Sample records for health plans cdhps

  1. CDHPs: as enrollment goes up, a time to tune up.

    PubMed

    Domaszewicz, Sander; Savan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    One of the clearest findings of Mercer's annual National Survey of Employer-Sponsored Health Plans is that more companies are thinking of adopting a consumer-directed health plan (CDHP) approach, and more employees are enrolling in CDHPs at the companies that offer them. The authors discuss the advantages for organizations that offer CDHPs, as well as outline key considerations for companies looking to update, optimize and align their CDHPs with the realities of health care reform. They also explain how CDHPs go hand in hand with wellness and health management strategies, both of which increase collaboration between employees and employers to control costs and give employees more personal responsibility for better outcomes.

  2. Consumer-directed health plans: what happened?

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    CDHPs can stabilize growth in health costs, but the health plan-subscriber relationship should be more transparent. CFOs should ensure that increased cost exposure in CDHPs is paired with broad, deep disease management and employee assistance support. Hospitals should plan for the likelihood that, one way or another, consumers will be paying more of their healthcare bill.

  3. Who chooses a consumer-directed health plan?

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Cullen, Mark R; Galusha, Deron; Slade, Martin D; Busch, Susan H

    2008-01-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) hold the promise of reining in health spending by giving consumers a greater stake in health care purchasing, yet little is known about employers' experience with these products. In examining the characteristics of those selecting a CDHP offered by one large employer, we found stronger evidence of selection than has been identified in prior research. Our findings suggest that in the context of plan choice, CDHPs may offer little opportunity to greatly lower employers' cost burden, and they highlight concerns about the potential for risk segmentation and the value of conferring preferential tax treatment to CDHPs.

  4. Who Chooses A Consumer-Directed Health Plan?

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L.; Cullen, Mark R.; Galusha, Deron; Slade, Martin D.; Busch, Susan H.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) hold the promise of reining in health spending by giving consumers a greater stake in health care purchasing, yet little is known about employers’ experience with these products. In examining the characteristics of those selecting a CDHP offered by one large employer, we found stronger evidence of selection than has been identified in prior research. Our findings suggest that in the context of plan choice, CDHPs may offer little opportunity to greatly lower employers’ cost burden, and they highlight concerns about the potential for risk segmentation and the value of conferring preferential tax treatment to CDHPs. PMID:18997225

  5. Consumer-directed health plans: are medical and health savings accounts viable options for financing American health care?

    PubMed

    Masri, Maysoun Demachkie; Oetjen, Reid M; Campbell, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    When Americans voted in November 2008, many had the presidential candidates' positions on health care reform in mind. Health savings accounts, which are high deductible health plans coupled with a tax-protected savings account, are 1 type of consumer-directed health plan (CDHP) that gained strong support from the Bush administration. Despite evidence of the effectiveness of CDHPs in constraining costs in other countries, the Obama health plan contains no mention of their role in future US health reform. This article seeks to provide the reader with a better understanding of how CDHPs can help to improve the use of health resources and reduce national health care expenditures by exploring the history and previous research on several types of consumer-directed plans and by providing a comparative analysis of the use of CDHPs in other countries.

  6. Consumer-directed health plans: mixed employer signals, complex market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Ann; Christianson, Jon B

    2008-03-01

    Health plans have expanded consumer-directed health plan (CDHP) product offerings--typically high-deductible health plans coupled with a spending account--and more employers are offering these products to workers, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2007 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. In developing CDHPs, health plans are responding to a broader employer strategy to confer more responsibility on workers for their health care costs, lifestyle choices and treatment decisions. CDHP adoption by employers and consumers depends on a range of factors, including product features and employer characteristics, and varies across the 12 communities. While more large employers are introducing CDHPs into health benefit programs, adoption of CDHPs remains modest. Health plans and employers expect CDHP enrollment to grow as employers and employees become more knowledgeable about CDHP features, health plans develop more sophisticated support tools for plan enrollees, and there are more opportunities to learn from early adopters' experiences.early

  7. Consumer-directed health plans: enrollee views, early employer experience.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Severoni, Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are a new health insurance product that is of growing interest to employers who are struggling to cope with rising health insurance premium costs and to consumers who are desiring more choice and engagement in their health care. This paper presents the results of a study of California consumer awareness of, and attitudes toward, CDHPs in the context of several national surveys and the experiences of some early-adopting employers. California Health Decisions conducted a telephone survey of 800 insured adult California residents in November 2002. Few respondents had heard of CDHPs. They appealed more to younger, single, less educated, and healthier respondents and those who did not understand them well. The most attractive CDHP features were greater provider choice and health savings accounts' portability and flexibility. Concerns centered on personal financial exposure. While CDHPs' commercial market penetration is increasing, their greatest potential future contributions might be to reduce the number of uninsured Americans by offering an affordable health insurance product and to fund additional health services for retirees. As CDHPs further evolve, more consumer involvement in their refinement, implementation, and evaluation is essential.

  8. How to inject consumerism into your existing health plans.

    PubMed

    Havlin, Linda J; McAllister, Michael F; Slavney, David H

    2003-09-01

    Consumerism seeks to create a behavior change on the part of consumers so that they become accountable, knowledgeable and actively engaged in managing their health. It can be used in any existing health plan through targeted plan design changes and consumer education efforts. Employers have many options in addition to consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs).

  9. Overcoming information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans.

    PubMed

    Retchin, Sheldon M

    2007-04-01

    Consumer-centric healthcare has been extolled as the centerpiece of a new model for managing both quality and price. However, information asymmetry in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) is a challenge that must be addressed. For CDHPs to work as intended and to gain acceptance, consumers need information regarding the quality and price of healthcare purchases. The federal government, particularly the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, could function as an official resource for information on performance and comparisons among facilities and providers. Because of workforce constraints among primary care physicians, a new group of healthcare professionals called "medical decision advisors" could be trained. Academic health centers would have to play a critical role in devising an appropriate curriculum, as well as designing a certification and credentialing process. However, with appropriate curricula and training, medical decision advisors could furnish information for consumers and aid in the complicated decisions they will face under CDHPs.

  10. Price-Shopping in Consumer-Directed Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary; Huckfeldt, Peter; Haviland, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    We use health insurance claims data from 63 large employers to estimate the extent of price shopping for nine common outpatient services in consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) compared to traditional health plans. The main measures of price-shopping include: (1) the total price paid on the claim, (2) the share of claims from low and high cost providers and (3) the savings from price shopping relative to choosing prices randomly. All analyses control for individual and zip code level demographics and plan characteristics. We also estimate differences in price shopping within CDHPs depending on expected health care costs and whether the service was bought before or after reaching the deductible. For 8 out of 9 services analyzed, prices paid by CDHP and traditional plan enrollees did not differ significantly; CDHP enrollees paid 2.3% less for office visits. Similarly, office visits was the only service where CDHP enrollment resulted in a significantly larger share of claims from low cost providers and greater savings from price shopping relative to traditional plans. There was also no evidence that, within CDHP plans, consumers with lower expected medical expenses exhibited more price-shopping or that consumers exhibited more price-shopping before reaching the deductible. PMID:25342936

  11. Consumer-directed health plans reduce the long-term use of outpatient physician visits and prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Sepúlveda, Martín J; Roebuck, M Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are designed to make employees more cost- and health-conscious by exposing them more directly to the costs of their care, which should lower demand for care and, in turn, control premium growth. These features have made consumer-directed plans increasingly attractive to employers. We explored effects of consumer-directed health plans on health care and preventive care use, using data from two large employers-one that adopted a CDHP in 2007 and another with no CDHP. Our study had mixed results relative to expectations. After four years under the CDHP, there were 0.26 fewer physician office visits per enrollee per year and 0.85 fewer prescriptions filled, but there were 0.018 more emergency department visits. Also, the likelihood of receiving recommended cancer screenings was lower under the CDHP after one year and, even after recovering somewhat, still lower than baseline at the study's conclusion. If CDHPs succeed in getting people to make more cost-sensitive decisions, plan sponsors will have to design plans to incentivize primary care and prevention and educate members about what the plan covers.

  12. Risk selection into consumer-directed health plans: an analysis of family choices within large employers.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Roland D; Haviland, Amelia M; Lore, Ryan; Laudenberger, Laura; Eisenberg, Matthew; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    To identify the degree of selection into consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) versus traditional plans over time, and factors that influence choice and temper risk selection. Sixteen large employers offering both CDHP and traditional plans during the 2004–2007 period, more than 200,000 families. We model CDHP choice with logistic regression; predictors include risk scores, in addition to family, choice setting, and plan characteristics. Additional models stratify by account type or single enrollee versus family. Risk scores, family characteristics, and enrollment decisions are derived from medical claims and enrollment files. Interviews with human resources executives provide additional data. CDHP risk scores were 74 percent of traditional plan scores in the first year, and this difference declined over time. Employer contributions to accounts and employee premium savings fostered CDHP enrollment and reduced risk selection. Having to make an active choice of plan increased CDHP enrollment but also increased risk selection. Risk selection was greater for singles than families and did not differ between HRA and HSA-based CDHPs. Risk selection was not severe and it was well managed. Employers have effective methods to encourage CDHP enrollment and temper selection against traditional plans.

  13. Risk Selection into Consumer-Directed Health Plans: An Analysis of Family Choices within Large Employers

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Roland D; Haviland, Amelia M; Lore, Ryan; Laudenberger, Laura; Eisenberg, Matthew; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the degree of selection into consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) versus traditional plans over time, and factors that influence choice and temper risk selection. Data Sources/Study Setting Sixteen large employers offering both CDHP and traditional plans during the 2004–2007 period, more than 200,000 families. Study Design We model CDHP choice with logistic regression; predictors include risk scores, in addition to family, choice setting, and plan characteristics. Additional models stratify by account type or single enrollee versus family. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Risk scores, family characteristics, and enrollment decisions are derived from medical claims and enrollment files. Interviews with human resources executives provide additional data. Principal Findings CDHP risk scores were 74 percent of traditional plan scores in the first year, and this difference declined over time. Employer contributions to accounts and employee premium savings fostered CDHP enrollment and reduced risk selection. Having to make an active choice of plan increased CDHP enrollment but also increased risk selection. Risk selection was greater for singles than families and did not differ between HRA and HSA-based CDHPs. Conclusions Risk selection was not severe and it was well managed. Employers have effective methods to encourage CDHP enrollment and temper selection against traditional plans. PMID:24800305

  14. Findings from the 2009 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-12-01

    FIFTH ANNUAL SURVEY: This Issue Brief presents findings from the 2009 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey, which provides nationally representative data regarding the growth of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) and high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), and the impact of these plans and consumer engagement more generally on the behavior and attitudes of adults with private health insurance coverage. Findings from this survey are compared with four earlier annual surveys. ENROLLMENT LOW BUT GROWING: In 2009, 4 percent of the population was enrolled in a CDHP, up from 3 percent in 2008. Enrollment in HDHPs increased from 11 percent in 2008 to 13 percent in 2009. The 4 percent of the population with a CDHP represents 5 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, while the 13 percent with a HDHP represents 16.2 million people. Among the 16.2 million individuals with an HDHP, 38 percent (or 6.2 million) reported that they were eligible for a health savings account (HSA) but did not have such an account. Overall, 11.2 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, representing 8.9 percent of that market, were either in a CDHP or were in an HDHP that was eligible for an HSA, but had not opened the account. MORE COST-CONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR: Individuals in CDHPs were more likely than those with traditional coverage to exhibit a number of cost-conscious behaviors. They were more likely to say that they had checked whether the plan would cover care; asked for a generic drug instead of a brand name; talked to their doctor about prescription drug options, other treatments, and costs; asked their doctor to recommend a less costly prescription drug; developed a budget to manage health care expenses; checked prices before getting care; and used an online cost-tracking tool. CDHP MORE ENGAGED IN WELLNESS PROGRAMS: CDHP enrollees were more likely than traditional plan enrollees to report that they had the opportunity to fill out a health risk assessment

  15. Consumer-driven health plans: latest challenge to practices' cash flow.

    PubMed

    Hajny, Tom

    2007-01-01

    CDHPs are here to stay. Employers welcome CDHPs because they drive costs away from themselves and into the hands of both consumers and provides. The consumer will make medical purchase decisions tempered by personal economic considerations. The providers are left to figure it all out with the hope their cash flow, cost budgets, and customer service will not be negatively impacted. It will not be easy. Practices must become educated on how CDHPs work, become knowledgeable about specific HSA scenarios in their market, develop optimum processes and procedures, and train staff.

  16. Consumer experiences in a consumer-driven health plan.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-08-01

    To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs.

  17. Consumer-directed health care for persons under 65 years of age with private health insurance: United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robin A; Martinez, Michael E

    2009-03-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey. In 2007, 17.3% of persons under 65 years of age with private health insurance were enrolled in a high deductible health plan (HDHP), 4.5% were enrolled in a consumer-directed health plan (CDHP), and 14.8% were in a family with a flexible spending account for medical expenses (FSA); Persons with directly purchased private health insurance were more likely to be enrolled in a high deductible plan than those who obtained their private health insurance through an employer or union; Higher incomes and higher educational attainment were associated with greater uptake and enrollment in HDHPs, CDHPs, and FSAs. National attention to consumer-directed health care has increased following the enactment of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173), which established tax-advantaged health savings accounts (1). Consumer-directed health care enables individuals to have more control over when and how they access care, what types of care they use, and how much they spend on health care services. This report includes estimates of three measures of consumer-directed private health care. Estimates for 2007 are provided for enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs), plans with high deductibles coupled with health savings accounts also known as consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs), and the percentage of individuals with private coverage whose family has a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses, by selected sociodemographic characteristics. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Evaluation of a comprehensive employee wellness program at an organization with a consumer-directed health plan.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B; Kasiarz, David; Edington, Dee W

    2014-04-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are popular among employers in the United States. This study examined an employee wellness program and its association with employee health in an organization that recently initiated a CDHP. This retrospective observational analysis compared the health risks, employer-paid health care costs, and short-term disability absences of employees of a large financial services corporation from 2009 to 2010. The two-time health risk appraisal participants had a significant improvement in the percentage of employees in the overall low-risk category. The average annual employer-paid medical and pharmacy costs did not significantly change. For employees who improved their health risk category, there was a commensurate change in costs and absences. In a difficult economic climate, this organization began a health promotion program for employees as well as a new CDHP benefit structure. No short-term reduction in health care usage or overall health status was observed.

  19. Occupational and environmental health nursing in the era of consumer-directed health care.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Bruce; Click, Elizabeth

    2007-05-01

    Consumer-directed health care plans (CDHPs) present an opportunity to control health care costs. Health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs) are two different approaches to providing pre-tax funding for CDHP enrollees. Each has a significant impact on the nature and business aspects of worksite health care. Worksite clinics can provide support via on-site education, expanded acute care services, and referral to other health-related benefits and resources for all CDHP enrollees. With attention to the type of employee health benefits funding support (HSA or HRA), occupational health nurses can maximize the effectiveness and value of worksite clinic services for CDHP enrollees.

