wave 1). Subsequently, one year after Hurricane Katrina (Wave 2), they reported levels of exposure, perceived social support, and symptoms of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress. The latter three variables were assessed again four years after the hurricane (Wave 3). Results of mediation analysis indicated that levels of exposure to hurricane-related stressors mediated the relationship between Wave 1 perceived social support and Wave 3 psychological distress as well as postdisaster posttraumatic stress. Results of regression analyses indicated that, controlling for Wave 1 psychological distress and disaster exposure, Wave 2 perceived social support was associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 psychological distress but not posttraumatic stress. Our results confirmed the social causation processes of social support and suggest that posttraumatic stress might not stem directly from the lack of social support. Rather, preexisting deficits in social resources might indirectly affect longer-term posttraumatic stress and general psychological distress by increasing risk for disaster-related stressors.

  15. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Anna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  16. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Anna; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51–60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men. PMID:26501351

  17. Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; Grogan, Claire; Perry, Mark; Pedlar, Charles; Cooke, Karl; Morrissey, Dylan; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2010-10-01

    Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In cross-sectional analysis, there were no significant relationships between BMD and the possible associations. Menstrual dysfunction, disordered eating, and low BMD were coexistent in 15.9% of athletes. Longitudinal analysis identified a positive association between the BMD reduction at the lumbar spine and training volume (p=.026). This study confirms the presence of aspects of the female athlete triad in elite female endurance athletes and notes a substantial prevalence of low BMD and osteoporosis. Normal menstrual status was not significantly associated with normal BMD, and it is the authors' practice that all elite female endurance athletes undergo dual-X-ray absorptiometry screening. The association between increased training volume, trend for menstrual dysfunction, and increased loss of lumbar BMD may support the concept that negative energy balance contributes to bone loss in athletes.

  18. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Laokri, Samia; Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007-2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient's household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced "catastrophic" health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households' members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of "catastrophic" health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of "free" care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control.

  19. Longitudinal comparison of quality of life in patients undergoing laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication versus magnetic sphincter augmentation: Observational cohort study with propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Lovece, Andrea; Lazzari, Veronica; Bonavina, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Only a minority of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are offered a surgical option. This is mostly due to the fear of potential side effects, the variable success rate, and the extreme alteration of gastric anatomy with the current gold standard, the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. It has been reported that laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and laparoscopic sphincter augmentation using a magnetic device (LINX) can treat reflux more physiologically and with a lower incidence of side-effects and reoperation rate. We present the first comparing quality of life in patients undergoing LTF versus LINX.Observational cohort study. Consecutive patients undergoing LTF or LINX over the same time period were compared by using the propensity score full matching method and generalized estimating equation. Criteria of exclusion were >3 cm hiatal hernia, grade C-D esophagitis, ineffective esophageal motility, body mass index >35, and previous upper abdominal surgery. The primary study outcome was quality of life measured with the Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were proton pump inhibitors (PPI) use, presence of gas-related symptoms or dysphagia, and reoperation-free probability.Between March 2007 and July 2014, 238 patients with GERD met the criteria of inclusion in the study. Of these, 103 underwent an LTF and 135 a LINX procedure. All patients had a minimum 1-year follow-up. Over time, patients in both groups had similar GERD-HRQL scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.27; P = 0.578), PPI use (OR 1.18, CI 0.81-1.70; P = 0.388), gas-related symptoms (OR 0.69, CI 0.21-2.28; P = 0.542), dysphagia (OR 0.62, CI 0.26-1.30; P = 0.241), and reoperation-free probability (stratified log-rank test = 0.556).In 2 concurrent cohorts of patients with early stage GERD undergoing LTF or LINX and matched by propensity score analysis, health

  20. The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) Statement

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Smeeth, Liam; Guttmann, Astrid; Harron, Katie; Moher, David; Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T.; von Elm, Erik; Langan, Sinéad M.

    2015-01-01

    Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD) statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist and explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included herein. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org), will enhance the implementation and understanding of RECORD. Through implementation of RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can encourage transparency of research reporting. PMID:26440803

  1. [The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement].

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Smeeth, Liam; Guttmann, Astrid; Harron, Katie; Hemkens, Lars G; Moher, David; Petersen, Irene; Sørensen, Henrik T; von Elm, Erik; Langan, Sinéad M

    2016-10-01

    Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD) statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist as well as explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org), will improve the implementation and understanding of RECORD. By implementing RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can enhance transparency of research reporting.

