Science.gov

Sample records for health organization-centred standardization

  1. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

    This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

  2. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  3. Myanmar: promotion of the national health standard.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    In order to improve the health, fitness and education standards of the nation, Myanmar has initiated efforts for human resources development and promotion of the national health standard. Among these are the opening of new hospitals and clinics and upgrading of other health facilities, including health centers. The national health policies that were implemented focused on the areas of community health, disease control, environmental health, health systems development, and organization and management. These policies include the provision of health care services throughout the country and enabling cooperatives and private entrepreneurs to actively participate in health care activities, and extending health care services together with international organizations. Through these initiatives efforts are being taken to uplift national health services to international standards.

  4. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  5. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  6. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  7. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  8. 38 CFR 9.10 - Health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health standards. 9.10... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.10 Health standards. (a) For the purpose of... criteria used by the insurer in determining good health for persons applying to it for life insurance...

  9. Comprehensive Health Education Standards (Including Physical Activity Standards). Comprehensive Health Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Arizona's comprehensive health education standards begins with a health rationale for each standard, then details the seven standards: (1) students comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; (2) students demonstrate the ability to access accurate health information; (3) students demonstrate the ability to practice…

  10. American Indian Standards for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    These American Indian standards for health education were developed in close alignment with the 1995 U.S. national standards. While the text of the actual "standards" is the same in both documents, the performance indicators in this material have been tailored specifically for use in schools serving American Indian students. Like the…

  11. Health Education Curriculum Standards K-12, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The health education program focuses on wellness and health promotion, with emphasis on the need to influence children and youth to make early decisions about positive lifestyles that will continue into adulthood. These comprehensive health education curriculum standards focus on positive self-image, decision-making, nutrition, stress management,…

  12. Standardization of health data – ICAR guidelines including health key

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic improvement of animal health requires knowledge about the status quo and reliable measures to characterize it. In dairy herds, health monitoring has gained importance to ensure sustainable and cost-efficient milk production in accordance with public expectations. In this context, standard...

  13. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [A new view of Wolfgang Gutmann and the "Organism-Centred Theory"].

    PubMed

    Weinich, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    Six years after the death of the founder of the so-called 'Organism-Centred Theory' - Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Friedrich Gutmann died on 15 April 1997 - it is obvious that numerous aspects of this theoretical system, which were highly controversial while GUTMANN was still alive, are today gaining increasing acceptance. Two things are worth noting here: on the one hand it can be observed that statements from this concept, also known as the "Frankfurt Theory" (FT), are slowly establishing themselves in the scientific community as everyday scientific knowledge, that is, without being identified as intrinsic parts of the organism-centred theory. On the other hand it cannot be ignored that a rethinking process and an assumption of construction-morphological ideas has been observed, even among those bio-scientists who firmly regard themselves as representatives of the traditional view of evolution theory oriented towards Darwinian evolution paradigms. In terms of content, this transformation focuses on the evaluation of two central points of "organism-centred theory": on the one hand, GUTMANN's criticism of reductionism is finding an increasing number of followers, and futhermore, his idea that an organism itself actively generates and creates its own form has been convincingly confirmed by a number of more recent cellular findings.

  15. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and health standards. (a) Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that...

  16. 45 CFR 162.506 - Standard unique health plan identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard unique health plan identifier. 162.506 Section 162.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Plans §...

  17. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and health standards. (a) Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that...

  18. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and health standards. (a) Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that...

  19. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and health standards. (a) Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that...

  20. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety and health standards. 851.23 Section 851.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 851.23 Safety and health standards. (a) Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that...

  1. 29 CFR 505.6 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 505.6 Section 505.6 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.6 Safety and health standards. (a) Standards. Section 5(i)(2) and section 7(g)(2) of the Act... dangerous to the health and safety of the employees engaged in such project or production. Compliance...

  2. 29 CFR 505.6 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 505.6 Section 505.6 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.6 Safety and health standards. (a) Standards. Section 5(i)(2) and section 7(g)(2) of the Act... dangerous to the health and safety of the employees engaged in such project or production. Compliance...

  3. 29 CFR 505.6 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 505.6 Section 505.6 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.6 Safety and health standards. (a) Standards. Section 5(i)(2) and section 7(g)(2) of the Act... dangerous to the health and safety of the employees engaged in such project or production. Compliance...

  4. 29 CFR 505.6 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 505.6 Section 505.6 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.6 Safety and health standards. (a) Standards. Section 5(i)(2) and section 7(g)(2) of the Act... dangerous to the health and safety of the employees engaged in such project or production. Compliance...

  5. 29 CFR 505.6 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 505.6 Section 505.6 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.6 Safety and health standards. (a) Standards. Section 5(i)(2) and section 7(g)(2) of the Act... dangerous to the health and safety of the employees engaged in such project or production. Compliance...

  6. 42 CFR 600.405 - Standard health plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard health plan coverage. 600.405 Section 600.405 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BASIC HEALTH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, ELIGIBILITY, ESSENTIAL HEALTH BENEFITS,...

  7. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS § 1925.2 Safety and health...

  8. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS § 1925.2 Safety and health...

  9. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS § 1925.2 Safety and health...

  10. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS § 1925.2 Safety and health...

  11. 29 CFR 1925.2 - Safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and health standards. 1925.2 Section 1925.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS § 1925.2 Safety and health...

  12. Environmental Health Standards for Human Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James John T.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of air and water quality standards includes evidence-based standards, factors unique to spaceflight, effects from exposures to combinations of compounds, contingency versus nominal standards, tables of ISO standards for air quality (ppm) and water quality (mg/L), and updating of standards.

  13. Occupational health priorities for health standards: the current NIOSH approach.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, J L; Rose, V E

    1979-01-01

    Government agencies responsible for protecting the public from the adverse effects of toxic chemicals must set priorities for research, regulatory action, protocol testing, and monitoring due to the vast number of toxic chemicals and the limited resources available to these agencies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) must set priorities for research on hazards encountered in the workplace. Priorities are also utilized by NIOSH in preparing criteria for recommended occupational standards which are forwarded to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, for possible promulgation. For various reasons, including rapidly changing conditions in the American workplace, NIOSH has instituted a revised priorities program. In the future, NIOSH research and recommended standards activities will focus not only on individual chemicals, but also on industries, occupations, chemical classes, and general industrial processes. NIOSH has also implemented a new program which will allow recommended control procedures for certain chemicals to be forwarded to OSHA in a shorter time period than has been experienced previously. PMID:434273

  14. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  15. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  16. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  17. 45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section 162.406 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health...

  18. 45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section 162.406 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health...

  19. 45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section 162.406 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health...

  20. 45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section 162.406 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health...

  1. Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisory Tables

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Health Advisory Program, published concentrations of drinking water contaminants at Drinking Water Specific Risk Level Concentration for cancer and concentrations of contaminants at which noncancer adverse health effects are not antcipated to occur

  2. Health Education Content Standards and Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Department of Education's vision for health education is a continuum of learning experiences which enables people to make informed decisions, modify behaviors, and change social conditions in ways that are health enhancing, with students learning to obtain, interpret, and apply health information and services in ways that protect and…

  3. Contribution of spermatozoal centrosomes to the microtubule-organizing centre in Antarctic minke whale ( Balaenoptera bonaerensis ).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Amemiya, Kazue; Takeuchi, Kana; Tsujioka, Tomomi; Tominaga, Keiichiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yutaka; Hochi, Shinichi

    2006-02-01

    Using an interspecies microinsemination assay with bovine oocytes, it was examined whether centrosomes of Antarctic minke whale spermatozoa function as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC). Bull and rat spermatozoa were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vitrified-warmed bovine mature oocytes were subjected to immunostaining against alpha-tubulin 4-6 h after intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) of 5 mM dithiothreitol-treated spermatozoa. Aster formation occurred from whale spermatozoa (33%) and bull spermatozoa (33%), but very little from rat spermatozoa (3%). Activation treatment for the microinseminated oocytes with 7% ethanol + 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine resulted in a similar proportion of oocytes forming a whale sperm aster (35% vs 27% in the non-treated group; 4 h after ICSI) but a significantly larger aster (ratio of aster diameter to oocyte diameter, 0.57 vs 0.30 in the non-treated group). These results indicate that the centrosome introduced into bovine oocytes by whale spermatozoa contributes to the MTOC and that assembly of the microtubule network is promoted by oocyte activation.

  4. ACSM's Health/Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, James A., Ed; Tharrett, Stephen J., Ed.

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sets the industry standard for certifying professionals involved in health and fitness and their clinical applications. This 5-part publication provides a revised edition of six standards representing the industry's consensus on design and operation of a safe and high-quality health/fitness facility.…

  5. Health Occupations Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards for health occupations programs in Florida. Standards are provided for a total of 71 exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level. Each program courses standard consists of a curriculum framework and…

  6. Standard Model of Particle Physics--a health physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2010-11-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics is reviewed with an emphasis on its relationship to the physics supporting the health physics profession. Concepts important to health physics are emphasized and specific applications are presented. The capability of the Standard Model to provide health physics relevant information is illustrated with application of conservation laws to neutron and muon decay and in the calculation of the neutron mean lifetime.

  7. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  8. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs.

  9. 78 FR 65317 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... and terminology, and data management standards across various public health functions and activities... the Committee on health information standardization and community health data initiatives....

  10. Mental health. Ethical standards and human rights.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, P

    In an earlier article in Nursing Standard (1), the author discussed the use of control and restraint techniques when dealing with violent or potentially violent situations. Here, he offers a nurse's perspective on the ethical and human rights issues which confront staff who are trying to cope with the challenging behaviours of their patients and who, as a last resort, may have to use physical restraint to prevent injury occurring. In intervening physically, nurses, he argues, must be aware of the legal and ethical boundaries of their practice.

  11. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content.... The Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) Summary Documents Using HL7...

  12. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content.... The Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) Summary Documents Using HL7...

  13. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content.... The Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) Summary Documents Using HL7...

  14. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content.... The Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) Summary Documents Using HL7...

  15. Interoperable and standard e-Health solution over Bluetooth.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Del Valle, P; Munoz, P; Trigo, J D; Escayola, J; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Muñoz, A; Serrano, L; Garcia, J

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of e-Health demands open sensors and middleware components that permit transparent integration and end-to-end interoperability of new personal health devices. The use of standards seems to be the internationally adopted way to solve these problems. This paper presents the implementation of an end-to-end standards-based e-Health solution. This includes ISO/IEEE11073 standard for the interoperability of the medical devices in the patient environment and EN13606 standard for the interoperable exchange of the Electronic Healthcare Record. The design strictly fulfills all the technical features of the most recent versions of both standards. The implemented prototype has been tested in a laboratory environment to demonstrate its feasibility for its further transfer to the healthcare system.

  16. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  17. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... for Disease Control and Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  18. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. 45 CFR 162.404 - Compliance dates of the implementation of the standard unique health identifier for health care...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.404 Section 162.404 Public Welfare... REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Care Providers § 162.404 Compliance dates of the implementation of the standard unique health identifier for health care providers. (a) Health care......

  20. Establishing health care performance standards in an era of consumerism.

    PubMed

    Kizer, K W

    2001-09-12

    As the US health care system begins to reengineer itself to address the need for quality improvement, it also is being actively reshaped by the expectations of consumers. The confluence of these forces requires a new approach to setting health care performance standards. The National Quality Forum (NQF) has been established as a private, not-for-profit, open membership, public benefit corporation for the purposes of developing consensus about standardized health care performance measures, reporting mechanisms, and a national strategy for health care quality improvement. The NQF has broad representation from all segments of the health care industry and provides an equitable way of addressing the disparate priorities of health care's many stakeholders. Agreement and implementation of standardized health care performance measures and achievement of quality improvement in the emerging era of consumerism will be facilitated by (1) establishing national goals for health care quality; (2) embracing public policy that recognizes the complementary roles of quality improvement, cost control, and improved access; (3) giving greater priority to measuring and reporting the performance of those aspects of the health care system that directly affect consumers; (4) focusing on creating a health care culture of excellence; and (5) promoting the active collaboration of all stakeholders.

  1. Health Occupations Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs in health occupations (HO) education offered at the secondary or postsecondary level as a part of Florida's comprehensive vocational education…

  2. Health Science Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Applied Tech., Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program course standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the health science education component of Florida's comprehensive vocational…

  3. PROVIDING A HEALTHFUL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT. STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHANNIS, NORMA; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES AS APPLIED TO MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AS AFFECTED BY THE PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS. A BIBLIOGRAPHY DESCRIBING STANDARDS AND SUGGESTED PROCEDURES, AND A CHECKLIST, ARE PROVIDED FOR VOLUNTARY SELF APPRAISAL. THE CHECKLIST COVERS (1) THE SCHOOL GROUNDS, (2) THE SCHOOL BUILDING, (3)…

  4. National Health Education Standards: Developing an "Exit Competencies" Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, J. F.; Hayduk, D. M.; Posey, N. L.; Teske, C. J.; Crider, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evaluation instrument that assessed health literacy competencies, specific to the national health education standards, that would provide less variability in response interpretation and greater speed of scoring than available in existing instruments. Methodology: Content was developed by professional practitioners with…

  5. Health Care Reform: Designing the Standard Benefits Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Frank B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerations in designing a standard health care benefits package as a part of national health care reform are discussed. Specific features examined include deductibles, employer contributions, regional variations, cost management techniques such as managed care and higher copayments, annual out-of-pocket maximums, and lifetime benefit maximums.…

  6. Exposing public health surveillance data using existing standards.

    PubMed

    Turbelin, Clément; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    With the growing use of information technologies, an increased volume of data is produced in Public Health Surveillance, enabling utilization of new data sources and analysis methods. Public health and research will benefit from the use of data standards promoting harmonization and data description through metadata. No data standard has yet been universally accepted for exchanging public health data. In this work, we implemented two existing standards eligible to expose public health data: Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange - Health Domain (SDMX-HD) proposed by the World Health Organization and Open Data Protocol (OData) proposed by Microsoft Corp. SDMX-HD promotes harmonization through controlled vocabulary and predefined data structure suitable for public health but requires important investment, while OData, a generic purpose standard, proposes a simple way to expose data with minimal documentation and end-user integration tools. The two solutions were implemented and are publicly available at http://sdmx.sentiweb.fr and http://odata.sentiweb.fr. These solutions show that data sharing and interoperability are already possible in Public Health Surveillance.

  7. Standard, routine and non-routine processes in health care.

    PubMed

    Lillrank, Paul; Liukko, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Quality management methods have been introduced into health care with variable success. Industrial approaches, such as standardization, are not always applicable professional services, because of fundamental differences in conceptions of aims and the predictability of the results of action. Processes in health care can be classified into standard, routine and non-routine depending on the level of repetition and amount of variation, variety and uncertainty. Quality problems are different in each type: standard processes may produce deviations from targets, routines errors in classification, and non-routines failures in interpretation. Different management approaches for each type are discussed. A metaphor to assist discussion, The Broom, is introduced.

  8. Standards for the electronic health record, emerging from health care's Tower of Babel.

    PubMed

    Liu, G C; Cooper, J G; Schoeffler, K M; Hammond, W E

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the standardization of an Electronic Health Record (EHR). Relations between several distinct medical datasets and information systems are mapped in order to derive a more precise definition of the EHR. Two international efforts to establish standards for the EHR are presented and critiqued. Strategies for standardizing the EHR are analyzed and recommendations are provided for approaching the standardization process.

  9. A New Standard for Multidisciplinary Health and Safety Technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Fry, L.; Egbert, W.F.

    2000-01-18

    The purpose of this standard (ANSI 13.62)--''Training and Qualification of Health and Safety Technicians''--is to provide a means for the development of technicians with necessary skills in industrial hygiene, industrial safety, radiological safety, fire protection, and other health and safety areas specific to a given work site and its hazards. These individuals should be qualified to handle their roles and responsibilities competently in a variety of safety areas. The standard presented here is intended for individuals who develop, revise, implement, manage, or provide oversight of training for health and safety technicians. The standard is not intended to address the training or qualification of safety professionals (i.e., industrial hygienists and health physicists).

  10. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.207 Vocabulary standards for representing...

  11. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.207 Vocabulary standards for representing...

  12. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  13. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content...) (incorporated by reference in § 170.299). Implementation specifications. The Healthcare Information...

  14. Open source, open standards, and health care information systems.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Carl J; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2011-02-17

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy.

  15. Defense Health Care: DOD Is Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow-up Appointments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    DEFENSE HEALTH CARE DOD Is Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow- up...Meeting Most Mental Health Care Access Standards, but It Needs a Standard for Follow-up Appointments What GAO Found The Department of Defense’s (DOD...National Guard and Reserve servicemembers (reservists) domestically and overseas through its TRICARE health care system. The type of care includes

  16. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  17. Got Health? The Hawaii Partnership for Standards-based School Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pateman, Beth; Irvin, Lola Hiroko; Nakasato, Steve; Serna, Kuulei; Yahata, Dan K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Hawaii Partnership for Standards-Based School Health Education, which includes various state agencies, a university, local businesses, and the American Cancer Society, highlighting: the development of the standards; the history of the partnership; partnership activities to date; concurrent supporting efforts; future plans; and…

  18. Standard Health Level Seven for Odontological Digital Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abril-Gonzalez, Mauricio; Portilla, Fernando A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A guide for the implementation of dental digital imaging reports was developed and validated through the International Standard of Health Informatics–Health Level Seven (HL7), achieving interoperability with an electronic system that keeps dental records. Introduction: Digital imaging benefits patients, who can view previous close-ups of dental examinations; providers, because of greater efficiency in managing information; and insurers, because of improved accessibility, patient monitoring, and more efficient cost management. Finally, imaging is beneficial for the dentist who can be more agile in the diagnosis and treatment of patients using this tool. Materials and Methods: The guide was developed under the parameters of an HL7 standard. It was necessary to create a group of dentists and three experts in information and communication technologies from different institutions. Discussion: Diagnostic images scanned with conventional radiology or from a radiovisiograph can be converted to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, while also retaining patient information. The guide shows how the information of the health record of the patient and the information of the dental image could be standardized in a Clinical Dental Record document using international informatics standard like HL7-V3-CDA document (dental document Level 2). Since it is an informatics standardized document, it could be sent, stored, or displayed using different devices—personal computers or mobile devices—independent of the platform used. Conclusions: Interoperability using dental images and dental record systems reduces adverse events, increases security for the patient, and makes more efficient use of resources. This article makes a contribution to the field of telemedicine in dental informatics. In addition to that, the results could be a reference for projects of electronic medical records when the dental documents are part of them. PMID

  19. Can Standards and Regulations Keep Up With Health Technology?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Technology is changing at a rapid rate, opening up new possibilities within the health care domain. Advances such as open source hardware, personal medical devices, and mobile phone apps are creating opportunities for custom-made medical devices and personalized care. However, they also introduce new challenges in balancing the need for regulation (ensuring safety and performance) with the need to innovate flexibly and efficiently. Compared with the emergence of new technologies, health technology design standards and regulations evolve slowly, and therefore, it can be difficult to apply these standards to the latest developments. For example, current regulations may not be suitable for approaches involving open source hardware, an increasingly popular way to create medical devices in the maker community. Medical device standards may not be flexible enough when evaluating the usability of mobile medical devices that can be used in a multitude of different ways, outside of clinical settings. Similarly, while regulatory guidance has been updated to address the proliferation of health-related mobile phone apps, it can be hard to know if and when these regulations apply. In this viewpoint, we present three examples of novel medical technologies to illustrate the types of regulatory issues that arise in the current environment. We also suggest opportunities for support, such as advances in the way we review and monitor medical technologies. PMID:26041730

  20. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-03-25

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years.

  1. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement.

    PubMed

    Husereau, Don; Drummond, Michael; Petrou, Stavros; Carswell, Chris; Moher, David; Greenberg, Dan; Augustovski, Federico; Briggs, Andrew H; Mauskopf, Josephine; Loder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health interventions pose a particular challenge for reporting. There is also a need to consolidate and update existing guidelines and promote their use in a user friendly manner. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement is an attempt to consolidate and update previous health economic evaluation guidelines efforts into one current, useful reporting guidance. The primary audiences for the CHEERS statement are researchers reporting economic evaluations and the editors and peer reviewers assessing them for publication. The need for new reporting guidance was identified by a survey of medical editors. A list of possible items based on a systematic review was created. A two round, modified Delphi panel consisting of representatives from academia, clinical practice, industry, government, and the editorial community was conducted. Out of 44 candidate items, 24 items and accompanying recommendations were developed. The recommendations are contained in a user friendly, 24 item checklist. A copy of the statement, accompanying checklist, and this report can be found on the ISPOR Health Economic Evaluations Publication Guidelines Task Force website: (www.ispor.org/TaskForces/EconomicPubGuidelines.asp). We hope CHEERS will lead to better reporting, and ultimately, better health decisions. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the CHEERS statement is being co-published across 10 health economics and medical journals. We encourage other journals and groups, to endorse CHEERS. The author team plans to review the checklist for an update in five years.

  2. 78 FR 58539 - National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Health and Health Care AGENCY: Office of Minority Health, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health... National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and Health Care... for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health and Health Care will...

  3. Standardized dataset health services: Part 2--top to bottom.

    PubMed

    Galemore, Cynthia A; Maughan, Erin D

    2014-07-01

    It is critical for school nurses to promote and educate others on what they do. Data can help shape the message into understandable language across education and health. While Part 1 of this article discusses NASN's progress on identifying a standardized dataset for school health services, Part 2 focuses on the analysis and sharing of data at the local level. Examples of how to use the data to improve practice and create change are included. Guidance is provided in creating and sharing data as part of an annual report as a final step in advocating for school health services commensurate with student health needs. As the work on an evidence-based uniform dataset continues at the national level, what should be the response at the local level? Do we wait, or do we continue to collect certain data? The purpose of Part 2 of this article is to describe how data being collected locally illustrate health trends, benchmarking, and school nursing outcomes and can be compiled and shared in an annual report.

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General safety and health... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and health standards. (a)...

  5. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  6. 45 CFR 162.1602 - Standards for health care payment and remittance advice transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Payment...

  7. 45 CFR 162.1602 - Standards for health care payment and remittance advice transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Care Payment...

  8. Mobile health requires mobile security: challenges, solutions, and standardization.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Extended communication and advanced cooperation in a permanently growing healthcare and welfare domain require a well-defined set of security services provided by an interoperable security infrastructure based on international and European standards. Any communication and collaboration procedure requires a purpose. But such legal purpose-binding is definitely not the only aspect to carefully be observed and investigated. More and more, aspects of security, safety, privacy, ethics, and quality reach importance while discussing about future-proof health information systems and health networks - regardless whether local, regional or even pan-European networks. During the course of the current paradigm change from an organization-centered to a process-related and to a person-centered health system, different new technologies including mobile solutions need to be applied in order to meet challenges arising from both legal and technical circumstances. Beside the typical Information and Communication Technology systems and applications, the extended use of modern technologies includes large medical devices like, e.g., MRI and CT but also small devices like sensors worn by a person or included in clothing. Security and safety are on top of the priority list. The paper addresses the identification of some specific aspects like mobile technology and safety when moving both IT and people towards mobile health aiming at increasing citizens and patients awareness, confidence, and acceptance in future mobile care - a world often still beyond the horizon.

  9. 76 FR 48769 - Metadata Standards To Support Nationwide Electronic Health Information Exchange

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Message Structural Specification (45 CFR 170.205(d)(2)). After publication of the Standards and...; mental health; reproductive health; sexually transmitted disease; HIV/AIDS; genetic information;...

  10. 78 FR 54470 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... administrative standards, including new versions of HIPAA transactions, operating rules, ICD-10 and Health Plan..., Identifiers, and Operating Rules; (2) ACA- related health information exchange requirements; (3)...

  11. BioHealth--the need for security and identity management standards in eHealth.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Claudia; Pharow, Peter; Engelbrecht, Rolf; Blobel, Bernd; Savastano, Mario; Hovsto, Asbjorn

    2006-01-01

    The experience gained in these last years and the several lesson learned have clearly shown that eHealth is more than just a simple change from paper records to electronic records. It necessitates a change of paradigms, on the one hand and the use of new technologies and introduction of new procedures on the other. Interoperability becomes a crucial issue. Security and confidentiality are vital for the acceptance of the new approaches and for the support of eHealth. Shared care and across-border interactions require a reliable and stable normative framework based on the application of standardized solutions, which are often not yet sufficiently known, diffused and implemented. Feeling this gap, a group of international experts in the medical area proposed to the EC the BioHealth project whose main aim is to create awareness about standardization in eHealth and to facilitate its practical implementation. The project will address all the stakeholders concerning their respective domain. It will evaluate the socio-economic and cultural aspects concerning eHealth with particular reference to the growing introduction of emerging technologies such as health cards, biometrics, RFID (radio-frequency identification) and NFC (Near field communication) tags. By providing information and expert advice on standardization and best practices it will raise the acceptance on standardization. Furthermore, the project will deeply approach the ethical and accessibility issues connected to identity management in eHealth, which -together with privacy- represent probably the most significant obstacles for the wide diffusion of eHealth procedures.

  12. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  13. 75 FR 32472 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS... Information Technology (ONC). Name of Committee: HIT Standards Committee. General Function of the...

  14. A call to action on women's health: putting corporate CSR standards for workplace health on the global health agenda.

    PubMed

    Wofford, David; MacDonald, Shawn; Rodehau, Carolyn

    2016-11-04

    Business operates within a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) system that the global health community should harness to advance women's health and related sustainable development goals for workers and communities in low- and middle-income countries. Corporations and their vast networks of supplier companies, particularly in manufacturing and agribusiness, employ millions of workers, increasingly comprised of young women, who lack access to health information, products and services. However, occupational safety and health practices focus primarily on safety issues and fail to address the health needs, including reproductive health, of women workers. CSR policy has focused on shaping corporate policies and practices related to the environment, labor, and human rights, but has also ignored the health needs of women workers. The authors present a new way for global health to understand CSR - as a set of regulatory processes governed by civil society, international institutions, business, and government that set, monitor, and enforce emerging standards related to the role of business in society. They call this the CSR system. They argue that the global health community needs to think differently about the role of corporations in public health, which has been as "partners," and that the global health practitioners should play the same advocacy role in the CSR system for corporate health policies as it does for government and international health policies.

  15. Health Behaviors and Standardized Test Scores: The Impact of School Health Climate on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Whitney D.; Daly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that many characteristics are related to performance on standardized tests. Many of these are not necessarily "academic" attributes. One area of this research is on the connection between physical health or lifestyles and test performance. The research that exists in this area is often disconnected with each other and…

  16. Gamma-tubulin is required for the structure and function of the microtubule organizing centre in Drosophila neuroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Sunkel, C E; Gomes, R; Sampaio, P; Perdigão, J; González, C

    1995-01-01

    We report that in Drosophila, gamma-tubulin is required for the structure as well as the function of microtubule organizing centres (MTOCs). This conclusion is based on the identification and phenotypic characterization of a mutant allele of the gamma-tubulin gene located at region 23C of the polytene chromosome map. This mutation, which we have called gamma-tub23CPl, is caused by the insertion of a P-element within the 5' untranslated leader of the gamma-tubulin transcript. Northern and Western analysis show that gamma-tub23CPl is either a null or a very severe hypomorph as no gamma-tubulin mRNA or protein can be detected in mutant individuals. Visualization of DNA, MTOCs and microtubules by confocal laser scanning microscopy of cells from individuals homozygous for gamma-tub23CPl reveals a series of phenotypic abnormalities. Some of these are similar to those observed after disruption of gamma-tubulin function in other organisms, including mitotic arrest and a dramatic decrease in the number of microtubules, but, in addition, we have observed that mutation in this gene also results in highly abnormal MTOCs which show a variety of shapes and sizes which we never observed in wild type cells. These results show that gamma-tubulin is required for both structural and functional roles in the MTOCs. Images PMID:7828594

  17. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....) (ii) Dental health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report... care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care...) Institutional health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  18. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....) (ii) Dental health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report... care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care...) Institutional health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  19. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....) (ii) Dental health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report... care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Health Care...) Institutional health care claims. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... health standards. 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and...

  1. 77 FR 58755 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance, and retaining the current standards..., Health Care and Social Assistance, to determine whether the existing size standards should be retained...

  2. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  3. 42 CFR 600.420 - Enhanced availability of standard health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enhanced availability of standard health plans. 600.420 Section 600.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BASIC HEALTH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, ELIGIBILITY, ESSENTIAL HEALTH...

  4. Nevada Department of Education Health Content Standards [and] Performance Level Descriptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This document presents content and performance standards for health and safety education in Nevada's public schools. The seven content standards are: students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention; students will demonstrate the ability to access valid health information and health-promoting products and…

  5. 78 FR 76627 - Health Information Technology Standards Committee Advisory Meeting: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Information Technology Standards Committee Advisory Meeting: Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). These meeting will be open to the...