  20. Behavioral healthcare services use in health savings accounts versus traditional health plans.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Nancy A; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Shah, Mona; Levin, Regina A

    2010-12-01

    the intensity regression. Members who switched to a health savings account plan were slightly less likely to initiate behavioral health services in each post year relative to members who stayed in traditional health plans. Of those who sought outpatient behavioral services, there was no difference between cohorts in the intensity of behavioral health services they received. Our results suggest enrollment in CDHPs moderately affects the use of behavioral health services but do not affect the intensity of outpatient behavioral health services conditioned on initiating these services. These finding are somewhat limited in that specific information about benefits were not included in the study. These results are also subject to self-selection bias. Members who switched to CDHP may be influenced to do so by other unknown factors that bear on their behavioral health. Recent growth in the number of health savings accounts and current attention to mental health legislation warrant answers about behavioral health spending and efficacious utilization of behavioral health services. Further studies which include behavioral health services outcomes and quality of care gleaned from claims data can answer questions about the efficiency of health savings accounts.

  1. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    PubMed

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  2. The Role of Consumer-Controlled Personal Health Management Systems in the Evolution of Employer-Based Health Care Benefits.

    PubMed

    Jones, Spencer S; Caloyeras, John; Mattke, Soeren

    2011-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has piqued employers' interest in new benefit designs because it includes numerous provisions that favor cost-reducing strategies, such as workplace wellness programs, value-based insurance design (VBID), and consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs). Consumer-controlled personal health management systems (HMSs) are a class of tools that provide encouragement, data, and decision support to individuals. Their functionalities fall into the following three categories: health information management, promotion of wellness and healthy lifestyles, and decision support. In this study, we review the evidence for many of the possible components of an HMS, including personal health records, web-based health risk assessments, integrated remote monitoring data, personalized health education and messaging, nutrition solutions and physical activity monitoring, diabetes-management solutions, medication reminders, vaccination and preventive-care applications, integrated incentive programs, social-networking tools, comparative data on price and value of providers, telehealth consultations, virtual coaching, and an integrated nurse hotline. The value of the HMS will be borne out as employers begin to adopt and implement these emerging technologies, enabling further assessment as their benefits and costs become better understood.

  3. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Robert J.; Porter, Dennis R.

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this third of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with health manpower planning and assessment. It provides a conceptual and…

  4. Findings from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2011-12-01

    SEVENTH ANNUAL SURVEY: This Issue Brief presents findings from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey. This study is based on an online survey of 4,703 privately insured adults ages 21-64 to provide nationally representative data regarding the growth of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) and high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), and the impact of these plans and consumer engagement more generally on the behavior and attitudes of adults with private health insurance coverage. Findings from this survey are compared with EBRI's findings from earlier surveys. ENROLLMENT CONTINUES TO GROW: The survey finds continued growth in consumer-driven health plans: In 2011, 7 percent of the population was enrolled in a CDHP, up from 5 percent in 2010. Enrollment in HDHPs increased from 14 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2011. The 7 percent of the population with a CDHP represents 8.4 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, while the 16 percent with a HDHP represents 19.3 million people. Among the 19.3 million individuals with an HDHP, 38 percent (or 7.3 million) reported that they were eligible for a health savings ccount (HSA) but did not have such an account. Overall, 15.8 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, representing 13.1 percent of that market, were either in a CDHP or were in an HDHP that was eligible for an HSA but had not opened the account. When their children are counted, about 21 million individuals with private insurance, representing about 12 percent of the market, were either in a CDHP or an HSA-eligible plan. MORE COST-CONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR: Individuals in CDHPs were more likely than those with traditional coverage to exhibit a number of cost-conscious behaviors. They were more likely to say that they had checked whether their plan would cover care; asked for a generic drug instead of a brand name; talked to their doctor about treatment options and costs; talked to their doctor about prescription drug options and costs

  5. Do consumer reports of health plan quality affect health plan selection?

    PubMed Central

    Spranca, M; Kanouse, D E; Elliott, M; Short, P F; Farley, D O; Hays, R D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To learn whether consumer reports of health plan quality can affect health plan selection. DATA SOURCES: A sample of 311 privately insured adults from Los Angeles County. STUDY DESIGN: The design was a fractional factorial experiment. Consumers reviewed materials on four hypothetical health plans and selected one. The health plans varied as to cost, coverage, type of plan, ability to keep one's doctor, and quality, as measured by the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) survey. DATA ANALYSIS: We used multinomial logistic regression to model each consumer's choice among health plans. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the absence of CAHPS information, 86 percent of consumers preferred plans that covered more services, even though they cost more. When CAHPS information was provided, consumers shifted to less expensive plans covering fewer services if CAHPS ratings identified those plans as higher quality (59 percent of consumers preferred plans covering more services). Consumer choices were unaffected when CAHPS ratings identified the more expensive plans covering more services as higher quality (89 percent of consumers preferred plans covering more services). CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes that, under certain realistic conditions, CAHPS ratings could affect consumer selection of health plans and ultimately contain costs. Other studies are needed to learn how to enhance exposure and use of CAHPS information in the real world as well as to identify other conditions in which CAHPS ratings could make a difference. PMID:11130805

  6. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Facilities Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 5: Health Facilities Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis R.; And Others

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this fifth of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with health facilities planning in developing countries. While several specific…

  7. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk; Cave, Ben, E-mail: ben.cave@bcahealth.co.uk; Ballantyne, Rob, E-mail: robdballantyne@gmail.com

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking themore » capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.« less

  8. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  9. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs AGENCY: Agency for... well health plans and health providers address health plan enrollees' health literacy needs and how...

  10. Health Workforce Planning

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested. PMID:25685381

  11. Understanding health insurance plans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  12. Emergency health planning.

    PubMed

    HARDMAN, A C

    1962-12-01

    This paper outlines the development of emergency health planning as a function of government. Ten provinces have the basic responsibility for the organization, preparation and operation of medical, nursing, hospital and public health services in an emergency. The Department of National Health and Welfare is responsible for the provision of advice and assistance to the provincial and municipal governments in such matters. Eight provinces have now hired full-time planning staffs to co-ordinate the health planning of the Provincial Departments of Health and Provincial Emergency Measures Organization.Four major programs have been established. The first program provides for the continuity of leadership and guidance by health authorities at the federal, provincial and municipal level. Essential records have been developed and emergency legislation prepared. This program, however, will be of little use unless health services are organized at the municipal level. In this organizational program, advice and assistance have been provided to existing hospitals and departments of health in the conduct of disaster planning. The efforts of these agencies are co-ordinated by municipal health authorities into a community disaster plan. The third program deals with information and education of the general public and the health workers. This program is designed to make the family unit self-sufficient for up to seven days and the health worker prepared to undertake his emergency role. The first three programs are directed to the organization and training of manpower; the fourth program provides the necessary supplies. From the national medical stockpile of $18,000,000, some $12,000,000 has been received, packaged for long-term storage and distributed to regional depots across the country. To ensure their ready availability in time of emergency an agreement has been reached with seven provinces for the release of hospital disaster kits.

  13. Introduction to Health Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwall, David F.; And Others

    This fundamental text is designed for students of both health care administration and comprehensive health planning. It is intended as a resource on the theory and process of health project planning with some mention of possible sources for further exploration. The emphasis is on how to develop a plan when the planner also has the authority to…

  14. [Planning driven by health priorities. Master planning criteria].

    PubMed

    Tresserras, Ricard

    2008-12-01

    With the aim of responding to a number of problems detected in health plan evaluations, a new direction has been proposed in Catalonia which would lead to the improved unification of the strategic and operational approaches, and leadership. The master plans that tackle those health problems with the greatest impact were created along these lines. This article presents the most salient aspects of the master plans for oncology, circulatory diseases, mental health and addictions, immigration and the field of social healthcare. Their organisational structure, mission and functions are presented, commenting on the prioritisation of activities and the principal benchmark elements of the healthcare model in the definition of planning criteria for services incorporated into the Health Map. Finally, mention is made of the evaluation procedures. The in-depth study of priority settings has resulted in significant progress towards unifying health and service planning.

  15. Self-insured health plans

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Patricia; Guttenberg, Abbie; Greenberg, Leonard; Arnett, Ross H.

    1986-01-01

    Nationwide, 8 percent of all employment-related health plans were self-insured in 1984, which translates into more than 175,000 self-insured plans according to our latest study of independent health plans. The propensity of an organization to self-insure differs primarily by its size, with large establishments more likely to self-insure. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the self-insured benefit was hospital and/or medical. Among employers who self-insure, 23 percent self-administer, and the remaining 77 percent hire a commercial insurance company, Blue Cross/Blue Shield plan, or an independent third-party administrator to administer the health plan. PMID:10312008

  16. How health plans promote health IT to improve behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Reif, Sharon; Evans, Brooke; Creedon, Timothy B; Stewart, Maureen T; Garnick, Deborah W; Horgan, Constance M

    2016-12-01

    Given the large numbers of providers and enrollees with which they interact, health plans can encourage the use of health information technology (IT) to advance behavioral health care. The manner and extent to which commercial health plans promote health IT to improve behavioral health care is unknown. This study aims to address that gap. Cross-sectional study. Data are from a nationally representative survey of commercial health plans regarding administrative and clinical dimensions of behavioral health services in 2010. Data are weighted to be representative of commercial managed care products in the United States (n = 8427; 88% response rate). Approaches within the domains of provider support, access to care, and assessment and treatment were investigated as examples of how health plans can promote health IT to improve behavioral health care delivery. Health plans were using health IT approaches in each domain. About a quarter of products offered financial support for electronic health records, but technical assistance was rare. Primary care providers could bill for e-mail contact with patients for behavioral health in about a quarter of products. Few products offered member-provider e-mail, and none offered online appointment scheduling. However, online referral systems and online provider directories were common, and nearly all offered an online self-assessment tool; most offered online counseling and online personalized responses to questions or problems. In 2010, commercial health plans encouraged the use of health IT strategies for behavioral health care. Health plans have an important role to play for increasing health IT as a tool for behavioral health care.

  17. Accessing specialty behavioral health treatment in private health plans.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Reif, Sharon; Stewart, Maureen T

    2009-10-01

    Connecting people to mental health and substance abuse services is critical, given the extent of unmet need. The way health plans structure access to care can play a role. This study examined treatment entry procedures for specialty behavioral health care in private health plans and their relationship with behavioral health contracting arrangements, focusing primarily on initial entry into outpatient treatment. The data source was a nationally representative health plan survey on behavioral health services in 2003 (N = 368 plans with 767 managed care products; 83% response rate). Most health plan products initially authorized six or more outpatient visits if authorization was required, did not routinely conduct telephonic clinical assessment, had standards for timely access, and monitored wait time. Products with carve-outs differed on several treatment entry dimensions. Findings suggest that health plans focus on timely access and typically do not heavily manage initial entry into outpatient treatment.

  18. Assessing health plan ownership.

    PubMed

    Eyestone, Katherine M; Moore, Keith D; Coddington, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    In the emerging healthcare environment, providers will require many capabilities of traditional health plans simply to remain viable. Providers that are contemplating entering the health plan business should consider the likely strategic, structural, and cultural effects of such a strategy on their organizations. Providers that own health plans will need to determine how they will differentiate themselves in the markets to foster patient loyalty and which insurance lines of business they will pursue (e.g., individual, small group, large group, or other).

  19. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment..., Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention...

  20. Health Sciences Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Arthur D.

    "How will recent health care trends affect health sciences campus planning?" was the question put forth by Dr. Nelson at the Society of College and University Planners conference, August 12, 1970. He outlined the status of health care in this country, including the financial state of medical affairs, particularly for university health sciences…

  1. [Occupational health protection in business economics--business plan for health intervention].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees

  2. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0004] Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On May 16... National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility (77 FR...

  3. Educating the Public About Health: A Planning Guide. Health Planning Methods and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Daniel

    A comprehensive overview of major issues involved in educating the public about health, with emphasis on methods and approaches designed to foster community participation in health planning, is presented in this guide. It is intended to provide ideas for those engaged in health education program development with ideas for use in planning,…

  4. Behavioral Health Services in the Changing Landscape of Private Health Plans.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Constance M; Stewart, Maureen T; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Quinn, Amity E

    2016-06-01

    Health plans play a key role in facilitating improvements in population health and may engage in activities that have an impact on access, cost, and quality of behavioral health care. Although behavioral health care is becoming more integrated with general medical care, its delivery system has unique aspects. The study examined how health plans deliver and manage behavioral health care in the context of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). This is a critical time to examine how health plans manage behavioral health care. A nationally representative survey of private health plans (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate) was conducted in 2010 during the first year of MHPAEA, when plans were subject to the law but before final regulations, and just before the ACA went into effect. The survey addressed behavioral health coverage, cost-sharing, contracting arrangements, medical home innovations, support for technology, and financial incentives to improve behavioral health care. Coverage for inpatient and outpatient behavioral health services was stable between 2003 and 2010. In 2010, health plans were more likely than in 2003 to manage behavioral health care through internal arrangements and to contract for other services. Medical home initiatives were common and almost always included behavioral health, but financial incentives did not. Some plans facilitated providers' use of technology to improve care delivery, but this was not the norm. Health plans are key to mainstreaming and supporting delivery of high-quality behavioral health services. Since 2003, plans have made changes to support delivery of behavioral health services in the context of a rapidly changing environment.

  5. Status report, The Public Health and Planning 101 project: strengthening collaborations between the public health and planning professions.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, A; Vo, T; Einstoss, C; Weppler, J; Gillen, P; Ryan, L; Haley, K

    2017-01-01

    Land use planning is a complex field comprised of legislation, policies, processes and tools. A growing body of evidence supports the relationship between land use planning decisions, community design and health. The built environment has been shown to be associated with physical inactivity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and mental illness. Consequently, there is a growing interest within public health to work with planners on land use planning initiatives such as official plans and transportation master plans. Two surveys were developed: one for public health professionals and the other for planning professionals (survey questions available upon request to the corresponding author). The surveys were pilot tested in two separate focus group sessions with public health and planning professionals. Focus group volunteers helped to validate the surveys by verifying survey questions, design and overall flow. In early 2012, 304 public health professionals and 301 planning professionals completed the two separate surveys, comprising the total survey respondents for each respective profession used to calculate proportions. The survey results represent a convenience sample and are not generalizable to the entire population of public health and planning professionals in Ontario. Results compare survey responses from both groups where appropriate. Most respondents worked either as public health staff (78%) or planners/senior planners (58%). A smaller percentage of public health and planning professionals worked either as managers (15% and 11%, respectively) or directors (5% and 9%, respectively). Health is associated with how communities are planned and built, and the services and resources provided within them. Inspired by the results of our survey and based on user feedback from the pilot tests, a free online training program entitled "Public Health and Planning 101: An Online Course for Public Health and Planning Professionals to Create Healthier

  6. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS...

  7. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS...