  2. Did past economic prosperity affect the health related quality of life predictors? A longitudinal study on a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQOL) as an important measure of medical outcomes has been shown to be associated with demographic factors and the most common mental and chronic somatic diseases. This study’s aim was to identify factors predicting changes in HRQOL over a follow-up period in a representative sample of Slovenian family medicine patients. Methods In a longitudinal multi-centred study between 2003 and 2005, data were collected from 1118 consecutive attendees from 60 family medicine practices in Slovenia on quality of life, socio-demographic factors and the presence of mental disorders, with follow-up after 6 and 24 months. Retrospective information on chronic diseases was obtained from patients` health records. In three time-sequential multiple linear regression models, data on 601 patients (53.8%) was analysed to determine factors associated with each component score of quality of life. Results At baseline the patients were 48.58 (SE = 0.58) years of age, over half were women (386 (64.2%)) and most were Slovenian (548 (91.2%)). Quality of life was seen to improve over the two-year period. Factors significantly and consistently associated with a better mental component score of quality of life were social support, satisfactory circumstances in patients` household and absence of anxiety. Major life events in the past year and depression were shown to be risk factors for mental and physical components, while level of education, absence of long-term disability and chronic pain were identified as predictors of the physical component. Conclusions Detection and successful treatment of depression and anxiety has a potential to lead to improved quality of life in family medicine attendees; family physicians should be alert for the early onset of these conditions, knowing that symptoms of chronic pain, depression and anxiety often overlap in patients. Poorly educated patients and those lacking social support and/or satisfactory household

  3. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P < 0.01), older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P < 0.01), dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs) (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P < 0.011) or had experienced a history of falls with

  4. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  5. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  6. An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S; Whimster, W F

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1010796

  7. First Observations of Large-Scale Wave Structure Using the CERTO Beacon on the C/NOFS Satellite and a Longitudinal Chain of Stations in Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, R. T.; Bubenik, D. M.; Thampi, S.; Yamamoto, M.

    2009-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that large-scale wave structure (LSWS), which appears in the bottomside of the evening equatorial F layer, is playing a central role in the development of plasma structure, generically referred to as equatorial spread F (ESF). Although difficult to detect with sensors that probe only a fixed longitude, supporting evidence has come from a steerable incoherent-scatter radar, an ion-density probe on an equatorial-orbiting satellite, and a few signatures in ground-based ionosonde measurements. Most recently, LSWS has been detected in the form of total electron content (TEC) variations, derived from dual-frequency signals transmitted by the CERTO beacon on C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System), a low-inclination orbiting satellite. These first measurements, made from a single equatorial receiving station (Bac Lieu, Vietnam), have shown that LSWS can extend over more than 20 degrees in longitude and occur even before E-region sunset. With an interest in describing the plasma-density distribution (through tomography) over a broader longitudinal sector, three stations were set up this summer to receive the CERTO signals from C/NOFS. The stations are located on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Majuro, in the central Pacific region. The longitudinal coverage from these stations is 33 degrees (allowing ionospheric penetration points that extend 10 degrees to either side of a station), or about two hours in local time. In addition, an ionosonde and a five-beam 50 MHz radar are being operated on Pohnpei, which will provide complementary information about the post-sunset rise (PSSR) of the F layer, ESF, and the development of backscatter plumes (i.e., plasma bubbles). Hence, measurements from these stations are expected to produce spatial maps of LSWS that extend from well before E-region sunset to times after the PSSR, and development of ESF, if any. Preliminary results from this cluster of sensors in the Pacific region will be presented.

  8. The potential of complementary and alternative medicine in promoting well-being and critical health literacy: a prospective, observational study of shiatsu

    PubMed Central

    Long, Andrew F

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential contribution of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities to promote and support critical health literacy has not received substantial attention within either the health promotion or the CAM literature. This paper explores the potential of one CAM modality, shiatsu, in promoting well-being and critical health literacy. Methods Data are drawn from a longitudinal, 6 months observational, pragmatic study of the effects and experience of shiatsu within three European countries (Austria, Spain and the UK). Client postal questionnaires included: advice received, changes made 6 months later, clients 'hopes' from having shiatsu and features of the client-practitioner relationship. Result At baseline, three-quarters of clients (n = 633) received advice, on exercise, diet, posture, points to work on at home or other ways of self-care. At 6 months follow-up, about four-fifths reported making changes to their lifestyle 'as a result of having shiatsu treatment', including taking more rest and relaxation or exercise, changing their diet, reducing time at work and other changes such as increased body/mind awareness and levels of confidence and resolve. Building on the findings, an explanatory model of possible ways that a CAM therapy could contribute to health promotion is presented to guide future research, both within and beyond CAM. Conclusion Supporting individuals to take control of their self-care requires advice-giving within a supportive treatment context and practitioner relationship, with clients who are open to change and committed to maintaining their health. CAM modalities may have an important role to play in this endeavour. PMID:19538728