  6. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... and 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds... Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs) and Remittance Advice AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS... facilitate health care EFT transmissions. DATES: Effective Date: These regulations are effective on...

  7. Making Quality Health Websites a National Public Health Priority: Toward Quality Standards

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Most US adults have limited health literacy skills. They struggle to understand complex health information and services and to make informed health decisions. The Internet has quickly become one of the most popular places for people to search for information about their health, thereby making access to quality information on the Web a priority. However, there are no standardized criteria for evaluating Web-based health information. Every 10 years, the US Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) develops a set of measurable objectives for improving the health of the nation over the coming decade, known as Healthy People. There are two objectives in Healthy People 2020 related to website quality. The first is objective Health Communication and Health Information Technology (HC/HIT) 8.1: increase the proportion of health-related websites that meet 3 or more evaluation criteria for disclosing information that can be used to assess information reliability. The second is objective HC/HIT-8.2: increase the proportion of health-related websites that follow established usability principles. Objective The ODPHP conducted a nationwide assessment of the quality of Web-based health information using the Healthy People 2020 objectives. The ODPHP aimed to establish (1) a standardized approach to defining and measuring the quality of health websites; (2) benchmarks for measurement; (3) baseline data points to capture the current status of website quality; and (4) targets to drive improvement. Methods The ODPHP developed the National Quality Health Website Survey instrument to assess the quality of health-related websites. The ODPHP used this survey to review 100 top-ranked health-related websites in order to set baseline data points for these two objectives. The ODPHP then set targets to drive improvement by 2020. Results This study reviewed 100 health-related websites. For objective HC/HIT-8.1, a total of 58 out

  8. A global travelers' electronic health record template standard for personal health records.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chuan; Detmer, Don E; Shabbir, Syed-Abdul; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Jian, Wen-Shan; Mihalas, George I; Shortliffe, Edward H; Tang, Paul; Haux, Reinhold; Kimura, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Tourism as well as international business travel creates health risks for individuals and populations both in host societies and home countries. One strategy to reduce health-related risks to travelers is to provide travelers and relevant caregivers timely, ongoing access to their own health information. Many websites offer health advice for travelers. For example, the WHO and US Department of State offer up-to-date health information about countries relevant to travel. However, little has been done to assure travelers that their medical information is available at the right place and time when the need might arise. Applications of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) utilizing mobile phones for health management are promising tools both for the delivery of healthcare services and the promotion of personal health. This paper describes the project developed by international informaticians under the umbrella of the International Medical Informatics Association. A template capable of becoming an international standard is proposed. This application is available free to anyone who is interested. Furthermore, its source code is made open.

  9. Standards for health information technology to ensure adolescent privacy.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Margaret J; Del Beccaro, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Privacy and security of health information is a basic expectation of patients. Despite the existence of federal and state laws safeguarding the privacy of health information, health information systems currently lack the capability to allow for protection of this information for minors. This policy statement reviews the challenges to privacy for adolescents posed by commercial health information technology systems and recommends basic principles for ideal electronic health record systems. This policy statement has been endorsed by the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

  10. [BINet programme as a standard of modern health policy].

    PubMed

    Hryniewicz, Waleria; Jackowska, Teresa; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases--despite significant progress, both in their management and prevention--are becoming an increasingly serious problem, and their extent and character frequently constitute a threat for public health. In addition, a significant part of medical decisions regarding treatment and prevention of invasive bacterial infections is not made on the basis of the etiological agent of infection, which increases the chance of therapeutic failures, and makes the right decisions regarding prophylaxis difficult. In June 2008 the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis (Krajowy Ośrodek Referencyjny ds. Diagnostyki Bakteryjnych Zakazeń Ośrodkowego Układu Nerwowego, KOROUN) started the BINet programme, which is a network monitoring invasive bacterial infections acquired outside the hospital. The programme aims to improve the diagnostic and thus therapeutic standards, in community acquired invasive bacterial infections in Poland. The BINet programme is based on the cooperation of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and is headed by a team of the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The BINet programme enables quick and appropriate microbiological diagnosis of infections which is the basis of rational therapy and plays a key role in dealing with the infected patient. In addition, accurate epidemiological data allow to take quick and effective preventive measures at local and national level.

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... health standards. 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR... adequately protect the safety and health of employees as required by the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act....

  12. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different...

  13. Health Occupations Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job preparatory programs offered at the secondary or postsecondary level. Each program standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and student performance standards. The curriculum framework includes four major…

  14. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Payroll Deducted and Other... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments §...

  15. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Payroll Deducted and Other... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments §...

  16. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Payroll Deducted and Other... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments §...

  17. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Payroll Deducted and Other... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments §...

  18. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Payroll Deducted and Other... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments §...

  19. 75 FR 65486 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  20. 75 FR 57025 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  1. 76 FR 9782 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS ] ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... and Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING...

  2. Applying Use Cases to Describe the Role of Standards in e-Health Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, Emma; Finnie, Gavin; Krishnan, Padmanabhan

    Individual health records (IHRs) contain a person's lifetime records of their key health history and care within a health system (National E-Health Transition Authority, Retrieved Jan 12, 2009 from http://www.nehta.gov.au/coordinated-care/whats-in-iehr, 2004). This information can be processed and stored in different ways. The record should be available electronically to authorized health care providers and the individual anywhere, anytime, to support high-quality care. Many organizations provide a diversity of solutions for e-health and its services. Standards play an important role to enable these organizations to support information interchange and improve efficiency of health care delivery. However, there are numerous standards to choose from and not all of them are accessible to the software developer. This chapter proposes a framework to describe the e-health standards that can be used by software engineers to implement e-health information systems.

  3. Developing global health technology standards: what can other industries teach us?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of effective and affordable technologies to address health needs in the developing world. One way to address problems of innovation and affordability is to design global health technologies to follow agreed-upon standards. This Debate article argues that we can better develop standards for global health technologies if we learn lessons from other industries. Discussion The article’s Background section begins by explaining why standards are needed in global health. For example, if global health technologies can be modularized into independent interfacing parts, these parts can then interact via well-defined standards in a “plug and play” fashion. This can avoid development of mutually incompatible solutions by different organizations, speed the pace of innovation, unlock health systems from single providers and approaches, and lower barriers to entry. The Background then gives a brief primer on standards and discusses incentives for health standards. The article’s Discussion section begins with brief relevant cases of standards development from other industries, including electricity, container shipping, CD standards, Universal Serial Bus (USB), and the Internet. It then explores lessons from these and other industries that suggest how to develop standards for global health technologies. The remainder of the Discussion considers intellectual property and regulatory issues and standards-based global health business models, and ends with a checklist of considerations for health standards development leaders. (The associated Additional file discusses observations from standards development for cell phones and semiconductors, as well as challenges in the standards development process itself.) Throughout the article, point-of-care diagnostics are used as an illustrative example. An initiative is already underway to explore standardized diagnostics platforms. Summary This Debate article aims to convince the reader that standards can

  4. Learning Standards for Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This document contains three learning standards for health, physical education, and home economics at three levels: elementary, intermediate, and commencement. The first section consists of these three standards: (1) personal health and fitness, (2) a safe and healthy environment, and (3) resource management. The format for displaying the…

  5. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  6. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...

  7. Improving care transitions from hospital to home: standardized orders for home health nursing with remote telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Sheila; Wood, Felecia; Schuck, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A task force at a multihospital health care system partnered with home health agencies to improve gaps during the discharge transition process. A standardized order template for home health nursing and remote telemonitoring was developed to decrease discrepancies in communication between hospital health care providers and home health nurses caring for patients with heart failure. Pilot results showed significantly improved communication with no readmissions, using the order template.

  8. Patient Core Data Set. Standard for a longitudinal health/medical record.

    PubMed

    Renner, A L; Swart, J C

    1997-01-01

    Blue Chip Computers Company, in collaboration with Wright State University-Miami Valley College of Nursing and Health, with support from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, completed Small Business innovative Research research to design a comprehensive integrated Patient information System. The Wright State University consultants undertook the development of a Patient Core Data Set (PCDS) in response to the lack of uniform standards of minimum data sets, and lack of standards in data transfer for continuity of care. The purpose of the Patient Core Data Set is to develop a longitudinal patient health record and medical history using a common set of standard data elements with uniform definitions and coding consistent with Health Level 7 (HL7) protocol and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The PCDS, intended for transfer across all patient-care settings, is essential information for clinicians, administrators, researchers, and health policy makers.

  9. Large Scale eHealth Deployment in Europe: Insights from Concurrent Use of Standards.

    PubMed

    Eichelberg, Marco; Chronaki, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale eHealth deployment projects face a major challenge when called to select the right set of standards and tools to achieve sustainable interoperability in an ecosystem including both legacy systems and new systems reflecting technological trends and progress. There is not a single standard that would cover all needs of an eHealth project, and there is a multitude of overlapping and perhaps competing standards that can be employed to define document formats, terminology, communication protocols mirroring alternative technical approaches and schools of thought. eHealth projects need to respond to the important question of how alternative or inconsistently implemented standards and specifications can be used to ensure practical interoperability and long-term sustainability in large scale eHealth deployment. In the eStandards project, 19 European case studies reporting from R&D and large-scale eHealth deployment and policy projects were analyzed. Although this study is not exhaustive, reflecting on the concepts, standards, and tools for concurrent use and the successes, failures, and lessons learned, this paper offers practical insights on how eHealth deployment projects can make the most of the available eHealth standards and tools and how standards and profile developing organizations can serve the users embracing sustainability and technical innovation.

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true General safety and health... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY... adequately protect the safety and health of employees as required by the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act....

  11. 75 FR 51818 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings... of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). The meetings will be open to...

  12. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  13. 77 FR 22949 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... April 17, 2012 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 162 Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier; Addition to the National Provider... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 45 CFR Part 162 RIN...

  14. 77 FR 11001 - Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG30 Small Business Size Standards: Health Care and Social Assistance... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Sector 62, Health Care and Social Assistance. As part of its ongoing... Subsector 621(Ambulatory Health Care Services), NAICS Subsector 622 (Hospitals), and NAICS Subsector...

  15. Messaging standard requirements for electronic health records in Islamic Republic of Iran: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M; Foozonkhah, S; Shahmoradi, L; Mahmodabadi, A D

    2017-02-01

    The present descriptive-comparative study was conducted to give an overview of the messaging standards that are necessary for interoperable electronic health records (EHRs). We designed a preliminary model after data collection and compared the messaging standards of Health Level Seven (HL7) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The data were assessed with the Delphi technique. A comprehensive model for the messaging standards of EHRs in the Islamic Republic of Iran was presented in three pivots: structural characteristics (standard for all EHRs, XML-based and object-oriented messages, and dual model); model specifications (reference model, archetypes and classes of reference model), and general features (distinct ontology, mapping with other standards, and using reference archetypes for exchanging documents). In conclusion, we gave an overview of messaging standards for the interoperability of EHRs and experts selected ISO13606 as a suitable standard for the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  16. Mental Health Implications of the Juvenile Justice Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Stephen J.; Whitebread, Charles H., II

    1982-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice Standards developed by the Institute of Judicial Administration and the American Bar Association reflect a trend away from the therapeutic aspect of the juvenile court and toward due process for juveniles accused of delinquent offenses. (Author/MJL)

  17. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p < .001). Conclusions Schools that utilize nontraditional instructional strategies to improve student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  18. High standards: ISO 9000 comes to health care.

    PubMed

    Moore, L M

    1999-02-01

    ISO 9000, an international quality system, is catching on in health care. Providers see it as a much less expensive alternative or as a complement to the JCAHO. And because ISO has been used for years in manufacturing, it has one big advantage over JCAHO: employers know it and trust it.

  19. Development and implementation of surface water quality standards for protection of human health in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kwak, Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Jung, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Current water quality standards for the protection of human health in Korea include 17 substances found in rivers and streams. Due to increasing concern over the release of hazardous chemicals into the aquatic environment, there has been a demand for additional water quality standards. Therefore, the Korean Ministry of the Environment plans to gradually increase the number of water quality standards to 30 substances, including 22 substances for protection of human health and 8 substances for protection of aquatic ecosystems by 2015. In this study, new water quality standards for protection of human health were established for 1,4-dioxane, formaldehyde, and hexachlorobenzene. We selected candidate hazardous chemicals, conducted a human health risk assessment to determine priority chemicals, established water quality standards based on technical analyses and comparison with domestic and developed countries' water quality standards, and conducted an expert review. Water quality standards for protection of aquatic ecosystems will be derived in the near future. This study describes how the water quality standards for protection of human health were developed and implemented. Current status, recent expansion, and future plans for water quality standards in Korea are also covered.

  20. A repository of codes of ethics and technical standards in health informatics.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Hamman W; Zaïane, Osmar R

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository.

  1. A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Zaïane, Osmar R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a searchable repository of codes of ethics and standards in health informatics. It is built using state-of-the-art search algorithms and technologies. The repository will be potentially beneficial for public health practitioners, researchers, and software developers in finding and comparing ethics topics of interest. Public health clinics, clinicians, and researchers can use the repository platform as a one-stop reference for various ethics codes and standards. In addition, the repository interface is built for easy navigation, fast search, and side-by-side comparative reading of documents. Our selection criteria for codes and standards are two-fold; firstly, to maintain intellectual property rights, we index only codes and standards freely available on the internet. Secondly, major international, regional, and national health informatics bodies across the globe are surveyed with the aim of understanding the landscape in this domain. We also look at prevalent technical standards in health informatics from major bodies such as the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Our repository contains codes of ethics from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), the iHealth Coalition (iHC), the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the Australasian College of Health Informatics (ACHI), the British Computer Society (BCS), and the UK Council for Health Informatics Professions (UKCHIP), with room for adding more in the future. Our major contribution is enhancing the findability of codes and standards related to health informatics ethics by compilation and unified access through the health informatics ethics repository. PMID:25422725

  2. Health information technology: initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-01-13

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with a request for comments to adopt an initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria, as required by section 3004(b)(1) of the Public Health Service Act. This interim final rule represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health information technology and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the capabilities and related standards that certified electronic health record (EHR) technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of the proposed meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs.

  3. Improving the Quality of Health Care Services for Adolescents, Globally: A Standards-Driven Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Baltag, Valentina; Bose, Krishna; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Lambrechts, Thierry; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The World Health Organization (WHO) undertook an extensive and elaborate process to develop eight Global Standards to improve quality of health care services for adolescents. The objectives of this article are to present the Global Standards and their method of development. Methods The Global Standards were developed through a four-stage process: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) developing the Global Standards and their criteria; (3) expert consultations; and (4) assessing their usability. Needs assessment involved conducting a meta-review of systematic reviews and two online global surveys in 2013, one with primary health care providers and another with adolescents. The Global Standards were developed based on the needs assessment in conjunction with analysis of 26 national standards from 25 countries. The final document was reviewed by experts from the World Health Organization regional and country offices, governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and development partners. The standards were subsequently tested in Benin and in a regional expert consultation of Latin America and Caribbean countries for their usability. Results The process resulted in the development of eight Global Standards and 79 criteria for measuring them: (1) adolescents' health literacy; (2) community support; (3) appropriate package of services; (4) providers' competencies; (5) facility characteristics; (6) equity and nondiscrimination; (7) data and quality improvement; and (8) adolescents' participation. Conclusions The eight standards are intended to act as benchmarks against which quality of health care provided to adolescents could be compared. Health care services can use the standards as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process. PMID:26299556

  4. The World Health Organization child growth standards: expected implications for clinical and epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Willie, D; Younger, N

    2009-02-01

    In 2006 and 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released two sets of child growth standards (World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods and development. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2006; World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and Development. Head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2007) to replace the National Center for Health Statistics references (Hamill et al., National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No 165, 1977) as an international tool for growth and nutritional assessment. This paper explores the scope of implications for future anthropometric research, highlighting foreseeable effects on the choice of research questions, choice of nutritional indices, training of measurers, and issues of internal and external validity of research results. The conclusion drawn is that the introduction of the WHO child growth standards is expected to have wide implications for growth and nutrition research. The full scope of this effect will gradually become clear while researchers, similar to health care workers, make the transition to using the new standards, re-evaluate results of past approaches, and explore the uses and functional validity of the standards, including those for indices that were not previously available.

  5. Possibilities and Implications of Using the ICF and Other Vocabulary Standards in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Richoz, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the health-care delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated and processed across different providers, settings and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research and many other purposes. In this regard, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other health-care professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, and so on, for which other vocabulary standards such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine Clinical Terms are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper, we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practise and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent

  6. 75 FR 3905 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  7. 77 FR 54163 - Health Information Technology: Standards, Implementation Specifications, and Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... record, change, and access patient demographic data including preferred language, gender, race, ethnicity... changes to the permanent certification program for health information technology, including changing the... (``ONC HIT Certification Program'') A. Program Name Change B. ``Minimum Standards'' Code Sets...

  8. 78 FR 942 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ..., (202) 690- 7100. Status: Open Purpose: The purpose of the meeting is to learn about the current state..., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Office of E-Health Standards and Services, 7500...

  9. US power plant carbon standards and clean air and health co-benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Reid, Stephen B.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions standards for US power plants will influence the fuels and technologies used to generate electricity, alter emissions of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, and influence ambient air quality and public health. We present an analysis of how three alternative scenarios for US power plant carbon standards could change fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations in ambient air, and the resulting public health co-benefits. The results underscore that carbon standards to curb global climate change can also provide immediate local and regional health co-benefits, but the magnitude depends on the design of the standards. A stringent but flexible policy that counts demand-side energy efficiency towards compliance yields the greatest health benefits of the three scenarios analysed.

  10. Equity in public health standards: a qualitative document analysis of policies from two Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Promoting health equity is a key goal of many public health systems. However, little is known about how equity is conceptualized in such systems, particularly as standards of public health practice are established. As part of a larger study examining the renewal of public health in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), we undertook an analysis of relevant public health documents related to equity. The aim of this paper is to discuss how equity is considered within documents that outline standards for public health. Methods A research team consisting of policymakers and academics identified key documents related to the public health renewal process in each province. The documents were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to identify key themes related to the conceptualization and integration of health equity as part of public health renewal in Ontario and BC. Documents were coded inductively with higher levels of abstraction achieved through multiple readings. Sets of questions were developed to guide the analysis throughout the process. Results In both sets of provincial documents health inequities were defined in a similar fashion, as the consequence of unfair or unjust structural conditions. Reducing health inequities was an explicit goal of the public health renewal process. In Ontario, addressing “priority populations” was used as a proxy term for health equity and the focus was on existing programs. In BC, the incorporation of an equity lens enhanced the identification of health inequities, with a particular emphasis on the social determinants of health. In both, priority was given to reducing barriers to public health services and to forming partnerships with other sectors to reduce health inequities. Limits to the accountability of public health to reduce health inequities were identified in both provinces. Conclusion This study contributes to understanding how health equity is conceptualized and incorporated

  11. Allied Health Occupations I (Health Assistant). Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a first-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in such allied health occupations as nurse's aide and health assistant. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: health worker…

  12. The Impact of Setting the Standards of Health Promoting Hospitals on Hospital Indicators in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Riyahi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals play a critical role in the health promotion of the society. This study aimed to determine the impact of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on hospital indicators in Shahroud. This applied study was a quasi-experimental one which was conducted in 2013. Standards of health promoting hospitals were established as an intervention procedure in the Fatemiyeh hospital. Parameters of health promoting hospitals were compared in intervention and control hospitals before and after of intervention (6 months). The data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. With the establishment of standards for health promotion hospitals, standard scores in intervention and control hospitals were found to be 72.26 ± 4.1 and 16.26 ± 7.5, respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the hospitals under study (P = 0.001).The chi-square test also showed a significant relationship between patient satisfaction before and after the intervention so that patients’ satisfaction was higher after the intervention (P = 0.001). Commenting on the short-term or long-term positive impacts of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on all hospital indicators is a bit difficult but preliminary results show the positive impact of the implementation of standards in case hospitals which has led to the improvement of many indicators in the hospital. PMID:27959930

  13. [Empirical standard costs for health economic evaluation in Germany -- a proposal by the working group methods in health economic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Krauth, C; Hessel, F; Hansmeier, T; Wasem, J; Seitz, R; Schweikert, B

    2005-10-01

    Measurement of health care costs is a crucial task in health economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods in economic evaluation which, however, do not precisely stipulate how to value resource consumption. In this article we present a proposal for the standardisation of the monetary valuation of health care utilisation occurring in the follow up period after the actual intervention to be evaluated. From a societal perspective the primary direct and indirect cost components are considered, such as outpatient medical care, pharmaceuticals, non-physician health services, inpatient care, days of sick leave and early retirement due to sickness. The standard costs are based on administrative charges and rates or on official statistics. They are based on the most current data sources which are mainly from 2002 and 2003. This system of standard costs aims at an average valuation of resource consumption. This makes for the comparability of different health economic studies. Most standard costs are not based on market prices but on administratively specified charges and rates. This implies that institutional changes which are quite common in the health care system, may also affect the valuation rates, for example the introduction of DRGs. This should be taken into account when updating the system of standard costs.

  14. 45 CFR 162.1202 - Standards for eligibility for a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit inquiry and response. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Eligibility for a Health Plan § 162... Data Record in the Detail Data Record. (Incorporated by reference in § 162.920). (2)...

  15. 45 CFR 162.1202 - Standards for eligibility for a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... benefit inquiry and response. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Eligibility for a Health Plan § 162... Data Record in the Detail Data Record. (Incorporated by reference in § 162.920). (2)...

  16. 45 CFR 162.1202 - Standards for eligibility for a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benefit inquiry and response. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Eligibility for a Health Plan § 162... Data Record in the Detail Data Record. (Incorporated by reference in § 162.920). (2)...

  17. 45 CFR 162.1202 - Standards for eligibility for a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefit inquiry and response. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Eligibility for a Health Plan § 162... Data Record in the Detail Data Record. (Incorporated by reference in § 162.920). (2)...

  18. 45 CFR 162.1202 - Standards for eligibility for a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... benefit inquiry and response. The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Eligibility for a Health Plan § 162... Data Record in the Detail Data Record. (Incorporated by reference in § 162.920). (2)...

  19. JCAH Standards for Accreditation of Community Mental Health Service Programs: Implications for the Practice of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Alan R.

    1978-01-01

    Although the standards of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals were developed with no formal involvement on the part of psychologists, they reflect contemporary psychological thought concerning the effective delivery of mental health services and are appropriate for determining community mental health centers' eligibility for…

  20. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology: HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  1. 75 FR 57027 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  2. 75 FR 36657 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  3. 75 FR 8954 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)....

  4. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee:...

  5. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  6. 75 FR 65636 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information...

  7. 75 FR 29761 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards... Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meetings. This notice announces forthcoming subcommittee... Coordination, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  8. 76 FR 36582 - Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Standard Form 2809, Health Benefits Election Form AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0160, Health Benefits Election Form... collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions...

  9. Guidelines and Standards for Children with Special Health Needs: Bibliography of Materials from the NCEMCH Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    Culled from the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health reference collection, this list contains 102 materials concerning guidelines or standards for any aspect of care for children with special health needs. Each listing contains a brief description of the resource and information for obtaining the materials. Topics include:…

  10. Learning Standards for Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics at Three Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    These New York State performance standards focus on: (1) personal health and fitness (students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health); (2) a safe and healthy environment (students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to…

  11. Calibration of Self-Reported Oral Health to Clinically Determined Standards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honghu; Maida, Carl A.; Spolsky, Vladimir W.; Shen, Jie; Li, Helen; Zhou, Xiaomeng; Marcus, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Self-report of oral health is an inexpensive approach to assessing an individual’s oral health status, but it is heavily influenced by personal views and usually differs from that of clinically determined oral health status. To assist researchers and clinicians in estimating oral health self-report, we summarize clinically determined oral health measures that can objectively measure oral health and evaluate the discrepancies between self-reported and clinically determined oral health status. We test hypotheses of trends across covariates, thereby creating optimal calibration models and tools that can adjust self-reported oral health to clinically determined standards. Methods Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we examined the discrepancy between self-reported and clinically determined oral health. We evaluated the relationship between the degree of this discrepancy and possible factors contributing to this discrepancy, such as patient characteristics and general health condition. We used a regression approach to develop calibration models for self-reported oral health. Results The relationship between self-reported and clinically determined oral health is complex. Generally, there is a discrepancy between the two that can best be calibrated by a model that includes general health condition, number of times a person has received health care, gender, age, education, and income. Conclusion The model we developed can be used to calibrate and adjust self-reported oral health status to that of clinically determined standards and for oral health screening of large populations in federal, state, and local programs, enabling great savings in resources used in dental care. PMID:21054482

  12. Structural health monitoring algorithm comparisons using standard data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Figueiras, Joaquim; Farrar, Charles; Worden, Keith

    2009-03-01

    The real-world structures are subjected to operational and environmental condition changes that impose difficulties in detecting and identifying structural damage. The aim of this report is to detect damage with the presence of such operational and environmental condition changes through the application of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM). The test structure is a laboratory three-story building, and the damage is simulated through nonlinear effects introduced by a bumper mechanism that simulates a repetitive impact-type nonlinearity. The report reviews and illustrates various statistical principles that have had wide application in many engineering fields. The intent is to provide the reader with an introduction to feature extraction and statistical modelling for feature classification in the context of SHM. In this process, the strengths and limitations of some actual statistical techniques used to detect damage in the structures are discussed. In the hierarchical structure of damage detection, this report is only concerned with the first step of the damage detection strategy, which is the evaluation of the existence of damage in the structure. The data from this study and a detailed description of the test structure are available for download at: http://institute.lanl.gov/ei/software-and-data/.

  13. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all...

  14. How to create awareness and ensure broad dissemination of health informatics standards.

    PubMed

    Williams, P

    1998-02-01

    There is a range of organisations with responsibility for information standards development within Australia. These include Standards Australia, which is formally linked to the International Organisation for Standards (ISO), the National Health Information Management Group, which deals with the government sector and several statutory organisations such as the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the National Centre for Classification in Health. The different constituencies involved with each of these organisations, the scope of healthcare informatics and the rate of organisational and technological change in the industry present a significant challenge in ensuring that the standard setting process is highly visible, responsive and capable of demonstrating its value through effective implementation. Creating awareness and ensuring broad dissemination of healthcare informatics standards is a key component in meeting this challenge. This can operate at a number of levels from strategic to operational. At the strategic level, it requires active engagement and commitment of the key decision-makers, both political and professional. This may require directly lobbying and promoting the benefits of standardisation to those decision-makers but can be achieved even more effectively by creating industry awareness and demand through carefully targeted presentations on the impact of standards to broader health industry forums. At the tactical level, the standards development medium itself can be used to engage and gain commitment from government, professionals, vendors and the health industry by operating as an inclusive, open and effective process. At the operational level, there is the opportunity for much more efficient use of technology to create awareness of both these processes and their outcomes. The establishment in Australia of a web enabled National Health Information Knowledge base built around ISO standards is one example of the type of development which

  15. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information—(1) General. Any encryption algorithm identified by the National Institute of Standards and.... Standard. A hashing algorithm with a security strength equal to or greater than SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) as specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in FIPS PUB...

  16. Applying the XForms Standard to Public Health Case Reporting and Alerting

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Rebecca A; Baseman, Janet G; Revere, Debra; Boge, Craig L K; Oberle, Mark W; Doctor, Jason N; Lober, William B

    2011-01-01

    Notifiable condition reporting and alerting are two important public health functions. Today, a variety of methods are used to transfer these types of information. The increasing use of electronic health record systems by healthcare providers makes new types of electronic communication possible. We used the XForms standard and nationally recognized technical profiles to demonstrate the communication of both notifiable condition reports and patient-tailored public health alerts. This demonstration of bi-directional communication took placein a prototypical health information exchange environment. We successfully transferred information between provider electronic health record systems and public health systems for notifiable condition reporting. Patient-specific alerts were successfully sent from public health to provider systems. In this paper we discuss the benefits of XForms, including the use of XML, advanced form controls, form initialization and reduction in scripting. We also review implementation challenges, the maturity of the technology and its suitability for use in public health. PMID:23569609

  17. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  18. National training and education standards for health and wellness coaching: the path to national certification.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Meg; Wolever, Ruth Q; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches.