  8. High-deductible health plans.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) are insurance policies with higher deductibles than conventional plans. The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 linked many HDHPs with tax-advantaged spending accounts. The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act continues to provide for HDHPs in its lower-level plans on the health insurance marketplace and provides for them in employer-offered plans. HDHPs decrease the premium cost of insurance policies for purchasers and shift the risk of further payments to the individual subscriber. HDHPs reduce utilization and total medical costs, at least in the short term. Because HDHPs require out-of-pocket payment in the initial stages of care, primary care and other outpatient services as well as elective procedures are the services most affected, whereas higher-cost services in the health care system, incurred after the deductible is met, are unaffected. HDHPs promote adverse selection because healthier and wealthier patients tend to opt out of conventional plans in favor of HDHPs. Because the ill pay more than the healthy under HDHPs, families with children with special health care needs bear an increased cost burden in this model. HDHPs discourage use of nonpreventive primary care and thus are at odds with most recommendations for improving the organization of health care, which focus on strengthening primary care.This policy statement provides background information on HDHPs, discusses the implications for families and pediatric care providers, and suggests courses of action. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Is health systems integration being advanced through Local Health District planning?

    PubMed

    Saunders, Carla; Carter, David J

    2017-05-01

    Objective Delivering genuine integrated health care is one of three strategic directions in the New South Wales (NSW) Government State Health Plan: Towards 2021. This study investigated the current key health service plan of each NSW Local Health District (LHD) to evaluate the extent and nature of health systems integration strategies that are currently planned. Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify common key principles and practices for successful health systems integration to enable the development of an appraisal tool to content assess LHD strategic health service plans. Results The strategies that are planned for health systems integration across LHDs focus most often on improvements in coordination, health care access and care delivery for complex at-risk patients across the care continuum by both state- and commonwealth-funded systems, providers and agencies. The most common reasons given for integrated activities were to reduce avoidable hospitalisation, avoid inappropriate emergency department attendance and improve patient care. Conclusions Despite the importance of health systems integration and finding that all NSW LHDs have made some commitment towards integration in their current strategic health plans, this analysis suggests that health systems integration is in relatively early development across NSW. What is known about the topic? Effective approaches to managing complex chronic diseases have been found to involve health systems integration, which necessitates sound communication and connection between healthcare providers across community and hospital settings. Planning based on current health systems integration knowledge to ensure the efficient use of scarce resources is a responsibility of all health systems. What does this paper add? Appropriate planning and implementation of health systems integration is becoming an increasingly important expectation and requirement of effective health systems. The present study is the first of

  10. Guidelines for Analysis of Socio-Cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-Cultural Factors in Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this fourth of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with sociocultural, psychological, and behavioral factors that affect the planning…

  11. Eliciting consumer preferences for health plans.

    PubMed

    Booske, B C; Sainfort, F; Hundt, A S

    1999-10-01

    To examine (1) what people say is important to them in choosing a health plan; (2) the effect, if any, that giving health plan information has on what people say is important to them; and (3) the effect of preference elicitation methods on what people say is important. A random sample of 201 Wisconsin state employees who participated in a health plan choice experiment during the 1995 open enrollment period. We designed a computer system to guide subjects through the review of information about health plan options. The system began by eliciting the stated preferences of the subjects before they viewed the information, at time 0. Subjects were given an opportunity to revise their preference structures first after viewing summary information about four health plans (time 1) and then after viewing more extensive, detailed information about the same options (time 2). At time 2, these individuals were also asked to rate the relative importance of a predefined list of health plan features presented to them. Data were collected on the number of attributes listed at each point in time and the importance weightings assigned to each attribute. In addition, each item on the attribute list was content analyzed. The provision of information changes the preference structures of individuals. Costs (price) and coverage dominated the attributes cited both before and after looking at health plan information. When presented with information on costs, quality, and how plans work, many of these relatively well educated consumers revised their preference structures; yet coverage and costs remained the primary cited attributes. Although efforts to provide health plan information should continue, decisions on the information to provide and on making it available are not enough. Individuals need help in understanding, processing, and using the information to construct their preferences and make better decisions.

  12. Forward Plan for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert

    1976-01-01

    The forward plan for health for 1978-1982 represents the Public Health Service's view of the health world for the next five-year period. Six main themes are outlined: knowledge development; prevention of illness; improving the health-care system; assuring the quality of health care; health-care financing; and tracking and evaluation. (LBH)

  13. [Strategic planning and mental health policies].

    PubMed

    Tonini, Nelsi Salete; Kantorski, Luciane Prado

    2007-03-01

    This article discusses how mental health policies are prioritized in the process of strategic planning of mental health actions within the context of Brazilian psychiatric reform. The theoretical support of strategic planning provide health professionals, particularly those involved in metal health, with elements fir deepening discussions on existing mental health actions and policies.

  14. A public health hazard mitigation planning process.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jennifer M; Kay Carpender, S; Crouch, Jill Artzberger; Quiram, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Rural Public Health, a member of the Training and Education Collaborative System Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (TECS-PERLC), has long-standing partnerships with 2 Health Service Regions (Regions) in Texas. TECS-PERLC was contracted by these Regions to address 2 challenges identified in meeting requirements outlined by the Risk-Based Funding Project. First, within Metropolitan Statistical Areas, there is not a formal authoritative structure. Second, preexisting tools and processes did not adequately satisfy requirements to assess public health, medical, and mental health needs and link mitigation strategies to the Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, which provide guidance to prepare for, respond to, and recover from public health incidents. TECS-PERLC, with its partners, developed a framework to interpret and apply results from the Texas Public Health Risk Assessment Tool (TxPHRAT). The 3-phase community engagement-based TxPHRAT Mitigation Planning Process (Mitigation Planning Process) and associated tools facilitated the development of mitigation plans. Tools included (1) profiles interpreting TxPHRAT results and identifying, ranking, and prioritizing hazards and capability gaps; (2) a catalog of intervention strategies and activities linked to hazards and capabilities; and (3) a template to plan, evaluate, and report mitigation planning efforts. The Mitigation Planning Process provided a framework for Regions to successfully address all funding requirements. TECS-PERLC developed more than 60 profiles, cataloged and linked 195 intervention strategies, and developed a template resulting in 20 submitted mitigation plans. A public health-focused, community engagement-based mitigation planning process was developed by TECS-PERLC and successfully implemented by the Regions. The outcomes met all requirements and reinforce the effectiveness of academic practice partnerships and importance of

  15. Employer health care plan design and its effect on plan costs.

    PubMed

    Custer, W S

    1991-01-01

    This study uses claims data from employers in the Houston Area Health Care Coalition (HAHCC) for 1985 through the first half of 1987 to examine the effect of health care plan attributes on health care costs. Plan attributes affect the site of care and the costs of care. Utilization review clearly was effective in reducing the demand for inpatient services, but that reduction was in large measure matched by increases in care in the outpatient setting. Restrictions on mental health benefits also shifted the site of care. In contrast, neither premium sharing nor the plan's deductible had a significant impact on total plan charges. The study results demonstrate the need to have a comprehensive cost management strategy.

  16. CONSUMER ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH PLANS SURVEY (CAHPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 5-year project has been used for consumers to identify the best health care plans and services for their needs. The goals of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS?) are to (1) develop and test questionnaires that assess health plans and services, (2) produce easily ...

  17. Federal supports for state oral health plans.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed both a proliferation of state oral health plans that include very specific proposals for action and an emergence of federal laws that include support for oral health. This paper provides an overview of state oral health priorities for action as reflected in 40 oral health plans that were developed independently by states. It examines four federal laws - the 2002 Safety Net Improvement Act, the 2009 CHIP Reauthorization Act, the 2009 economic stimulus law, and the 2010 health reform law - to identify opportunities for alignment with action steps proposed in state plans. This analysis identifies 23 categories of activity proposed by states in their action plans and determines that all but six of these activities are now supported by one or more of these four federal laws. State activities undertaken through grants provided under the 2002 Safety Net Improvement Act are analyzed as an example of how states can leverage federal legislation to advance their oral health plans. The paper concludes with consideration of the steps needed for states to promote their oral health plans by leveraging the full capacity of federal legislation. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. Intersectoral planning for city health development.

    PubMed

    Green, Geoff

    2012-04-01

    The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity.

  19. Family planning and health: the Narangwal experiment.

    PubMed

    Faruqee, R

    1983-06-01

    The findings of a 7-year field experiment conducted in the Indian Punjab show that integrating family planning with health services is more effective and efficient than providing family planning separately. The field experiment was conducted between 1968 and 1974 at Narangwal in the Indian State of Punjab. It involved 26 villages, with a total population of 35,000 in 1971-72. The demographic characteristics of the villages were found to be typical of the area. 5 groups of villages were provided with different combinations of services for health, nutrition and family planning. A control group received no project services. A population study was made of the effects of integrating family planning with maternal and child health services. A nutritional study looked at the results of integrating nutritional care and health services. The effectiveness of integration was evaluated by identifying it both with increased use of family planning and improved health. Efficiency was judged by relating effectiveness to input costs. Distribution of the benefits was also examined. The effectiveness of these different combinations of services on the use of family planning was measured: 1) by all changes in the use of modern methods of family planning, 2) by the number of new acceptors, 3) by the changes in the proportion of eligible women using contraceptives, and 4) by how many people started to use the more effective methods. Results showed the use of family planning increased substantially in the experimental groups, whereas the control group remained constant. It was also found that, though the services combining family planning with maternal health care stimulated more use of family planning, they were more costly than the more integrated srevices. The Narangwal experiment provides significant evidence in favor of combining the provision of family planning and health services, but its potential for replication on a large scale needs to be studied.

  20. [Consumer satisfaction study in philanthropic hospital health plans].

    PubMed

    Gerschman, Silvia; Veiga, Luciana; Guimarães, César; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of research aimed at identifying and analyzing the argumentation and rationale that justify the satisfaction of consumers with their health plans. The qualitative method applied used the focus group technique, for which the following aspects were defined: the criteria for choosing the health plans which were considered, the composition of the group and its distribution, recruitment strategy, and infrastructure and dynamics of the meetings. The health plan beneficiaries were classified into groups according to their social class, the place where they lived, mainly, the relationship that they established with the health plan operators which enabled us to develop a typology for the plan beneficiaries. Initially, we indicated how the health plan beneficiaries assess and use the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), and, then, considering the types of plans defined, we evaluated their degree of satisfaction with the different aspects of health care, and identified which aspects mostly contributed explain their satisfaction.

  1. How to choose a health plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. When it comes to getting health insurance, you may have more than one option. Many ... one plan. If you are buying from the Health Insurance Marketplace, you may have several plans to choose ...

  2. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  3. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  4. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  5. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  6. 42 CFR 495.336 - Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements (HIT PAPD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information technology planning advance... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.336 Health information technology planning advance planning document requirements...

  7. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  8. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  9. The strategic planning of health management information systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles and functions of strategic planning of information systems in health services. It selects four specialised methodologies of strategic planning for analysis with respect to their applicability in the health field. It then examines the utilisation of information planning in case studies of three health organisations (two State departments of health and community services and one acute care institution). Issues arising from the analysis concern the planning process, the use to which plans are put, and implications for management.

  10. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract...

  11. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract...

  12. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract...

  13. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract...

  14. 48 CFR 1602.170-9 - Health benefits plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan. 1602... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-9 Health benefits plan. Health benefits plan means a group insurance policy, contract...

  15. Health care's new game changer. Thinking like a health plan.

    PubMed

    Eggbeer, Bill; Bowers, Krista

    2014-10-01

    The transition for hospitals from having only a provider's perspective to thinking more like a health plan will require strategic alignment on four fronts: Health plan alignment. Hospital and physician alignment. Leadership alignment. Organizational alignment.

  16. Federal Parity and Access to Behavioral Health Care in Private Health Plans.

    PubMed

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M; Stewart, Maureen T; Quinn, Amity E; Creedon, Timothy B; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W

    2018-04-01

    The 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) sought to improve access to behavioral health care by regulating health plans' coverage and management of services. Health plans have some discretion in how to achieve compliance with MHPAEA, leaving questions about its likely effects on health plan policies. In this study, the authors' objective was to determine how private health plans' coverage and management of behavioral health treatment changed after the federal parity law's full implementation. A nationally representative survey of commercial health plans was conducted in 60 market areas across the continental United States, achieving response rates of 89% in 2010 (weighted N=8,431) and 80% in 2014 (weighted N=6,974). Senior executives at responding plans were interviewed regarding behavioral health services in each year and (in 2014) regarding changes. Student's t tests were used to examine changes in services covered, cost-sharing, and prior authorization requirements for both behavioral health and general medical care. In 2014, 68% of insurance products reported having expanded behavioral health coverage since 2010. Exclusion of eating disorder coverage was eliminated between 2010 (23%) and 2014 (0%). However, more products reported excluding autism treatment in 2014 (24%) than 2010 (8%). Most plans reported no change to prior-authorization requirements between 2010 and 2014. Implementation of federal parity legislation appears to have been accompanied by continuing improvement in behavioral health coverage. The authors did not find evidence of widespread noncompliance or of unintended effects, such as dropping coverage of behavioral health care altogether.

  17. Strategic planning: health plan perspective.

    PubMed

    Mills, P S

    1990-01-01

    The managed care industry is one of the most dynamic industries in the health care business. The development of new products, formation of alliances, changes in legislation and other types of changes are regular occurrences. This kind of dynamic environment makes it more important than ever to use strategic planning to guide management decisions.

  18. Health Planning Under Way. Annual Report, Fiscal 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Health Planning and Resources Development.

    Fiscal year 1978 activities of the Bureau of Health Planning are presented in this annual report. The report is organized into areawide planning (e.g., health planning was established in 213 geographic regions, including 205 health service areas served by Health Systems Agencies and eight states, territories, and the District of Columbia);…

  19. Program Planning in Health Professions Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.

  20. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables.

  1. Justice in Health Care Decision-Making: Patients’ Appraisals of Health Care Providers and Health Plan Representatives

    PubMed Central

    Fondacaro, Mark; Frogner, Bianca; Moos, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of two versions of a Health Care Justice Inventory (HCJI). One version focuses on patients’ interactions with their providers (HCJI-P) and the other focuses on patients’ interactions with the representatives of their health plans (HCJI-HP). Each version of the HCJI assesses patients’ appraisals of their interactions (with either their Provider or representatives of their Health Plan) along three common dimensions of procedural justice: Trust, Impartiality, and Participation. Both the Provider and Health Plan scales assess indices that are relatively independent of patients’ demographic characteristics. In addition, patients’ appraisals of their interactions with their provider were only moderately related to their appraisals of their interactions with representatives of their health plan, indicating that the Provider and Health Plan scales tap distinct aspects of patients’ overall experience with the health care system. Overall, procedural justice dimensions were significantly related to patient satisfaction in both the Provider and the Health Plan contexts. As predicted, procedural justice factors were more strongly tied to patient satisfaction in the Provider than in the Health Plan context, and health care decisions based on distributive justice principles of Need (rather than Equity or Equality) were most closely tied to patient satisfaction in both contexts. PMID:16021741

  2. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Plan In most HMO Plans, you generally ... certain service when needed. Related Resources Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  3. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  4. Health Plans' Disease Management Programs: Extending across the Medical and Behavioral Health Spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M.; Garnick, Deborah W.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    While the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes, but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health, and depression program characteristics are highly variable. PMID:18806594

  5. Health plan competition in local markets.

    PubMed

    Grossman, J M

    2000-04-01

    To examine the structure of local health insurance markets and the strategies health plans were using to respond to competitive pressures in local markets in 1996/1997. Community Tracking Study site visits conducted between May 1996 and April 1997 in 12 U.S. markets selected to be nationally representative. In each site, 36 to 60 interviews on local health system change were conducted with healthcare industry informants representing health plans, providers, and purchasers. Relevant data for this article were abstracted from standardized protocols administered to multiple respondents in each site. Although the competitive threat from national plans was pervasive, local plans in most sites continued to retain strong, often dominant, positions in historically concentrated markets. In all sites, in response to purchaser pressures for stable premiums and provider choice, and the threat of entry and to plans were using three strategies to increase market share and market power: (1) consolidation/geographic expansion, (2) price competition, and (3) product line/segment diversification that focused on broad networks and open-access products. In most markets, in response to the demand for provider choice, the trend was away from ownership and exclusive arrangements with providers. Although local plans were moving to become full-service regional players, there was uncertainty about the abilities of all plans to sustain growth strategies at the expense of margins and organizational stability, and to effectively manage care with broad networks.