  9. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  10. Relationship between observational learning and health belief with physical activity among adolescents girl in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamian, Marzieh; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activities among adolescents affects health during pubescence and adolescence and decrease in physical activities among adolescents has become a global challenge. The aim of the present study was to define the relation between the level of physical activity among adolescent girls and their health beliefs as personal factor and level of observational learning as environmental factor. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 400 students aged from 11 to 19 years in Isfahan, Iran. Information regarding the duration of physical activity with moderate/severe intensity was measured in four dimensions of leisure time (exercising and hiking), daily activities, and transportation-related activities using the International Physical Activity questionnaire. Health belief structures included perceived sensitivity, intensity of perceived threat, perceived benefits, and barriers and self-efficacy; observational learning was measured using a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: Results showed that perceived barriers, observational learning, and level of self-efficacy were related to the level of physical activity in all dimensions. In addition, the level of physical activity at leisure time, transportation, and total physical activity were dependent on the intensity of perceived threats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed that the intensity of perceived threats, perceived barriers and self-efficacy structures, and observational learning are some of the factors related to physical activity among adolescent girls, and it is possible that by focusing on improving these variables through interventional programs physical activity among adolescent girls can be improved. PMID:28194200

  11. A Comprehensive Observational Coding Scheme for Analyzing Instrumental, Affective, and Relational Communication in Health Care Contexts

    PubMed Central

    SIMINOFF, LAURA A.; STEP, MARY M.

    2011-01-01

    Many observational coding schemes have been offered to measure communication in health care settings. These schemes fall short of capturing multiple functions of communication among providers, patients, and other participants. After a brief review of observational communication coding, the authors present a comprehensive scheme for coding communication that is (a) grounded in communication theory, (b) accounts for instrumental and relational communication, and (c) captures important contextual features with tailored coding templates: the Siminoff Communication Content & Affect Program (SCCAP). To test SCCAP reliability and validity, the authors coded data from two communication studies. The SCCAP provided reliable measurement of communication variables including tailored content areas and observer ratings of speaker immediacy, affiliation, confirmation, and disconfirmation behaviors. PMID:21213170

  12. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  13. Cost-minimization analysis in the treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy with botulinum toxin type A: an observational, longitudinal, retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tapias, Gloria; García-Romero, Mar; Crespo, Carlos; Cuesta, Maribel; Forné, Carles; Pascual-Pascual, Samuel Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Objetivo: Estudio de minimización de costes de onabotulinumtoxinA y de abobotulinumtoxinA, teniendo en cuenta la dosis real administrada, en ninos con espasticidad asociada con la deformidad dinámica del pie equino debida a parálisis cerebral. Método: Estudio unicéntrico, observacional, longitudinal y retrospectivo que incluyó pacientes pediátricos espásticos entre 2 y 18 anos tratados con onabotulinumtoxinA o abobotulinumtoxinA, entre diciembre del 1995 y octubre del 2012, en el Servicio de Neurología Pediátrica de un hospital espanol de primer nivel. Se realizó un análisis longitudinal de la gravedad de la espasticidad para confirmar la similar efectividad de ambos tratamientos y proceder al análisis de minimización de costes que contempló las dosis infiltradas y los costes directos (costes farmacológicos y de visitas) desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (euros 2016). Resultados: Se analizaron 895 pacientes con espasticidad infantil, 543 fueron tratados únicamente con onabotulinumtoxinA, 292 con abobotulinumtoxinA y 60 con ambos tratamientos. Las dosis medias infiltradas obtenidas fueron de 5,44 U/kg (DE = 2,17) para las infiltraciones con onabotulinumtoxinA y de 14,73 U/kg (5,26) para las infiltraciones con abobotulinumto xinA. El coste directo anual total (farmacológico y visitas) fue de 839,56 € para onabotulinumtoxinA y de 631,23 € para abobotulinumtoxinA, lo que supone una diferencia de 208,34 € al ano a favor del tratamiento con abobotulinumtoxinA. Conclusiones: Se ha mostrado que en práctica clínica real el coste por paciente y ano del tratamiento de la espasticidad infantil resulta más económico con la utilización de abobotulinumtoxinA.