  19. National Training and Education Standards for Health and Wellness Coaching: The Path to National Certification

    PubMed Central

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches. PMID:25984418

  20. Competencies for public health and interprofessional education in accreditation standards of complementary and alternative medicine disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brett, Jennifer; Brimhall, Joseph; Healey, Dale; Pfeifer, Joseph; Prenguber, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the educational accreditation standards of four licensed complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines (naturopathic medicine, chiropractic health care, acupuncture and oriental medicine, and massage therapy), and identifies public health and other competencies found in those standards that contribute to cooperation and collaboration among the health care professions. These competencies may form a foundation for interprofessional education. The agencies that accredit the educational programs for each of these disciplines are individually recognized by the United States Department (Secretary) of Education. Patients and the public are served when healthcare practitioners collaborate and cooperate. This is facilitated when those practitioners possess competencies that provide them the knowledge and skills to work with practitioners from other fields and disciplines. Educational accreditation standards provide a framework for the delivery of these competencies. Requiring these competencies through accreditation standards ensures that practitioners are trained to optimally function in integrative clinical care settings.

  1. From the School Health Education Study to the National Health Education Standards: Concepts Endure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…

  2. Policy for therapeutic acupuncture in an academic health center: a model for standard policy development.

    PubMed

    Myklebust, Monica; Colson, James; Kaufman, Jacqueline; Winsauer, Jeffery; Zhang, Yu Quin; Harris, Richard E

    2006-12-01

    Acupuncture as a therapeutic modality offers multiple applications. Its effectiveness coupled with its general acceptance by conventional health care professionals makes it one of the first complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities to be incorporated in an integrative approach to care. However, few centers that offer acupuncture have written standard policies to regulate its use. This lack of standard policies may impede provision of quality care, serve as a barrier to cross-institutional data collection and clinical application of that data, and may put health care professionals and institutions at risk when credentialing or malpractice liability has not been clearly addressed. Here we present a policy for acupuncture, created by a diverse group of health care professionals at the University of Michigan Health System. It may function as a generalizable template for standard policy development by institutions incorporating acupuncture.

  3. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  4. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  5. UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lynn; Ashwell, Margaret; Berry, Jacqueline; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Cassidy, Aedin; Dunnigan, Matthew; Khaw, Kay Tee; Macdonald, Helen; New, Susan; Prentice, Ann; Powell, Jonathan; Reeve, Jonathan; Robins, Simon; Teucher, Birgit

    2003-06-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) convened a group of expert scientists to discuss and review UK FSA- and Department of Health-funded research on diet and bone health. This research focused on the lifestyle factors that are amenable to change and may significantly affect bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fracture. The potential benefits of fruits and vegetables, meat, Ca, vitamins D and K and phyto-oestrogens were presented and discussed. Other lifestyle factors were also discussed, particularly the effect of physical activity and possible gene-nutrient interactions affecting bone health.

  6. Do Electronic Health Records Standards Help Implementing Patient Bill of Rights in Hospitals?

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Shirin; Ferdosi, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patient bill of rights (PBR) calls for equal rights to access health services for all patients. It makes a foundation for preserving good relationships between patients, doctors and other healthcare staffs. Third Edition of national PBR was published in Iran in 2009. On the other hand, developing national wide Electronic Health Records (EHR) is now one of the strategic goals of Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education. EHR as a basic repository for all related information provides access to the necessary data to organize, store and manage them. It also makes an additional support to the legal aspects of healthcare services, increases staff information about patient rights, and raises them to respect these rights. This article reviews how EHR standards can help to institutionalize the PBR. Methods To do that, we have collected some important topics of PBR in Iran. Then we used some valid references on Electronic health record standards like ASTM, ISO, HL7 and CEN to review existing standards. The Main issues regarding patient rights derived from these standards were: privacy, confidentiality, and secrecy, access levels to patient information, medical care in emergency situations, patient autonomy and authentication (electronic signature). In each topic, the most relevant standard phrases are marked. Results Developing EHR creates an opportunity to establish patient rights in its structure. To internalize them, there are some reliable EHR standards like ASTM and ISO 13606-1 that implementing them could be very fruitful. PMID:23572856

  7. Development of an ISO 9000 compatible occupational health standard: defining the issues.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, D T; Levine, S P

    1995-06-01

    Corporate ISO 9000 registration is gaining international acceptance as the hallmark of quality system achievement. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is currently drafting environmental standards that will complement ISO 9000. Should the international community also consider development of an ISO 9000-compatible occupational safety and health management standard (OSHMS)? To determine the advantages and disadvantages of this issue, the investigators conducted interviews with government and private sector experts, reviewed publicly accessible ISO documents, and evaluated published literature germane to the subject. Major advantages of an ISO OSHMS were the harmonization of national standards, maximizing Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) efficiency through third-party registration audits, and increased emphasis on employee-driven health and safety programs. Major disadvantages were the single vote of the American National Standards Institute at international proceedings, direct and indirect program development costs, potential unethical or incompetent conduct of registrars, and the logistics of developing an acceptable standard to all stakeholders. Some unresolved issues were the inevitability of an ISO OSHMS, auditor indemnification, and the scope of OSHA participation. Industrial health and safety professionals should initiate formal discussion on this issue to elaborate on findings presented here and to establish a consensus on future activities.

  8. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  9. Proactive Population Health Management in the Context of a Regional Health Information Exchange Using Standards-Based Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, David F.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Kooy, Kevin R.; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Silvey, Garry M.; Willis, Janese M.; Johnson, Frederick; Simo, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The clinic-based healthcare model does not deliver high quality, cost-effective care to populations of patients. Despite public perception that aggressive investment in information technology will lead to improvements in the safety and quality of healthcare delivery, there is little evidence that health information technology can be used to promote population-based health management. This paper describes the use of a standards-based clinical decision support system to facilitate proactive population health management using data from a regional health information exchange (HIE) network. The initial release of this system was designed to detect ten sentinel health events related to hospitalization, emergency department (ED) utilization, and care coordination in a population of 36,000 individuals. In an analysis of 11,899 continuously enrolled patients from a single county over a six-month period, 2,285 unique patients experienced 7,226 sentinel health events. The most common events were ED utilization for low severity conditions (2,546), two or more missed appointments within a 60-day period (1,728), ED encounters for patients with asthma (1,220), and three or more ED encounters within 90 days (731). Logistic regression analysis identified patients aged 19–64 as the population most likely to have sentinel health events. In addition to presenting data demonstrating the feasibility of population health management in the context of an HIE, this paper also includes lessons learned from the development, implementation, and operational support of the population health management system. PMID:18693881

  10. Integration of occupational health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards.

    PubMed

    Stromsvag, A; Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Occupational health and safety, environmental, and quality (SEQ) issues are commonly managed by three separate departments within organizations. Because of a number of commonalities in the three management systems, there could be a degree of overlap that might lead to inefficiencies. By integrating these three management systems into one SEQ system, the duplication of effort could be minimized and the health and safety, environmental, and quality issues could be managed by one common proactive approach. The draft Australian standard for an occupational health and safety (OHS) management system and the internationally accepted standards for environmental (ISO 14001) and quality (ISO 9001) management systems were analyzed to identify all requirements of the three management systems and integrate this into one SEQ management system standard.

  11. Standardized and flexible health data management with an archetype driven EHR system (EHRflex).

    PubMed

    Brass, Anton; Moner, David; Hildebrand, Claudia; Robles, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    To build a semantically interoperable Electronic Health Record is one of the most challenging research fields in health informatics. In order to reach this objective, EHR standards that formally describe health data structures have to be used. CEN EN13606 is one of the most promising approaches. It covers the technical needs for semantic interoperability and, at the same time, it incorporates a mechanism (archetype model) that enables clinical domain experts to participate in building an EHR system. In this paper we present EHRflex, a generic system based on archetypes. It empowers the clinician and allows him to manage his own EHR system in a simple and generic way, assuring that the user works with underlying standardized data structures. These can be exchanged with other people and systems when needed. EHRflex introduces EHR standards into the clinical routine delivering a technical platform which works directly on archetype based data.

  12. A Standards-Based Architecture Proposal for Integrating Patient mHealth Apps to Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, P.; Rossi, E.; Ackerman, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Mobile health Applications (mHealth Apps) are opening the way to patients’ responsible and active involvement with their own healthcare management. However, apart from Apps allowing patient’s access to their electronic health records (EHRs), mHealth Apps are currently developed as dedicated “island systems”. Objective Although much work has been done on patient’s access to EHRs, transfer of information from mHealth Apps to EHR systems is still low. This study proposes a standards-based architecture that can be adopted by mHealth Apps to exchange information with EHRs to support better quality of care. Methods Following the definition of requirements for the EHR/mHealth App information exchange recently proposed, and after reviewing current standards, we designed the architecture for EHR/mHealth App integration. Then, as a case study, we modeled a system based on the proposed architecture aimed to support home monitoring for congestive heart failure patients. We simulated such process using, on the EHR side, OpenMRS, an open source longitudinal EHR and, on the mHealth App side, the iOS platform. Results The integration architecture was based on the bi-directional exchange of standard documents (clinical document architecture rel2 – CDA2). In the process, the clinician “prescribes” the home monitoring procedures by creating a CDA2 prescription in the EHR that is sent, encrypted and de-identified, to the mHealth App to create the monitoring calendar. At the scheduled time, the App alerts the patient to start the monitoring. After the measurements are done, the App generates a structured CDA2-compliant monitoring report and sends it to the EHR, thus avoiding local storage. Conclusions The proposed architecture, even if validated only in a simulation environment, represents a step forward in the integration of personal mHealth Apps into the larger health-IT ecosystem, allowing the bi-directional data exchange between patients and

  13. Laying a Community-Based Foundation for Data-Driven Semantic Standards in Environmental Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Boyles, Rebecca; Lawler, Cindy P.; Haugen, Astrid C.; Dearry, Allen; Haendel, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing availability of environmental health science (EHS) data, development, and implementation of relevant semantic standards, such as ontologies or hierarchical vocabularies, has lagged. Consequently, integration and analysis of information needed to better model environmental influences on human health remains a significant challenge. Objectives: We aimed to identify a committed community and mechanisms needed to develop EHS semantic standards that will advance understanding about the impacts of environmental exposures on human disease. Methods: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored the “Workshop for the Development of a Framework for Environmental Health Science Language” hosted at North Carolina State University on 15–16 September 2014. Through the assembly of data generators, users, publishers, and funders, we aimed to develop a foundation for enabling the development of community-based and data-driven standards that will ultimately improve standardization, sharing, and interoperability of EHS information. Discussion: Creating and maintaining an EHS common language is a continuous and iterative process, requiring community building around research interests and needs, enabling integration and reuse of existing data, and providing a low barrier of access for researchers needing to use or extend such a resource. Conclusions: Recommendations included developing a community-supported web-based toolkit that would enable a) collaborative development of EHS research questions and use cases, b) construction of user-friendly tools for searching and extending existing semantic resources, c) education and guidance about standards and their implementation, and d) creation of a plan for governance and sustainability. Citation: Mattingly CJ, Boyles R, Lawler CP, Haugen AC, Dearry A, Haendel M. 2016. Laying a community-based foundation for data-driven semantic standards in environmental health sciences. Environ

  14. Health-risk based approach to setting drinking water standards for long-term space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Dunsky, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop plausible and appropriate drinking water contaminant standards for longer-term NASA space missions, such as those planned for the Space Exploration Initiative, a human health risk characterization was performed using toxicological and exposure values typical of space operations and crew. This risk characterization showed that the greatest acute waterborne health concern was from microbial infection leading to incapacitating gastrointestinal illness. Ingestion exposure pathways for toxic materials yielded de minimus acute health risks unlikely to affect SEI space missions. Risks of chronic health problems were within acceptable public health limits. Our analysis indicates that current Space Station Freedom maximum contamination levels may be unnecessarily strict. We propose alternative environmental contaminant values consistent with both acceptable short and long-term crew health safety.

  15. Federal Farmworker Housing Standards and Regulations, Their Promise and Limitations, and Implications for Farmworker Health.

    PubMed

    Moss Joyner, Ann; George, Lance; Hall, Mary Lee; Jacobs, Ilene J; Kissam, E D; Latin, Shelley; Parnell, Allan; Ruiz, Virginia; Shadbeh, Nargess; Tobacman, Janet

    2015-11-01

    The housing available to most farmworkers is substandard and unacceptable in 21st-century America. The federal government established minimal occupational safety and health standards applicable to migrant farmworker labor camps decades ago, and some states have statutory schemes and regulations that set standards for farm labor camps and employee housing. Many of these federal and state regulations no longer reflect current employment and housing trends, and enforcement success varies greatly. These regulations implicitly recognize the connection between housing conditions and health, but do not effectively address that connection. This review describes the current state of farmworker housing, discusses laws and regulations pertaining to such housing, and highlights the literature on health risks associated with inadequate housing. We propose specific recommendations to strengthen enforcement and reduce the risks of substandard housing for the health of farmworkers and their families.

  16. Results of testing and evaluating a health physics instrument performance standard

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Kathren, R.L.; Fleming, D.M.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Federline, M.V.

    1983-09-01

    This paper presents data taken during testing of health physics instrumentation that provides information for the evaluation of the applicability and practicality of the proposed ANSI standard (N42.17) and the determination of the degree of conformance of currently available instruments to the proposed standard. The instruments tested included ionization chambers, Geiger Mueller detectors, alpha survey meters, neutron dose equivalent survey meters, and air monitors. (ACR)

  17. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  18. Describing environmental public health data: implementing a descriptive metadata standard on the environmental public health tracking network.

    PubMed

    Patridge, Jeff; Namulanda, Gonza

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Network provides an opportunity to bring together diverse environmental and health effects data by integrating}?> local, state, and national databases of environmental hazards, environmental exposures, and health effects. To help users locate data on the EPHT Network, the network will utilize descriptive metadata that provide critical information as to the purpose, location, content, and source of these data. Since 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's EPHT Metadata Subgroup has been working to initiate the creation and use of descriptive metadata. Efforts undertaken by the group include the adoption of a metadata standard, creation of an EPHT-specific metadata profile, development of an open-source metadata creation tool, and promotion of the creation of descriptive metadata by changing the perception of metadata in the public health culture.

  19. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  20. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    PubMed

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  1. The Importance of Consensus in Determining Educational Standards in Health and Human Services Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This report discusses the need for program accreditation and licensure in allied health fields, and in particular, addresses two issues: (1) an attempt by the American Physical Therapy Association to increase the entry-level standards for physical therapy education without achieving consensus; and (2) the attempt to reduce entry-level standards…

  2. Community Mental Health Service Providers' Codes of Ethics and the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nicholas A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Nilsen, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the codes of ethics of 13 professional organizations for community mental health service providers. Results suggest that only two of the codes of ethics address many of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing." Provides implications and recommendations for professional organizations. (Contains 20 references and…

  3. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by.... 162.1402 Section 162.1402 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE...

  4. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by.... 162.1402 Section 162.1402 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE...

  5. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by.... 162.1402 Section 162.1402 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE...

  6. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by.... 162.1402 Section 162.1402 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE...

  7. 45 CFR 162.1402 - Standards for health care claim status transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical... Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, April 2008, ASC X12N/005010X212E1. (Incorporated by.... 162.1402 Section 162.1402 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true General safety and health standards. 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... Mining of Potash; Oil Shale, Sodium, and Phosphate; Sulphur; and Gold, Silver, or Quicksilver; and...

  9. Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lynne S.; White, Casey B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Grum, Cyril M.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed students' competence in addressing the health beliefs and cultural concerns of a standardized patient, an African American woman with diabetes, during a clinical interview. Found that minority students displayed greater competence in addressing the patient's concerns about altering culturally-based dietary behaviors; white students…

  10. [Organization of the activities of health services according to UNI EN ISO 9000 standards].

    PubMed

    Bisio, S; Melazzini, M; Fracchia, G; Franco, G

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of a Quality System in accordance with the ISO 9000 standard with an Occupational Health Service. Following the lead of the industrial sector, Quality Systems (QS), in accordance with the principles of the ISO 9000 standards, have been implemented in many health care organizations. The purpose is to improve the health care delivered to the patient in a systematic way improving the system efficacy and effectiveness. Our aim is to describe a practical approach for the implementation of a QS in accordance with the ISO 9000 standard within an Occupational Health Service (OHS) in a middle-sized hospital. The purpose of the system is to ensure that everyone at the OHS is aware of the common quality objectives and knows how to act in order to achieve them. The implementation of the QS has entailed 2 phases: (i) a conformity assessment to verify that the organization and services delivered measure up to ISO standards; (ii) the development of a deployment plan to support the activities and action implementation for achieving the QS requirement of ISO 9000. An early conformity assessment highlighted the need for management and control in order to assure quality. The Service did not have a documented QS, a documented management review and a documented procedure for corrective and preventive actions for ensuring QS implementation and its effectiveness. A strategic quality plan, focused upon the major areas for improvement, was developed. This practical approach shows encouraging results because it allows to build up the basic quality and to motivate the OHS personnel.

  11. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this paragraph while under contract with OPM. Failure to meet these requirements and standards is cause... business practice in the management or administration of a health benefits plan is cause for OPM's... evidence of misconduct in these areas is cause for OPM to withdraw approval of the carrier: (1)...

  12. 78 FR 54655 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1, Immediately in Effect Guidance Documents on Premarket Data Issues; Availability and Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request...

  13. Minimum Standards for Tribal Child Care: A Health and Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Child Care Bureau is reissuing the minimum standards as a "Health and Safety Guide" for Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) Tribal Lead Agencies in conjunction with the 2005 Tribal Cluster Trainings, "Supporting the Physical, Social, and Emotional Wellness of Our Tribal Children." These voluntary guidelines represent the baseline from which…

  14. Pan-Canadian REspiratory STandards INitiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE): 2011 national forum proceedings.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, M Diane; Minard, Janice; Dworkin, Shari; Juurlink, Mary-Ann; Temple, Walley J; To, Teresa; Koehn, Marc; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario's Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS). Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario) are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to bring together key

  15. Ninein is essential for apico-basal microtubule formation and CLIP-170 facilitates its redeployment to non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centres

    PubMed Central

    Goldspink, Deborah A.; Rookyard, Chris; Tyrrell, Benjamin J.; Perkins, James; Lund, Elizabeth K.; Galjart, Niels; Thomas, Paul; Wileman, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation of columnar epithelial cells involves a dramatic reorganization of the microtubules (MTs) and centrosomal components into an apico-basal array no longer anchored at the centrosome. Instead, the minus-ends of the MTs become anchored at apical non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centres (n-MTOCs). Formation of n-MTOCs is critical as they determine the spatial organization of MTs, which in turn influences cell shape and function. However, how they are formed is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the centrosomal anchoring protein ninein is released from the centrosome, moves in a microtubule-dependent manner and accumulates at n-MTOCs during epithelial differentiation. Here, we report using depletion and knockout (KO) approaches that ninein expression is essential for apico-basal array formation and epithelial elongation and that CLIP-170 is required for its redeployment to n-MTOCs. Functional inhibition also revealed that IQGAP1 and active Rac1 coordinate with CLIP-170 to facilitate microtubule plus-end cortical targeting and ninein redeployment. Intestinal tissue and in vitro organoids from the Clip1/Clip2 double KO mouse with deletions in the genes encoding CLIP-170 and CLIP-115, respectively, confirmed requirement of CLIP-170 for ninein recruitment to n-MTOCs, with possible compensation by other anchoring factors such as p150Glued and CAMSAP2 ensuring apico-basal microtubule formation despite loss of ninein at n-MTOCs. PMID:28179500

  16. Nutra-ergonomics: influence of nutrition on physical employment standards and the health of workers.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E; Skinner, Tina L

    2016-06-01

    The importance of ergonomics across several scientific domains, including biomechanics, psychology, sociology, and physiology, have been extensively explored. However, the role of other factors that may influence the health and productivity of workers, such as nutrition, is generally overlooked. Nutra-ergonomics describes the interface between workers, their work environment, and performance in relation to their nutritional status. It considers nutrition to be an integral part of a safe and productive workplace that encompasses physical and mental health as well as the long-term wellbeing of workers. This review explores the knowledge, awareness, and common practices of nutrition, hydration, stimulants, and fortified product use employed prior to physical employment standards testing and within the workplace. The influence of these nutra-ergonomic strategies on physical employment standards, worker safety, and performance will be examined. Further, the roles, responsibilities, and implications for the applicant, worker, and the employer will be discussed within the context of nutra-ergonomics, with reference to the provision and sustainability of an environment conducive to optimize worker health and wellbeing. Beyond physical employment standards, workplace productivity, and performance, the influence of extended or chronic desynchronization (irregular or shift work) in the work schedule on metabolism and long-term health, including risk of developing chronic and complex diseases, is discussed. Finally, practical nutra-ergonomic strategies and recommendations for the applicant, worker, and employer alike will be provided to enhance the short- and long-term safety, performance, health, and wellbeing of workers.

  17. mHealth data security: the need for HIPAA-compliant standardization.

    PubMed

    Luxton, David D; Kayl, Robert A; Mishkind, Matthew C

    2012-05-01

    The rise in the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet personal computers, and wireless medical devices, as well as the wireless networks that enable their use, has raised new concerns for data security and integrity. Standardized Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant electronic data security that will allow ubiquitous use of mobile health technologies is needed. The lack of standardized data security to assure privacy, to allow interoperability, and to maximize the full capabilities of mobile devices presents a significant barrier to care. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the issue and to encourage discussion of this important topic. Current security needs, standards, limitations, and recommendations for how to address this barrier to care are discussed.

  18. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  19. Proposed standards for professional health sciences library services in hospitals of New York State.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, A P; O'Connell, M; Richards, B B; Thompson, J L; Wheeler, R A

    1981-01-01

    Hospital libraries are considered to be the basic unit of the medical information system. A major statewide effort was begun in 1978 to introduce and support legislation in the New York State Legislature which would encourage hospitals to establish and maintain libraries that meet minimum services standards. Included in this legislation is the concept that the Commissioner of Education in consultation with the Commissioner of Health shall have the power to establish standards for hospital libraries. The Ad Hoc Committee for the Promotion of Hospital Library Services, Western New York Library Resources Council, proposes The Standards for Professional Health Sciences Library Services in Hospitals of New York State to clarify and to strengthen existing hospital library standards. These standards differ specifically from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals standards in that they place equal and specific emphasis on eleven points: administration, qualifications of library staff, continuing education of library staff, requirement for a library advisory committee, required library services, required library resources, library space requirements, library budget, library network and consortium membership, documentation of library policy, and continued evaluation of the needs of the hospital for library service. Detailed interpretations are provided. An appendix describes the qualifications of a hospital library consultant. PMID:7248591

  20. Health Level Seven (HL7): standard for healthcare electronic data transmissions.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, B J; Brazile, R P

    1994-01-01

    The nursing profession needs computer-formatted data that can be exchanged within and between agencies. The exchange of electronic data, both in the United States and in the international community, requires agreement on the format of the data elements to be exchanged. The Health Level Seven (HL7) standard is a proposed voluntary standard for healthcare applications that addresses the way information is exchanged electronically. This brief article will provide background information regarding the development and status of HL7 and its implications for nursing. From the clinical perspective, nurses follow standards of care developed by professional organizations. These standards facilitate clear communication among nurses, consumers, and members of other disciplines. Similarly, the electronic transmission and exchange of clinical information must have a standard to ensure that messages arrive and are decoded correctly. Many standards for electronic data already exist; financial transactions such as banking are familiar examples. The theme of the 1990 Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (SCAMC), was Standards in Medical Informatics. Many pertinent papers and workshops were presented. However, references to electronic data standards are found primarily in conference proceedings and technical manuals. Thus, although activity is widespread, and events are rapidly moving in the healthcare industry, most of the information is not yet widely available. It seems timely, therefore, to provide background material to nurses in order for them to participate in the process.

  1. EPA Strengthens Ozone Standards to Protect Public Health/Science-based standards to reduce sick days, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, greatly outweigh costs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Based on extensive scientific evidence on effects that ground-level ozone pollution, or smog, has on public health and welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has strengthened the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (

  2. Integrating Genomic Resources with Electronic Health Records using the HL7 Infobutton Standard

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Maglott, Donna R.; Nelson, Tristan H.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Martin, Christa L.; Goehringer, Scott R.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Williams, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Electronic Health Record (EHR) Workgroup aims to integrate ClinGen resources with EHRs. A promising option to enable this integration is through the Health Level Seven (HL7) Infobutton Standard. EHR systems that are certified according to the US Meaningful Use program provide HL7-compliant infobutton capabilities, which can be leveraged to support clinical decision-making in genomics. Objectives To integrate genomic knowledge resources using the HL7 infobutton standard. Two tactics to achieve this objective were: (1) creating an HL7-compliant search interface for ClinGen, and (2) proposing guidance for genomic resources on achieving HL7 Infobutton standard accessibility and compliance. Methods We built a search interface utilizing OpenInfobutton, an open source reference implementation of the HL7 Infobutton standard. ClinGen resources were assessed for readiness towards HL7 compliance. Finally, based upon our experiences we provide recommendations for publishers seeking to achieve HL7 compliance. Results Eight genomic resources and two sub-resources were integrated with the ClinGen search engine via OpenInfobutton and the HL7 infobutton standard. Resources we assessed have varying levels of readiness towards HL7-compliance. Furthermore, we found that adoption of standard terminologies used by EHR systems is the main gap to achieve compliance. Conclusion Genomic resources can be integrated with EHR systems via the HL7 Infobutton standard using OpenInfobutton. Full compliance of genomic resources with the Infobutton standard would further enhance interoperability with EHR systems. PMID:27579472

  3. Climate, health, agricultural and economic impacts of tighter vehicle-emission standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; van Dingenen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-04-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition-climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) °C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  4. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  5. Risk analysis and its link with standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, K; Murray, N

    2011-04-01

    Among the agreements included in the treaty that created the World Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1995 is the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) that sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health standards. The SPS Agreement designates the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the organisation responsible for developing international standards for animal health and zoonoses. The SPS Agreement requires that the sanitary measures that WTO members apply should be based on science and encourages them to either apply measures based on the OIE standards or, if they choose to adopt a higher level of protection than that provided by these standards, apply measures based on a science-based risk assessment. The OIE also provides a procedural framework for risk analysis for its Member Countries to use. Despite the inevitable challenges that arise in carrying out a risk analysis of the international trade in animals and animal products, the OIE risk analysis framework provides a structured approach that facilitates the identification, assessment, management and communication of these risks.

  6. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harnett, P J; Bowles, N; Coughlan, A

    2009-06-01

    The term 'performance management' has an aversive 'managerial' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an 'image problem'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management 'image problem' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  7. Health information technology: standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology, 2014 edition; revisions to the permanent certification program for health information technology. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-04

    With this final rule, the Secretary of Health and Human Services adopts certification criteria that establish the technical capabilities and specify the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) Technology will need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals, eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs beginning with the EHR reporting periods in fiscal year and calendar year 2014. This final rule also makes changes to the permanent certification program for health information technology, including changing the program's name to the ONC HIT Certification Program.

  8. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Public Health and Community Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Udarbe, Adrienne Z; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Stell Crowley, Phyllis; Fredericks, Doris C; Edwards Hall, Leigh Ann

    2015-10-01

    The need and demand for population-level disease prevention has increased, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, a worldwide increase in obesity and chronic disease, and a global emphasis on preventative health care that includes behavioral, environmental, and policy interventions. In response to these evolving needs, the Public Health and Community Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as tools for registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) currently in practice or interested in working in public health and community nutrition, to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for professional development. The Standards of Practice address the four steps of the Nutrition Care Process for community and public health RDNs, which are assessment, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation/monitoring. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of the following six domains of professional performance for community and public health RDNs: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate the ways in which RDNs can address client and population nutrition and health. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs. These tools highlight the unique scope of expertise that RDNs provide to the field of public health and community nutrition.

  9. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  10. Toward Standardized, Comparable Public Health Systems Data: A Taxonomic Description of Essential Public Health Work

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jacqueline; Keeling, Jonathan; Gebbie, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify taxonomy of task, knowledge, and resources for documenting the work performed in local health departments (LHDs). Data Sources Secondary data were collected from documents describing public health (PH) practice produced by organizations representing the PH community. Study Design A multistep consensus-based method was used that included literature review, data extraction, expert opinion, focus group review, and pilot testing. Data Extraction Methods Terms and concepts were manually extracted from documents, consolidated, and evaluated for scope and sufficiency by researchers. An expert panel determined suitability of terms and a hierarchy for classifying them. This work was validated by practitioners and results pilot tested in two LHDs. Principal Findings The finalized taxonomy was applied to compare a national sample of 11 LHDs. Data were obtained from 1,064 of 1,267 (84 percent) of employees. Frequencies of tasks, knowledge, and resources constitute a profile of PH work. About 70 percent of the correlations between LHD pairs on tasks and knowledge were high (>0.7), suggesting between-department commonalities. On resources only 16 percent of correlations between LHD pairs were high, suggesting a source of performance variability. Conclusions A taxonomy of PH work serves as a tool for comparative research and a framework for further development. PMID:19686248

  11. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards. PMID:20205835

  12. Using standards to automate electronic health records (EHRs) and to create integrated healthcare enterprises.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Elliot B; Carey, Carole C

    2007-01-01

    President Bush's 2004 Executive Order mandated the creation within the Secretary of Health and Human Services' staff of a new Office of the National Coordinator for Healthcare Information Technology (ONCHIT) that was tasked with creating the United States National Healthcare Information Network (NHIN). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the 2004 and a subsequent 2006 Executive Orders have finally set the stage to design, and require, the use of standardized, electronic data interchange-enabled information systems as quickly as possible.