  6. Improving Olympic health services: what are the common health care planning issues?

    PubMed

    Kononovas, Kostas; Black, Georgia; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-12-01

    Due to their scale, the Olympic and Paralympic Games have the potential to place significant strain on local health services. The Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008, Vancouver 2010, and London 2012 Olympic host cities shared their experiences by publishing reports describing health care arrangements. Olympic planning reports were compared to highlight best practices, to understand whether and which lessons are transferable, and to identify recurring health care planning issues for future hosts. A structured, critical, qualitative analysis of all available Olympic health care reports was conducted. Recommendations and issues with implications for future Olympic host cities were extracted from each report. The six identified themes were: (1) the importance of early planning and relationship building: clarifying roles early to agree on responsibility and expectations, and engaging external and internal groups in the planning process from the start; (2) the development of appropriate medical provision: most health care needs are addressed inside Olympic venues rather than by hospitals which do not experience significant increases in attendance during the Games; (3) preparing for risks: gastrointestinal and food-borne illnesses are the most common communicable diseases experienced during the Games, but the incidence is still very low; (4) addressing the security risk: security arrangements are one of the most resource-demanding tasks; (5) managing administration and logistical issues: arranging staff permission to work at Games venues ("accreditation") is the most complex administrative task that is likely to encounter delays and errors; and (6) planning and assessing health legacy programs: no previous Games were able to demonstrate that their health legacy initiatives were effective. Although each report identified similar health care planning issues, subsequent Olympic host cities did not appear to have drawn on the transferable experiences of previous host

  7. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this...

  8. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this...

  9. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this...

  10. 42 CFR 56.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 56.105 Section 56.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made under this...

  11. Awakening consumer stewardship of health benefits: prevalence and differentiation of new health plan models.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Meredith; Milstein, Arnold

    2004-08-01

    Despite widespread publicity of consumer-directed health plans, little is known about their prevalence and the extent to which their designs adequately reflect and support consumerism. We examined three types of consumer-directed health plans: health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, and point-of-care tiered benefit plans. We sought to measure the extent to which these plans had diffused, as well as to provide a critical look at the ways in which these plans support consumerism. Consumerism in this context refers to efforts to enable informed consumer choice and consumers' involvement in managing their health. We also wished to determine whether mainstream health plans-health maintenance organization (HMO), point of service (POS), and preferred provider organization (PPO) models-were being influenced by consumerism. Our study uses national survey data collected by Mercer Human Resource Consulting from 680 national and regional commercial health benefit plans on HMO, PPO, POS, and consumer-directed products. We defined consumer-directed products as health benefit plans that provided (1) consumer incentives to select more economical health care options, including self-care and no care, and (2) information and support to inform such selections. We asked health plans that offered consumer-directed products about 2003 enrollment, basic design features, and the availability of decision support. We also asked mainstream health plans about their activities that supported consumerism (e.g., proactive outreach to inform or influence enrollee behavior, such as self-management or preventive care, reminders sent to patients with identified medical conditions.) We analyzed survey responses for all four product lines in order to identify those plans that offer health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, or point-of-care tiered models as well as efforts of mainstream health plans to engage informed consumer decision making. The majority of enrollees in

  12. Health plan competition in local markets.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, J M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the structure of local health insurance markets and the strategies health plans were using to respond to competitive pressures in local markets in 1996/1997. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Community Tracking Study site visits conducted between May 1996 and April 1997 in 12 U.S. markets selected to be nationally representative. STUDY DESIGN: In each site, 36 to 60 interviews on local health system change were conducted with healthcare industry informants representing health plans, providers, and purchasers. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHOD: Relevant data for this article were abstracted from standardized protocols administered to multiple respondents in each site. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the competitive threat from national plans was pervasive, local plans in most sites continued to retain strong, often dominant, positions in historically concentrated markets. In all sites, in response to purchaser pressures for stable premiums and provider choice, and the threat of entry and to plans were using three strategies to increase market share and market power: (1) consolidation/geographic expansion, (2) price competition, and (3) product line/segment diversification that focused on broad networks and open-access products. In most markets, in response to the demand for provider choice, the trend was away from ownership and exclusive arrangements with providers. CONCLUSIONS: Although local plans were moving to become full-service regional players, there was uncertainty about the abilities of all plans to sustain growth strategies at the expense of margins and organizational stability, and to effectively manage care with broad networks. PMID:10778822

  13. Case-mix adjustment of consumer reports about managed behavioral health care and health plans.

    PubMed

    Eselius, Laura L; Cleary, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H

    2008-12-01

    To develop a model for adjusting patients' reports of behavioral health care experiences on the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO) survey to allow for fair comparisons across health plans. Survey responses from 4,068 individuals enrolled in 21 managed behavioral health plans who received behavioral health care within the previous year (response rate = 48 percent). Potential case-mix adjustors were evaluated by combining information about their predictive power and the amount of within- and between-plan variability. Changes in plan scores and rankings due to case-mix adjustment were quantified. The final case-mix adjustment model included self-reported mental health status, self-reported general health status, alcohol/drug treatment, age, education, and race/ethnicity. The impact of adjustment on plan report scores was modest, but large enough to change some plan rankings. Adjusting plan report scores on the ECHO survey for differences in patient characteristics had modest effects, but still may be important to maintain the credibility of patient reports as a quality metric. Differences between those with self-reported fair/poor health compared with those in excellent/very good health varied by plan, suggesting quality differences associated with health status and underscoring the importance of collecting quality information.

  14. Dissemination of a Web-Based Tool for Supporting Health Insurance Plan Decisions (Show Me Health Plans): Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingsong; Mir, Nageen; Ackermann, Nicole; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Politi, Mary C

    2018-06-20

    The rate of uninsured people has decreased dramatically since the Affordable Care Act was passed. To make an informed decision, consumers need assistance to understand the advantages and disadvantages of health insurance plans. The Show Me Health Plans Web-based decision support tool was developed to improve the quality of health insurance selection. In response to the promising effectiveness of Show Me Health Plans in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and the growing need for Web-based health insurance decision support, the study team used expert recommendations for dissemination and implementation, engaged external stakeholders, and made the Show Me Health Plans tool available to the public. The purpose of this study was to implement the public dissemination of the Show Me Health Plans tool in the state of Missouri and to evaluate its impact compared to the RCT. This study used a cross-sectional observational design. Dissemination phase users were compared with users in the RCT study across the same outcome measures. Time spent using the Show Me Health Plans tool, knowledge, importance rating of 9 health insurance features, and intended plan choice match with algorithm predictions were examined. During the dissemination phase (November 2016 to January 2017), 10,180 individuals visited the SMHP website, and the 1069 users who stayed on the tool for more than one second were included in our analyses. Dissemination phase users were more likely to live outside St. Louis City or County (P<.001), were less likely to be below the federal poverty level (P<.001), and had a higher income (P=.03). Overall, Show Me Health Plans users from St. Louis City or County spent more time on the Show Me Health Plans tool than those from other Missouri counties (P=.04); this association was not observed in the RCT. Total time spent on the tool was not correlated with knowledge scores, which were associated with lower poverty levels (P=.009). The users from the RCT phase were more

  15. Iran's Health Reform Plan: Measuring Changes in Equity Indices.

    PubMed

    Assari Arani, Abbas; Atashbar, Tohid; Antoun, Joseph; Bossert, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Two years after the implementation of the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), this study evaluated the effects of the plan on health equity indices. The main indices assessed by the study were the Out-of-Pocket (OOP) health expenditures, the Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index, the index of households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE). The per capita share of costs for total health services has been decreased. The lowered costs have been more felt in rural areas, generally due to sharp decrease in inpatient costs. Per capita pay for outpatient services is almost constant or has slightly increased. The reform plan has managed to improve households' Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) index from an average of 2.9% before the implementation of the plan to 2.3% after the plan. The Fairness in Financial Contribution (FFC) to the health system index has worsened from 0.79 to 0.76, and the headcount ratio of Impoverishing Health Expenditure (IHE) index deteriorated after the implementation of plan from 0.34 to 0.50. Considerable improvement, in decreasing the burden of catastrophic hospital costs in low income strata which is about 26% relative to the time before the implementation of the plan can be regarded as the main achievement of the plan, whereas the worsening in the headcount ratio of IHE and FFC are the equity bottlenecks of the plan.

  16. 45 CFR 162.1701 - Health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1701 Section 162.1701 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1701 Health plan...

  17. 45 CFR 162.1701 - Health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1701 Section 162.1701 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1701 Health plan...

  18. 76 FR 21907 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...-2011-0002] Draft Action Plan--A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION... Federal Register requesting public comment on the draft, A Public Health Action Plan to Combat...

  19. Awakening Consumer Stewardship of Health Benefits: Prevalence and Differentiation of New Health Plan Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Meredith; Milstein, Arnold

    2004-01-01

    Context Despite widespread publicity of consumer-directed health plans, little is known about their prevalence and the extent to which their designs adequately reflect and support consumerism. Objective We examined three types of consumer-directed health plans: health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, and point-of-care tiered benefit plans. We sought to measure the extent to which these plans had diffused, as well as to provide a critical look at the ways in which these plans support consumerism. Consumerism in this context refers to efforts to enable informed consumer choice and consumers' involvement in managing their health. We also wished to determine whether mainstream health plans—health maintenance organization (HMO), point of service (POS), and preferred provider organization (PPO) models—were being influenced by consumerism. Data Sources/Study Setting Our study uses national survey data collected by Mercer Human Resource Consulting from 680 national and regional commercial health benefit plans on HMO, PPO, POS, and consumer-directed products. Study Design We defined consumer-directed products as health benefit plans that provided (1) consumer incentives to select more economical health care options, including self-care and no care, and (2) information and support to inform such selections. We asked health plans that offered consumer-directed products about 2003 enrollment, basic design features, and the availability of decision support. We also asked mainstream health plans about their activities that supported consumerism (e.g., proactive outreach to inform or influence enrollee behavior, such as self-management or preventive care, reminders sent to patients with identified medical conditions.) Data Collection/Extraction Methods We analyzed survey responses for all four product lines in order to identify those plans that offer health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, or point-of-care tiered models as well as efforts of

  20. 48 CFR 1852.223-73 - Safety and Health Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety and Health Plan... 1852.223-73 Safety and Health Plan. As prescribed in 1823.7001(c), insert the following provision: Safety and Health Plan (NOV 2004) (a) The offeror shall submit a detailed safety and occupational health...

  1. 48 CFR 1852.223-73 - Safety and Health Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety and Health Plan... 1852.223-73 Safety and Health Plan. As prescribed in 1823.7001(c), insert the following provision: Safety and Health Plan (NOV 2004) (a) The offeror shall submit a detailed safety and occupational health...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.223-73 - Safety and Health Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety and Health Plan... 1852.223-73 Safety and Health Plan. As prescribed in 1823.7001(c), insert the following provision: Safety and Health Plan (NOV 2004) (a) The offeror shall submit a detailed safety and occupational health...

  3. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for health plans. 162.925 Section 162.925 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... requirements for health plans. (a) General rules. (1) If an entity requests a health plan to conduct a...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.223-73 - Safety and Health Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety and Health Plan... 1852.223-73 Safety and Health Plan. As prescribed in 1823.7001(c), insert the following provision: Safety and Health Plan (NOV 2004) (a) The offeror shall submit a detailed safety and occupational health...

  5. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for health plans. 162.925 Section 162.925 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... requirements for health plans. (a) General rules. (1) If an entity requests a health plan to conduct a...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.223-73 - Safety and Health Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety and Health Plan... 1852.223-73 Safety and Health Plan. As prescribed in 1823.7001(c), insert the following provision: Safety and Health Plan (NOV 2004) (a) The offeror shall submit a detailed safety and occupational health...

  7. Study of the Subarea Approach to Health Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comprehensive Health Planning, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Recognizing the need for a health manpower planning system that would insure the recruitment, training, utilization, and retention of area residents as skilled providers of health care, Comprehensive Health Planning, Inc., Metropolitan Chicago (CHP), and the West Side Health Planning Organization (WSHPO) embarked on a 1-year project to demonstrate…

  8. 76 FR 14402 - Draft Action Plan-A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...-2011-0002] Draft Action Plan--A Public Health Action Plan To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION... requesting public comment on the draft A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance. HHS...

  9. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  10. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  11. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  12. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  13. 42 CFR 417.101 - Health benefits plan: Basic health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Basic health services. 417.101 Section 417.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE...

  14. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  15. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS...

  16. 42 CFR 417.102 - Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health benefits plan: Supplemental health services. 417.102 Section 417.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL...

  17. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Paul; Hewitt, Stephen; Blackshaw, Neil

    2013-09-01

    There has been a welcome joining up of the rhetoric around health, the environment and land use or spatial planning in both the English public health white paper and the National Planning Policy Framework. However, this paper highlights a real concern that this is not being followed through into practical guidance needed by local authorities (LAs), health bodies and developers about how to deliver this at the local level. The role of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Health and Wellbeing Strategies (HWSs) have the potential to provide a strong basis for integrated local policies for health improvement, to address the wider determinants of health and to reduce inequities. However, the draft JSNA guidance from the Department of Health falls short of providing a robust, comprehensive and practical guide to meeting these very significant challenges. The paper identifies some examples of good practice. It recommends that action should be taken to raise the standards of all JSNAs to meet the new challenges and that HWSs should be aligned spatially and temporally with local plans and other LA strategies. HWSs should also identify spatially targeted interventions that can be delivered through spatial planning or transport planning. Steps need to be taken to ensure that district councils are brought into the process.

  18. Manpower planning for oral health.

    PubMed

    Ross, C B

    1988-03-01

    The challenges to the dental profession include the unemployed dentists, the radical changes to the numbers of dental schools and their intake of new students; and the imbalance which exists on a global scale between oral health personnel and service need and demand. Workforce planning needs clearly defined goals which relate to the nature of disease, the shift from treatment to prevention and consumer expectations. A wide variety of information is required to facilitate communication and co-operation with elements of the political system, the educational system, professional bodies, health service agencies and consumers. It is essential that national planning and monitoring groups be established with membership from dental associations, educational institutions and government. In workforce planning there must be the ability to accept change, to be creative, to be positive, and to be decisive.