  14. Is cost-related non-collection of prescriptions associated with a reduction in health? Findings from a large-scale longitudinal study of New Zealand adults

    PubMed Central

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Norris, Pauline; Crampton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether cost-related non-collection of prescription medication is associated with a decline in health. Settings New Zealand Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)-Health. Participants Data from 17 363 participants with at least two observations in three waves (2004–2005, 2006–2007, 2008–2009) of a panel study were analysed using fixed effects regression modelling. Primary outcome measures Self-rated health (SRH), physical health (PCS) and mental health scores (MCS) were the health measures used in this study. Results After adjusting for time-varying confounders, non-collection of prescription items was associated with a 0.11 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.15) unit worsening in SRH, a 1.00 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.40) unit decline in PCS and a 1.69 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.18) unit decline in MCS. The interaction of the main exposure with gender was significant for SRH and MCS. Non-collection of prescription items was associated with a decline in SRH of 0.18 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.25) units for males and 0.08 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.13) units for females, and a decrease in MCS of 2.55 (95% CI 1.67 to 3.42) and 1.29 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.89) units for males and females, respectively. The interaction of the main exposure with age was significant for SRH. For respondents aged 15–24 and 25–64 years, non-collection of prescription items was associated with a decline in SRH of 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.17) units, respectively, but for respondents aged 65 years and over, non-collection of prescription items had no significant effect on SRH. Conclusion Our results show that those who do not collect prescription medications because of cost have an increased risk of a subsequent decline in health. PMID:26553826

  15. Removal of user fees no guarantee of universal health coverage: observations from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Olivier; Drabo, K Maxime; Dembelé, S Mathurin; Kafando, Benoît; Dujardin, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In theory, the removal of user fees puts health services within reach of everyone, including the very poor. When Burkina Faso adopted the DOTS strategy for the control of tuberculosis, the intention was to provide free tuberculosis care. In 2007–2008, interviews were used to collect information from 242 smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled in the national tuberculosis control programme in six rural districts. The median direct costs associated with tuberculosis were estimated at 101 United States dollars (US$) per patient. These costs represented 23% of the mean annual income of a patient’s household. During the course of their care, three quarters of the interviewed patients apparently faced “catastrophic” health expenditure. Inadequacies in the health system and policies appeared to be responsible for nearly half of the direct costs (US$ 45 per patient). Although the households of patients developed coping strategies, these had far-reaching, adverse effects on the quality of lives of the households’ members and the socioeconomic stability of the households. Each tuberculosis patient lost a median of 45 days of work as a result of the illness. For a population living on or below the poverty line, every failure in health-care delivery increases the risk of “catastrophic” health expenditure, exacerbates socioeconomic inequalities, and reduces the probability of adequate treatment and cure. In Burkina Faso, a policy of “free” care for tuberculosis patients has not met with complete success. These observations should help define post-2015 global strategies for tuberculosis care, prevention and control. PMID:23599551

  16. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Brazilian Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients (BRAZPD): Socio-economic Status Not a Barrier

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ♦ Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ♦ Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, β = 0.12, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001; β = -0.08, β = 0.007; and β = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, β = -0.28, p < 0.001; β = 0.06, p = 0.009; β = -0.09, p = 0.002; β = -0.09, p = 0.001; β = 0.07, p = 0.004; β = -0.05, p = 0.040; and β = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ♦ Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126

  18. Association between comorbid conditions and BADL/IADL disability in hypertension patients over age 45: Based on the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiahui; Ren, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension usually coexists with other chronic conditions and can cause disability in relation to activities of daily living. We examined the association between the number and categories of comorbid conditions and disability affecting activities of daily living in hypertension patients.The data were collected from the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which contains information about chronic conditions and disability. Additionally, socio-demographic characteristics of 3754 hypertension patients aged 45 and older were included in this study. Comorbid conditions included dyslipidemia, stroke, and 12 other chronic conditions. Disability in relation to activities of daily living was assessed using the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) instruments. Differences in BADL/IADL disability among patients with different comorbid conditions were compared using the chi-square test, and the influence of chronic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics on BADL/IADL disability was analyzed using logistic models.Without considering the influence of specific chronic conditions on BADL/IADL, hypertension patients with additional comorbid conditions were more likely to suffer from BADL/IADL disability. When considering the effect of specific chronic conditions, the number of comorbid conditions did not significantly influence BADL/IADL disability. Dyslipidemia, chronic lung disease, stroke, memory-related diseases, and arthritis/rheumatism were associated with BADL disability. Chronic lung diseases, heart diseases, stroke, stomach/digestive system diseases, emotional/nervous/psychiatric problems, memory-related diseases, arthritis/rheumatism, and asthma were associated with IADL disability. Additionally, female, people with lower education level, people living in village, and people living in middle and western China were more likely suffer from BADL