  13. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  14. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    PubMed

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  15. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    PubMed Central

    Mokkink, LB; Terwee, CB; Knol, DL; Stratford, PW; Alonso, J; Patrick, DL; Bouter, LM; de Vet, HCW

    2006-01-01

    Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability), the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs), i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1) a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2) an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written) Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will subsequently be field

  16. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  17. Standardizing Benchmark Dose Calculations to Improve Science-Based Decisions in Human Health Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Jessica A.; Shapiro, Andrew J.; Wright, Fred A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling computes the dose associated with a prespecified response level. While offering advantages over traditional points of departure (PODs), such as no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs), BMD methods have lacked consistency and transparency in application, interpretation, and reporting in human health assessments of chemicals. Objectives: We aimed to apply a standardized process for conducting BMD modeling to reduce inconsistencies in model fitting and selection. Methods: We evaluated 880 dose–response data sets for 352 environmental chemicals with existing human health assessments. We calculated benchmark doses and their lower limits [10% extra risk, or change in the mean equal to 1 SD (BMD/L10/1SD)] for each chemical in a standardized way with prespecified criteria for model fit acceptance. We identified study design features associated with acceptable model fits. Results: We derived values for 255 (72%) of the chemicals. Batch-calculated BMD/L10/1SD values were significantly and highly correlated (R2 of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively, n = 42) with PODs previously used in human health assessments, with values similar to reported NOAELs. Specifically, the median ratio of BMDs10/1SD:NOAELs was 1.96, and the median ratio of BMDLs10/1SD:NOAELs was 0.89. We also observed a significant trend of increasing model viability with increasing number of dose groups. Conclusions: BMD/L10/1SD values can be calculated in a standardized way for use in health assessments on a large number of chemicals and critical effects. This facilitates the exploration of health effects across multiple studies of a given chemical or, when chemicals need to be compared, providing greater transparency and efficiency than current approaches. Citation: Wignall JA, Shapiro AJ, Wright FA, Woodruff TJ, Chiu WA, Guyton KZ, Rusyn I. 2014. Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments. Environ Health

  18. Relevance of eHealth standards for big data interoperability in radiology and beyond.

    PubMed

    Marcheschi, Paolo

    2016-11-04

    The aim of this paper is to report on the implementation of radiology and related information technology standards to feed big data repositories and so to be able to create a solid substrate on which to operate with analysis software. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are the major standards for radiology and medical information technology. They define formats and protocols to transmit medical images, signals, and patient data inside and outside hospital facilities. These standards can be implemented but big data expectations are stimulating a new approach, simplifying data collection and interoperability, seeking reduction of time to full implementation inside health organizations. Virtual Medical Record, DICOM Structured Reporting and HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) are changing the way medical data are shared among organization and they will be the keys to big data interoperability. Until we do not find simple and comprehensive methods to store and disseminate detailed information on the patient's health we will not be able to get optimum results from the analysis of those data.

  19. The strategic use of standardized information exchange technology in a university health system.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lai, Feipei; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2010-04-01

    This article illustrates a Web-based health information system that is comprised of specific information exchange standards related to health information for healthcare services in National Taiwan University Health System. Through multidisciplinary teamwork, medical and informatics experts collaborated and studied on system scope definition, standard selection challenges, system implementation barriers, system management outcomes, and further expandability of other systems. After user requirement analysis and prototyping, from 2005 to 2008, an online clinical decision support system with multiple functions of reminding and information push was implemented. It was to replace its original legacy systems and serve among the main hospital and three branches of 180-200 clinics and 7,500-8,000 patient visits per day. To evaluate the effectiveness of this system, user surveys were performed, which revealed that the average score of user satisfaction increased from 2.80 to 3.18 on a 4-point scale. Among the items, especially e-learning for training service, courtesy communications for system requests, and courtesy communications for system operations showed statistically significant improvement. From this study, the authors concluded that standardized information exchange technologies can be used to create a brand new enterprise value and steadily obtain more competitive advantages for a prestige healthcare system.

  20. A standardized reporting system for assessment of diverse public health programs.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Douglas; Harris, Abigail; Deaton, Elizabeth Ann; Weister, Vicki; Pray, Shannon; Baumann, Carsten; Levinson, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    State public health agencies face challenges when monitoring the efforts and effects of public health programs that use disparate strategies and address various diseases, locations, and populations. The external evaluators of a complex portfolio of grant funding sought a standardized reporting framework and tool that could be used for all grants in the portfolio, without having to redesign it for each disease or intervention approach. Evaluators iteratively reviewed grant-funded projects to identify common project delivery strategies, then developed and implemented a common reporting framework and spreadsheet-based data capture tool. Evaluators provided training, technical assistance, and ongoing data reviews. During 2 fiscal years, 103 public health programs throughout Colorado submitted quarterly reports; agencies funded to implement these programs ranged from small community-based organizations to university- and hospital-affiliated groups in urban and rural settings. Aggregated reports supported estimates of program reach by strategy and by disease area, and the system supported production of summary descriptions of program implementation. Standardized language and expectations for reporting helped to align grant applications and work plans with reporting tools. A common language and standardized reporting tool can be used for diverse projects in a comprehensive evaluation framework. Decentralized data collection using common spreadsheet software enabled the aggregation of common data elements across multiple programs and projects. Further refinements could enable wider dissemination of common reporting criteria and expectations.

  1. World Health Organization International Standard to Harmonize Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Blümel, Johannes; Mizusawa, Saeko; Matsubayashi, Keiji; Sakata, Hidekatsu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Nübling, C. Micha; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin O.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique–based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, but assay sensitivity can vary widely. To improve interlaboratory results for the detection and quantification of HEV RNA, a candidate World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) strain was evaluated in a collaborative study involving 23 laboratories from 10 countries. The IS, code number 6329/10, was formulated by using a genotype 3a HEV strain from a blood donation, diluted in pooled human plasma and lyophilized. A Japanese national standard, representing a genotype 3b HEV strain, was prepared and evaluated in parallel. The potencies of the standards were determined by qualitative and quantitative assays. Assay variability was substantially reduced when HEV RNA concentrations were expressed relative to the IS. Thus, WHO has established 6329/10 as the IS for HEV RNA, with a unitage of 250,000 International Units per milliliter. PMID:23647659

  2. Determinants and Functions of Standardized Assessment Use among School Mental Health Clinicians: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Bergstrom, Alex; Hendrix, Ethan; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated why and how school mental health clinicians use standardized assessment tools in their work with youth and families. Quantitative and qualitative (focus group) data were collected prior to and following a training and consultation sequence as part of a trial program to assess school clinician’s (n = 15) experiences administering standardized tools to youth on their caseloads (n = 191). Findings indicated that, although assessment use was initially somewhat low, clinicians used measures to conduct initial assessments with the bulk of their caseloads (average = 62.2%) during the implementation period. Clinicians also reported on factors influencing their use of assessments at the client, provider, and system levels; perceived functions of assessment; student responses to assessment use; and use of additional sources of clinically-relevant information (primarily educational data) for the purposes of assessment and progress monitoring. Implications for the contextual appropriateness of standardized assessment and training in assessment tools are discussed. PMID:25875325

  3. Standardizing documentation for postoperative nausea and vomiting in the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    DeBlieck, Conni; LaFlamme, Anne Fishman; Rivard, Mary Jane; Monsen, Karen A

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains a common postoperative complication that causes patient discomfort and increases health care costs. Clinicians use the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) guideline to help prevent and treat PONV. However, the lack of standardized terminology in the electronic health record (EHR) and the lack of clinical decision support tools make it difficult for clinicians to document guideline implementation and to determine the effects of nursing care on PONV. To address this, we created a concept map of the Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS) that illustrates the relationship between elements of this standardized nursing terminology and the ASPAN guideline, using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms multidisciplinary terminology to fill any gaps. This mapping results in a standardized dataset specific to PONV for use in an EHR, which links nursing care to nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. The mapping and documentation in the EHR also allows standardized data collection for research, evaluation, and benchmarking, which makes perioperative nursing care of patients who are at risk for or experiencing PONV measureable and visible. Distributing this information to perioperative and perianesthesia nursing personnel, in addition to implementing risk assessment tools for PONV and clinical support alerts in electronic documentation systems, will help support implementation of the PONV clinical practice guideline in the EHR.

  4. Reproductive health information and abortion services: standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Westeson, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    In 3 recent judgments, the European Court of Human Rights addressed the issue of access to abortion and related reproductive health services. In 2 of the judgments, the Court declared that the state violated women's rights by obstructing access to legal health services, including abortion. In so doing, it referred to the state's failure to implement domestic norms on prenatal testing and conscientious objection, and recognized the relevance of international medical guidelines. This illustrates that domestic and international medical standards can serve as critical guidance to human rights courts. In the third case, the Court showed its unwillingness to declare access to abortion a human right per se, which is troubling from the perspective of women's right to health and dignity. The present article outlines the relevance of these cases for the reproductive health profession and argues that medical professional societies can influence human rights courts by developing and enforcing medical standards, not only for the benefit of abortion rights domestically but also for the advancement of women's human rights worldwide.

  5. Recognition of health informatics in Australian standard classifications for research, occupation and education.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Gray, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Work on building a strong research base, a skilled workforce and an accredited learning and development system in Australian Health Informatics is not mature. This paper aims to explore how such work is supported at a fundamental level, that is, within formal systems for identifying fields of research, occupation and education in Australia. The researchers examined the treatment of Health Informatics and related terms in a range of relevant Australian standards. We found that Health Informatics has somewhat inappropriate recognition in the formal systems defining research in Australia, a tenuous presence in those describing education, and none in those describing occupations. We argue that our findings provide the evidence base for decisive action to benefit not only individuals but also the wider Australian community.

  6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; standards related to essential health benefits, actuarial value and accreditation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-25

    This final rule sets forth standards for health insurance issuers consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Specifically, this final rule outlines Exchange and issuer standards related to coverage of essential health benefits and actuarial value. This rule also finalizes a timeline for qualified health plans to be accredited in Federally-facilitated Exchanges and amends regulations providing an application process for the recognition of additional accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  7. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C Micha; Baylis, Sally A; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the "1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection" (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing.

  8. Standardization of capillary electrophoresis for diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in the Brazilian public health system.

    PubMed

    Gigonzac, Marc Alexandre Duarte; Teodoro, Lilian Souza; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes; Vieira, Thaís Cidália; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino

    2016-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. The most common etiology of the syndrome is expansion and methylation of a CGG trinucleotide at chromosome region Xq27.3 involving FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1 gene). This disorder is commonly underdiagnosed in children and adolescents, given the high clinical variability. In Brazil, molecular diagnosis of FXS by CE does not exist in the public health system. The current standard for separation and identification of DNA fragment sizes is 50 cm CE, which is uncommon in public genotyping laboratories. This study describes the standardization of 36 cm CE for fragment analysis of samples from patients with intellectual disability suggestive of FXS. Genomic dsDNA was isolated from patients and amplified by PCR using the FMR1 AmplideX(®) Kit. It was then possible to detect changes in repeat length of FMR1, such as full mutation and premutation. Thus, the proposed standardization proved to be effective for the diagnosis of FXS, permitting suitable genetic counseling for families. Inclusion of molecular testing such as this in the Brazilian public health service bridges the gap between available technologies and effective diagnosis, universalizing access to genetic testing in central Brazil.

  9. World Health Organization International Standard To Harmonize Assays for Detection of Mycoplasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Sally A.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Montag-Lessing, Thomas; Chudy, Michael; Kreß, Julia; Ulrych, Ursula; Czurda, Stefan; Rosengarten, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays (referred to here as NAT assays) are increasingly used as an alternative to culture-based approaches for the detection of mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures. Assay features, like the limit of detection or quantification, vary widely between different mycoplasma NAT assays. Biological reference materials may be useful for harmonization of mycoplasma NAT assays. An international feasibility study included lyophilized preparations of four distantly related mycoplasma species (Acholeplasma laidlawii, Mycoplasma fermentans, M. orale, M. pneumoniae) at different concentrations which were analyzed by 21 laboratories using 26 NAT assays with a qualitative, semiquantitative, or quantitative design. An M. fermentans preparation was shown to decrease the interassay variation when used as a common reference material. The preparation was remanufactured and characterized in a comparability study, and its potency (in NAT-detectable units) across different NATs was determined. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) established this preparation to be the “1st World Health Organization international standard for mycoplasma DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays designed for generic mycoplasma detection” (WHO Tech Rep Ser 987:42, 2014) with a potency of 200,000 IU/ml. This WHO international standard is now available as a reference preparation for characterization of NAT assays, e.g., for determination of analytic sensitivity, for calibration of quantitative assays in a common unitage, and for defining regulatory requirements in the field of mycoplasma testing. PMID:26070671

  10. Patient protection and Affordable Care Act; data collection to support standards related to essential health benefits; recognition of entities for the accreditation of qualified health plans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-07-20

    This final rule establishes data collection standards necessary to implement aspects of section 1302 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), which directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to define essential health benefits. This final rule outlines the data on applicable plans to be collected from certain issuers to support the definition of essential health benefits. This final rule also establishes a process for the recognition of accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  11. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  12. Utilization of Standardized Mental Health Assessments in Anthropological Research: Possibilities and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Emily; Yarris, Kristin; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade anthropologists working the boundary of culture, medicine, and psychiatry have drawn from ethnographic and epidemiological methods to interdigitate data and provide more depth in understanding critical health problems. But rarely do these studies incorporate psychiatric inventories with ethnographic analysis. This article shows how triangulation of research methods strengthens scholars' ability (1) to draw conclusions from smaller data sets and facilitate comparisons of what suffering means across contexts; (2) to unpack the complexities of ethnographic and narrative data by way of interdigitating narratives with standardized evaluations of psychological distress; and (3) to enhance the translatability of narrative data to interventionists and to make anthropological research more accessible to policymakers. The crux of this argument is based on two discrete case studies, one community sample of Nicaraguan grandmothers in urban Nicaragua, and another clinic-based study of Mexican immigrant women in urban United States, which represent different populations, methodologies, and instruments. Yet, both authors critically examine narrative data and then use the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to further unpack meaning of psychological suffering by analyzing symptomatology. Such integrative methodologies illustrate how incorporating results from standardized mental health assessments can corroborate meaning-making in anthropology while advancing anthropological contributions to mental health treatment and policy.

  13. NIOH and NIOSH basis for an occupational health standard. Acrylamide: A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Molak, V.

    1991-01-01

    Information on acrylamide (79061) was reviewed as a basis for the development of an occupational health standard. Topics included: chemical properties, physical properties, production levels, uses, the potential for occupational exposure, occupational exposure limits, toxicology, methods for monitoring exposures, and adverse health effects from exposure. Acrylamide is a raw material used in the manufacture of polyacrylamides. It is an odorless, white, crystalline solid. The potential for occupational exposure to acrylamide exists in acrylamide manufacturing and processing, grouting operations, and research and analytical laboratories. The monomeric form has been found to be toxic, but tests have shown the polyacrylamide products to be generally nontoxic. Possible hazards include neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and harmful effects to the reproductive system. Studies have confirmed that exposure to acrylamide can cause cancer and reproductive disorders in animals. However, epidemiological data are not available to confirm these findings in human workers.

  14. Student Perceptions of the Acceptability and Utility of Standardized and Idiographic Assessment in School Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Mylien T.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Ludwig, Kristy; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment (EBA) comprises the use of research and theory to select methods and processes that have demonstrated reliability, validity, and clinical usefulness for prescribed populations. EBA can lead to positive clinical change, and recent work has suggested that it is perceived to be useful by school mental health providers. However, virtually nothing is known about student perceptions of assessment use. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 ethnically diverse middle and high school students (71% female) receiving mental health services in school-based health centers. Findings indicated that the majority of students found assessments to be useful, and perceived three primary functions of assessments: structuring the therapy session, increasing students’ self-awareness, and improving communication with the provider. Barriers to acceptability were also found for a minority of respondents. Some students found the nature of standardized assessments to be confining, and others expressed that they wanted more feedback from their counselors about their responses. Idiographic assessments demonstrated especially high acceptability in this sample, with students reporting that tracking idiographic outcomes increased self-awareness, spurred problem-solving, and helped them to reach behavioral goals. Implications for school mental health service improvements are discussed. PMID:27441029

  15. Gender double standards in young people attending sexual health services in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Kane, Roslyn; Wellings, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    Concern about the sexual and reproductive health of young people has been mounting recently in Thailand. Unequal gender relations have a considerable influence on the lives of young people, especially young women, yet few studies have explored the ways in which they have impacted on provision of sexual health care. Drawing upon data from a qualitative study in Northern Thailand, this paper explores the views and experiences of young people in seeking health care, highlighting the kinds of gender double standards and power imbalances that may pose obstacles to their use of sexual and reproductive health services. Findings reveal the vulnerability of sexually active young women in seeking support and care from partners, parents, and service providers. Those who experience adverse outcomes of sexual activity, such as unwanted pregnancy or infection, report facing indifference, victim blaming, or the threat of abandonment by their partners. Because of their fear of disclosure to their parents and communities, of their sexual activity, they opt for clandestine and unsafe abortion and seek the counsel of peers and drugstores rather than parents and providers. At the service provider level, young women report facing threatening and judgemental attitudes, indifferent counselling, and possible violation of confidentiality. This is in marked contrast to the treatment of young men, who generally meet with a more sympathetic and accepting response.

  16. Standardizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D values from the Canadian Health Measures Survey123

    PubMed Central

    Sarafin, Kurtis; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón; Tian, Lu; Phinney, Karen W; Tai, Susan; Camara, Johanna E; Merkel, Joyce; Green, Evan; Sempos, Christopher T; Brooks, Stephen PJ

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is an ongoing cross-sectional national survey that includes a measure of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by immunoassay. For cycles 1 and 2, the collection period occurred approximately every 2 y, with a new sample of ∼5600 individuals. Objective: The goal was to standardize the original 25(OH)D CHMS values in cycles 1 and 2 to the internationally recognized reference measurement procedures (RMPs) developed by the US National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent University, Belgium. Design: Standardization was accomplished by using a 2-step procedure. First, serum samples corresponding to the original plasma samples were remeasured by using the currently available immunoassay method. Second, 50 serum samples with known 25(OH)D values assigned by the NIST and Ghent reference method laboratories were measured by using the currently available immunoassay method. The mathematical models for each step—i.e., 1) YCurrent = XOriginal and 2) YNIST-Ghent = XCurrent —were estimated by using Deming regression, and the 2 models were solved to obtain a single equation for converting the “original” values to NIST-Ghent RMP values. Results: After standardization (cycles 1 and 2 combined), the percentage of Canadians with 25(OH)D values <40 nmol/L increased from 16.4% (original) to 19.4% (standardized), and values <50 nmol/L increased from 29.0% (original) to 36.8% (standardized). The 25(OH)D standardized distributions (cycles 1 and 2 analyzed separately) were similar across age and sex groups; slightly higher values were associated with cycle 2 in the young and old. This finding contrasts with the original data, which indicated that cycle 2 values were lower for all age groups. Conclusion: The shifts in 25(OH)D distribution brought about by standardization indicate its importance in drawing correct conclusions about potential population deficiencies and insufficiencies and in permitting the

  17. A scope-of-practice survey leading to the development of standards of practice for health promotion in higher education.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christine G; Hill, Martin H; Sonnad, Subhash R

    2003-05-01

    To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and Education in Institutions of Higher Education and mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of 600 ACHA member institutions, as well as to 97 key "best-practice health promotion leaders". The larger sample produced a 75.3% response rate, and 90.7% of the key informants returned usable surveys. The authors report selected findings from both groups that chronicle the state of health promotion practice in higher education at the close of the 20th century. The task force used the findings to establish a data-driven framework for the Year 2001 Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education.

  18. Ethical problems with the mental health evaluation standards of care for adult gender variant prospective patients.

    PubMed

    Hale, C Jabob

    2007-01-01

    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's "Standards of Care: The Hormonal and Surgical Sex Reassignment of Gender Dysphoric Persons" (SOC) set forth standards clinicians must meet to ensure ethical care of adequate quality. The SOC also set requirements gender variant prospective patients must meet to receive medical interventions to change their sexual characteristics to those more typical for the sex to which they were not assigned at birth. One such requirement is that mental health professionals must ascertain that prospective patients have met the SOC's eligibility and readiness criteria. This article raises two objections to this requirement: ethically obligatory considerations of the overall balance of potential harms and benefits tell against it, and it violates the principle of respect for autonomy. This requirement treats gender variant prospective patients who request medical intervention as different in kind, not merely degree, from other patient populations, as it constructs the very request as a phenomenon of incapacity. This is ethically indefensible in and of itself, but it is especially pernicious in a sociocultural and political context that already denies gender variant people full moral status.

  19. Planned Parenthood v Casey. The impact of the new undue burden standard on reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Benshoof, J

    1993-05-05

    The recent US Supreme Court decision in Planned Parenthood v Casey, by changing the legal standard by which restrictions on abortion are evaluated, will have a profound effect on access to reproductive health care in the United States. This article reviews the Pennsylvania antiabortion restrictions at issue in Casey and discusses the ways in which the new constitutional standard fundamentally weakens the legal protections previously afforded women and physicians in the 1973 case, Roe v Wade. While the majority opinion reaffirmed a woman's right to choose an abortion, the opinion opens the door to a multitude of new restrictive abortion laws, which diminish, and in some cases completely block, a woman's ability to exercise that right. The effect of weakened legal protection will fall most heavily on young, poor, minority, and rural women, who will be unable to overcome obstacles imposed by mandatory waiting periods, biased counseling, and parental notification requirements. The restrictions are also likely to exacerbate the shortage of physicians providing abortion services by making the procedure more costly and the providers' jobs more dangerous. Finally, the medical community can help to ensure women access to comprehensive and competent reproductive health care.

  20. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  1. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  2. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  3. Health effects of wood dust--relevance for an occupational standard.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, L W

    1982-09-01

    Wood dust is coming under increasing scrutiny as an industrial exposure posing greater risk than that of a nuisance dust. In light of this increased interest, this paper will review key reports of wood dust-related health effects, and will summarize the available information which relates exposure levels to effects. Numerous case reports exist of skin reactions and obstructive-pattern respiratory changes of either a hypersensitivity or irritant nature for various woods. Reports have also been published of apparently non-allergic obstructive respiratory effects including lung function test reductions and reduction of mucociliary clearance. Wood dust exposure also appears to be linked to the occurrence of adenocarcinoma of the nasal sinuses. Occasional reports link wood dust to other types of cancer, but these relationships are much less consistent than the association with nasal cancer. Various standards have been proposed for wood dust. Most are lower than the nuisance dust standard currently applicable in the U.S. This review of several key papers on wood dust permits some association of exposure data and effects, particularly with suppressed mucociliary clearance, from which it may be suggested from the available evidence that a standard of 2 mg/m3 total suspended wood dust, not differentiated by type of wood, would protect against observed effects except for extreme allergic hypersensitivity.

  4. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun; Xu, Jianfeng; Wang, Mingnian; Yan, Tao; Yang, Lu; Sun, Zhitao

    2015-12-22

    The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO₂. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.

  5. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chun; Xu, Jianfeng; Wang, Mingnian; Yan, Tao; Yang, Lu; Sun, Zhitao

    2015-01-01

    The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO2. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption. PMID:26703703

  6. Health Care Shadows: A Unique Opportunity for Health Care Exploration and the Development of Standard-Based Skills. [Fourth Edition]. Career Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Primary Health Care.

    Shadows is an individualized, hands-on, real-world career experience that provides students with a structured look at the future world of work in health care. The program helps students build a bridge between school-based learning and established health care skills standards. Shadows focuses on expanding the student's horizons beyond the classroom…

  7. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Citty, Sandra W; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  8. Optimizing the electronic health record to standardize administration and documentation of nutritional supplements

    PubMed Central

    Citty, Sandra W.; Kamel, Amir; Garvan, Cynthia; Marlowe, Lee; Westhoff, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a major cause for hospital re-admission, pressure ulcers and increased hospital costs. Methods to improve the administration and documentation of nutritional supplements for hospitalized patients are needed to improve patient care, outcomes and resource utilization. Staff at a medium-sized academic health science center hospital in the southeastern United States noted that nutritional supplements ordered for patients at high risk for malnutrition were not offered or administered to patients in a standardized manner and/or not documented clearly in the electronic health record as per prescription. This paper reports on a process improvement project that redesigned the ordering, administration and documentation process of oral nutritional supplements in the electronic health record. By adding nutritional products to the medication order sets and adding an electronic nutrition administration record (ENAR) tab, the multidisciplinary team sought to standardize nutritional supplement ordering, documentation and administration at prescribed intervals. This process improvement project used a triangulated approach to evaluating pre- and post-process change including: medical record reviews, patient interviews, and nutrition formula room log reports. Staff education and training was carried out prior to initiation of the system changes. This process change resulted in an average decrease in the return of unused nutritional formula from 76% returned at baseline to 54% post-process change. The process change resulted in 100% of nutritional supplement orders having documentation about nutritional medication administration and/or reason for non-administration. Documentation in the ENAR showed that 41% of ONS orders were given and 59% were not given. Significantly more patients reported being offered the ONS product (p=0.0001) after process redesign and more patients (5% before ENAR and 86% after ENAR reported being offered the correct

  9. Mental health legislation in Lebanon: Nonconformity to international standards and clinical dilemmas in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Hala; El Chammay, Rabih; Richa, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.

  10. 45 CFR 162.1602 - Standards for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange... for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, “Health Care Claim Payment/Advice (835... same transmission, the ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  11. 45 CFR 162.1602 - Standards for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange... for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, “Health Care Claim Payment/Advice (835... same transmission, the ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1602 - Standards for health care electronic funds transfers (EFT) and remittance advice transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identified in paragraph (a) of this section. (2) The ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange... for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3, “Health Care Claim Payment/Advice (835... same transmission, the ASC X12 Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type...

  13. Alcoholism in the Families of Origin of MSW Students: Estimating the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Using Standardized Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Catherine A.; Hawkins, Raymond C., II

    1996-01-01

    A 1991 study of 136 graduate social work students determined students' status as adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by self-report and standardized screening test scores, and evaluated mental health functioning with four standardized measures. Results found that 47% of the social work students were ACAs, and not all (or only) ACAs were vulnerable…

  14. Defining Family Health Needs, Standards of Care and Priorities with Particular Reference to Family Planning. Occasional Essay Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Fred T.

    This essay discusses family health needs in the developing world, their priorities, and the standards of health required, with particular reference to family planning. The author takes into account medical, social, and economic factors that influence those concerns. Some of the material presented in this essay first appeared in other international…

  15. 25 CFR 1000.256 - Must the Secretary retain project funds to ensure proper health and safety standards in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000... health and safety standards in construction projects? 1000.256 Section 1000.256 Indians OFFICE OF THE... construction projects? Yes, the Secretary must retain project funds to ensure proper health and...

  16. Assessing use of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel; Stark, Paul C; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F; Ramoni, Rachel; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Kimmes, Nicole; Tavares, Anamaria; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2013-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies such as the International Classification of Diseases have been in use in medicine for over a century, efforts in the dental profession to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology, the EZCodes, was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental education institutions in the United States and Europe have implemented the EZCodes dental diagnostic terminology. This article reports on the utilization and valid entry of the EZCodes at three of the dental schools that have adopted this standardized dental diagnostic terminology. Electronic data on the use of procedure codes with diagnostic terms from the three schools over a period from July 2010 to June 2011 were aggregated. The diagnostic term and procedure code pairs were adjudicated by three calibrated dentists. Analyses were conducted to gain insight into the utilization and valid entry of the EZCodes diagnostic terminology in the one-year period. Error proportions in the entry of diagnostic term (and by diagnostic category) were also computed. In the twelve-month period, 29,965 diagnostic terms and 249,411 procedure codes were entered at the three institutions resulting in a utilization proportion of 12 percent. Caries and periodontics were the most frequently used categories. More than 1,000 of the available 1,321 diagnostic terms were never used. Overall, 60.5 percent of the EZCodes entries were found to be valid. The results demonstrate low utilization of EZCodes in an electronic health record and raise the need for specific training of dental providers on the importance of using dental diagnostic terminology and specifically how to use the terms in the electronic record. These findings will serve to increase the use/correct use of the EZCodes dental diagnostic terminology and ultimately create a reliable platform for undertaking clinical, outcomes, and quality improvement-related research.