  19. Health plan switching among members of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program.

    PubMed

    Atherly, Adam; Florence, Curtis; Thorpe, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with switching health plans in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. Switching plans is not uncommon, with 12% of members switching plans annually. Individuals switch out of plans with premium increases and benefit decreases relative to other plans in the market. Switching is negatively associated with age due to increasing switching costs associated with age rather than decreasing premium sensitivity. Individuals in preferred provider organizations are less likely to switch, but are more responsive to premium increases than those in the managed care sector. Those who do switch plans are likely to switch to a different plan in the same sector.

  20. Medication adherence and measures of health plan quality.

    PubMed

    Seabury, Seth A; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Dougherty, J Samantha; Sullivan, Jeff; Goldman, Dana P

    2015-06-01

    Medication adherence is increasingly being considered as a measure for performance-based reimbursement contracts in healthcare systems. However, the association between health outcomes and adherence at the plan level is unknown. Retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy claims from a large private sector claims database from 2000 to 2009. We compared plan-level measures of medication adherence and health outcomes for patients with diabetes and congestive heart failure (CHF). Plan performance was based on average rates of disease complications. Medication adherence was calculated as the percent of patients having 80% of days covered for medications treating diabetes or CHF. Both adherence and outcomes were adjusted for patient differences using multivariate regression. Plans were stratified into low, moderate, and high adherence, based on adherence in the bottom quartile, middle 2 quartiles, and top quartile, respectively. Average adherence varied significantly across plans. Plans with low adherence to diabetes medications had adjusted rates of uncontrolled diabetes admissions of 13.2 per 1000 patients, compared with 11.2 in moderate adherence plans and 8.3 in high adherence plans (P < .001). The adjusted rate of CHF-related hospitalization was 15.3% in low adherence plans, compared with 12.4% in moderate adherence plans and 12.2% in high adherence plans (P < .001). These patterns were consistent across different types of complications for both diabetes and CHF. Private health plans vary considerably in average adherence to medications treating chronic diseases. Plans with higher average adherence had lower rates of disease complications, suggesting that medication adherence measures are potentially useful tools for improving the performance of health plans.

  1. Guidelines for Analysis of Communicable Disease Control Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 1: Communicable Diseases Control Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, James

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this first of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with planning and evaluation of communicable disease control programs. The first…

  2. [The Health Plan for Catalonia: an instrument to transform the health system].

    PubMed

    Constante i Beitia, Carles

    2015-11-01

    The Department of Health of the Generalitat in Catalonia periodically draws up the Health Plan, which is the strategic document that brings together the reference framework for initiatives concerning public health in terms of the Catalan health administration. The 2011-2015 version of the Health Plan incorporates key care and system governance-related elements, which, in conjunction with health goals, make up the complete picture of what the health system in Catalonia should look like until 2015. The Plan was drawn up at a time when the environmental conditions were extremely particular, given the major economic crisis that began in 2007. This has meant that the system has been forced to address public health problems using a significant reduction in the economic resources available, while aiming to maintain the level of care provided, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and preserve the sustainability of the system whose defining traits are its universality, equity and the wide range of services on offer. The Health Plan focuses on three areas of action, 9 major courses of action and 32 strategic projects designed to respond to new social needs: addressing the most common health issues, comprehensive care for chronic patients and organizational modernization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Health professionals' opinion of the Catalan Health Plan. Basis for a reflexion on the future].

    PubMed

    Brugulat, P; Séculi, E; Fusté, J; Juncà, S; Martínez, V; Medina, A; Mercader, M; Sánchez, E

    2003-01-01

    To know health professional's opinion of the Health Plan for Catalonia (Spain) in order to get news elements for the formulation and management of new plans. Combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Postal survey to doctors and nurses (multistage randomised sample). 3.223 questionnaires were obtained (response rate: 34,1%). Interview to a selected sample of 41 health care professionals and managers. 78,8% (IC95%: 1,4) of health professionals are familiar with the Health Plan, and for most of them it is valued as important. 28,9% (IC95%: 1,7) of the professionals who know the Plan consider that it has repercussions in their daily work and 51,8% (IC95%: 1,9) declare that it doesn't have any repercussions. Different issues such as the planning process, the contents, the dissemination strategy, as well as a the poor impact on the health budget are critised. Differences by age group and sex, care setting and type of health professional are observed. The implication of health professionals in the discussion, formulation and implementation of the Health Plan proposals needs to be improved. It will be necessary to make progress in identifying health problems and needs, in setting priorities and in the allocation of resources. To increase the multisectorial involvement and to develop marketing strategies directed to politicians, managers and health professionals will also be needed in order to increase the impact of the Health Plan on both the Health System and the other sectors involved in health. The role to be played by the Health Plan in the health system must be redefined and this will lead to redesigning the planning process and the implementation of health strategies.

  4. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.201 Minimum standards for health benefits plans. (a) To qualify for approval by OPM, a health benefits plan...

  5. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.201 Minimum standards for health benefits plans. (a) To qualify for approval by OPM, a health benefits plan...

  6. Urban planning and health equity.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary Evelyn; Freeman, Lance

    2011-06-01

    Although the fields of urban planning and public health share a common origin in the efforts of reformers to tame the ravages of early industrialization in the 19th century, the 2 disciplines parted ways in the early 20th century as planners increasingly focused on the built environment while public health professionals narrowed in on biomedical causes of disease and disability. Among the unfortunate results of this divergence was a tendency to discount the public health implications of planning decisions. Given increasingly complex urban environments and grave health disparities in cities worldwide, urban planners and public health professionals have once again become convinced of the need for inclusive approaches to improve population health and achieve health equity. To make substantive progress, intersectoral collaboration utilizing ecological and systems science perspectives will be crucial as the solutions lie well beyond the control of any single authority. Grounded in the social determinants of health, and with a renewed sense of interconnectedness, dedicated and talented people in government agencies and communities who recognize that our future depends on cultivating local change and evaluating the results can come to grips with the enormous challenge that lies ahead to create more equitable, sustainable, and healthier cities worldwide.

  7. Housing, health and master planning: rules of engagement.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Haigh, F; Thornell, M; Molloy, L; Sainsbury, P

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about health focussed policy collaboration to date has been either tactical or technical. This article focusses on both technical and tactical issues to describe the experience of cross-sectoral collaboration between health and housing stakeholders across the life of a housing master plan, including but not limited to a health impact assessment (HIA). A single explanatory case study of collaboration on a master plan to regenerate a deprived housing estate in Western Sydney was developed to explain why and how the collaboration worked or did not work. Data collection included stakeholder interviews, document review, and reflections by the health team. Following a realist approach, data was analysed against established public policy theory dimensions. Tactically we did not know what we were doing. Despite our technical knowledge and skills with health focussed processes, particularly HIA, we failed to appreciate complexities inherent in master planning. This limited our ability to provide information at the right points. Eventually however the HIA did provide substantive connections between the master plan and health. We use our analysis to develop technical and tactical rules of engagement for future cross-sectoral collaboration. This case study from the field provides insight for future health focussed policy collaboration. We demonstrate the technical and tactical requirements for future intersectoral policy and planning collaborations, including HIAs, with the housing sector on master planning. The experience also suggested how HIAs can be conducted flexibly alongside policy development rather than at a specific point after a policy is drafted. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  8. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made...

  9. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made...

  10. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made...

  11. 42 CFR 51c.105 - Accord with health planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accord with health planning. 51c.105 Section 51c.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.105 Accord with health planning. A grant may be made...

  12. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account... benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account...

  13. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account... benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account...

  14. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account... benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account... benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides health plan coverage through a health benefits account...

  16. Tennessee health plan tobacco cessation coverage.

    PubMed

    Kolade, Folasade M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the smoking cessation coverage available from public and private Tennessee health plans. Cross-sectional study. The sampling frame for private plans was a register of licensed plans obtained from the Tennessee Commerce Department. Government websites and reports provided TennCare data. Data were abstracted from plan manuals and formularies for benefit year 2012. Classification of coverage included comprehensive-all seven recommended medications plus individual and group counseling; moderate-at least two forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus bupropion and varenicline and one form of counseling; inadequate-at least one treatment, or none-no medications or counseling, or coverage only for pregnant women. Of nine private plans, one provided comprehensive coverage; two, moderate coverage; four, inadequate coverage, as did TennCare; and two plans provided no coverage. Over 362,800 smokers had inadequate access to cessation treatments under TennCare, while 119,094 smokers had inadequate or no cessation coverage under private plans. In 2012, Tennessee fell short of Healthy People goals for total managed care and comprehensive TennCare coverage of smoking cessation. If Tennessee mandates that all health plans provide full coverage, 481,900 smokers may immediately be in a better position to quit. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 42 CFR 440.350 - Employer-sponsored insurance health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. 440.350 Section 440.350 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.350 Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. (a) A State may provide...

  18. 42 CFR 440.350 - Employer-sponsored insurance health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. 440.350 Section 440.350 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.350 Employer-sponsored insurance health plans. (a) A State may provide...

  19. How Do Private Health Plans Manage Specialty Behavioral Health Treatment Entry and Continuing Care?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Reif, Sharon; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Stewart, Maureen T

    2017-09-01

    This study examined private health plans' arrangements for accessing and continuing specialty behavioral health treatment in 2010 as federal health reforms were being implemented. These management practices have historically been stricter in behavioral health care than in general medical care; however, the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2010 required parity in management policies. The data source was a nationally representative survey of private health plans' behavioral health treatment management approaches in 2010. Health plan executives were asked about activities for their plan's three products with highest enrollment (weighted N=8,427, 88% response rate). Prior authorization for outpatient behavioral health care was rarely required (4.7% of products), but 75% of products required authorization for ongoing care and over 90% required prior authorization for other levels of care. The most common medical necessity criteria were self-developed and American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria. Nearly all products had formal standards to limit waiting time for routine and urgent treatment, but almost 30% lacked such standards for detoxification services. A range of wait time-monitoring approaches was used. Health plans used a variety of methods to influence behavioral health treatment entry and continuing care. Few relied on prior authorization for outpatient care, but the use of other approaches to influence, manage, or facilitate access was common. Results provide a baseline for understanding the current management environment for specialty behavioral health care. Tracking health plans' approaches over time will be important to ensure that access to behavioral health care is not prohibitively restrictive.

  20. Health Plans' Early Response to Federal Parity Legislation for Mental Health and Addiction Services.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Constance M; Hodgkin, Dominic; Stewart, Maureen T; Quinn, Amity; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Creedon, Timothy B

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, the federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) passed, prohibiting U.S. health plans from subjecting mental health and substance use disorder (behavioral health) coverage to more restrictive limitations than those applied to general medical care. This require d some health plans to make changes in coverage and management of services. The aim of this study was to examine private health plans' early responses to MHPAEA (after its 2010 implementation), in terms of both intended and unintended effects. Data were from a nationally representative survey of commercial health plans regarding the 2010 benefit year and the preparity 2009 benefit year (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate). Annual limits specific to behavioral health care were virtually eliminated between 2009 and 2010. Prevalence of behavioral health coverage was unchanged, and copayments for both behavioral and general medical services increased slightly. Prior authorization requirements for specialty medical and behavioral health outpatient services continued to decline, and the proportion of products reporting strict continuing review requirements increased slightly. Contrary to expectations, plans did not make significant changes in contracting arrangements for behavioral health services, and 80% reported an increase in size of their behavioral health provider network. The law had the intended effect of eliminating quantitative limitations that applied only to behavioral health care without unintended consequences such as eliminating behavioral health coverage. Plan decisions may also reflect other factors, including anticipation of the 2010 regulations and a continuation of trends away from requiring prior authorization.

  1. Disaster mental health preparedness plan in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, G Pandu; Viora, Eka

    2006-12-01

    The tsunami brought into focus many issues related to mental health and psychosocial distress. A prompt response to the disaster relies on existing disaster management plans so that appropriate interventions can be put in place in order to meet the needs of the affected populations. The response must involve both physical and psychological aspects of care. The Indonesian experience was unique in a number of ways and it allowed us to explore the lessons in order to develop strategies to maximize the resources in order to ensure that the whole affected population was cared for. Massive destruction of the physical structures and the work force made the task particularly difficult. Existing policies did not include psychosocial efforts in the plan. However, mental health and psychosocial relief efforts are now being integrated into the disaster preparedness plan of Indonesia. To further implement the plan, a strong community mental health system is being developed. This system will be able to deliver mental health and psychosocial interventions on a routine basis and could be scaled up in times of disasters.

  2. Health plan decision making with new medicare information materials.

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, L A; Garfinkel, S A; Hibbard, J H; Norton, E C; Bayen, U J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of providing new Medicare information materials on consumers' attitudes and behavior about health plan choice. DATA SOURCE: New and experienced Medicare beneficiaries who resided in the Kansas City metropolitan statistical area during winter 1998-99 were surveyed. More than 2,000 computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed across the two beneficiary populations with a mean response rate of 60 percent. STUDY DESIGN: Medicare beneficiaries were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three treatment groups that received varying amounts and types of new Medicare information materials. One treatment group received the Health Care Financing Administrations's pilot Medicare & You 1999 handbook, a second group received the same version of the handbook and a Medicare version of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS) report, and a third treatment group received the Medicare & You bulletin, an abbreviated version of the handbook. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results of the study suggest that the federal government's new consumer information materials are having some influence on Medicare beneficiaries' attitudes and behaviors about health plan decision making. Experienced beneficiary treatment group members were significantly more confident with their current health plan choice than control group members, but new beneficiaries were significantly less likely to use the new materials to choose or change health plans than control group members. In general the effects on confidence and health plan switching did not vary across the different treatment materials. CONCLUSIONS: The 1999 version of the Medicare & You materials contained a message that it is not necessary to change health plans. This message appears to have decreased the likelihood of using the new materials to choose or change plans, whereas other materials to which beneficiaries are exposed may encourage plan switching. Because providing more information to

  3. Health plan decision making with new medicare information materials.

    PubMed

    McCormack, L A; Garfinkel, S A; Hibbard, J H; Norton, E C; Bayen, U J

    2001-07-01

    To examine the effect of providing new Medicare information materials on consumers' attitudes and behavior about health plan choice. New and experienced Medicare beneficiaries who resided in the Kansas City metropolitan statistical area during winter 1998-99 were surveyed. More than 2,000 computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed across the two beneficiary populations with a mean response rate of 60 percent. Medicare beneficiaries were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three treatment groups that received varying amounts and types of new Medicare information materials. One treatment group received the Health Care Financing Administrations's pilot Medicare & You 1999 handbook, a second group received the same version of the handbook and a Medicare version of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans (CAHPS) report, and a third treatment group received the Medicare & You bulletin, an abbreviated version of the handbook. Results of the study suggest that the federal government's new consumer information materials are having some influence on Medicare beneficiaries' attitudes and behaviors about health plan decision making. Experienced beneficiary treatment group members were significantly more confident with their current health plan choice than control group members, but new beneficiaries were significantly less likely to use the new materials to choose or change health plans than control group members. In general the effects on confidence and health plan switching did not vary across the different treatment materials. The 1999 version of the Medicare & You materials contained a message that it is not necessary to change health plans. This message appears to have decreased the likelihood of using the new materials to choose or change plans, whereas other materials to which beneficiaries are exposed may encourage plan switching. Because providing more information to beneficiaries did not result in commensurate increases in confidence levels or

  4. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 45 CFR 162.506 - Standard unique health plan identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard unique health plan identifier. 162.506 Section 162.506 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Plans § 162...