  19. Variable input observer for structural health monitoring of high-rate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Cao, Liang; Dodson, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    The development of high-rate structural health monitoring methods is intended to provide damage detection on timescales of 10 µs -10ms where speed of detection is critical to maintain structural integrity. Here, a novel Variable Input Observer (VIO) coupled with an adaptive observer is proposed as a potential solution for complex high-rate problems. The VIO is designed to adapt its input space based on real-time identification of the system's essential dynamics. By selecting appropriate time-delayed coordinates defined by both a time delay and an embedding dimension, the proper input space is chosen which allows more accurate estimations of the current state and a reduction of the convergence rate. The optimal time-delay is estimated based on mutual information, and the embedding dimension is based on false nearest neighbors. A simulation of the VIO is conducted on a two degree-of-freedom system with simulated damage. Results are compared with an adaptive Luenberger observer, a fixed time-delay observer, and a Kalman Filter. Under its preliminary design, the VIO converges significantly faster than the Luenberger and fixed observer. It performed similarly to the Kalman Filter in terms of convergence, but with greater accuracy.

  20. New seismic array solution for earthquake observations and hydropower plant health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonovskaya, Galina N.; Kapustian, Natalya K.; Moshkunov, Alexander I.; Danilov, Alexey V.; Moshkunov, Konstantin A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the novel fusion of seismic safety monitoring data of the hydropower plant in Chirkey (Caucasus Mountains, Russia). This includes new hardware solutions and observation methods, along with technical limitations for three types of applications: (a) seismic monitoring of the Chirkey reservoir area, (b) structure monitoring of the dam, and (c) monitoring of turbine vibrations. Previous observations and data processing for health monitoring do not include complex data analysis, while the new system is more rational and less expensive. The key new feature of the new system is remote monitoring of turbine vibration. A comparison of the data obtained at the test facilities and by hydropower plant inspection with remote sensors enables early detection of hazardous hydrodynamic phenomena.

  1. [Observations on the effect of work on human health in a book by John Baptiste Lalangue].

    PubMed

    Piasek, G; Piasek, M

    1997-09-01

    The paper presents particulars on damaging effects of work on human health drawn from the first professional medical book published in the Croatian language. Most official documents and papers of the 18th century were written in Latin. Originally, the subject book, Medicina Ruralis, was also written in Latin and subsequently translated to Croatian. It was published in 1776, in the city of Varazdin, Croatian capital at the time. The author was John the Baptist Lalangue, the viceroy's physician and the official physician of the Varazdin county, during the rule of Hapsburg archduchess Maria Theresa. The paper attempts to show to what extent does the Lalangue's book reflect the first ideas and recommendations related to occupational diseases, particularly those described in the capital work of Ramazzini who was acknowledged as "the father of occupational health". Such ideas developed with the progress of the Industrial Revolution at the end of 17th century. In his book, Lalangue considers hard, physical work the major cause of diseases in population he observed and cured in his everyday practice. He gave detailed recommendations for physicians on how to get professional history data of the patient. Furthermore, Lalangue's book introduces the first ideas as to the professional rehabilitation of diseased persons. The paper concludes that Lalangue's ideas represent the origins of modern occupational health on Croatian territory, and emphasises the significance of such ideas appearing soon after their occurrence in other industrially more developed European countries.

  2. Impact of the Family Health Program on the quality of vital information and reduction of child unattended deaths in Brazil: an ecological longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vital information, despite of being an important public health instrument for planning and evaluation, in most of the developing countries have still low quality and coverage. Brazil has recently implemented the Family Health Program (PSF), one of the largest comprehensive primary health care programs in the world, which demonstrated effectiveness on the reduction of infant mortality. In the present study we evaluate the impact of the PSF on mortality rates related to the quality of vital information: the under-fi