  17. The use of standard contracts in the English National Health Service: a case study analysis.

    PubMed

    Petsoulas, Christina; Allen, Pauline; Hughes, David; Vincent-Jones, Peter; Roberts, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    The use of contracts is vital to market transactions. The introduction of market reforms in health care in the U.K. and other developed countries twenty years ago meant greater use of contracts. In the U.K., health care contracting was widely researched in the 1990s. Yet, despite the changing policy context, the subject has attracted less interest in recent years. This paper seeks to fill a gap by reporting findings from a study of contracting in the English National Health Service (NHS) after the introduction of the national standard contract in 2007. By using economic and socio-legal theories and two case studies we examine the way in which the new contract was implemented in practice and the extent to which implementation conformed to policy intentions and to our theoretical predictions. Data were collected using non-participant observation of 36 contracting meetings, 24 semi-structured interviews, and analysis of documents. We found that despite efforts to introduce a more detailed ('complete') contract, in practice, purchasers and providers often reverted to a more relational style of contracting. Frequently reliance on the NHS hierarchy proved to be indispensable; in particular, formal dispute resolution was avoided and financial risk was re-allocated in compromises that sometimes ignored contractual provisions. Serious data deficiencies and shortages of skilled personnel still caused major difficulties. We conclude that contracting for health care continues to raise serious problems, which may be exacerbated by the impending transfer of responsibility to groups of general practitioners (GPs) who generally lack experience and expertise in large-scale, secondary care contracting.

  18. Workshop Proceedings: Health and Job-Specific Body Composition Standards for the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This proceedings document summarizes discussions that took place during the Health and Job-Specific Body Composition Workshop, sponsored by the USAF...Analysis, Health and Job-Specific Body Composition Standards for the US Air Force, Volumes I, II, and III This document includes written comments...an age-independent measurement of body composition health screening across all services, b) remedial actions would be determined by the individual

  19. Development of a Translation Standard to support the improvement of health literacy and provide consistent high-quality information.

    PubMed

    Michael, Jaklina; Aylen, Tracy; Ogrin, Rajna

    2013-09-01

    Australia has a high number of people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds whose primary language is not English. CALD population groups have comparatively lower levels of education and health literacy, and poorer health outcomes compared with the Australian-born population. The delivery of consumer health information to people from CALD backgrounds usually includes the use of translated resources. Unfortunately, the quality of translated resources available on health issues is highly variable and may impact efforts to address the disparities in health outcomes. Currently applied guides to translation focus on accuracy and literalness of the translation; however, for health translations, conveying meaning and incorporating culturally relevant information is essential. Minimum standards for developing translated resources are needed to provide an indication of quality for end users, including healthcare providers, the client and carer. This paper describes the development of a Translation Standard, led by a community nursing organisation in collaboration and consultation with CALD community members and peak community organisations in Melbourne, Australia. The Translation Standard includes 10 components that have been identified as necessary to ensure a minimum standard of translation that is of high quality and caters to the health literacy levels of the target audience.

  20. Basic health program: state administration of basic health programs; eligibility and enrollment in standard health plans; essential health benefits in standard health plans; performance standards for basic health programs; premium and cost sharing for basic health programs; federal funding process; trust fund and financial integrity. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-03-12

    This final rule establishes the Basic Health Program (BHP), as required by section 1331 of the Affordable Care Act. The BHP provides states the flexibility to establish a health benefits coverage program for low-income individuals who would otherwise be eligible to purchase coverage through the Affordable Insurance Exchange (Exchange, also called Health Insurance Marketplace). The BHP complements and coordinates with enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange, as well as with enrollment in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). This final rule also sets forth a framework for BHP eligibility and enrollment, benefits, delivery of health care services, transfer of funds to participating states, and federal oversight. Additionally, this final rule amends another rule issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (Secretary) in order to clarify the applicability of that rule to the BHP.

  1. Worldwide variation in human growth and the World Health Organization growth standards: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Valerie; Rajagopalan, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a set of growth curves for use as international standards in children up to age 5. The WHO's position is that all economically advantaged children who were breastfed as infants grow similarly. As a result, a single set of growth charts can be used to judge growth in any child, regardless of race or ethnicity. The goal of this study was to compare mean heights, weights and head circumferences from a variety of studies with the WHO's data. Design We compared data from the WHO's Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) with data from studies performed in 55 countries or ethnic groups. Data sources PubMed, WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, SciELO, Google Scholar, Textbooks and Ministries of Statistics and Public Health. Eligibility criteria Large recent studies (1988–2013) of economically advantaged groups, including comparisons with cohorts of breastfed children wherever possible. Results Height varied somewhat among different national and ethnic groups. Means were generally within 0.5 of an SD of the MGRS means. Weight varied more than height, but the low MGRS means were seen as endorsing slenderness in the midst of an obesity epidemic. The mean head circumference varied widely. In many groups, means were consistently 0.5–1 SD above the MGRS mean. Head size in breastfed children at any age examined was far closer to local norms than to the MGRS means. Conclusions Height and weight curves may not be optimal fits in all cases. The differences between national or ethnic group head circumference means were large enough that using the WHO charts would put many children at risk for misdiagnosis of macrocephaly or microcephaly. Our findings indicate that the use of a single international standard for head circumference is not justified. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO (# CRD42013003675). PMID:24401723

  2. Spatial Variation in EU Poverty with Respect to Health, Education and Living Standards.

    PubMed

    Weziak-Bialowolska, Dorota

    We examine the European Union (EU) countries and within-country areas (i.e., large urban areas, small urban areas, and rural areas) that are the most disadvantageous with respect to multidimensional poverty and in each of the investigated dimensions, i.e., health, education, and living standards. To this end, we construct the Multidimensional Poverty Index and its sub-indices: the Poverty in Health Index, Poverty in Education Index, and Poverty in Standard of Living Index. All of these indices provide information regarding the fraction of people who live in poverty, as well as information on the poverty intensity experienced by the poor. Our results indicate that the scale of poverty in the EU countries is diversified, with Denmark and Sweden being the most affluent countries, and Latvia, Bulgaria, and Romania being the most disadvantageous. We demonstrate that there are countries with no differences in the levels of poverty within a country, such as Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Finland, and the Czech Republic, and countries, usually less affluent ones such as Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania, where considerable geographical inequality is present. In general, in countries with a high and moderately high number of poor, the worst situation with respect to the scale of poverty is observed in rural areas, and the best situation is observed in large urban areas, with the exception of Greece, Italy, and Portugal, where in large urban areas, the situation is the worst. In countries with a low number of poor, in general, the poverty is relatively higher in large urban areas.

  3. Development of an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health standard--II: defining the potential benefits and open issues.

    PubMed

    Levine, S P; Dyjack, D T

    1996-04-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is currently voting on a final draft of ISO 14000 Environmental Standards that follow the general philosophy of ISO 9000 product quality standards. Should the international community also consider development of an ISO 9000-14000 compatible occupational safety and health management standard (OS&HMS) or an environment, safety, and health management standard? The first paper in this series (Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 56:599-609 [1995]) introduced this subject, reviewed the historical precedents, and identified the underlying issues. In this paper the authors identify some of the potential benefits and most critical open issues that may affect the viability of an OS&HMS at the national and international levels. Twelve potential benefits are identified in the major categories of national and international, and industrial and governmental benefits; 16 open issues are identified in the major categories of applications, ethics, cost, and international issues.

  4. Communications between local health departments and the public during emergencies: the importance of standardized web sites.

    PubMed

    Fallon, L Fleming; Schmalzried, Hans D; Hasan, Nausheen

    2011-01-01

    Of the 2790 local health departments (LHDs) in the United States, Internet homepages were located for 1986. We reviewed each homepage to document the presence of 9 elements deemed to be critical for effective communications during emergency or disaster situations. LHD Web site homepages had a mean of 4.1 (±1.4) elements. Among the findings, this review revealed that 4 of 5 (80.5%) of the LHDs included the agency phone number, half (49.4%) provided links to emergency information, and about 1 in 5 (19.6%) listed an agency e-mail address. Fewer than 1 in 20 (4.3%) of the LHD homepages reviewed allowed visitors to sign up for automatic alerts or notifications. We suggest that these results be used as a starting point in developing a standardized template containing the 9 homepage elements. Such a template complements National Incident Management System protocols and can provide a recognizable source of consistent and reliable information for people during a public health emergency or disaster.

  5. Moving the worksite health promotion profession forward: is the time right for requiring standards? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Cecilia; English, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Standards in any profession are adopted to assure that the individuals hired are adequately trained and the programs that they oversee are of the highest quality. Worksite health promotion should be no different from any other field. A review of the research conducted by experts in worksite health promotion is examined, along with an assessment of skills needed to ensure that wellness programs are effective and employees, their families, and even their communities are educated on the ways to best prevent chronic diseases and occupational incidences through healthy and safe behaviors. This article is consistent with Health Promotion Practice's mission and focuses on the exploration of the processes used to plan effective worksite health promotion programs, and it suggests initial discussions on whether these processes should become standards for professionals in the worksite health promotion field.

  6. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries.

    PubMed

    Lette, M; Bemelmans, W J E; Breda, J; Slobbe, L C J; Dias, J; Boshuizen, H C

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relative risks. Included diseases are ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer and osteoarthritis. Step two consists of collecting data on the age- and gender-specific prevalence of these diseases. Step three uses the population-attributable prevalence to determine the part of the prevalence of these diseases that is attributable to overweight. Step four calculates the health care costs associated with these diseases. Step five calculates the costs of these diseases that are attributable to overweight. Overweight is responsible for 20-26% of the direct costs of included diseases, with sensitivity analyses varying this percentage between 15-31%. Percentage of costs attributable to obesity and preobesity is about the same. Diseases with the highest percentage of costs due to overweight are diabetes, endometrial cancer and osteoarthritis. Disease costs attributable to overweight as a percentage of total health care expenditures range from 2 to 4%. Data are consistent for all three countries, resulting in roughly a quarter of costs of included diseases being attributable to overweight.

  7. The consortium for the standardization of influenza seroepidemiology (CONSISE): a global partnership to standardize influenza seroepidemiology and develop influenza investigation protocols to inform public health policy.

    PubMed

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Broberg, Eeva; Engelhardt, Othmar G; Wood, John; Nicoll, Angus

    2013-05-01

    CONSISE - The consortium for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology - is a global partnership to develop influenza investigation protocols and standardize seroepidemiology to inform health policy. This international partnership was formed in 2011 and was created out of a need, identified during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, for timely seroepidemiological data to better estimate pandemic virus infection severity and attack rates to inform policy decisions. CONSISE has developed into a consortium of two interactive working groups: epidemiology and laboratory, with a steering committee composed of individuals from several organizations. CONSISE has had two international meetings with more planned for 2013. We seek additional members from public health agencies, academic institutions and other interested parties.

  8. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2(nd) International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human.

    PubMed

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1(st) International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1(st) IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2(nd) IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2(nd) IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1(st) IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2(nd) IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp.

  9. Establishment of the World Health Organization 2nd International Standard for Factor XI, Plasma, Human

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot, Helen; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Gray, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The 1st International Standard (IS) for blood coagulation factor XI (FXI), plasma, has been successfully used for potency labeling of FXI therapeutics and for diagnosis of FXI deficiency in patients. With stocks of the 1st IS near depletion, a replacement is required. In addition to the functional activity value, assignment of an antigen value to the 2nd IS would allow harmonization of antigen assay methods and differentiation of patients who have low functional activity but normal antigen FXI levels from patients who have both low functional and antigen FXI levels. The aims of this study were, therefore, to assign FXI functional activity to the 2nd IS for FXI, plasma, and to additionally assign a new analyte, FXI antigen, to the same International Standard. The candidate material was prepared from double-spun, virology negative, normal plasma, which was pooled and filled into siliconized glass ampoules and subsequently freeze-dried. Assignment of the functional activity (FXI:C) value in International Units (IUs) was performed by one-stage clotting assay by 29 laboratories, relative to the 1st IS. The overall geometric mean (GM) was 0.71 IU/amp with extremely low inter-laboratory variability (expressed as geometric coefficient of variation) of 1.8%. The antigen value assignment was performed by 11 laboratories and was calculated relative to normal plasma pools, as is customary with new coagulation factor analytes. The amount of antigen present in 1 ml of normal plasma was taken to be 1 U. The overall GM for the antigen assays was 0.78 IU/amp with an inter-laboratory variation of 10%. The candidate (National Institute for Biological Standards and Control code, 15/180) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2016 as the WHO 2nd IS for blood coagulation FXI, plasma, with a functional activity value (FXI:C) of 0.71 IU/amp and an antigen value (FXI:Ag) of 0.78 IU/amp. PMID:28373973

  10. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance (834... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and...

  11. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance (834... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance (834... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and...

  13. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance (834... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and...

  14. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards for Electronic Data Interchange Technical Report Type 3—Benefit Enrollment and Maintenance (834... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and...

  15. 76 FR 1433 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary Task Force, Implementation, and Privacy... specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, implementation opportunities...

  16. 75 FR 12753 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations Vocabulary, Clinical Quality, Implementation, and... to their specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary standards, clinical...

  17. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  18. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups.

  19. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Design Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Setting Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Participants Health care workers and maternity unit patients. Main outcome measures We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. Results At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Conclusion Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. PMID:27512125

  20. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... States National Library of Medicine. (e) Immunizations. Standard. HL7 Standard Code Set CVX—Vaccines... States National Library of Medicine. (2) Standard. RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, August 6, 2012 Release (incorporated...

  1. 75 FR 44589 - Health Information Technology: Initial Set of Standards, Implementation Specifications, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies to carry out policy objectives or... voluntary consensus standards bodies, namely when doing so would be ``inconsistent with applicable law or... Coordinator standards that have been developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies. \\1\\...

  2. Handbook of Home Health Standards - Fifth edition Marrelli Tina M Handbook of Home Health Standards - Fifth edition 688pp Elsevier 9780323052245 032305224X [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2009-06-03

    Home care is different from other forms of health care. Clinicians are guests in patients' homes and may be the only healthcare providers patients see on a particular day or week, so they should feel comfortable working independently, but recognise they are part of a larger healthcare team.

  3. Considerations for Using Genetic and Epigenetic Information in Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Standard Setting.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Whittaker, C; Curran, C P

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment forms the basis for both occupational health decision-making and the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Although genetic and epigenetic data have not been widely used in risk assessment and ultimately, standard setting, it is possible to envision such uses. A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic and epigenetic factors condition biological responses to occupational and environmental hazards or serve as targets of them. This presentation addresses the considerations for using genetic and epigenetic information in risk assessments, provides guidance on using this information within the classic risk assessment paradigm, and describes a framework to organize thinking about such uses. The framework is a 4 × 4 matrix involving the risk assessment functions (hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) on one axis and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic data on the other axis. The cells in the matrix identify how genetic and epigenetic data can be used for each risk assessment function. Generally, genetic and epigenetic data might be used as endpoints in hazard identification, as indicators of exposure, as effect modifiers in exposure assessment and dose-response modeling, as descriptors of mode of action, and to characterize toxicity pathways. Vast amounts of genetic and epigenetic data may be generated by high-throughput technologies. These data can be useful for assessing variability and reducing uncertainty in extrapolations, and they may serve as the foundation upon which identification of biological perturbations would lead to a new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessments.

  4. The Affordable Care Act's implications for a public health workforce agenda: taxonomy, enumeration, and the Standard Occupational Classification system.

    PubMed

    Montes, J Henry; Webb, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act brings a renewed emphasis on the importance of public health services and those whose occupations are defined by performing the essential public health functions. The Affordable Care Act Prevention and Public Health Fund is a signal to the field that its work is important and critical to the health of the nation. Recent reports by the Institute of Medicine describe the changing dimensions of public health work in primary care integration and the need for enhanced financing of public health as investment. Gaining knowledge about the public health workforce, that is, how many workers there are and what they are doing, is of growing interest and concern for the field. Although enumeration of the public health workforce has been attempted several times by the federal government beginning as early as 1982, it was not until the year 2000 that a major effort was undertaken to obtain more complete information. Limitations that hampered Enumeration 2000 have persisted however. With implementation of the Affordable Care Act and other new ventures, key federal agencies are developing strategies to pursue a systemic and systematic enumeration and consistent taxonomy process. Included in these efforts is use of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Standard Occupational Classification system. A clear and accurate understanding of the public health workforce and its characteristics is a major challenge. A well-constructed, systematic enumeration process can add to our understanding of the nature and functions of that workforce. In addition, discussion of enumeration must include the need for a consensus within the field that leads to a consistent taxonomy for the public health occupations. This article will provide a stage-setting brief of historical actions regarding enumeration, and it will examine selected enumeration activities taking place currently. It will discuss positive and negative implications facing public health and the potential for enhancing the

  5. The Promise of Standardized Data Collection: School Health Variables Identified by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen H.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Westbrook, Linda Oakes

    2012-01-01

    A gap in data prevents measurement of the needs of school-age children and the influence of school nursing interventions on student health and education outcomes. Its remedy is in the data collected in school health rooms. A national clinical database describing school health will allow education and health leaders to build evidence-based programs…

  6. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups.

  7. Integration proposal through standard-based design of an end-to-end platform for p-Health environments.

    PubMed

    Martíínez, I; Trigo, J D; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Escayola, J; Muñoz, P; Serrano, L; García, J

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability among medical devices and compute engines in the personal environment of the patient, and with healthcare information systems in the remote monitoring and management process is a key need that requires developments supported on standard-based design. Even though there have been some international initiatives to combine different standards, the vision of an entire end-to-end standard-based system is the next challenge. This paper presents the implementation guidelines of a ubiquitous platform for Personal Health (p-Health). It is standard-based using the two main medical norms in this context: ISO/IEEE11073 in the patient environment for medical device interoperability, and EN13606 to allow the interoperable communication of the Electronic Healthcare Record of the patient. Furthermore, the proposal of a new protocol for End-to-End Standard Harmonization (E2ESHP) is presented in order to make possible the end-to-end standard integration. The platform has been designed to comply with the last ISO/IEEE11073 and EN13606 available versions, and tested in a laboratory environment as a proof-of-concept to illustrate its feasibility as an end-to-end standard-based solution.

  8. User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, André

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5 years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

  9. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-09-21

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2-3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  10. Use of medicines and adherence to standard treatment guidelines in rural community health centers, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John

    2015-03-01

    The use of medicines and nurses'/midwives' adherence to standard treatment guidelines (STGs) were examined in Timor-Leste during the early stage of the nation's new health system development. A cross-sectional study was conducted as the quantitative element of mixed methods research. Retrospective samples from patient registration books and prospective observations were obtained in 20 randomly selected rural community health centers. The medicines use indicators, in particular the level of injection use, in Timor-Leste did not suggest overprescription. Prescribers with clinical nurse training prescribed significantly fewer antibiotics than those without such training (P < .01). The adjusted odds ratio of prescribing adherence for clinical nurse training, after accounting for confounders and prescriber clustering, was 6.6 (P < .01). STGs for nonphysician health professionals at the primary health care level have potential value in basic health care delivery, including appropriate use of medicines, in resource-limited communities when strategically developed and introduced.

  11. 75 FR 70925 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT; Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations Vocabulary, Implementation, and Privacy & Security... Vocabulary Task Force meetings TBD. Location: All workgroup meetings will be available via Webcast; visit... vocabulary standards, implementation opportunities and challenges, and privacy and security...

  12. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  13. Information system interoperability in a regional health care system infrastructure: a pilot study using health care information standards.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Stergiani S; Berler, Alexander A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2003-01-01

    The 1st and 2nd Regional Health Care System Authority of Central Macedonia (1st and 2nd PeSY) are two of the seventeen Regional Healthcare System Authorities in Greece. Every single PeSY aims to improve the level of quality that health care organisations offer as well as to control the expenditure of health care services provided by the health care organisations, Hospitals and Primary Care Health units. There is currently an urgent need for Regional Health Authorities to deploy integrated healthcare information system, based on secure networks. The limited interoperability of current hospital information systems (HIS) poses a risk for the management of patient related information since there is a difficulty to transform processed data into useful information and knowledge. Thus, a pilot system was developed to achieve data integration record synchronisation using the Health Level 7 protocol between the existing HIS of two Hospitals of Thessaloniki and the central Offices of the PeSY. The pilot was funded by the Third Community Support Framework (jointly funded by EU and Greece) funds in order to prepare the forthcoming major healthcare IT projects in Greece. It is shown that such a system is pragmatic, achieves data integration and provides acceptable integration costs.

  14. Assuring food safety: the complementary tasks and standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    PubMed

    Slorach, S A

    2006-08-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization specifically recognises the international standards developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). OIE standards focus on animal health and zoonoses and those of the CAC on food safety, but since zoonoses can affect food safety, it is vital that the two organisations cooperate closely to avoid duplication of effort, gaps and conflicting standards. The OIE has established an Animal Production Food Safety Working Group to promote cooperation with the CAC and to act as a steering committee for the OIE's work programme on the development of standards aimed at protecting consumers from foodborne hazards arising from animals at the production level of the food chain. This paper describes briefly how standards are developed by the OIE and the CAC and gives examples of how the tasks and standards of the two organisations complement each other in helping to assure food safety. The areas covered include meat hygiene, the identification and traceability of live animals, model certificates for international trade, antimicrobial resistance, veterinary drugs, animal feed, and salmonellosis.

  15. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Qualified Health Plan SHOP Small Business Health Options Program SSA Social Security Administration The Act Social Security Act The Code Internal Revenue Code of 1986 USP United States Pharmacopeia...

  16. 77 FR 54663 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of a Standard for a Unique Health Plan Identifier...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD- 10-CM) for diagnosis coding... of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure... health identifier for health care providers for use in the health care system and adopting the...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.2 - Variances from safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(A) or 6(d) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 65). The... for variances under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, and any requests for variances under Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act with respect to...

  18. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  19. Sharing innovation: the case for technology standards in health professions education.

    PubMed

    Smothers, Valerie; Greene, Peter; Ellaway, Rachel; Detmer, Don E

    2008-01-01

    Information technologies have provided fertile ground for innovation in healthcare education, but too often these innovations have been limited in scope and impact. One way of addressing these limitations is the development of common and open technology standards to scale innovation across organizational boundaries. Research on the diffusion of standards indicates that environmental forces, such as regulatory changes, top-down management support, and feasibility are key determinants of standards adoption. This paper describes the perspective and work of MedBiquitous, the only internationally recognized standards body in healthcare education. Many innovators are implementing MedBiquitous healthcare education standards to effect change within and across organizations. In a resource-constrained and knowledge intensive domain such as healthcare education, collaboration is an imperative. Technology standards are essential to raise the quality of healthcare education and assessment in a cost-effective manner.

  20. [Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001) of National Institute of Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, K; Iwata, M; Koide, T; Saito, H; Tanimoto, T; Okada, S

    2001-01-01

    The raw material of Alprostadil was examined for the preparation of "Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001)". Analytical data obtained were: IR spectrum, same as that of the Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 923); thin-layer chromatography, no impurities were detected until 20 micrograms; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total amount of impurities estimated to be less than 0.2%. Based on the above results, the raw material was authorized as the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Alprostadil Reference Standard (Control 001).

  1. Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yonghui; Vaughn, Michael G.; Nelson, Erik J.; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Ma, Wenjun

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, Chinese Environmental Bureau modified its National Ambient Air Quality Standards to include fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Recent air pollution monitoring data shows that numerous locations have exceeded this standard, which may have resulted in avoidable adverse health effects. For example, among the 74 Chinese cities with PM2.5 monitoring data in 2013, only three cities attained the annual air quality standard (35 μg/m3). This study aimed to quantify the potential short- and long-term health benefits from achieving the Chinese ambient air quality standard and WHO's air quality objectives. A generalized additive model was used to estimate the short-term association of mortality with changes in daily PM2.5 concentrations, based on which we estimated the potential premature mortality reduction that would have been achieved during the period of 2012-2015 if the daily air quality standard had been met in Guangzhou, China; we also estimated the avoidable deaths if attaining the annual air quality standard using the relative risk obtained from a previous cohort study. During the study period, there were 160 days exceeding the national daily PM2.5 standard (75 μg/m3) in Guangzhou, and the annual average concentration (47.7 μg/m3) was higher than the air quality standard of 35 μg/m3. Significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality were observed. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with increases in daily death counts of 0.95% (95% CI: 0.56%, 1.34%) in natural mortality, 1.31% (95% CI: 0.75%, 1.87%) in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.06% (95% CI: 0.19%, 1.94%) in respiratory mortality. The health benefits of attaining the national daily air quality standard of PM2.5 (75 μg/m3) would have prevented 143 [95% confidence interval (CI): 84, 203] fewer natural deaths, including 84 (95% CI: 48, 121) fewer cardiovascular deaths and 27 (95% CI: 5, 49) fewer respiratory deaths. Had the annual PM2.5 levels been reduced to 35 μg/m3, an estimated 3875

  2. Occupational health impacts of climate change: current and future ISO standards for the assessment of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The current system of International Standards (ISO) is assessed to consider whether standards are fit for purpose for the future in the context of climate change. ISO 7243, ISO 7933 and ISO 9886 provide the current ISO system for the assessment of heat stress. These involve a simple monitoring index, an analytical approach and physiological monitoring, respectively. The system relies on accurate measurement of the thermal conditions experienced by the worker (ISO 7726); and estimations of metabolic heat production due to work (ISO 8996) and the thermal properties of clothing (ISO 9920). As well as standards for heat stress assessment, the full range of ISO standards and the physical environment is listed as well as current work and proposed standards. A particular 'gap' in anticipating requirements for ISO standards in the future is the link between meteorological data and ISO standards. This is important for predicting the global consequences of a changing climate and anticipating potential impacts on occupational health across countries and cultures.

  3. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    PubMed

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  4. Noise Producing Toys and the Efficacy of Product Standard Criteria to Protect Health and Education Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Stuart J.; Page, Wyatt H.; Parker, Lou; Rushton, Martin

    2013-01-01

    An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71) on safety of toys. PMID:24452254

  5. [Health at work: harmonization of terminology, laws and practice with international standards].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The terminology, laws and practice of workers' health protection in Russian Federation are considered in the light of harmonization with documents of WHO, ILO, EU as well as good foreign practice. The proposals are put forward as to functions, structure and staff of workers' health protection units taking into account the new problems and risk factors. Instead of notion "labour protection" the term "health and safety at work" is proposed.

  6. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  7. The World Health Organization's role and future plans in laboratory standardization.

    PubMed

    Heuck, C C

    1993-01-01

    WHO is monitoring health care and the status of health of the population in each of its member states. The statistics provides valuable information for the comparison of the effectiveness of different health systems. As part of its global responsibility on health WHO issues international reference materials (IRMs), assigns international nonproprietary names for therapeutics (INNs), publishes guidelines for good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good laboratory practice (GLP) and, in collaboration with international professional organizations, makes recommendations towards achieving global harmonization of clinical laboratory investigations.

  8. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training.

  9. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of chapter 89 of title 5, United States Code; part 890 of title 5, Code of Federal Regulations; chapter 1 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations, and the following standards. The carrier shall continue to meet the requirements of chapter 89 of title 5, United States Code, and the standards cited...

  10. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... States National Library of Medicine. (2) Standard. RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, August 6, 2012 Release (incorporated by... Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT ®) July 2009 version (incorporated by reference in § 170.299)....

  11. 75 FR 2013 - Health Information Technology: Initial Set of Standards, Implementation Specifications, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Unified Medical Language System UNII Unique Ingredient Identifier XML eXtensible Markup Language Table of Contents I. Background A. ONC Background ] B. Interdependencies With Other HITECH Provisions and... Certification Criteria 1. Adopted Certification Criteria 2. Adopted Standards a. Transport Standards b....

  12. 76 FR 4353 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations, Vocabulary Task Force, Implementation, and Privacy... Vocabulary Task Force, 9 to 11 a.m./ET. Location: All workgroup meetings will be available via webcast; visit... operations vocabulary standards, implementation opportunities and challenges, and privacy and...