  6. 45 CFR 162.506 - Standard unique health plan identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard unique health plan identifier. 162.506 Section 162.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Plans § 162...

  7. Characteristics of health plans that treat psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Zarin, D A; West, J C; Pincus, H A; Tanielian, T L

    1999-01-01

    Nationally representative data regarding the organizational, financial, and procedural features of health plans in which psychiatric patients receive treatment indicate that fewer privately insured, Medicaid, and Medicare managed care enrollees receive care from a psychiatrist than is true for "nonmanaged" enrollees. Financial considerations were reported to adversely affect treatment for one-third of all patients. Although utilization management techniques and financial/resource constraints commonly applied to patients in both managed and nonmanaged plans, performance-based incentives were rare in nonmanaged plans. The traditional health plan categories provide limited information to identify salient plan characteristics and guide policy decisions regarding the provision of care.

  8. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, V R

    2009-07-20

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  9. Empowering health personnel for decentralized health planning in India: The Public Health Resource Network

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Anuska; Zaidi, Sarover; Prasad, Vandana; Raman, VR

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health Resource Network is an innovative distance-learning course in training, motivating, empowering and building a network of health personnel from government and civil society groups. Its aim is to build human resource capacity for strengthening decentralized health planning, especially at the district level, to improve accountability of health systems, elicit community participation for health, ensure equitable and accessible health facilities and to bring about convergence in programmes and services. The question confronting health systems in India is how best to reform, revitalize and resource primary health systems to deliver different levels of service aligned to local realities, ensuring universal coverage, equitable access, efficiency and effectiveness, through an empowered cadre of health personnel. To achieve these outcomes it is essential that health planning be decentralized. Districts vary widely according to the specific needs of their population, and even more so in terms of existing interventions and available resources. Strategies, therefore, have to be district-specific, not only because health needs vary, but also because people's perceptions and capacities to intervene and implement programmes vary. In centrally designed plans there is little scope for such adaptation and contextualization, and hence decentralized planning becomes crucial. To undertake these initiatives, there is a strong need for trained, motivated, empowered and networked health personnel. It is precisely at this level that a lack of technical knowledge and skills and the absence of a supportive network or adequate educational opportunities impede personnel from making improvements. The absence of in-service training and of training curricula that reflect field realities also adds to this, discouraging health workers from pursuing effective strategies. The Public Health Resource Network is thus an attempt to reach out to motivated though often isolated health

  10. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    PubMed

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  11. 76 FR 37037 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... interim final regulations published July 23, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance..., group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of...

  12. [What do company health insurance plans provide?

    PubMed

    Hamiki, R

    2016-12-15

    Company health insurance plans are a voluntary employer benefit and an increasingly important part of company pension and benefits systems. They enable employers to invest in the health of their employees. They are also a useful modular complement to both statutory and private health insurance. Company health insurance plans allow employers to attract first-rate staff and to retain them for the long term. Employees, in turn, are provided with a variety of attractive additional benefits, for instance treatment by chief physicians, single or double-room hospital accommodation, additional aids and remedies, and a variety of screenings and medical check ups. It is expected that, in the next few years, company health insurance will become very widespread.

  13. Organisational travel plans for improving health.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Jamie; Macmillan, Alexandra; Connor, Jennie; Bullen, Chris; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-17

    Dependence on car use has a number of broad health implications, including contributing to physical inactivity, road traffic injury, air pollution and social severance, as well as entrenching lifestyles that require environmentally unsustainable energy use. Travel plans are interventions that aim to reduce single-occupant car use and increase the use of alternatives such as walking, cycling and public transport, with a variety of behavioural and structural components. This review focuses on organisational travel plans for schools, tertiary institutes and workplaces. These plans are closely aligned in their aims and intervention design, having emerged from a shared theoretical base. To assess the effects of organisational travel plans on health, either directly measured, or through changes in travel mode. We searched the following electronic databases; Transport (1988 to June 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2008), EMBASE (1947 to June 2008), CINAHL (1982 to June 2008), ERIC (1966 to June 2008), PSYCINFO (1806 to June 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to June 2008), BUILD (1989 to 2002), Social Sciences Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Science Citation Index (1900 to June 2008), Arts & Humanities Index (1975 to June 2008), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to August 2008), CENTRAL (to August 2008), Cochrane Injuries Group Register (to December 2009), C2-RIPE (to July 2008), C2-SPECTR (to July 2008), ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (1861 to June 2008). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and Internet sources. We did not restrict the search by date, language or publication status. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled before-after studies of travel behaviour change programmes conducted in an organisational setting, where the measured outcome was change in travel mode or health. Both positive and negative health effects were included. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, assessed trial

  14. Does Your Health Plan Measure Up? How Can You Tell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Describes the process behind health-plan selection for school district employees and offers suggestions on how managers might enhance their current healthcare plan purchasing process. Areas of health-plan review and critique are listed as are tips for measuring plan performance and advice on acquiring backup data on plan quality. (GR)

  15. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims..., ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... external review processes for group health plans and health insurance issuers offering coverage in the...

  16. 75 FR 70159 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...

  17. Engagement of health plans and employers in addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Ahmad, Thaniyyah S; Epstein, Arnold M

    2009-04-01

    Disparities in access to and quality of health care along racial and ethnic lines are an important national problem. Health care purchasers and payers have a potentially important role to play in alleviating this problem. Using national surveys of 609 employers and 252 health plans with HMO products in 41 U.S. markets, we examined awareness of racial and ethnic disparities in health care access and quality, perceptions of employer and health plan role in addressing disparities, and reported efforts to measure and reduce disparities. Our findings suggest that most health plans and many employers are aware of the existence of substantial disparities and that health plans, but not employers, have taken steps to examine and influence patterns of care by race and ethnicity among their members.

  18. Environmental Health Planning Guide. Revised 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This guide to environmental health planning outlines the process and procedures of bringing together certain fundamental data pertaining to various physical aspects of the environment, including data collection, evaluation, usage, and implementation. The components of such planning programs are listed along with study preparation information.…

  19. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...

  20. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  1. State planning of mental health services.

    PubMed

    Sauber, S R

    1976-03-01

    Planning is the vital process that links needs to solutions. The interorganizational field of human services constitutes a "turbulent environment," a condition of rapid change, and there needs to be greater receptivity toward comprehensive planning on the part of state departments of mental health. Increased overlap with various welfare and educational service, advances in scientific knowledge, and shifts in general attitudes and social philosophy lead to demands for new and different types of service and require changes in approach and method. Generalized findings of a study of 14 state departments of mental health are presented.

  2. The Relationship between Health Plan Performance Measures and Physician Network Overlap: Implications for Measuring Plan Quality

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Daniel D; Scanlon, Dennis P; Chernew, Michael E; Gronniger, Tim; Wodchis, Walter P; McLaughlin, Catherine G

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which health plan quality measures capture physician practice patterns rather than plan characteristics. Data Source We gathered and merged secondary data from the following four sources: a private firm that collected information on individual physicians and their health plan affiliations, The National Committee for Quality Assurance, InterStudy, and the Dartmouth Atlas. Study Design We constructed two measures of physician network overlap for all health plans in our sample and linked them to selected measures of plan performance. Two linear regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between the measures of physician network overlap and the plan performance measures. Principal Findings The results indicate that in the presence of a higher degree of provider network overlap, plan performance measures tend to converge to a lower level of quality. Conclusions Standard health plan performance measures reflect physician practice patterns rather than plans' effort to improve quality. This implies that more provider-oriented measurement, such as would be possible with accountable care organizations or medical homes, may facilitate patient decision making and provide further incentives to improve performance. PMID:20403064

  3. Building and measuring infrastructure and capacity for community health assessment and health improvement planning in Florida.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Christine; Grigg, C Meade; Steele, Jo Ann; Osgood, Laurie; Keating, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    COMPASS (Comprehensive Assessment, Strategic Success) is the Florida Department of Health's community health assessment and health improvement planning initiative. Since 2002, COMPASS built state and county health department infrastructure to support a comprehensive, systematic, and integrated approach to community health assessment and planning. To assess the capacity of Florida's 67 county health departments (CHDs) to conduct community health assessment and planning and to identify training and technical assistance needs, COMPASS surveyed the CHDs using a Web-based instrument annually from 2004 through 2008. Response rate to the survey was 100 percent annually. In 2007, 96 percent of CHDs reported conducting assessment and planning within the past 3 years; 74 percent used the MAPP (Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships) framework. Progress was greater for the organizational and assessment phases of the MAPP-based work; only 10 CHDs had identified strategic priorities in 2007, and even fewer had implemented strategies for improving health. In 2007, the most frequently requested types of training were measuring success, developing goals and action plans, and using qualitative data; technical assistance was most frequently requested for program evaluation and writing community health status reports. Florida's CHDs have increased their capacity to conduct community health assessment and planning. Questions remain about sustaining these gains with limited resources.

  4. Responsive Consumerism: Empowerment in Markets for Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: American health policy is increasingly relying on consumerism to improve its performance. This article examines a neglected aspect of medical consumerism: the extent to which consumers respond to problems with their health plans. Methods: Using a telephone survey of five thousand consumers conducted in 2002, this article assesses how frequently consumers voice formal grievances or exit from their health plan in response to problems of differing severity. This article also examines the potential impact of this responsiveness on both individuals and the market. In addition, using cross-group comparisons of means and regressions, it looks at how the responses of “empowered” consumers compared with those who are “less empowered.” Findings: The vast majority of consumers do not formally voice their complaints or exit health plans, even in response to problems with significant consequences. “Empowered” consumers are only minimally more likely to formally voice and no more likely to leave their plan. Moreover, given the greater prevalence of trivial problems, consumers are much more likely to complain or leave their plans because of problems that are not severe. Greater empowerment does not alleviate this. Conclusions: While much of the attention on consumerism has focused on prospective choice, understanding how consumers respond to problems is equally, if not more, important. Relying on consumers’ responses as a means to protect individual consumers or influence the market for health plans is unlikely to be successful in its current form. PMID:19751285

  5. Responsive consumerism: empowerment in markets for health plans.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-09-01

    American health policy is increasingly relying on consumerism to improve its performance. This article examines a neglected aspect of medical consumerism: the extent to which consumers respond to problems with their health plans. Using a telephone survey of five thousand consumers conducted in 2002, this article assesses how frequently consumers voice formal grievances or exit from their health plan in response to problems of differing severity. This article also examines the potential impact of this responsiveness on both individuals and the market. In addition, using cross-group comparisons of means and regressions, it looks at how the responses of "empowered" consumers compared with those who are "less empowered." The vast majority of consumers do not formally voice their complaints or exit health plans, even in response to problems with significant consequences. "Empowered" consumers are only minimally more likely to formally voice and no more likely to leave their plan. Moreover, given the greater prevalence of trivial problems, consumers are much more likely to complain or leave their plans because of problems that are not severe. Greater empowerment does not alleviate this. While much of the attention on consumerism has focused on prospective choice, understanding how consumers respond to problems is equally, if not more, important. Relying on consumers' responses as a means to protect individual consumers or influence the market for health plans is unlikely to be successful in its current form.

  6. Strategic Planning in Population Health and Public Health Practice: A Call to Action for Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    PHELPS, CHARLES; RAPPUOLI, RINO; LEVIN, SCOTT; SHORTLIFFE, EDWARD; COLWELL, RITA

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning.Public health agencies’ current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost‐effectiveness.As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost‐effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning.Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Context Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost‐effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Methods Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach—specifically, multiattribute utility theory—to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost‐effectiveness analysis approach. Findings (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost‐effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems‐level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become

  7. Strategic Planning in Population Health and Public Health Practice: A Call to Action for Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Charles; Madhavan, Guruprasad; Rappuoli, Rino; Levin, Scott; Shortliffe, Edward; Colwell, Rita

    2016-03-01

    Scarce resources, especially in population health and public health practice, underlie the importance of strategic planning. Public health agencies' current planning and priority setting efforts are often narrow, at times opaque, and focused on single metrics such as cost-effectiveness. As demonstrated by SMART Vaccines, a decision support software system developed by the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering, new approaches to strategic planning allow the formal incorporation of multiple stakeholder views and multicriteria decision making that surpass even those sophisticated cost-effectiveness analyses widely recommended and used for public health planning. Institutions of higher education can and should respond by building on modern strategic planning tools as they teach their students how to improve population health and public health practice. Strategic planning in population health and public health practice often uses single indicators of success or, when using multiple indicators, provides no mechanism for coherently combining the assessments. Cost-effectiveness analysis, the most complex strategic planning tool commonly applied in public health, uses only a single metric to evaluate programmatic choices, even though other factors often influence actual decisions. Our work employed a multicriteria systems analysis approach--specifically, multiattribute utility theory--to assist in strategic planning and priority setting in a particular area of health care (vaccines), thereby moving beyond the traditional cost-effectiveness analysis approach. (1) Multicriteria systems analysis provides more flexibility, transparency, and clarity in decision support for public health issues compared with cost-effectiveness analysis. (2) More sophisticated systems-level analyses will become increasingly important to public health as disease burdens increase and the resources to deal with them become scarcer. The teaching of strategic planning in public

  8. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 162.925 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... data elements not needed or used by the health plan (for example, coordination of benefits information... coordination of benefits data it needs to forward the standard transaction to the other health plan (or other...

  9. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 162.925 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND... data elements not needed or used by the health plan (for example, coordination of benefits information... coordination of benefits data it needs to forward the standard transaction to the other health plan (or other...

  10. The Hemophilia Games: An Experiment in Health Education Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The Hemophilia Health Education Planning Project was designed to (1) create a set of tools useful in hemophilia planning and education, and (2) create a planning model for other diseases with similar factors. The project used the game-simulations technique which was felt to be particularly applicable to hemophilia health problems, since as a…

  11. Financial performance of health plans in Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    McCue, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the financial performance of health plans that enroll Medicaid members across the key plan traits, specifically Medicaid dominant, publicly traded, and provider-sponsored. National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) financial data, coupled with selected state financial data, were analyzed for 170 Medicaid health plans for 2009. A mean test compared the mean values for medical loss, administrative cost, and operating margin ratios across these plan traits. Medicaid dominant plans are plans with 75 percent of their total enrollment in the Medicaid line of business. Plans that are Medicaid dominant and publicly traded incurred a lower medical loss ratio and higher administrative cost ratio than multi-product and non-publicly traded plans. Medicaid dominant plans also earned a higher operating profit margin. Plans offering commercial and Medicare products are operating at a loss for their Medicaid line of business. Health plans that do not specialize in Medicaid are losing money. Higher medical cost rather than administrative cost is the underlying reason for this financial loss. Since Medicaid enrollees do not account for their primary book of business, these plans may not have invested in the medical management programs to reduce inappropriate emergency room use and avoid costly hospitalization.