  13. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  14. Allied Health Occupations II. Physical Therapy Aide Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by physical therapists and physical therapy assistants. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the health team for…

  15. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125 and 135 Policy Statement on Occupational Safety... a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  16. Healthful Living Education. Standard Course of Study and Grade Level Competencies, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    This document describes instruction for the acquisition of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Healthful Living Education program reflects the needs of all students, including those with disabilities, combining health education and physical education. When appropriately reinforced in a comprehensive scope and sequence, it can provide such benefits…

  17. 29 CFR 500.133 - Substantive Federal and State safety and health standards defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing Safety and Health § 500.133 Substantive Federal and State safety and...

  18. Using Green Building As A Model For Making Health Promotion Standard In The Built Environment.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Worden, Kelly; Pyke, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The built environment-the constructed physical parts of the places where people live and work-is a powerful determinant of both individual and population health. Awareness of the link between place and health is growing within the public health sector and among built environment decision makers working in design, construction, policy, and both public and private finance. However, these decision makers lack the knowledge, tools, and capacity to ensure that health and well-being are routinely considered across all sectors of the built environment. The green building industry has successfully established environmental sustainability as a normative part of built environment practice, policy making, and investment. We explore the value of this industry's experience as a template for promoting health and well-being in the built environment.

  19. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and make recommendations for future verbal autopsy implementation. This study was undertaken to compile a set of strictly defined gold standard deaths for which verbal autopsies were collected to validate the accuracy of different methods of verbal autopsy cause of death assignment. Methods Data collection was implemented in six sites in four countries: Andhra Pradesh, India; Bohol, Philippines; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mexico City, Mexico; Pemba Island, Tanzania; and Uttar Pradesh, India. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) developed stringent diagnostic criteria including laboratory, pathology, and medical imaging findings to identify gold standard deaths in health facilities as well as an enhanced verbal autopsy instrument based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards. A cause list was constructed based on the WHO Global Burden of Disease estimates of the leading causes of death, potential to identify unique signs and symptoms, and the likely existence of sufficient medical technology to ascertain gold standard cases. Blinded verbal autopsies were collected on all gold standard deaths. Results Over 12,000 verbal autopsies on deaths with gold standard diagnoses were collected (7,836 adults, 2,075 children, 1,629 neonates, and 1,002 stillbirths). Difficulties in finding sufficient cases to meet gold standard criteria as well as problems with misclassification for certain causes meant that the target list of causes for analysis was reduced to 34 for adults, 21 for children, and 10 for neonates, excluding stillbirths. To ensure strict independence for the validation of methods and assessment of

  20. Device interoperability and authentication for telemedical appliance based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) Standards.

    PubMed

    Caranguian, Luther Paul R; Pancho-Festin, Susan; Sison, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the interoperability and authentication of medical devices in the context of telemedical systems. A recent standard called the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (X73-PHD) Standards addresses the device interoperability problem by defining common protocols for agent (medical device) and manager (appliance) interface. The X73-PHD standard however has not addressed security and authentication of medical devices which is important in establishing integrity of a telemedical system. We have designed and implemented a security policy within the X73-PHD standards. The policy will enable device authentication using Asymmetric-Key Cryptography and the RSA algorithm as the digital signature scheme. We used two approaches for performing the digital signatures: direct software implementation and use of embedded security modules (ESM). The two approaches were evaluated and compared in terms of execution time and memory requirement. For the standard 2048-bit RSA, ESM calculates digital signatures only 12% of the total time for the direct implementation. Moreover, analysis shows that ESM offers more security advantage such as secure storage of keys compared to using direct implementation. Interoperability with other systems was verified by testing the system with LNI Healthlink, a manager software that implements the X73-PHD standard. Lastly, security analysis was done and the system's response to common attacks on authentication systems was analyzed and several measures were implemented to protect the system against them.

  1. [The Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931) of the National Institute of Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Kitajima, A; Yoshii, K; Komatsu, H; Ishimitsu, S; Okada, S

    1994-01-01

    Raw ascorbic acid material was tested for preparation of the "Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: infrared spectrum, the same as that of the JP Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard; optical rotation -alpha-20D, + 21.4 degrees; melting point, 190.3 degrees C (decomposition); loss on drying, 0.02%; assay result, 100.1% by iodometry. Based on the above findings, the raw material was authorized as the JP Ascorbic Acid Reference Standard (Control 931).

  2. The Relationship between Using Electronic Health Records and Meeting Accreditation Standards for Client Safety in Residential Aged Care Homes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the benefits of using electronic health records (EHR) for client safety in residential aged care (RAC) homes. The aged care accreditation reports published between 27 April 2011 and 3 December 2013 were downloaded and analysed. It could be seen from these reports that only 1,031(37.45%) RAC homes in Australia had adopted an EHR system by 2013. 13 RAC homes failed one or more accreditation standards. Only one of these was using an EHR system and this one met the accreditation standards on information systems. Our study provides empirical evidence to suggest that adopting and using EHR can be one of the effective organisational mechanisms to meeting accreditation standards in RAC homes.

  3. Gap Analysis for Chinese Drug Control Institutes to Achieve the Standards of World Health Organization Medicine Prequalification.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xin; Yang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The study aims to explore the challenges and the gaps faced by Chinese Drug Control Institutes in achieving the standards of World Health Organization (WHO) Medicine Prequalification. The study was undertaken with 6 Provincial Drug Control Institutes in China from November 2012 to November 2013. The study assessed key elements required to comply with WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL). For GPPQCL, the study found gaps in quality management system, control of documentation, data-processing equipment, premises and equipment, contracts, reagents (water), reference substances and reference materials, calibration, verification of performance and qualification of equipment, instruments and other devices, analytical worksheet, evaluation of test results, personnel, and validation of analytical procedures. The study indicates that gaps are attributed to differences between the standards of Chinese Accreditation Standards and WHO-GPPQCL.

  4. Quality assurance in health sciences literature searching: applying the ISO 9000 quality standard.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R; Mason, D

    1995-09-01

    Medicine is a literature-based discipline. Ensuring that the literature review which precedes a significant piece of medical research has met predetermined standards is essential. A list of items reviewed carries no guarantees that all appropriate items have been included in the survey of the literature, or that appropriate sources have been efficiently searched. This would be a matter for concern in any discipline. In medicine it is a matter of life and death. Quality assurance procedures that offer guarantees of the standards built into the process, rather than quality control which measures only outputs, can provide the necessary reassurance. The ISO 9000 quality standard offers a much needed quality assurance process. A methodology for applying the ISO 9000 standard to the task of searching the medical literature is outlined in this paper. A new role for medical librarians in promoting a rigorous methodology in the literature review equal to that of the research it supports is defined.

  5. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  6. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  7. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., scientific or academic establishment, government agency, or organizational unit thereof, and any other legal... for monitoring each study to assure management that the facilities, equipment, personnel, methods... describes the methods and standard operating procedures, and that the reported results accurately...

  8. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  9. Interpreting international governance standards for health IT use within general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Mahncke, Rachel J; Williams, Patricia A H

    2014-01-01

    General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation (ISO) released a new global standard in May 2013 entitled, ISO/IEC 27014:2013 Information technology - Security techniques - Governance of information security. This standard, applicable to organisations of all sizes, offers a framework against which to assess and implement the governance components of information security. The standard demonstrates the relationship between governance and the management of information security, provides strategic principles and processes, and forms the basis for establishing a positive information security culture. An analysis interpretation of this standard for use in Australian general practice was performed. This work is unique as such interpretation for the Australian healthcare environment has not been undertaken before. It demonstrates an application of the standard at a strategic level to inform existing development of an information security governance framework.

  10. Addiction Competencies in the 2009 CACREP Clinical Mental Health Counseling Program Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tiffany K.; Craig, Stephen E.; Fetherson, Bianca T. L.; Simpson, C. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs developed addiction competencies for clinical mental health counseling students. This article highlights these competencies, provides an overview of current addiction training, and describes methods to integrate addiction education into curricula.

  11. Fact Sheet: Revisions to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standards (HCS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On March 26, 2012, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) modified its HCS to conform to the United Nations’ (UN) Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), to improve consistency and quality of information.

  12. Standardized testing. HIT pro exams test competencies in health IT roles.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare needs more than EHRs, it needs people who can implement and maintain them. New federally sponsored health IT exams set workforce competencies, helping job seekers demonstrate knowledge and employers benchmark qualifications.

  13. Reliability of Standard Health Assessment Instruments in a Large, Population-Based Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-17

    Ware JE Jr. SF - 36 Health Survey update . Spine . 2000;25:3130–3139. 17. Perlin J , Kazis LE, Skinner K, Ren XS, Lee A, Rogers WH, et...under- standing the impact of military service. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60:181– 191. 6. Ware JE, Kosinski M, Gandek B. SF - 36 Health Survey : manual and...inter- pretation guide. Lincoln (RI): Quality Metric Incorporated; 2000 . 7. Ware JE, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36 -Item

  14. A preliminary taxonomy and a standard knowledge base for mental-health system indicators in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many sources of information for mental health indicators but we lack a comprehensive classification and hierarchy to improve their use in mental health planning. This study aims at developing a preliminary taxonomy and its related knowledge base of mental health indicators usable in Spain. Methods A qualitative method with two experts panels was used to develop a framing document, a preliminary taxonomy with a conceptual map of health indicators, and a knowledge base consisting of key documents, glossary and database of indicators with an evaluation of their relevance for Spain. Results A total of 661 indicators were identified and organised hierarchically in 4 domains (Context, Resources, Use and Results), 12 subdomains and 56 types. Among these the expert panels identified 200 indicators of relevance for the Spanish system. Conclusions The classification and hierarchical ordering of the mental health indicators, the evaluation according to their level of relevance and their incorporation into a knowledge base are crucial for the development of a basic list of indicators for use in mental health planning. PMID:21122091

  15. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  16. Event-driven, pattern-based methodology for cost-effective development of standardized personal health devices.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Trigo, Jesús D; Led, Santiago; Barrón-González, H Gilberto; Redondo, Javier; Baquero, Alfonso; Serrano, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Experiences applying standards in personal health devices (PHDs) show an inherent trade-off between interoperability and costs (in terms of processing load and development time). Therefore, reducing hardware and software costs as well as time-to-market is crucial for standards adoption. The ISO/IEEE11073 PHD family of standards (also referred to as X73PHD) provides interoperable communication between PHDs and aggregators. Nevertheless, the responsibility of achieving inexpensive implementations of X73PHD in limited resource microcontrollers falls directly on the developer. Hence, the authors previously presented a methodology based on patterns to implement X73-compliant PHDs into devices with low-voltage low-power constraints. That version was based on multitasking, which required additional features and resources. This paper therefore presents an event-driven evolution of the patterns-based methodology for cost-effective development of standardized PHDs. The results of comparing between the two versions showed that the mean values of decrease in memory consumption and cycles of latency are 11.59% and 45.95%, respectively. In addition, several enhancements in terms of cost-effectiveness and development time can be derived from the new version of the methodology. Therefore, the new approach could help in producing cost-effective X73-compliant PHDs, which in turn could foster the adoption of standards.

  17. Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public health.

    PubMed

    Figueroa B, Eugenio

    2008-01-15

    In the past, Cd regulations have imposed trade restrictions on foodstuffs from some developing countries seeking to access markets in the developed world and in recent years, there has been a trend towards imposing more rigorous standards. This trend seems to respond more to public and private sectors strategies in some developed countries to create disguised barriers to trade and to improve market competitiveness for their industries, than to scientifically justified health precautions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures) and/or technical barriers to trade acceptable under the Uruguay Round Agreement of the WTO. Applying more rigorous Cd standards in some developed countries will not only increase production costs in developing countries but it will also have a large impact on their economies highly dependent on international agricultural markets. In the current literature there are large uncertainties in the cause-effect relationship between current levels of Cd intakes and eventual health effects in human beings; even the risk of Cd to kidney function is under considerable debate. Recent works on the importance of zinc:Cd ratio rather than Cd levels alone to determine Cd risk factors, on the one hand, and on the declining trends of Cd level in foods and soils, on the other, also indicate a lack of scientific evidence justifying more restrictive cadmium standards. This shows that developing countries should fight for changing and making more transparent the current international structures and procedures for setting sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade.

  18. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  19. Mitigating the health risks of dining out: the need for standardized portion sizes in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Story, Mary

    2014-04-01

    Because restaurants routinely serve food with more calories than people need, dining out represents a risk factor for overweight, obesity, and other diet-related chronic diseases. Most people lack the capacity to judge the caloric content of food and there is limited evidence that people make use of calorie-labeling information when it is available. Standardized portion sizes would not preclude people from eating as much as they want, but would make the amount they are getting fully transparent. We describe the potential benefits and means of implementing a system of standardized portion sizes that might facilitate a healthier diet among the US population.

  20. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions.

  1. The EQUATOR Network and reporting guidelines: Helping to achieve high standards in reporting health research studies.

    PubMed

    Simera, Iveta; Moher, David; Hoey, John; Schulz, Kenneth F; Altman, Douglas G

    2009-05-20

    Poorly reported research seriously undermines the usability of reported findings and misleads clinicians, researchers, policy makers and, ultimately, patients. Guidelines for reporting health research are available but they are not widely used. The EQUATOR Network is an international initiative that aims to systematically tackle the problems of poor reporting. The main goals of the EQUATOR Network are to improve the clarity, completeness and transparency of scientific publications by providing resources and education relating to the reporting of health research and assisting in the development, dissemination and implementation of robust reporting guidelines.

  2. Free, brief, and validated: Standardized instruments for low-resource mental health settings

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Stewart, Rebecca E.; Walsh, Lucia; Lucas, Steven; Downey, Margaret Mary; Jackson, Kamilah; Fernandez, Tara; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment has received little attention despite its critical importance to the evidence-based practice movement. Given the limited resources in the public sector, it is necessary for evidence-based assessment to utilize tools with established reliability and validity metrics that are free, easily accessible, and brief. We review tools that meet these criteria for youth and adult mental health for the most prevalent mental health disorders to provide a clinical guide and reference for the selection of assessment tools for public sector settings. We also discuss recommendations for how to move forward the evidence-based assessment agenda. PMID:25642130

  3. The compliance of licensed US child care centers with national health and safety performance standards.

    PubMed Central

    Addiss, D G; Sacks, J J; Kresnow, M J; O'Neil, J; Ryan, G W

    1994-01-01

    The American Public Health Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics recently published health and safety guidelines for child care centers. A survey was conducted to determine the extent to which practices in US child care centers are reflective of these guidelines. Compliance with 16 guidelines ranged from 19.5% to 98.6%, varied considerably by state, and was not consistently associated with selected center characteristics. Prevention efforts should focus on practices for which compliance is low and on those that have the greatest disease- and injury-reducing potential. PMID:8017546

  4. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... March 16, 2009: (1) Retail pharmacy drugs claims. The National Council for Prescription Drug Programs... paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) For retail pharmacy supplies and professional services claims, the...) Retail pharmacy drug claims. The Telecommunication Standard Implementation Guide, Version D, Release...

  5. 45 CFR 162.1102 - Standards for health care claims or equivalent encounter information transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... March 16, 2009: (1) Retail pharmacy drugs claims. The National Council for Prescription Drug Programs... paragraph (a) of this section; and (ii) For retail pharmacy supplies and professional services claims, the...) Retail pharmacy drug claims. The Telecommunication Standard Implementation Guide, Version D, Release...

  6. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Mixtures of test emissions or reference solutions with carriers. (i) For test emissions or each reference... specified: Batch means a specific quantity or lot of a test fuel, additive/base fuel mixture, or reference... chemical substance or mixture, analytical standard, or material other than engine/motor vehicle...

  7. 75 FR 62399 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ..., implementation specifications, and/or certification criteria. Once the HIT Standards Committee is informed of... certification criteria are currently available to meet the priority area; (2) an assessment of where gaps exist... timeline, which may also account for NIST testing where appropriate, and include dates when the...

  8. 45 CFR 170.207 - Vocabulary standards for representing electronic health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs produced by the United States National Library of Medicine. (2... Library of Medicine, August 6, 2012 Release (incorporated by reference in § 170.299). (e) Immunizations—(1... Development Organization (IHTSDO) Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT ®) July...

  9. Race, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes, and Judgments About Mental Health: A Shifting Standards Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.

    2004-01-01

    A fictitious counseling center intake report was given to a sample of 158 White graduate students in counseling and clinical psychology to examine the impact of reported client race (Black or White) on perceptions of clients' symptom severity. As predicted by the shifting standards model of social judgment (M. Biernat, M. Manis, & T. E. Nelson,…

  10. Cross-Validation of FITNESSGRAM® Health-Related Fitness Standards in Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Karsai, István; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to cross-validate FITNESSGRAM® aerobic and body composition standards in a representative sample of Hungarian youth. Method: A nationally representative sample (N = 405) of Hungarian adolescents from the Hungarian National Youth Fitness Study (ages 12-18.9 years) participated in an aerobic capacity assessment…

  11. 75 FR 8079 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations Vocabulary, Clinical Quality, Implementation, and... Implementation Workgroup, 3 to 4 p.m./Eastern Time; March 23rd Clinical Operations Vocabulary, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m... discussing issues related to their specific subject matter, e.g., clinical operations vocabulary...

  12. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  13. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems.

  14. Evaluation of a Framework to Implement Electronic Health Record Systems Based on the openEHR Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Diego A.; Salas, Alberto A.; Solarz, Pablo F.; Medina Ruiz, Luis; Rotger, Viviana I.

    2016-04-01

    The production of clinical information about each patient is constantly increasing, and it is noteworthy that the information is created in different formats and at diverse points of care, resulting in fragmented, incomplete, inaccurate and isolated, health information. The use of health information technology has been promoted as having a decisive impact to improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, quality and safety of medical care delivery. However in developing countries the utilization of health information technology is insufficient and lacking of standards among other situations. In the present work we evaluate the framework EHRGen, based on the openEHR standard, as mean to reach generation and availability of patient centered information. The framework has been evaluated through the provided tools for final users, that is, without intervention of computer experts. It makes easier to adopt the openEHR ideas and provides an open source basis with a set of services, although some limitations in its current state conspire against interoperability and usability. However, despite the described limitations respect to usability and semantic interoperability, EHRGen is, at least regionally, a considerable step toward EHR adoption and interoperability, so that it should be supported from academic and administrative institutions.

  15. Preconception Care: A New Standard of Care within Maternal Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Genuis, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that much pediatric affliction has origins in the vulnerable phase of fetal development. Prenatal factors including deficiency of various nutrients and exposure to assorted toxicants are major etiological determinants of myriad obstetrical complications, pediatric chronic diseases, and perhaps some genetic mutations. With recent recognition that modifiable environmental determinants, rather than genetic predestination, are the etiological source of most chronic illness, modification of environmental factors prior to conception offers the possibility of precluding various mental and physical health conditions. Environmental and lifestyle modification through informed patient choice is possible but evidence confirms that, with little to no training in clinical nutrition, toxicology, or environmental exposures, most clinicians are ill-equipped to counsel patients about this important area. With the totality of available scientific evidence that now exists on the potential to modify disease-causing gestational determinants, failure to take necessary precautionary action may render members of the medical community collectively and individually culpable for preventable illness in children. We advocate for environmental health education of maternity health professionals and the widespread adoption and implementation of preconception care. This will necessitate the translation of emerging knowledge from recent research literature, to health professionals, to reproductive-aged women, and to society at large. PMID:27314031

  16. Allied Health Occupations II. Medical Laboratory Assistant Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by medical laboratory technicians and technologists. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the value of…

  17. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... procedures to address and coordinate workplace inspections if and when they may be required. The IBT further urged the FAA to stress the importance of properly reporting safety and health issues and encourage..., contaminated bleed air ventilation systems, heat stress, ergonomic hazards, hazardous agents, pinch points,...

  18. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... rendering of medical services. (5) A system for accounting for costs incurred under the contract, when required, which includes segregating and pricing FEHB medical utilization and allocating indirect...

  19. 48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... rendering of medical services. (5) A system for accounting for costs incurred under the contract, when required, which includes segregating and pricing FEHB medical utilization and allocating indirect...

  20. 77 FR 13831 - Health Information Technology: Standards, Implementation Specifications, and Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Medicare & Medicaid Services CQM Clinical Quality Measure CY Calendar Year EH Eligible Hospital EHR... MU that they seek to meet and to capture, calculate, and report clinical quality measures. We further... Technology and Quality'' (Title XXX) to improve health care quality, safety, and efficiency through...

  1. Evaluation of a Standardized Method of Quality Assurance in Mental Health Records: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Kelsey M.; Donohue, Bradley; Fayeghi, Jasmine; Lee, Tiffany; Wilks, Chelsey R.; Ross, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    The widespread adoption of research-supported treatments by mental health providers has facilitated empirical development of quality assurance (QA) methods. Research in this area has focused on QA systems aimed at assuring the integrity of research-supported treatment implementation, while examination of QA systems to assure appropriate…

  2. Allied Health Occupations II. Radiologic Technologist Aide Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by the radiologic team and to enable them to acquire some basic skills used in the X-ray department. Addressed in the individual units of the course…

  3. Allied Health Occupations II. Dental Assistant Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is designed to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by dentists, dental hygienists, dental laboratory technicians, and dental assistants and also to help students acquire some basic dental assistant…

  4. 77 FR 34044 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... identifiers, and commentary from industry concerning issues pertaining to health plan compliance certification. The NCVHS has been named in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 to review and... required by Sec. 1104 of the ACA. Contact Person for More Information: Marjorie S. Greenberg,...

  5. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... often as necessary to keep the animals dry and clean. (ix) If any pest control materials are used, the use shall be documented. Cleaning and pest control materials that interfere with the study shall not... health effects testing under this part. These directions are intended to ensure the quality and...

  6. 76 FR 1432 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ..., implementation specifications, and certification criteria for the electronic exchange and use of health... will be held on January 12, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m./Eastern Time. Location: Washington Marriott... the location of the advisory committee meeting, and the background material will be posted on...

  7. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Monday, No. 227 November 26, 2012 Part V Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient... Federal Register online database through Federal Digital System (FDsys), a service of the U.S....

  8. Mandatory influenza vaccination for health care workers as the new standard of care: a matter of patient safety and nonmaleficent practice.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of literature defends the efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination for health care workers in reducing the mortality of hospitalized patients. I review the evidence concerning influenza vaccination, concluding that universal vaccination of health care workers against influenza should be considered standard patient care and that nonvaccination represents maleficent care. I further argue that the ethical responsibility to ensure universal vaccination of staff against seasonal influenza lies not only with individual health care providers but with each individual health care institution.

  9. Developing a provisional standard for clinical supervision in nursing and health visiting: the methodological trail.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Mic; Jenkins, Emrys; Parke, Sian

    2003-12-01

    The authors outline the process that led to the development of a provisional professional standard for clinical supervision, focusing on design, data collection, and analysis methods. The work was undertaken in an ethos of new paradigm/fifth-generation approaches and used the "manifold of subjective knowing" to gain a holistic understanding of supervisors' experience as represented by experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical knowing. They show how they arrived at the indicators of the standard: Professional Support, Learning, and Accountability. Each of these indicators consists of further elements related to Time, Environment, Relationship (Professional Support), Focus, Knowledge, Interventions (Learning), Organizational Support, Recording, and Competency (Accountability). Findings confirm that clinical supervision practice is complex, and the authors describe proportionally complex methods of analysis.

  10. A Standard Mutual Authentication Protocol for Cloud Computing Based Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Prerna; Amin, Ruhul; Karati, Arijit; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2017-04-01

    Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) supports a standard platform to the patient for getting necessary medical treatment from the doctor(s) via Internet communication. Security protection is important for medical records (data) of the patients because of very sensitive information. Besides, patient anonymity is another most important property, which must be protected. Most recently, Chiou et al. suggested an authentication protocol for TMIS by utilizing the concept of cloud environment. They claimed that their protocol is patient anonymous and well security protected. We reviewed their protocol and found that it is completely insecure against patient anonymity. Further, the same protocol is not protected against mobile device stolen attack. In order to improve security level and complexity, we design a light weight authentication protocol for the same environment. Our security analysis ensures resilience of all possible security attacks. The performance of our protocol is relatively standard in comparison with the related previous research.

  11. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization international standards for human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and type 18 DNA.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dianna E; Baylis, Sally A; Padley, David; Heath, Alan B; Ferguson, Morag; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Quint, Wim G; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-06-15

    A World Health Organization collaborative study was conducted to evaluate candidate international standards for human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 DNA (NIBSC code 06/202) and HPV Type 18 DNA (NIBSC code 06/206) for use in the amplification and detection steps of nucleic acid-based assays. The freeze-dried candidate international standards were prepared from bulk preparations of cloned plasmid containing full-length HPV-16 or HPV-18 genomic DNA. Nineteen laboratories from 13 countries participated in the study using a variety of commercial and in-house quantitative and qualitative assays. The data presented here indicate that, upon freeze-drying, there is no significant loss in potency for the candidate HPV-18 DNA and a slight loss in potency for the candidate HPV-16 DNA; although this is likely not scientifically relevant when assay precision is considered. In general, the individual laboratory mean estimates for each study sample were grouped +/- approximately 2 log(10) around the theoretical HPV DNA concentration of the reconstituted ampoule (1 x 10(7) HPV genome equivalents/mL). The agreement between laboratories is improved when potencies are made relative to the candidate international standards, demonstrating their utility in harmonizing amplification and detection steps of HPV-16 and -18 DNA assays. Degradation studies indicate that the candidate international standards are extremely stable and suitable for long-term use. Based on these findings, the candidate standards were established as the 1st WHO international standards for HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, each with a potency of 5 x 10(6) international units (IU) per ampoule or 1 x 10(7) IU mL(-1) when reconstituted as directed.

  12. 78 FR 34100 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... (NCVHS) Subcommittee on Standards. Time and Date: June 17, 2013 1:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. e.d.t. June 18, 2013 8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m. e.d.t. Place: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for... stakeholders, including relationships to new payment models, big data/data analytics, population...

  13. [Dentistry and health care legislation 1. Professional standard for oral healthcare delivery].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G; van der Ven, J M; Eijkman, M A J

    2013-04-01

    A dentist should deliver oral healthcare according to the professional standard. This legal determination is not very distinct and ought to be made more specific. Guidelines, protocols, and indicators play an important role in this respect, but are scarce in oral healthcare. Provisionally, judgements of discipline and complaints committees are heavily relied upon. Those judgements indicate what efforts, and in some cases even what results, a patient could have expected from a dentist in the specified conditions.

  14. Health and Job-Specific Body Composition Standards for the US Air Force. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-18

    include standards for muscle strength and endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition. Body composition is an important fitness parameter...program guidance requires that all service members possess the cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance, and whole-body flexibility...someone who is overweight due to excess body fat and someone who has greater than normal muscle mass. Some of these assessments include measurements of

  15. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions. PMID:27445556

  16. Health Human Resources Guidelines: Minimum Staffing Standards and Role Descriptions for Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Healthcare Teams.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis clinics across Canada, the most common barrier that healthcare workers face when providing care to their patients is having too little time. The Health Human Resources Guidelines were developed to define specifically what amounts of time should be allocated for each discipline of cystic fibrosis clinical care and to provide a description of all the roles involved, reinforcing how these work together to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care. With involvement from all cystic fibrosis clinics in Canada, through the use of a tailored survey, the Health Human Resources Guidelines are an exclusively Canadian document that has been developed for implementation across the country. The guidelines have been incorporated into a national Accreditation Site Visit program for use in evaluating and improving care across the country and have been distributed to all Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics. The guidelines provide hospital administrators with clear benchmarks for allocating personnel resources to the cystic fibrosis clinics hosted within their institutions.

  17. The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alex B

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting.

  18. Standardized Functions for Smartphone Applications: Examples from Maternal and Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Swendeman, Dallas; Lee, Adabel; Jones, Erynne

    2012-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are unlikely to be met in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Smartphones and smartphone proxy systems using simpler phones, equipped with the capabilities to identify location/time and link to the web, are increasingly available and likely to provide an excellent platform to support healthcare self-management, delivery, quality, and supervision. Smart phones allow information to be delivered by voice, texts, pictures, and videos as well as be triggered by location and date. Prompts and reminders, as well as real-time monitoring, can improve quality of health care. We propose a three-tier model for designing platforms for both professional and paraprofessional health providers and families: (1) foundational functions (informing, training, monitoring, shaping, supporting, and linking to care); (2) content-specific targets (e.g., for MDG; developmentally related tasks); (3) local cultural adaptations (e.g., language). We utilize the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) MDG in order to demonstrate how the existing literature can be organized and leveraged on open-source platforms and provide examples using our own experience in Africa over the last 8 years. PMID:23304136

  19. Financial statistics for public health dispensary decisions in Nigeria: insights on standard presentation typologies.