  12. Planning for Students with Complex Health Care Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Dianne Koontz

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the efforts of Virginia school divisions as they prepared for and received students with complex health care needs. Findings from four studies that interviewed early childhood special education teachers and occupational therapies are described. The need for team planning and the development of a Health Services Plan is…

  13. Federal employees health benefits program: discontinuance of health plan in an emergency. Final regulation.

    PubMed

    2007-01-17

    The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) regulations regarding discontinuance of a health plan to include situations in which a health plan becomes incapacitated, either temporarily or permanently, as the result of a disaster.

  14. Principles of health infrastructure planning in less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Unger, J P; Criel, B

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes a number of key principles for health infrastructure planning, based on a literature review on the one hand, and on a process of internal deduction on the other. The principles discussed are the following: an integrated health system; a thrifty planning of tiers within that health system; a specificity of tiers; a homogeneity of the tiers' structures; a minimum package of activities; a territorial responsibility and/or an explicit and discrete responsibility for a well-defined population; a necessary and sufficient population basis; a partial separation of administrative and public health planning bases; and, finally, rules for a geographical division and integration of non-governmental organizations. The definition of two strategies, primary health care and district health systems, is also revisited.

  15. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... 45 CFR Part 147 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of...

  16. Kenya's Maternal Child Health Family Planning Program (Family Health).

    PubMed

    Kiereini, E M

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to improve accessibility to health care for the majority of its population, the government of Kenya has, since 1970, undertaken an integration of its dispersed health care system. In 1972 the Ministry of Health carried out a study to identify the problems associated with health care in rural areas. A task force consisting of government and other officials carried out a situation analysis with a view to making specific recommendations for improving community health status. The 4 main health problems identified had to do with family health problems, communicable diseases, diseases related to poor environmental sanitation, and health problems related to poor nutrition. The analysis also revealed the importance of maternal and child health for overall health of the community. A Maternal Child Health Family Planning (MCH/FP) program was then designed to improve services to women aged 15-49 years and children below 5 years, the groups proven to be at greatest risk for ill health. Also integrated into this approach were family planning services. Health workers ranging from enrolled community nurses (equipped with knowledge and skills for diagnosing and treating common conditions) to traditional birth attendants, serve both rural and urban areas. In addition, registered public health nurses, supervising MCH/FP services in district facilities, also operate in urban areas. Rural populations also have the services of a clinical officer who is answerable to the district medical officer, and who has charge of the health center. The Family Health Field Educators Training Program, which was started in 1975 has not yet been evaluated, but it is evident that the efforts of the government to train and equip health workers has greatly improved the quality and availability of health care service to Kenyans.

  17. Quality improvement initiatives: the missed opportunity for health plans.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sara; Lennert, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The increase in healthcare cost without direct improvements in health outcomes, coupled with a desire to expand access to the large uninsured population, has underscored the importance of quality initiatives and organizations that provide more affordable healthcare by maximizing value. To determine the knowledge of managed care organizations about quality organizations and initiatives and to identify potential opportunities in which pharmaceutical companies could collaborate with health plans in the development and implementation of quality initiatives. We conducted a survey of 36 pharmacy directors and 15 medical directors of different plans during a Managed Care Network meeting in 2008. The represented plans cover almost 74 million lives in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid programs, or a combination of them. The responses show limited knowledge among pharmacy and medical directors about current quality organizations and initiatives, except for quality organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation. The results also reveal an opportunity for pharmaceutical companies to collaborate with private health plans in the development of quality initiatives, especially those related to drug utilization, such as patient adherence and education and correct drug utilization. Our survey shows clearly that today's focus for managed care organizations is mostly limited to the organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation, with less focus on other organizations.

  18. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1702 Section 162.1702 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1702 Standards for health plan premium...

  19. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1702 Section 162.1702 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1702 Standards for health plan premium...

  20. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1702 Section 162.1702 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1702 Standards for health plan premium...

  1. 45 CFR 162.1702 - Standards for health plan premium payments transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for health plan premium payments transaction. 162.1702 Section 162.1702 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Health Plan Premium Payments § 162.1702 Standards for health plan premium...

  2. Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events.

    PubMed

    McNeill, R; Topping, J

    2018-01-04

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of operations outlining four scalable response levels and a governance structure that aims to facilitate an efficient, timely, evidence-informed and consistent approach across jurisdictions. Improving effective engagement amongst public health, health care delivery and health emergency management authorities is a key objective of the plan.

  3. Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, R; Topping, J

    2018-01-01

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of operations outlining four scalable response levels and a governance structure that aims to facilitate an efficient, timely, evidence-informed and consistent approach across jurisdictions. Improving effective engagement amongst public health, health care delivery and health emergency management authorities is a key objective of the plan. PMID:29770090

  4. Using community-based evidence for decentralized health planning: insights from Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Abhay; Khanna, Renu; Jadhav, Nitin

    2018-01-01

    Health planning is generally considered a technical subject, primarily the domain of health officials with minimal involvement of community representatives. The National Rural Health Mission launched in India in 2005 recognized this gap and mandated mechanisms for decentralized health planning. However, since planning develops in the context of highly unequal power relations, formal spaces for participation are necessary but not sufficient. Hence a project on capacity building for decentralized health planning was implemented in selected districts of Maharashtra, India during 2010-13. This process developed on the platform of officially supported community-based monitoring and planning, a process for community feedback and participation towards health system change. A specific project on capacity building for decentralized planning included a structured learning course and workshops for major stakeholders. An evaluation of the project, including in-depth interviews of various participants and analysis of change in local health planning processes, revealed positive changes in intervention areas, including increased capacity of key stakeholders leading to preparation of evidence-based, innovative planning proposals, significant community oriented changes in utilization of health facility funds, and inclusion of community-based proposals in village, health facility-based block and district plans. Transparency related to planning increased along with responsiveness of health providers to community suggestions. A key lesson is that active facilitation of decentralized health planning and influencing the health system to expand participation, are essential to ensure changes in planning. Effective strategies included: identifying people's health service related priorities through community-based monitoring, capacity building of diverse stakeholders regarding local health planning, and advocacy to enable participation of community-based actors in the planning process. This

  5. Public Health Climate Change Adaptation Planning Using Stakeholder Feedback.

    PubMed

    Eidson, Millicent; Clancy, Kathleen A; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2016-01-01

    Public health climate change adaptation planning is an urgent priority requiring stakeholder feedback. The 10 Essential Public Health Services can be applied to adaptation activities. To develop a state health department climate and health adaptation plan as informed by stakeholder feedback. With Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) implemented a 2010-2013 climate and health planning process, including 7 surveys on perceptions and adaptation priorities. New York State Department of Health program managers participated in initial (n = 41, denominator unknown) and follow-up (72.2%) needs assessments. Surveillance system information was collected from 98.1% of surveillance system managers. For adaptation prioritization surveys, participants included 75.4% of NYSDOH leaders; 60.3% of local health departments (LHDs); and 53.7% of other stakeholders representing environmental, governmental, health, community, policy, academic, and business organizations. Interviews were also completed with 38.9% of other stakeholders. In 2011 surveys, 34.1% of state health program directors believed that climate change would impact their program priorities. However, 84.6% of state health surveillance system managers provided ideas for using databases for climate and health monitoring/surveillance. In 2012 surveys, 46.5% of state health leaders agreed they had sufficient information about climate and health compared to 17.1% of LHDs (P = .0046) and 40.9% of other stakeholders (nonsignificant difference). Significantly fewer (P < .0001) LHDs (22.9%) were incorporating or considering incorporating climate and health into planning compared to state health leaders (55.8%) and other stakeholders (68.2%). Stakeholder groups agreed on the 4 highest priority adaptation categories including core public health activities such as surveillance, coordination/collaboration, education, and policy development. Feedback from diverse

  6. Mechanisms of microregulation of private hospitals by health plan operators.

    PubMed

    Ugá, Maria Alicia Domínguez; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Gerschman, Silvia

    2009-10-01

    To analyze the mechanisms employed by health plan operators for microregulation of clinical management and health care qualification within care-providing hospitals. A nation-wide cross-sectional study was carried out. The universe consisted of hospitals which provided care to health plan operators in 2006. A sample of 83 units was selected, stratified by Brazilian macroregion and type of hospital. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire administered to hospital managers. Microregulation of hospitals by health plan operators was minimal or almost absent in terms of health care qualification. Operator activity focused predominantly on intense control of the amount of services used by patients. Hospitals providing services to health plan operators did not constitute health micro-systems parallel or supplementary to the Sistema Unico de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System). The private care-providing hospitals were predominantly associated with SUS. However, these did not belong to a private care-provider network, even though their service usage was subject to strong regulation by health plan operators. Operator intervention in the form of system management was incipient or virtually absent. Roughly one-half of investigated hospitals reported adopting clinical directives, whereas only 25.4% reported managing pathology and 30.5% reported managing cases. Contractual relationships between hospitals and health plan operators are merely commercial contracts with little if any incorporation of aspects related to the quality of care, being generally limited to aspects such as establishment of prices, timeframes, and payment procedures.

  7. A planning and marketing prototype for changing health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Boshard, N

    1986-11-01

    The U.S. health care industry is undergoing a radical transformation. The consolidation of excess hospital capacity, fierce competition within a shrinking medical marketplace and a growing number of competitive health plans (PPOs and HMOs) are causing a major structural realignment within most health care organizations (HCOs). This realignment has resulted in a much greater reliance upon strategic planning and marketing by HCOs to cope with market-driven competitive challenges. Health care organizations must identify a new cadre of health professionals to support strategic planning, market promotion, market research, market sales and product line management. This new cadre must hold the value that customers (physicians, patients, and employers) are the most valuable asset of the health care organizations. The planning and marketing prototype depicted herein is designed to help HCOs find, differentiate and keep customers.

  8. The impact of health plan report cards on managed care enrollment.

    PubMed

    Scanlo, Dennis P; Chernew, Michael; Mclaughlin, Catherine; Solon, Gary

    2002-01-01

    How does the release of health plan performance ratings influence employee health plan choice? A natural experiment at General Motors (GM) Corporation provides valuable evidence on this question. During the 1997 open enrollment period, GM disseminated a health plan report card for the first time. By comparing 1996 and 1997 enrollment patterns, our analysis estimates the impact of the report card information while accounting for fixed, unobserved plan traits. Results indicate that employees are less likely to enroll in plans requiring relatively high out-of-pocket contributions. Results with respect to report card ratings suggest that individuals avoid health plans with many below average ratings.

  9. 45 CFR 146.145 - Special rules relating to group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption and Special Rules § 146... group health insurance coverage) for any plan year, if on the first day of the plan year, the plan has...— (A) Medicare supplemental health insurance (as defined under section 1882(g)(1) of the Social...

  10. 26 CFR 1.105-5 - Accident and health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accident and health plans. 1.105-5 Section 1.105... health plans. (a) In general. Sections 104(a)(3) and 105 (b), (c), and (d) exclude from gross income certain amounts received through accident or health insurance. Section 105(e) provides that for purposes...

  11. 26 CFR 1.105-5 - Accident and health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accident and health plans. 1.105-5 Section 1.105... health plans. (a) In general. Sections 104(a)(3) and 105 (b), (c), and (d) exclude from gross income certain amounts received through accident or health insurance. Section 105(e) provides that for purposes...

  12. 26 CFR 1.105-5 - Accident and health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accident and health plans. 1.105-5 Section 1.105... health plans. (a) In general. Sections 104(a)(3) and 105 (b), (c), and (d) exclude from gross income certain amounts received through accident or health insurance. Section 105(e) provides that for purposes...

  13. 26 CFR 1.105-5 - Accident and health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accident and health plans. 1.105-5 Section 1.105... health plans. (a) In general. Sections 104(a)(3) and 105 (b), (c), and (d) exclude from gross income certain amounts received through accident or health insurance. Section 105(e) provides that for purposes...

  14. Impact of High-Deductible Health Plans on Health Care Utilization and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Teresa M; Chang, Cyril F; Cecil, William T; Kasteridis, Panagiotis; Mirvis, David

    2011-01-01

    Background High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) are of high interest to employers, policy makers, and insurers because of potential benefits and risks of this fundamentally new coverage model. Objective To investigate the impact of HDHPs on health care utilization and costs in a heterogeneous group of enrollees from a variety of individual and employer-based health plans. Data Claims and member data from a major insurer and zip code-level census data. Study Design Retrospective difference-in-differences analyses were used to examine the impact of HDHP plans. This analytical approach compared changes in utilization and expenditures over time (2007 versus 2005) across the two comparison groups (HDHP switchers versus matched PPO controls). Results In two-part models, HDHP enrollment was associated with reduced emergency room use, increases in prescription medication use, and no change in overall outpatient expenditures. The impact of HDHPs on utilization differed by subgroup. Chronically ill enrollees and those who clearly had a choice of plans were more likely to increase utilization in specific categories after switching to an HDHP plan. Conclusions Whether HDHPs are associated with lower costs is far from settled. Various subgroups of enrollees may choose HDHPs for different reasons and react differently to plan incentives. PMID:21029087

  15. 42 CFR 600.405 - Standard health plan coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard health plan coverage. 600.405 Section 600.405 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BASIC HEALTH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, ELIGIBILITY, ESSENTIAL HEALTH BENEFITS, PERFORMANCE...

  16. Role of Information in Consumer Selection of Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Sainfort, François; Booske, Bridget C.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable efforts are underway in the public and private sectors to increase the amount of information available to consumers when making health plan choices. The objective of this study was to examine the role of information in consumer health plan decisionmaking. A computer system was developed which provides different plan descriptions with the option of accessing varying types and levels of information. The system tracked the information search processes and recorded the hypothetical plan choices of 202 subjects. Results are reported showing the relationship between information and problem perception, preference structure, choice of plan, and attitude towards the decision. PMID:10165036

  17. How are state insurance marketplaces shaping health plan design?

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Lopez, Nancy; Mehta, Devi; Dorley, Mark; Burke, Taylor; Widge, Alicia

    2013-12-01

    Part of states' roles in administering the new health insurance marketplaces is to certify the health plans available for purchase. This analysis focuses on how state-based and state partnership marketplaces are using their flexibility in setting certification standards to shape plan design in the individual market. It focuses on three aspects of certification: provider networks; inclusion of essential community providers; and benefit substitution, which allows plans to offer benefits that differ from a state's benchmark plan. A review of documents collected from 18 states and the District of Columbia finds that 13 states go beyond the minimum federal requirements with respect to provider network standards, four states specify additional standards for including essential community providers, and five states and Washington, D.C., bar benefit substitution. These interstate variations in plan design reflect the challenges policymakers face in balancing health care affordability, benefit coverage, and access to care through the marketplace plans.