    PubMed

    Agundu, Prince Umor C

    2003-01-01

    Public health dispensaries in Nigeria in recent times have demonstrated the poise to boost corporate productivity in the new millennium and to drive the nation closer to concretising the lofty goal of health-for-all. This is very pronounced considering the face-lift giving to the physical environment, increase in the recruitment and development of professionals, and upward review of financial subventions. However, there is little or no emphasis on basic statistical appreciation/application which enhances the decision making ability of corporate executives. This study used the responses from 120 senior public health officials in Nigeria and analyzed them with chi-square statistical technique. The results established low statistical aptitude, inadequate statistical training programmes, little/no emphasis on statistical literacy compared to computer literacy, amongst others. Consequently, it was recommended that these lapses be promptly addressed to enhance official executive performance in the establishments. Basic statistical data presentation typologies have been articulated in this study to serve as first-aid instructions to the target group, as they represent the contributions of eminent scholars in this area of intellectualism.

  20. The SIRT1 activator SRT1720 extends lifespan and improves health of mice fed a standard diet

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Mercken, Evi M.; Palacios, Hector H.; Ward, Theresa M.; Abulwerdi, Gelareh; Minor, Robin K.; Vlasuk, George P.; Ellis, James L.; Sinclair, David A.; Dawson, John; Allison, David B.; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The prevention or delay of the onset of age-related diseases prolongs survival and improves quality of life while reducing the burden on the health care system. Activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+ deacetylase, improves metabolism and confers protection against physiological and cognitive disturbances in old age. SRT1720 is a specific SIRT1 activator that has health and lifespan benefits in adult mice fed a high-fat diet. We found extension in lifespan, delayed onset of age-related metabolic diseases, and improved general health in mice fed a standard diet after SRT1720 supplementation. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression both in the liver and muscle of SRT1720-treated animals was noted. SRT1720 lowered phosphorylation of NF-κB pathway regulators in vitro only when SIRT1 was functionally present. Combined with our previous work, the current study further supports the beneficial effects of SRT1720 on health across the lifespan in mice. PMID:24582957

  1. Harnessing Electronic Healthcare Data for Wound Care Research: Standards for Reporting Observational Registry Data Obtained Directly from Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Fife, Caroline E; Eckert, Kristen A

    2017-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration will consider the expansion of coverage indications for some drugs and devices based on real-world data. Real-world data accrual in patient registries has historically been via manual data entry from the medical chart at a time distant from patient care, which is fraught with systematic error. The efficient automated transmission of data directly from electronic health records is replacing this labor-intensive paradigm. However, real-world data collection is unfamiliar. The potential sources of bias arising from the source of data and data accrual, documentation, and aggregation have not been well defined. Furthermore, the technological aspects of data acquisition and transmission are less transparent. We explore opportunities for harnessing direct-from-electronic health record registry reporting and propose the ABCs of Registries (Analysis of Bias Criteria of Registries), which are an evaluation framework for publications to minimize potential bias of real-world data obtained directly from an electronic health record method. These standards are based on a point-of-care data documentation process using a common definitional framework and data dictionaries. By way of example, we describe a wound registry obtained directly from electronic health records. This qualified clinical data registry minimizes bias by ensuring complete and accurate point-of-care data capture, standardizes usual care linked to quality reporting, and prevents post-hoc vetting of outcomes. The resulting data are of high quality and integrity and can be used for comparative effectiveness research in wound care. In this way, the effort needed to succeed with the Quality Payment System is leveraged to obtain the real-world data needed for comparative effectiveness research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Life satisfaction in older women in Latvia and Sweden-relations to standard of living, aspects of health and coping behaviour.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Vibeke; Haak, Maria; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne; Gräsbeck, Anne

    2012-12-01

    To study and compare associations between life satisfaction and standard of living, health, and coping behaviour in older single-living women in two countries with different political, economical and cultural situations: Latvia and Sweden. Cross sectional data included 260 Latvian and 288 Swedish women, aged 75-84 and 80-89, from the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study. Life satisfaction was assessed by the question: All in all, how satisfied are you with your life? Standard of living was assessed by economic and housing conditions, and health by perceived and objective health and activities in daily living. Three factors, Fight, Helplessness, and Distraction, were obtained from the Coping Patterns Schedule. Correlations between Life satisfaction and standard of living, health, and coping were calculated. The variance in Life satisfaction explained by these variables was obtained in each sample by ordinal regression models. Life satisfaction was significantly lower in the Latvian sample than in the Swedish. Standard of living was lower and health poorer in the younger Latvian sample than in the Swedish, but more of the variance in Life satisfaction was explained in the Latvian sample by standard of living (18% vs 2%) and less by health (6% vs 15%). Coping factors explained 29% of the variation in Life satisfaction in the Latvian sample as opposed to 15% in the Swedish. For single-living older women low standard of living seems to be a more serious obstacle than poor health, making it difficult to obtain a reasonable life satisfaction.

  3. [Health protection for rural workers: the need to standardize techniques for quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides].

    PubMed

    Selmi, Giuliana da Fontoura Rodrigues; Trapé, Angelo Zanaga

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers' health.

  4. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  5. The role of quality standards--accreditation in redressing asymmetry of information in health care markets.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C; Largey, A

    1998-07-01

    Asymmetry of information presents major difficulties for the efficient operation of markets in health care. The use of accreditation schemes may reduce these difficulties by enhancing the availability of reliable, accessible information on aspects of service quality considered important by service users and their agents. The UK's Patients' Charter with its associated Charter Marks has the potential to perform such a function in respect of inpatient services. In as much as it refers to aspects of service valued by service users which are specified in contracts by service procurers and appear not to be negatively correlated with other aspects of service quality, it can be seen to provide unambiguous signals of service quality. Given the Charter is currently under review, it seems appropriate that such attributes are borne in mind by policy makers in their deliberations as to its future.

  6. Forensic focused treatment planning: a new standard for forensic mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Schaufenbil, Robert J; Kornbluh, Rebecca; Stahl, Stephen M; Warburton, Katherine D

    2015-06-01

    Almost no literature addresses treatment planning for the forensic psychiatric patient. In the absence of such guidance, recovery-oriented multifocal treatment planning has been imported into forensic mental health systems from community psychiatric settings, despite the fact that conditions of admission and discharge are vastly different for forensic psychiatry inpatients. We propose that instead of focusing on recovery, forensic treatment planning should prioritize forensic outcomes, such as restoration of trial competence or mitigation of violence risk, as the first steps in a continuum of care that eventually leads to the patient's ability to resolve forensic issues and return to the community for recovery-oriented care. Here we offer a model for treatment planning in the forensic setting.

  7. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes.

  8. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Self-Reported Efficacy for Using the Professional Teacher Standards in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Clark, Susan E.; Brey, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of health education methods courses for pre-service elementary teachers has not been assessed for improving the pre-service elementary teacher's self-efficacy for using the professional teacher standards in health education (PTSHE). Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to assess pre-service elementary…

  9. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition.

  10. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony on a new asbestos standard by Anthony Robbins, April 17, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-17

    The testimony concerned the findings of a joint NIOSH/OSHA Work Group which reviewed recent scientific information about the health effects of asbestos. The study group reconfirmed that there is no safe exposure limit for asbestos and that all commercial and several noncommercial forms of asbestos cause disease. The report served to recommend to the Department of Labor that it promulgate a safer standard for workers exposed to asbestos and that it eliminate from the workplace all exposures from new nonessential uses of asbestos. The group asked that the new standard set a maximum workplace exposure limit of 100,000 fibers per cubic meter of air, the lowest level which can be accurately measured. The present level is two million fibers per cubic meter of air. Asbestos has been found to cause asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Exposure to asbestos has also been related to significant increases in the incidence of laryngeal and gastrointestinal cancers. The group concluded that substitutes for asbestos be used whenever possible. Medical testing procedures for asbestos exposed workers should include chest x-rays, pulmonary function tests, and observation of respiratory and other clinical symptoms.

  11. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  12. Standards of practice for the adult mental health workforce: meeting the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Melinda; Hill, Terri-Lee; Allchin, Becca; McCormick, Francis; Hine, Rochelle; Cuff, Rose; O'Hanlon, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    This article outlines the development of practice standards for the adult mental health workforce for addressing the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness (FaPMI). The practice standards recommended here were formulated using a modified cooperative inquiry process with a group of senior clinical leaders in adult mental health services in Australia, following consultation with the available literature and policy documents. The aim of the project was to generate, align, and operationalize family-inclusive practice standards within the core activities of the adult mental health workforce and integrate into the continuum of care and recovery for service users who are parents of dependent children. As part of a modified Delphi method, the standards were also ranked by the senior clinical leaders to determine what they believe to be essential and recommended practices for the adult mental health workforce they manage. We argue that developing practice standards that provide practical and realistic expectations of the adult mental health service workforce enable services and workers to better adapt practice to respond to FaPMI.

  13. Instituting a standards-based K--12 science curriculum supplement program at the National Institutes of Health: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherly, Jeffre

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based learning tools for science classrooms as part of a "voluntary curriculum." One problem facing federal entities, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the need to create science-learning tools that conform to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for curriculum materials and, therefore, are standards-based and applicable to the K-12 curriculum. This case study sought to better understand the change process at one federal agency as it went from producing K-12 learning tools that were educational in nature to a program that produced K-12 standards-based learning tools: the NIH Science Curriculum Supplement Program (NIH SCSP). The NIH SCSP was studied to gain insight into how this change in educational approach occurred, what factors enabled or inhibited the change process, and what the long-term benefits of the NIH SCSP are to the NIH. Kurt Lewin's three-step theory of change guided data gathering and data analysis. Semi-structured interviews and programmatic document review served as the major data gathering sources. Details describing the process of organizational change at the NIH were revealed during analysis of these data following the coding of interview transcripts and written record documents. The study found the process of change at the NIH proceeded in a manner generally predicted by the Lewinian change model. Enablers to the change were cost-sharing with individual institutes, support of senior leadership, and crediting the role of individual institutes prominently in each supplement. The cost of creating a supplement was reported as the single inhibitor to the program. This case study yielded a

  14. Domains of Core Competency, Standards, and Quality Assurance for Building Global Capacity in Health Promotion: The Galway Consensus Conference Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegrante, John P.; Barry, Margaret M.; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Auld, M. Elaine; Collins, Janet L.; Lamarre, Marie-Claude; Magnusson, Gudjon; McQueen, David V.; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of the Galway Consensus Conference, an effort undertaken as a first step toward international collaboration on credentialing in health promotion and health education. Twenty-nine leading authorities in health promotion, health education, and public health convened a 2-day meeting in Galway, Ireland, during which the…

  15. New standards and enhanced utility for family health history information in the electronic health record: an update from the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Feero, W Gregory; Bigley, Mary Beth; Brinner, Kristin M

    2008-01-01

    Family health history is a complex, multifaceted tool for assessing disease risk that can offer insight into the interplay between inherited and social factors relevant to patient care. Family health history tools in electronic health records can enable the user to collect, represent, and interpret structured data that properly supports clinical decisions. If these data can be made interoperable, important health information can be shared with minimal duplication of effort among entities involved in the continuum of patient care. This paper reviews the efforts by the American Health Information Community's Family Health History Multi-Stakeholder Workgroup to create a core data set for family health history information and to determine requirements to promote incorporation of such information in electronic health records. The Workgroup is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Personalized Health Care Initiative.

  16. A Standard Set of Value-Based Patient-Centered Outcomes for Breast Cancer: The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee Loon; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; van Bommel, Annelotte C M; Stowell, Caleb; Allison, Kim H; Benn, Karen E; Browne, John P; Cooter, Rodney D; Delaney, Geoff P; Duhoux, Francois P; Ganz, Patricia A; Hancock, Patricia; Jagsi, Reshma; Knaul, Felicia M; Knip, Anne M; Koppert, Linetta B; Kuerer, Henry M; McLaughin, Sarah; Mureau, Marc A M; Partridge, Ann H; Reid, Dereesa Purtell; Sheeran, Lisa; Smith, Thomas J; Stoutjesdijk, Mark J; Vrancken Peeters, Marie Jeanne T F D; Wengström, Yvonne; Yip, Cheng-Har; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-12-29

    A major challenge in value-based health care is the lack of standardized health outcomes measurements, hindering optimal monitoring and comparison of the quality of health care across different settings globally. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled a multidisciplinary international working group, comprised of 26 health care providers and patient advocates, to develop a standard set of value-based patient-centered outcomes for breast cancer (BC). The working group convened via 8 teleconferences and completed a follow-up survey after each meeting. A modified 2-round Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on the outcomes and case-mix variables to be included. Patient focus group meetings (8 early or metastatic BC patients) and online anonymized surveys of 1225 multinational BC patients and survivors were also conducted to obtain patients' input. The standard set encompasses survival and cancer control, and disutility of care (eg, acute treatment complications) outcomes, to be collected through administrative data and/or clinical records. A combination of multiple patient-reported outcomes measurement (PROM) tools is recommended to capture long-term degree of health outcomes. Selected case-mix factors were recommended to be collected at baseline. The ICHOM will endeavor to achieve wide buy-in of this set and facilitate its implementation in routine clinical practice in various settings and institutions worldwide.

  17. Bridging the Gap through Academic Intervention Programs: A Quantitative Study of the Efficacy of the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) on Underrepresented Students' State Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Feon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative research study was to determine if participation in the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) led to significant differences in the math and reading/language arts scores on the West Virginia Educational Standards Test 2 (WESTEST 2), between students who participated in the program compared to students who…

  18. Stepping Stones To Using "Caring for Our Children": National Health and Safety Performance Standards for Out-of-Home Child Care Programs. Protecting Children from Harm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

    Developed in support of state licensing and regulatory agencies as well as state child care, health, and resource and referral agencies, and a variety of other public and private organizations, parents, and advocacy groups, this guide identifies those standards most needed for the prevention of injury, morbidity, and mortality in child care…

  19. The Development of Health Programs for Junior and Community Colleges: An Interpretation of Recommended Standards and Practices for a College Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

    The basic premise of this document is that every community college should have a plan through which the health needs of students, faculty and staff can be met by health services which are available, accessible and of high quality. Services should be available in each of the following program areas: personal medical, mental health, and other direct…

  20. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  1. Considerations for Using Genetic and Epigenetic Information in Occupational Health Risk Assessment and Standard Setting

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, P. A.; Whittaker, C.; Curran, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment forms the basis for both occupational health decision-making and the development of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Although genetic and epigenetic data have not been widely used in risk assessment and ultimately, standard setting, it is possible to envision such uses. A growing body of literature demonstrates that genetic and epigenetic factors condition biological responses to occupational and environmental hazards or serve as targets of them. This presentation addresses the considerations for using genetic and epigenetic information in risk assessments, provides guidance on using this information within the classic risk assessment paradigm, and describes a framework to organize thinking about such uses. The framework is a 4 × 4 matrix involving the risk assessment functions (hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) on one axis and inherited and acquired genetic and epigenetic data on the other axis. The cells in the matrix identify how genetic and epigenetic data can be used for each risk assessment function. Generally, genetic and epigenetic data might be used as endpoints in hazard identification, as indicators of exposure, as effect modifiers in exposure assessment and dose-response modeling, as descriptors of mode of action, and to characterize toxicity pathways. Vast amounts of genetic and epigenetic data may be generated by high-throughput technologies. These data can be useful for assessing variability and reducing uncertainty in extrapolations, and they may serve as the foundation upon which identification of biological perturbations would lead to a new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessments. PMID:26583908

  2. Does the perception of fairness and standard of care in the health system depend on the field of study? Results of an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The main challenge in the context of health care reforms and priority setting is the establishment and/or maintenance of fairness and standard of care. For the political process and interdisciplinary discussion, the subjective perception of the health care system might even be as important as potential objective criteria. Of special interest are the perceptions of academic disciplines, whose representatives act as decision makers in the health care sector. The aim of this study is to explore and compare the subjective perception of fairness and standard of care in the German health care system among students of medicine, law, economics, philosophy, and religion. Methods Between October 2011 and January 2012, we asked freshmen and advanced students of the fields mentioned above to participate in a paper and pencil survey. Prior to this, we formulated hypotheses. The data were analysed by micro econometric regression techniques. Results Data from 1,088 students were included in the study. Medical students, freshmen, and advanced students perceive the standard of care significantly as being better than non-medical students. Differences in the perception of fairness are not significant between the freshmen of the academic disciplines; however, they increase with the number of study terms. Besides the field of study, further variables such as gender and health status have a significant impact on perceptions. Conclusions Our results show that there are differences in the perception of fairness and standard of care between academic disciplines, which might influence the interdisciplinary discussion on health care reforms and priority setting. PMID:24725356

  3. Incorporating personalized gene sequence variants, molecular genetics knowledge, and health knowledge into an EHR prototype based on the Continuity of Care Record standard

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R.; Cimino, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives The current volume and complexity of genetic tests, and the molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge related to interpretation of the results of those tests, are rapidly outstripping the ability of individual clinicians to recall, understand and convey to their patients information relevant to their care. The tailoring of molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge in clinical settings is important both for the provision of personalized medicine and to reduce clinician information overload. In this paper we describe the incorporation, customization and demonstration of molecular genetic data (mainly sequence variants), molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge into a standards-based electronic health record (EHR) prototype developed specifically for this study. Methods We extended the CCR (Continuity of Care Record), an existing EHR standard for representing clinical data, to include molecular genetic data. An EHR prototype was built based on the extended CCR and designed to display relevant molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from an existing knowledge base for cystic fibrosis (OntoKBCF). We reconstructed test records from published case reports and represented them in the CCR schema. We then used the EHR to dynamically filter molecular genetics knowledge and health knowledge from OntoKBCF using molecular genetic data and clinical data from the test cases. Results The molecular genetic data were successfully incorporated in the CCR by creating a category of laboratory results called “Molecular Genetics ” and specifying a particular class of test (“Gene Mutation Test”) in this category. Unlike other laboratory tests reported in the CCR, results of tests in this class required additional attributes (“Molecular Structure” and “Molecular Position”) to support interpretation by clinicians. These results, along with clinical data (age, sex, ethnicity, diagnostic procedures, and therapies) were used

  4. Financial burden of household out-of pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam: findings from the National Living Standard Survey 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Hoang; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Saksena, Priyanka; James, Chris D; Xu, Ke

    2013-11-01

    In Viet Nam, household direct out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure as a share of the total health expenditure has been always high, ranging from 50% to 70%. The high share of OOP expenditure has been linked to different inequity problems such as catastrophic health expenditure (households must reduce their expenditure on other necessities) and impoverishment. This paper aims to examine catastrophic and poverty impacts of household out-of-pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam over time and identify socio-economic indicators associated with them. Data used in this research were obtained from a nationally representative household survey, Viet Nam Living Standard Survey 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. The findings revealed that there were problems in health care financing in Viet Nam - many households encountered catastrophic health expenditure and/or were pushed into poverty due to health care payments. The issues were pervasive over time. Catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment problems were more common among the households who had more elderly people and those located in rural areas. Importantly, the financial protection aspect of the national health insurance schemes was still modest. Given these findings, more attention is needed on developing methods of financial protection in Viet Nam.

  5. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  6. 45 CFR 170.204 - Functional standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  7. 45 CFR 170.202 - Transport standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  8. 45 CFR 170.204 - Functional standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  9. 45 CFR 170.202 - Transport standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  10. 45 CFR 170.202 - Transport standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  11. 45 CFR 170.204 - Functional standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  12. Taking a Step Forward in Public Health Finance: Establishing Standards for a Uniform Chart of Accounts Crosswalk.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Leider, Jonathon P; Singletary, Vivian; Ross, David A

    2015-01-01

    In its 2012 report on the current and future states of public health finance, the Institute of Medicine noted, with concern, the relative lack of capacity for practitioners and researchers alike to make comparisons between health department expenditures across the country. This is due in part to different accounting systems, service portfolios, and state- or agency-specific reporting requirements. The Institute of Medicine called for a uniform chart of accounts, perhaps building on existing efforts such as the Public Health Uniform National Data Systems (PHUND$). Shortly thereafter, a group was convened to work with public health practitioners and researchers to develop a uniform chart of accounts crosswalk. A year-long process was undertaken to create the crosswalk. This commentary discusses that process, challenges encountered along the way and provides a draft crosswalk in line with the Foundational Public Health Services model that, if used by health departments, could allow for meaningful comparisons between agencies.

  13. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  14. The Second National Survey of U.S. Internship Standards in Health Education Professional Preparation: 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Cottrell, Randall; Wagner, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed internships associated with health education professional programs in the U.S. This study updates findings from an earlier survey published in 1990. Using the 2003 "AJHE" directory of institutions, 255 health education professional preparation programs were identified. Two hundred and eleven institutions had a health…

  15. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  16. Facilitating the use of non-standard in vivo studies in health risk assessment of chemicals: a proposal to improve evaluation criteria and reporting.

    PubMed

    Beronius, Anna; Molander, Linda; Rudén, Christina; Hanberg, Annika

    2014-06-01

    To improve data availability in health risk assessment of chemicals and fill information gaps there is a need to facilitate the use of non-standard toxicity studies, i.e. studies not conducted according to any standardized toxicity test guidelines. The purpose of this work was to propose criteria and guidance for the evaluation of reliability and relevance of non-standard in vivo studies, which could be used to facilitate systematic and transparent evaluation of such studies for health risk assessment. Another aim was to propose user friendly guidance for reporting of non-standard studies intended to promote an improvement in reporting of studies that could be of use in risk assessment. Requirements and recommendations for the design and execution of in vivo toxicity studies were identified from The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, and served as basis for the data evaluation criteria and reporting guidelines. Feedback was also collected from experts within the field of toxicity testing and risk assessment and used to construct a two-tiered framework for study evaluation, as well as refine the reporting guidelines. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of study relevance and an important aspect is to not completely dismiss studies from health risk assessment based on very strict criteria for reliability. The suggested reporting guidelines provide researchers with a tool to fulfill reporting requirements as stated by regulatory agencies. Together, these resources provide an approach to include all relevant data that may fill information gaps and reduce scientific uncertainty in health risk assessment conclusions, and subsequently also in chemical policy decisions.

  17. Standardized Semantic Markup for Reference Terminologies, Thesauri and Coding Systems: Benefits for distributed E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Liu, Raymond; Rudolf, Dirk; Rieger, Joerg; Dudeck, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of the ICD-10 as the standard for diagnosis, the development of an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics and coding rules is necessary. Our concept refers to current efforts of the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in healthcare. We have developed an electronic representation of the ICD-10 with the extensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates the integration in current information systems or coding software taking into account different languages and versions. In this context, XML offers a complete framework of related technologies and standard tools for processing that helps to develop interoperable applications.

  18. Stricter clean air standards

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    1997-07-01

    New standards for ozone and particulate matter stir a debate between the EPA and industrial groups. The article discusses both the history of the ozone and particulates standards, the goal of the EPA to protect health and evaluation of what the standards mean to health, and the industrial response.

  19. Adherence to standard precautions from the standpoint of the Health Belief Model: the practice of recapping needles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Gonçalves, Patrick Raphael Vicente; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the Health Belief Model to explain the adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles by dentists and dental assistants of the public health system in a municipality in the State of São Paulo. A questionnaire validated and adapted for the oral health area was used, which included variables related to the frequency of recapping and health beliefs using Likert-type scales. The relationship between beliefs and adherence to the recommendation not to recap needles was obtained by regression analysis. Of all the professionals in this study (n=79), the majority (83.5%) reported recapping needles at least once in the last month. Through regression analysis, it was observed that the relationship between the beliefs described by the model and the attitude whether or not to follow the recommendation not to recap needles was explained by a lower perception of psychological barriers and a greater perception of stimuli not to recap needles. The conclusion reached is that the acceptance of recommendations to prevent working accidents with biological material was explained by some dimensions of the Health Belief Model, enabling discussion about reformulation of training offered to professionals of the public health system.

  20. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  1. Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Xiao, Chaowu; Lee, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Accurate standardized methods for the determination of amino acid in foods are required to assess the nutritional safety and compositional adequacy of sole source foods such as infant formulas and enteral nutritionals, and protein and amino acid supplements and their hydrolysates, and to assess protein claims of foods. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which requires information on amino acid composition, is the official method for assessing protein claims of foods and supplements sold in the United States. PDCAAS has also been adopted internationally as the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Standardized methods for analysis of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography have been developed. However, there is a need to develop validated methods of amino acid analysis in foods using liquid chromatographic techniques, which have replaced ion-exchange methods for quantifying amino acids in most laboratories. Bioactive peptides from animal and plant proteins have been found to potentially impact human health. A wide range of physiological effects, including blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, and immunomodulatory effects have been described for bioactive peptides. There is considerable commercial interest in developing functional foods containing bioactive peptides. There is also a need to develop accurate standardized methods for the characterization (amino acid sequencing) and quantification of bioactive peptides and to carry out dose-response studies in animal models and clinical trials to assess safety, potential allergenicity, potential intolerance, and efficacy of bioactive peptides. Information from these studies is needed for determining the upper safe levels of bioactive peptides and as the basis for developing potential health claims for bioactive

  2. Evidence of political interference / EPA air pollution decision threatens public health: science disregarded, misrepresented on particulate matter standard.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Political interference with federal agency science threatens our health, safety, and environment. The Environmental Protection Agency's recent air pollution rules on fine particulate matter (PM) are particularly egregious assaults on public health and the integrity of science in federal policy making. The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has been actively monitoring and documenting cases of such interference and mobilizing scientists and citizens alike to push for reforms. Information on the PM case, and many others, are available on the UCS website (http://www.ucsusa.org).

  3. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  4. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  5. Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherly, Jeffre

    2010-01-01

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based…

  6. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  9. How Much Is Enough? Involving Occupational Experts in Setting Standards on a Specific-Purpose Language Test for Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, John; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers how to establish the minimum required level of professionally relevant oral communication ability in the medium of English for health practitioners with English as an additional language (EAL) to gain admission to practice in jurisdictions where English is the dominant language. A theoretical concern is the construct of…

  10. ‘THE NECESSITY MUST BE CONVINCINGLY SHOWN TO EXIST’: STANDARDS FOR COMPULSORY TREATMENT FOR MENTAL DISORDER UNDER THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT 1983

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Current English law has few controls on the involuntary treatment of persons detained under the Mental Health Act 1983. In 2001, R (Wilkinson) v. Broadmoor Special Hospital Authority provided some hope that, in conjunction with the Human Rights Act and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), meaningful substantive and procedural standards for compulsory psychiatric treatment might be developed, but that hope has not been fulfilled. Using Wilkinson and the ECHR jurisprudence as a starting point, this article considers when, if at all, compulsory psychiatric treatment might be justified. In particular, it considers the difference between the ‘appropriateness’ standard of the English legislation and the ECHR requirement of ‘therapeutic necessity’, the requirements for appropriate procedure and appropriate legislative clarity, how the courts should deal with disagreements among treating physicians, and the relevance of the capacity and best interests of the detained person. PMID:22057417

  11. Public Health Impact and Economic Costs of Volkswagen’s Lack of Compliance with the United States’ Emission Standards

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Kai; Luthin, Moira A.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a notice of violation against Volkswagen (VW) for installing a defective device in certain models of diesel cars to circumvent emission tests for nitrogen oxides (NOx). We quantified the health and economic impacts of extra NOx emissions attributable to non-compliant vehicles in the U.S. using the EPA’s Co-Benefits Risk Assessment model. We estimated that the total extra NOx emitted over one year of operation would result in 5 to 50 premature deaths, 687 to 17,526 work days with restricted activity, and economic costs of $43,479,189 to $423,268,502, based on various assumptions regarding emission scenarios and risks. This study highlights the potential impacts of VW vehicles’ lack of compliance on the health and well-being of the U.S. population. PMID:27618076

  12. A Cautionary Tale of Downloading Public Health in Ontario: What Does It Say about the Need for National Standards for More Than Doctors and Hospitals?

    PubMed

    Deber, Raisa B; Millan, Kris; Shapiro, Howard; McDougall, Christopher W

    2006-11-01

    The 2003 SARS outbreak highlighted the importance of maintaining an adequate public health (PH) infrastructure, and cast doubt on the wisdom of basing the system locally without adequate provisions for higher-level oversight and coordination. Structurally, it highlighted the policy legacy of the 1998 Ontario decision to download full responsibility for funding PH services to municipal governments, forcing such services into budgetary competition with the "hard" services traditionally provided by local government. The federal role in PH has traditionally been minimal; PH was never included as a mandatory service in the Canada Health Act, while reform proposals have focused upon such admittedly important directions as pharmacare and home care rather than PH. Although PH has moved up the policy agenda, with a focus on pandemic preparedness, the Ontario events suggest a pressing need for setting national and provincial/territorial standards for PH, and developing mechanisms for enforcing them.

  13. Graduate Management Project. The Pursuit of Quality in Military Health Care: Are We Held to a Higher Standard?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-20

    the way in performance measurement through the ORYX initiative. The ORYX initiative integrates performance measures with the accreditation Quality in...Additionally, military health care facilities must comply with the JCAHO ORYX initiative, and are incorporating HEDIS measures into various report card...of terms for performance measurement. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.j caho.org/accredited+organizations/hospitals/ oryx /glossary.htm

  14. An Analysis of Costs and Health Co-Benefits for a U.S. Power Plant Carbon Standard

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Burtraw, Dallas; Sekar, Samantha; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants can have important “co-benefits” for public health by reducing emissions of air pollutants. Here, we examine the costs and health co-benefits, in monetary terms, for a policy that resembles the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Power Plan. We then examine the spatial distribution of the co-benefits and costs, and the implications of a range of cost assumptions in the implementation year of 2020. Nationwide, the total health co-benefits were $29 billion 2010 USD (95% CI: $2.3 to $68 billion), and net co-benefits under our central cost case were $12 billion (95% CI: -$15 billion to $51 billion). Net co-benefits for this case in the implementation year were positive in 10 of the 14 regions studied. The results for our central case suggest that all but one region should experience positive net benefits within 5 years after implementation. PMID:27270222

  15. Mortality rates or sociomedical indicators? The work of the League of Nations on standardizing the effects of the Great Depression on health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the first international effort by the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) to standardize the study of the effects of the economic crisis of the 1930s on health. Instead of analysing this effort with the benefit of hindsight, this article takes into account the actors' perspectives and, therefore, it relies on the documents produced by the LNHO and public health experts of the 1930s, as well as on the historical scholarship on this subject. This article shows that, despite the declining death rates in Europe and in the US during the crisis, the LNHO considered that death rates concealed a more subtle effect of the crisis on health; hence, they launched a project aimed at making the effect visible. It describes the LNHO programme and the guidelines and methods set out by the organization in 1932 to observe this subtle effect through sociomedical investigations. The results of these surveys are summarized and the article discusses how the eugenic arguments used to explain them were not accepted by the LNHO. The article also shows how some members of the LNHO considered the results of the sociomedical surveys inconclusive and questioned the usefulness of socioeconomic indicators; in so doing, they raised concerns about the intervention of the LNHO in national matters and about the risks of crossing the established limits between science and politics. This article shows that an historical analysis, which takes into account the points of view of the actors involved, illuminates the factors that led the LNHO to conclude that mortality rates were the best method for measuring the effects of the economic crisis on health and that, as they were declining, the Great Depression was not having any deleterious effect on public health.

  16. Diagnostic performance of body mass index using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standards for body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Lull; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Kyung Mi; Noh, Hye Mi; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-02-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and health risks differ between Asian and European populations. BMI is commonly used to diagnose obesity; however, its accuracy in detecting adiposity in Koreans is unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the accuracy of BMI in determining BF%-defined obesity in 6,017 subjects (age 20-69 yr, 43.6% men) from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We assessed the diagnostic performance of BMI using the Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization reference standard for BF%-defined obesity by sex and age and identified the optimal BMI cut-off for BF%-defined obesity using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. BMI-defined obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) was observed in 38.7% of men and 28.1% of women, with a high specificity (89%, men; 84%, women) but poor sensitivity (56%, men; 72% women) for BF%-defined obesity (25.2%, men; 31.1%, women). The optimal BMI cut-off (24.2 kg/m(2)) had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity. BMI demonstrated limited diagnostic accuracy for adiposity in Korea. There was a -1.3 kg/m(2) difference in optimal BMI cut-offs between Korea and America, smaller than the 5-unit difference between the Western Pacific Regional Office and global World Health Organization obesity criteria.

  17. Comparison of pollution levels on the Mississippi Gulf Coast during the 2010 Gulf BP oil spill to ecological and health-based standards.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Jerry; Reddy, Ramata S; Tchounwou, Paul; Kafoury, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the possible impact that the BP Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill might have had on pollution levels in the State of Mississippi, the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed surface water and ambient air quality pollutant data taken from MDEQ and EPA monitoring sites on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The data were compared with acute, chronic, and human health air and water quality standards to determine whether the pollutant levels occurring during the oil spill could cause ecological and/or human health effects. The water quality data indicated levels of nickel, vanadium, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and semivolatile organic compounds analyzed remained below acute and chronic levels for both aquatic life and human health. The air quality sampling data showed that the levels of VOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with the oil spill were well below EPA chronic and human health screening levels. A comparison of the air quality monitoring data taken before and after the oil spill showed that the concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter were elevated for brief periods but remained below actionable levels.

  18. [Data interchange in blood transfusion: the impact of a new standard on the evolution of health electronic data exchange in France].

    PubMed

    Ferrera, V; Staccini, P; Chiaroni, J; Quaranta, J F; Boulay, F; De Micco, P

    1998-10-01

    The sanitary and social data interchange within care establishments or networks is today the subject of many national or international considerations. Electronic data interchange in the health field has characteristics linked to ethical and deontological principles of care staff. Used daily, this tool contributes to the quality of care, to the optimization of patient treatment and to the organization of the system care. In the transfusion field, the standardization of messages related to the traceability of blood products in now required by the No. 2 instruction of French Blood Agency, which rules the using of national norms elaborated by the French Agency of Normalization. If the technicality is the greater part of these regulated and formalized messages, this standardization systematizes and justifies the nominative and ciphered data interchange in an open environment, opening a new dimension in the interoperability of data system between care establishments. This article analyzes the characteristics and the potential impact of this normalization on the evolution of the electronic data interchange in the health field.

  19. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  20. The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lisa L.; Teret, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledges to curtail children's food marketing, sell fewer unhealthy products in schools, and label foods in responsible ways. Ceding regulation to industry carries opportunities but is highly risky. In some industries (e.g., tobacco), self-regulation has been an abject failure, but in others (e.g., forestry and marine fisheries), it has been more successful. We examined food industry self-regulation in the context of other self-regulatory successes and failures and defined 8 standards that should be met if self-regulation is to be effective. PMID:20019306

  1. The Canadian minimum dataset for chronic low back pain research: a cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Task Force Research Standards

    PubMed Central

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Parent, Alexandre J.; Noushi, Nioushah; Odenigbo, Chúk; Pagé, Gabrielle; Beaudet, Nicolas; Choinière, Manon; Stone, Laura S.; Ware, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To better standardize clinical and epidemiological studies about the prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, impact and treatment of chronic low back pain, a minimum data set was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a culturally adapted questionnaire that could be used for chronic low back pain research among French-speaking populations in Canada. Methods: The adaptation of the French Canadian version of the minimum data set was achieved according to guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures (double forward-backward translation, expert committee, pretest among 35 patients with pain in the low back region). Minor cultural adaptations were also incorporated into the English version by the expert committee (e.g., items about race/ethnicity, education level). Results: This cross-cultural adaptation provides an equivalent French-Canadian version of the minimal data set questionnaire and a culturally adapted English-Canadian version. Modifications made to the original NIH minimum data set were minimized to facilitate comparison between the Canadian and American versions. Interpretation: The present study is a first step toward the use of a culturally adapted instrument for phenotyping French- and English-speaking low back pain patients in Canada. Clinicians and researchers will recognize the importance of this standardized tool and are encouraged to incorporate it into future research studies on chronic low back pain.

  2. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  3. Advancing the sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a review of UN, regional and national human rights norms and standards

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Rajat; Van Belle, Nuna; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is an essential part of the right to health and is dependent upon substantive equality, including freedom from multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination that result in exclusion in both law and practice. Nonetheless, general and specific SRH needs of women living with HIV are often not adequately addressed. For example, services that women living with HIV need may not be available or may have multiple barriers, in particular stigma and discrimination. This study was conducted to review United Nations Human Rights Council, Treaty Monitoring Bodies and Special Rapporteur reports and regional and national mechanisms regarding SRH issues of women living with HIV. The objective is to assess areas of progress, as well as gaps, in relation to health and human rights considerations in the work of these normative bodies on health and human rights. Methods The review was done using keywords of international, regional and national jurisprudence on findings covering the 2000 to 2014 period for documents in English; searches for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and national judgments were also conducted in Spanish. Jurisprudence of UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies, regional mechanisms and national bodies was considered in this regard. Results and discussion In total, 236 findings were identified using the search strategy, and of these 129 were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria. The results highlight that while jurisprudence from international, regional and national bodies reflects consideration of some health and human rights issues related to women living with HIV and SRH, the approach of these bodies has been largely ad hoc and lacks a systematic integration of human rights concerns of women living with HIV in relation to SRH. Most findings relate to non-discrimination, accessibility, informed decision-making and accountability. There are critical gaps on normative standards

  4. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony to Department of Labor on the Mine Safety and Health Administration proposed rule: ionizing radiation standards for metal and nonmetal mines, August 13, 1987 by R. Niemeier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-13

    Recommendations were offered for protecting workers against the health effects of ionizing radiation in metal and nonmetal mines. Available data demonstrating such health effects was reviewed and evidence supporting the technical feasibility of reducing the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) standard was presented. Five recent studies indicated a significant increase in lung cancer rates associated with radon progeny exposure in underground mines. Additional studies indicated an exposure/response relationship in uranium miners. The influence of smoking on the association between radon progeny exposure and lung cancer was cited. Evidence has indicated that exposure to radon progeny carries a potential risk of developing occupationally induced lung cancer. Risk-assessment data supported the conclusion that miners with the same characteristics as the United States Public Health Service uranium miners cohort and who accrue a cumulative occupational exposure of 120 working level months, would have a lung cancer excess lifetime risk of about 35 to 40 lung cancer deaths per 1000 exposed miners. Modern mining methods using dilution ventilation as well as bulkheading and backfilling techniques make it possible to achieve substantial reductions in the cumulative exposure to radon progeny. Information was provided on sampling strategy, control technology, ventilation systems, respirators, and medical surveillance programs.

  5. Hormonal programming of rat social play behavior: Standardized techniques will aid synthesis and translation to human health.

    PubMed

    Blake, Bevin E; McCoy, Krista A

    2015-08-01

    Early social behaviors like juvenile play are important for normal cognitive and social development. Deficits in these behaviors are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism. Rat juvenile rough-and-tumble play is a useful behavioral biomarker of neurodevelopment, and is sensitive to chemical factors such as pre and neonatal hormones. Despite a rich body of literature characterizing hormonal programming of rodent juvenile play, the physiological mechanisms that regulate the organization of play behavior are not well characterized. Synthesizing results to understand the role of endocrine signaling in the development of play behavior remains difficult due to methodological inconsistency across studies. In this review, we synthesize what is known about hormonal mechanisms programming play, advocate standardized protocols for investigating rat play, and identify key areas where future research is needed. A synthetic understanding of the relationship between endocrine signaling and behavioral programming will improve our ability to understand the development and onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans and ultimately will help prevent these devastating conditions.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus Detection and Quantification by an RT-qPCR Assay calibrated to the World Health Organization Standard for HEV RNA.

    PubMed

    Germer, Jeffrey J; Ankoudinova, Irina; Belousov, Yevgeniy S; Mahoney, Walt; Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D

    2017-02-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically-infected patients. A reverse transcription, real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 nucleotide sequence of HEV. A chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus construct containing an HEV RNA insert (SynTura HEV) was developed, value assigned with the 1(st) World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard for HEV RNA, code 6329/10, and used to prepare working assay calibrators and controls, which supported an assay quantification range of 100 to 5,000,000 IU/ml. Analytical sensitivity (95% detection rate) of this assay was 25.2 IU/ml (95% CI, 19.2 to 44.1 IU/ml). The assay successfully amplified 16 different HEV sequences with significant nucleotide mismatching in primer/probe binding regions, while evaluation of a WHO International Reference Panel for HEV Genotypes, code 8578/13, showed viral load results falling within the result ranges generated by WHO collaborative study participants for all panel members (genotypes 1 to 4). Broadly reactive RT-qPCR primers targeting HEV ORF 2/3 were successfully adapted for use in an assay based on Pleiades probe chemistry. Availability of secondary standards calibrated to the WHO HEV international standard can improve standardization and performance of assays for detection and quantification of HEV RNA.

  7. The potential for improving welfare standards and productivity in United Kingdom sheep flocks using veterinary flock health plans.

    PubMed

    Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Wilson, D J

    2007-05-01

    Data from industry sources detailing variable costs in 2003 revealed that the average farmer keeping 1000 lowland ewes in the United Kingdom spent 3500 UK pounds annually on veterinary fees and medicines. Despite such expenditure, psoroptic mange and cutaneous myiasis are common in the UK, resistance to one or more anthelmintic group is not only common but increasing in frequency and distribution, and abortion outbreaks caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are frequently reported by veterinary laboratories. Welfare concerns also arise from farmers' intransigence towards tail docking and castration in lambs (mutilations), reported market forces necessitating long distance road transportation to slaughter plants, and an unwillingness to employ veterinary surgeons for obstetrical problems. The spread of sheep scab in the UK over the past decade illustrates the failure of flock owners to effect rudimentary biosecurity and disease control measures. A first step towards improving the health and welfare of sheep would be the immediate implementation of basic good husbandry practices, including ectoparasiticide treatment for sheep scab eradication, prophylaxis for cutaneous myiasis in selected lambs, and appropriate vaccination strategies for clostridial diseases and certain abortion agents. There would also be money from within current farm expenditure to provide veterinary attention for obstetrical problems affecting up to 2% of ewes per annum. Planned use of ecto- and endoparasiticides is urgently needed to maintain the efficacy of these unique drugs.

  8. Supplemental standards of ethical conduct and financial disclosure requirements for employees of the Department of Health and Human Services. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2005-02-03

    The Department of Health and Human Services, with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is amending the HHS regulation that supplements the OGE Standards of Ethical Conduct. This interim final rule specifies additional procedural and substantive requirements that are necessary to address ethical issues at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and updates nomenclature, definitions, and procedures applicable to other components of the Department. The rule: Revises the definition of a significantly regulated organization for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); Updates the organization titles of designated separate agencies; Amends the gift exception for native artwork and craft items received from Indian tribes or Alaska Native organizations; Aligns the FDA prohibited holdings limit with the de minimis holdings exemption in OGE regulations; Revises prior approval procedures for outside activities; and, subject to certain exceptions: Prohibits NIH employees from engaging in certain outside activities with supported research institutions, health care providers or insurers, health-related trade or professional associations, and biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device, and other companies substantially affected by the programs, policies, or operations of the NIH; Bars NIH employees who file a public or confidential financial disclosure report from holding financial interests in substantially affected organizations; Subjects NIH non-filer employees to a monetary cap on holdings in such organizations; Specifies for NIH employees prior approval procedures for and limitations on the receipt of certain awards from outside sources; and Imposes a one-year disqualification period during which NIH employees are precluded from official actions involving an award donor. In addition, the Department is adding a new supplemental part to expand financial disclosure reporting requirements for certain outside activities and to ensure that prohibited

  9. Do visual analogue scale (VAS) derived standard gamble (SG) utilities agree with Health Utilities Index utilities? A comparison of patient and community preferences for health status in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Amir Adel; Anis, Aslam H; Marra, Carlo A

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) has become increasingly important and various direct and indirect methods and instruments have been devised to measure it. In direct methods such as Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Standard Gamble (SG), respondent both assesses and values health states therefore the final score reflects patient's preferences. In indirect methods such as multi-attribute health status classification systems, the patient provides the assessment of a health state and then a multi-attribute utility function is used for evaluation of the health state. Because these functions have been estimated using valuations of general population, the final score reflects community's preferences. The objective of this study is to assess the agreement between community preferences derived from the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3) systems, and patient preferences. Methods Visual analog scale (VAS) and HUI scores were obtained from a sample of 320 rheumatoid arthritis patients. VAS scores were adjusted for end-aversion bias and transformed to standard gamble (SG) utility scores using 8 different power conversion formulas reported in other studies. Individual level agreement between SG utilities and HUI2 and HUI3 utilities was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Group level agreement was assessed by comparing group means using the paired t-test. Results After examining all 8 different SG estimates, the ICC (95% confidence interval) between SG and HUI2 utilities ranged from 0.45 (0.36 to 0.54) to 0.55 (0.47 to 0.62). The ICC between SG and HUI3 utilities ranged from 0.45 (0.35 to 0.53) to 0.57 (0.49 to 0.64). The mean differences between SG and HUI2 utilities ranged from 0.10 (0.08 to 0.12) to 0.22 (0.20 to 0.24). The mean differences between SG and HUI3 utilities ranged from 0.18 (0.16 to 0.2) to 0.28 (0.26 to 0.3). Conclusion At the individual level, patient and community preferences show moderate

  10. Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended. Employment Standards Administration, Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-20

    On January 22, 1997, the Department issued a proposed rule to amend the regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act. 62 FR 3338-3435 (Jan. 22, 1997). When the comment period closed on August 21, 1997, the Department had received written submissions from almost 200 interested persons, including coal miners, coal mine operators, insurers, physicians, and attorneys. The Department also held hearings in Charleston, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. at which over 50 people testified. The Department carefully reviewed the testimony and the comments and, on October 8, 1999, issued a second notice of proposed rulemaking. 64 FR 54966-55072 (Oct. 8, 1999). In its second notice, the Department proposed changing several of the most important provisions in its initial proposal. The Department also explained its decision not to alter the original proposal with respect to other key regulations based on the comments received to date. Finally, the Department prepared an initial regulatory flexibility analysis. In order to ensure that small businesses that could be affected by the Department's proposal received appropriate notice of the Department's proposed changes, the Department mailed a copy of the second notice of proposed rulemaking to all coal mine operators contained in the databases maintained by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Department initially allowed interested parties until December 7, 1999 to file comments to its second proposal, but extended that period until January 6, 2000. The Department received 37 written submissions before the close of the comment period, from groups representing both coal miners and coal mine operators. The Department also received comments from individual miners, various coal mining and insurance companies, as well as from claims processing organizations, attorneys, and various professional organizations. The Department has carefully reviewed all of the comments, and is issuing its final rule. The rule contains a

  11. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  12. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    PubMed

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  13. Calcium Carbonate Phosphate Binding Ion Exchange Filtration and Accelerated Denitrification Improve Public Health Standards and Combat Eutrophication in Aquatic Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Yanamadala, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    Hektoen agar. Initial analyses suggest a strong correlation between phosphate concentrations and bacterial populations; a 66% decrease in phosphate resulted in a 35% reduction in bacterial populations and a 45% reduction in enteropathogenic populations. Likewise, a strong correlation was shown between calcium carbonate concentrations and bacterial reduction greater than that which can be attributed to the phosphate reduction alone. This was followed by the construction of various phosphate binding calcium carbonate filters, which used the ion exchange principle, including a spring loading filter, PVC pipe filter, and a galvanized filter. All were tested with the aid of Stoke's law formulation. The experiment was extremely successful in designing a working phosphate-binding and ammonia-reducing filter, and a large-scale agitator-clarifier filter system is currently being planned for construction in Madrona Marsh; this filter will reduce phosphate and ammonia levels substantially in the following years, bringing ecological, economical, and health-related improvements to the overall ecosystem and habitat. PMID:16381147

  14. Comparison of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter DNA probe method and the Health Protection Branch standard method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Malik, M N; Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

    1996-07-01

    The standard Health Protection Branch (HPB) method for the detection of L. monocytogenes in foods involves lengthy enrichment, selection and biochemical testing, requiring up to 8 days to complete. A hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method employing a digoxigenin-labelled listeriolysin O probe required 5 days to complete, and included an image-analysis system for electronic data acquisition. A total of 200 food samples encompassing 8 high-risk food groups (soft and semi-soft cheeses, packaged raw vegetables, frozen cooked shrimp, ground poultry, ground pork, ground beef, jellied meats, and pâté) were screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes by the two methods. Overall, 32 (16%) and 30 (15%) of the naturally-contaminated food samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes by the HPB and DNA methods, respectively. The DNA probe method was highly specific in discriminating L. monocytogenes from other Listeria spp. present in 50 of the samples tested. Results showed 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity between the two methods. The HGMF DNA probe method is an efficient and reliable alternative to the HPB standard method for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods.

  15. Establishment of the 1st World Health Organization International Standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA for nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays

    PubMed Central

    Padley, David J; Heath, Alan B; Sutherland, Colin; Chiodini, Peter L; Baylis, Sally A

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to harmonize results for the detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays, a World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative study was performed, evaluating a series of candidate standard preparations. Methods Fourteen laboratories from 10 different countries participated in the collaborative study. Four candidate preparations based upon blood samples parasitaemic for P. falciparum were evaluated in the study. Sample AA was lyophilized, whilst samples BB, CC and DD were liquid/frozen preparations. The candidate standards were tested by each laboratory at a range of dilutions in four independent assays, using both qualitative and quantitative NAT-based assays. The results were collated and analysed statistically. Results Twenty sets of data were returned from the participating laboratories and used to determine the mean P. falciparum DNA content for each sample. The mean log10 "equivalents"/ml were 8.51 for sample AA, 8.45 for sample BB, 8.35 for sample CC, and 5.51 for sample DD. The freeze-dried preparation AA, was examined by accelerated thermal degradation studies and found to be highly stable. Conclusion On the basis of the collaborative study, the freeze-dried material, AA (NIBSC code No. 04/176) was established as the 1st WHO International Standard for P. falciparum DNA NAT-based assays and has been assigned a potency of 109 International Units (IU) per ml. Each vial contains 5 × 108 IU, equivalent to 0.5 ml of material after reconstitution. PMID:18652656

  16. Background air concentrations of Cr(VI) in Hudson County, New Jersey: implications for setting health-based standards for Cr(VI) in soil.

    PubMed

    Scott, P K; Finley, B L; Harris, M A; Rabbe, D E

    1997-05-01

    An accurate measure of "background" airborne Cr(VI) concentrations will be necessary to derive site-specific health-based Cr(VI) soil concentrations at sites containing chromite ore processing residues (COPR) in Hudson County, NJ. To date, no such data have been collected in New Jersey. This paper describes an air sampling program designed to measure background concentrations of Cr(VI) in Hudson County and compare those concentrations with the air sampling results obtained previously at 30 COPR sites in Hudson County. Background airborne Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 3.8 ng/m3 with an arithmetic mean of 1.2 ng/m3. Comparisons of the airborne Cr(VI) concentrations previously measured at 30 COPR sites indicated that more than two-thirds of the sites had mean airborne Cr(VI) concentrations that were not statistically significantly greater than background. Our findings suggest that, in general, vehicle disturbance is required for significant soil suspension to occur at these sites. Since airborne Cr(VI) concentrations at many of these sites are close to background, it is critical that background airborne Cr(VI) levels be considered when deriving health-based soil standards at the COPR sites.

  17. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  18. Health.

    PubMed Central

    Hare, R M

    1986-01-01

    Many practical issues in medical ethics depend on an understanding of the concept of health. The main question is whether it is a purely descriptive or a partly evaluative or normative concept. After posing some puzzles about the concept, the views of C Boorse, who thinks it is descriptive, are discussed and difficulties are found for them. An evaluative treatment is then suggested, and used to shed light on some problems about mental illness and to compare and contrast it with physical illness and with political and other deviancies which are not illnesses. PMID:3806628

  19. Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization international reference reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1).

    PubMed

    Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu

    2014-11-01

    Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an internationally available reference reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an international collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate reference reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a reference reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a reference reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO international reference reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO international reference reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 reference units per ampoule.

  20. Enabling Better Interoperability for HealthCare: Lessons in Developing a Standards Based Application Programing Interface for Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Kumara, Harsha; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We sought to enable better interoperability and easy adoption of healthcare applications by developing a standardized domain independent Application Programming Interface (API) for an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. We leveraged the modular architecture of the Open Medical Record System (OpenMRS) to build a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) based add-on module that could consume FHIR resources and requests made on OpenMRS. The OpenMRS FHIR module supports a subset of FHIR resources that could be used to interact with clinical data persisted in OpenMRS. We demonstrate the ease of connecting healthcare applications using the FHIR API by integrating a third party Substitutable Medical Apps & Reusable Technology (SMART) application with OpenMRS via FHIR. The OpenMRS FHIR module is an optional component of the OpenMRS platform. The FHIR API significantly reduces the effort required to implement OpenMRS by preventing developers from having to learn or work with a domain specific OpenMRS API. We propose an integration pathway where the domain specific legacy OpenMRS API is gradually retired in favor of the new FHIR API, which would be integrated into the core OpenMRS platform. Our efforts indicate that a domain independent API is a reality for any EMR system. These efforts demonstrate the adoption of an emerging FHIR standard that is seen as a replacement for both Health Level 7 (HL7) Version 2 and Version 3. We propose a gradual integration approach where our FHIR API becomes the preferred method for communicating with the OpenMRS platform.

  1. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  2. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world. PMID:22188675

  3. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples.

    PubMed

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N; Breslin, John G; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Russ; Pike, William A; Jezierski, Eduardo; Chuang, Kuo-Yu Slayer

    2011-12-21

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  4. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2001-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  5. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2004-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  6. Standards 101; the ASA standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul D.

    2002-11-01

    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  7. Standardizing medical data.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, M G

    1997-01-01

    Congress passed The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 in the doldrums of last Summer, and promptly charged the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics to begin working on the regulations that will help providers, payers, and all members of the public adhere to the spirit of the law. What does this legislation portend for the health care industry? Standardization of information systems will play a large role in assuring the portability of health care insurance from one employer and payer to another in this legislation. Accountability, too, will depend on those same data standards to allow comparisons of processes and outcomes of care across health plans, providers, communities, states, and regions. In fact, without standardized data describing patients and their treatments, there can be no comparisons of their outcomes of care, or the processes used to treat them.

  8. Health-based reference intervals for ALAT, ASAT and GT in serum, measured according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS).

    PubMed

    Leino, A; Impivaara, O; Irjala, K; Mäki, J; Peltola, O; Järvisalo, J

    1995-05-01

    The reference intervals for the activities of L-alanine aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2, ALAT), L-aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1, ASAT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2, GT) in serum were determined according to the recommendations of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Serum specimens from 954 subjects were analysed for ALAT and ASAT and from 794 subjects for GT. The subjects, aged 27-67 years, were participants in general health surveys. The reference population was formed by excluding subjects with any disease, or on any medication, affecting the liver, and also those consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The 95% inner reference intervals for ALAT and ASAT were 9-50 (n = 189) and 15-36 U l-1 (n = 192) in men and 8-38 (n = 270) and 13-33 U l-1 (n = 270) in women. For GT the reference interval was 11-58 in men (n = 165) and 8-42 U l-1 in women (n = 220). Serum GT levels correlated clearly with alcohol consumption. Serum ALAT and ASAT were only slightly associated with alcohol consumption at levels less than 280 g per week in men and 190 g per week in women. There were modest positive associations between the three enzyme levels and body mass index. None of the enzymes correlated significantly with age.

  9. Garbage in, Garbage Out: Data Collection, Quality Assessment and Reporting Standards for Social Media Data Use in Health Research, Infodemiology and Digital Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Emery, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media have transformed the communications landscape. People increasingly obtain news and health information online and via social media. Social media platforms also serve as novel sources of rich observational data for health research (including infodemiology, infoveillance, and digital disease detection detection). While the number of studies using social data is growing rapidly, very few of these studies transparently outline their methods for collecting, filtering, and reporting those data. Keywords and search filters applied to social data form the lens through which researchers may observe what and how people communicate about a given topic. Without a properly focused lens, research conclusions may be biased or misleading. Standards of reporting data sources and quality are needed so that data scientists and consumers of social media research can evaluate and compare methods and findings across studies. Objective We aimed to develop and apply a framework of social media data collection and quality assessment and to propose a reporting standard, which researchers and reviewers may use to evaluate and compare the quality of social data across studies. Methods We propose a conceptual framework consisting of three major steps in collecting social media data: develop, apply, and validate search filters. This framework is based on two criteria: retrieval precision (how much of retrieved data is relevant) and retrieval recall (how much of the relevant data is retrieved). We then discuss two conditions that estimation of retrieval precision and recall rely on—accurate human coding and full data collection—and how to calculate these statistics in cases that deviate from the two ideal conditions. We then apply the framework on a real-world example using approximately 4 million tobacco-related tweets collected from the Twitter firehose. Results We developed and applied a search filter to retrieve e-cigarette–related tweets from the archive based

  10. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  11. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  12. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…