  18. Family planning and maternal and child health services.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1975-12-01

    Considerable effort has been made in the area of family planning in the State of Punjab. Family planning personnel has been recruited and trained at the State Family Planning Training and Research Center in Kharar; supplies of Nirodh, IUDs, oral contraceptives, and hospital equipment along with transportation facilities have been made available; and there has been some building construction. The State Health Education Bureau has worked to produce publicity material and has also used the mass media to create awareness of family planning among the people. As many as 120 rural and 49 urban Family Welfare Planning Centers are providing family planning services along with 856 subcenters in rural areas. 1123 other institutions are also doing family planning work in addition to the efforts of 34 mobile sterilization and IUD units attached to the District Family Planning Bureau and the contributions of some voluntary organizations. Although the state has adopted the cafeteria approach to family planning and the focus is on provision of family planning services on routine days in the various institutions to well-motivated couples, mass family planning camps for vasectomy, tubal ligations, and IUD insertions have been held with considerable success. Additionally, the State has integrated family planning programs with maternal and child health care in order to provide a totality of service. This precedes the total integration of this national program w ith general health services. Punjab has done well in achieving its targets for 1974-1975. Sterilization targets were set at 38,300 and 36,460 sterilizations, 95.2% of the target, were performed. IUD targets were 27,000, and the number achieved was 39,637 or 109.4%. The conventional contraceptive user target was 99,800, and 151,976 or 152.3% of the target figure became conventional contraceptive users.

  19. Quality Improvement Initiatives: The Missed Opportunity for Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sara; Lennert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background The increase in healthcare cost without direct improvements in health outcomes, coupled with a desire to expand access to the large uninsured population, has underscored the importance of quality initiatives and organizations that provide more affordable healthcare by maximizing value. Objectives To determine the knowledge of managed care organizations about quality organizations and initiatives and to identify potential opportunities in which pharmaceutical companies could collaborate with health plans in the development and implementation of quality initiatives. Methods We conducted a survey of 36 pharmacy directors and 15 medical directors of different plans during a Managed Care Network meeting in 2008. The represented plans cover almost 74 million lives in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid programs, or a combination of them. Results The responses show limited knowledge among pharmacy and medical directors about current quality organizations and initiatives, except for quality organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation. The results also reveal an opportunity for pharmaceutical companies to collaborate with private health plans in the development of quality initiatives, especially those related to drug utilization, such as patient adherence and education and correct drug utilization. Conclusion Our survey shows clearly that today's focus for managed care organizations is mostly limited to the organizations that provide health plan quality accreditation, with less focus on other organizations. PMID:25126303

  20. The Effect of Health Plan Characteristics on Medicare+Choice Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Bryan E; Feldman, Roger; Coulam, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Objective To provide national estimates of the effect of out-of-pocket premiums and benefits on Medicare beneficiaries' choice among managed care health plans. Data Sources/Study Setting The data represent the population of all Medicare+Choice (M+C) plans offered to Medicare beneficiaries in the United States in 1999. Study Design The dependent variable is the log of the ratio of the market share of the jth health plan to the lowest cost plan in the beneficiary's county of residence. The explanatory variables are measures of premiums and benefits in the jth health plan relative to the premiums and benefits in the lowest cost plan. Data Collection Methods The data are from the 1999 Medicare Compare database, and M+C enrollment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Principal Findings A $10 increase in an M+C plan's out-of-pocket premium, relative to its competitors, is associated with a decrease of four percentage points in the jth plan's market share (i.e., from 25 to 21 percent), holding the premiums of competing plans constant. Conclusions Although our price elasticity estimates are low, the market share losses associated with small changes in a health plan's premium, relative to its competitors, may be sufficient to discipline premiums in a competitive market. Bidding behavior by plans in the Medicare Competitive Pricing Demonstration supports this conclusion. PMID:12650384

  1. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  2. The organization and delivery of family planning services in community health centers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Debora Goetz; Wood, Susan F; Johnson, Kay; Mead, Katherine Holly; Beeson, Tishra; Lewis, Julie; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Family planning and related reproductive health services are essential primary care services for women. Access is limited for women with low incomes and those living in medically underserved areas. Little information is available on how federally funded health centers organize and provide family planning services. This was a mixed methods study of the organization and delivery of family planning services in federally funded health centers across the United States. A national survey was developed and administered (n = 423) and in-depth case studies were conducted of nine health centers to obtain detailed information on their approach to family planning. Study findings indicate that health centers utilize a variety of organizational models and staffing arrangements to deliver family planning services. Health centers' family planning offerings are organized in one of two ways, either a separate service with specific providers and clinic times or fully integrated with primary care. Health centers experience difficulties in providing a full range of family planning services. Major challenges include funding limitations; hiring obstetricians/gynecologists, counselors, and advanced practice clinicians; and connecting patients to specialized services not offered by the health center. Health centers play an integral role in delivering primary care and family planning services to women in medically underserved communities. Improving the accessibility and comprehensiveness of family planning services will require a combination of additional direct funding, technical assistance, and policies that emphasize how health centers can incorporate quality family planning as a fundamental element of primary care. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits plans. 890.201 Section 890.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.201...

  4. 5 CFR 890.201 - Minimum standards for health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum standards for health benefits plans. 890.201 Section 890.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.201...

  5. Physical inactivity: direct cost to a health plan.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nancy A; Brasure, Michelle; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Schultz, Monica M; Huber, Michael R

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the total medical expenditures attributable to physical inactivity patterns among members of a large health plan, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Minnesota. The study used a cost-of-illness approach to attribute medical and pharmacy costs for specific diseases to physical inactivity in 2000. Relative risks come from the scientific literature, demonstrating that heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, breast cancer, osteoporosis, depression, and anxiety are directly related to individual physical activity patterns in adults. Data sources were the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and medical claims incurred in 2000 among 1.5 million health plan members aged > or =18 years. Primary analysis was completed in 2002. Nearly 12% of depression and anxiety and 31% of colon cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and stroke cases were attributable to physical inactivity. Heart disease was the most expensive outcome of physical inactivity within the health plan population, costing US dollar 35.3 million in 2000. Total health plan expenditures attributable to physical inactivity were US dollar 83.6 million, or US dollar 56 per member. This study confirms the growing body of research quantifying physical inactivity as a serious and expensive public health problem. The costs associated with physical inactivity are borne by taxpayers, employers, and individuals in the form of higher taxes to subsidize public insurance programs and increased health insurance premiums.

  6. Dental manpower planning in the Indian Health Service.

    PubMed

    Collins, R J; Broderick, E B; Herman, D J

    1993-01-01

    As a public health agency, the Indian Health Service (IHS) must plan for the needs of the entire American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) population and distribute resources as equitably as possible. To facilitate this process, the IHS has developed a manpower planning model to provide for the distribution of dental providers based upon the dental needs of the AI/AN population and within the limits of annual appropriations of funds. This paper briefly describes the original IHS Dental Program manpower planning model and the development of modifications over time. The need-based approach to manpower planning developed by the IHS Dental Program has exhibited utility and flexibility over time. It allows a determination of clinic size (number of operatories) and dental staffing requirements, and may be generalizable to other public health programs if an accurate assessment of utilization rate and treatment need can be made for the defined population. Nonetheless, the availability of resources in public programs is subject to the compromises inherent in the political process; thus, the use of a manpower planning model alone may not be sufficient to ensure the equitable distribution of dental resources and dental providers.

  7. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  8. Health Careers Planning Guide--Illinois. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign.

    This notebook of career counseling materials is a compilation of career information on nursing and the allied health fields. The first section provides general information useful in choosing a health career on such topics as career planning, career mobility, employment prospects, financial aid, terminology in health job titles, and an annotated…

  9. Principles for Health System Capacity Planning: Insights for Healthcare Leaders.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James; Wong, Ivy; Griffin, Bailey; Robertson, Michael; Bhatia, R Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Jurisdictions across Canada and around the world face the challenge of planning high-performing and sustainable health systems in response to growing healthcare demands. In this paper, we report on the process of developing principles for health system capacity planning by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in Ontario. Integrating the results of a literature review on health system planning and a symposium with representatives from local health integration networks, we describe the following six principles in detail: (1) develop an aspirational vision, (2) establish clear leadership, (3) commit to stakeholder engagement, (4) engage patients and the public, (5) build analytics infrastructure and (6) revise policy when necessary.

  10. The contributions of managed care plans to public health practice: evidence from the nation's largest local health departments.

    PubMed Central

    Mays, G. P.; Halverson, P. K.; Stevens, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examine the extent and nature of managed care plans participating in local public health activities. METHODS: In 1998, the authors surveyed the directors of all US local health departments serving jurisdictions of at least 100,000 residents to collect information about public health activities performed in their jurisdictions and about organizations participating in the activities. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to examine organizational and market characteristics associated with managed care plan participation in public health activities. RESULTS: Managed care plans were reported to participate in public health activities in 164 (46%) of the jurisdictions surveyed, and to contribute to 13% of the public health activities performed in the average jurisdiction. Plans appeared most likely to participate in public health activities involving the delivery or management of personal health services and the exchange of health-related information. Managed care participation was more likely to occur in jurisdictions with higher HMO penetration, fewer competing plans, and larger proportions of plans enrolling Medicaid recipients. Participation was positively associated with the overall scope and perceived effectiveness of local public health activities. CONCLUSIONS: Although plans participate in a narrow range of activities, these contributions may complement the work of public health agencies. PMID:11889275

  11. Mental Health Services Utilization and Expenditures Among Children Enrolled in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans.

    PubMed

    Walter, Angela Wangari; Yuan, Yiyang; Cabral, Howard J

    2017-05-01

    Mental illness in children increases the risk of developing mental health disorders in adulthood, and reduces physical and emotional well-being across the life course. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA, 2008) aimed to improve access to mental health treatment by requiring employer-sponsored health plans to include insurance coverage for behavioral health services. Investigators used IBM Watson/Truven Analytics MarketScan claims data (2007-2013) to examine: (1) the distribution of mental illness; (2) trends in utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures; and (3) the overall effect of the MHPAEA on mental health services utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures among privately-insured children aged 3 to 17 with mental health disorders. Multivariate Poisson regression and linear regression modeling techniques were used. Mental health services use for outpatient behavioral health therapy (BHT) was higher in the years after the implementation of the MHPAEA (2010-2013). Specifically, before the MHPAEA implementation, the annual total visits for BHT provided by mental health physicians were 17.1% lower and 2.5% lower for BHT by mental health professionals, compared to years when MHPAEA was in effect. Children covered by consumer-driven and high-deductible plans had significantly higher out-of-pocket expenditures for BHT compared to those enrolled PPOs. Our findings demonstrate increased mental health services use and higher out-of-pocket costs per outpatient visit after implementation of the MHPAEA. As consumer-driven and high-deductible health plans continue to grow, enrollees need to be cognizant of the impact of health insurance benefit designs on health services offered in these plans. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Employee Health Plan Details | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov Websites

    Health Information Life Disability DCAP Forms/Publications Features Empower Retirement Account Info Home Retirement Benefits Employer Services AlaskaCare Easy Navigation Employee Health Gym Discount Health Plan FAQs Overview What Plan am I in? Information Enrollment Information FAQs Premiums Qualified

  13. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  14. Integrating Risk Adjustment and Enrollee Premiums in Health Plan Payment

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D.; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In two important health policy contexts – private plans in Medicare and the new state-run “Exchanges” created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

  15. Strategic planning--a plan for excellence for South Haven Health System.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Joanne; Baskel, Maureen; Martelli, Mary

    2011-01-01

    South Haven Health System has developed an innovative approach to strategic planning. The key to success of this process has been the multidisciplinary involvement of all stakeholders from the first planning session through the final formation of a strategic plan with measurable objectives for each goal. The process utilizes a Conversation Café method for identifying opportunities and establishing goals, Strategic Oversight Teams to address each goal and a Champion for implementation of each objective. Progress is measured quarterly by Strategic Oversight Team report cards. Transparency of communication within the organization and the sharing of information move the plan forward. The feedback from participant evaluations has been overwhelmingly positive. They are involved and excited.

  16. 45 CFR 162.412 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.412 Section 162.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  17. 45 CFR 162.412 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.412 Section 162.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  18. 45 CFR 162.512 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.512 Section 162.512 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  19. 45 CFR 162.412 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.412 Section 162.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  20. 45 CFR 162.412 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.412 Section 162.412 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  1. 45 CFR 162.412 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.412 Section 162.412 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  2. 45 CFR 162.512 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.512 Section 162.512 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  3. 45 CFR 162.512 - Implementation specifications: Health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implementation specifications: Health plans. 162.512 Section 162.512 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health...

  4. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance...

  5. 20 CFR 1002.171 - How does the continuation of health plan benefits apply to a multiemployer plan that provides...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the continuation of health plan... system? 1002.171 Section 1002.171 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... Service in the Uniformed Services Health Plan Coverage § 1002.171 How does the continuation of health plan...

  6. 45 CFR 162.925 - Additional requirements for health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clearinghouse to receive, process, or transmit a standard transaction may not charge fees or costs in excess of... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.925 Additional... transaction as a standard transaction, the health plan must do so. (2) A health plan may not delay or reject a...

  7. Integrating risk adjustment and enrollee premiums in health plan payment.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Thomas G; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D; Zuvekas, Samuel H

    2013-12-01

    In two important health policy contexts - private plans in Medicare and the new state-run "Exchanges" created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) - plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under... Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage...

  9. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in...

  10. Are joint health plans effective for coordination of health services? An analysis based on theory and Danish pre-reform results

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Bernt Nielsen, Mikkel; Krasnik, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Background Since 1994 formal health plans have been used for coordination of health care services between the regional and local level in Denmark. From 2007 a substantial reform has changed the administrative boundaries of the system and a new tool for coordination has been introduced. Purpose To assess the use of the pre-reform health plans as a tool for strengthening coordination, quality and preventive efforts between the regional and local level of health care. Methods A survey addressed to: all counties (n=15), all municipalities (n=271) and a randomised selected sample of general practitioners (n=700). Results The stakeholders at the administrative level agree that health plans have not been effective as a tool for coordination. The development of health plans are dominated by the regional level. At the functional level 27 percent of the general practitioners are not familiar with health plans. Among those familiar with health plans 61 percent report that health plans influence their work to only a lesser degree or not at all. Conclusion Joint health planning is needed to achieve coordination of care. Efforts must be made to overcome barriers hampering efficient whole system planning. Active policies emphasising the necessity of health planning, despite involved cost, are warranted to insure delivery of care that benefits the health of the population. PMID:17925882

  11. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.205 Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. (a) Either OPM or the carrier may terminate... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health...

  12. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.205 Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. (a) Either OPM or the carrier may terminate... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health...

  13. Evaluating the impact of equity focused health impact assessment on health service planning: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roxas, Ben; Haigh, Fiona; Travaglia, Joanne; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-09-05

    Health impact assessment has been identified internationally as a mechanism to ensure potential health impacts and health equity impacts of proposals are considered before implementation. This paper looks at the impact of three equity focused health impact assessments (EFHIAs) of health service plans on subsequent decision-making and implementation, and then utilises these findings to test and refine an existing conceptual framework for evaluating the impact and effectiveness of health impact assessments for use in relation to EFHIAs. Case study analysis of three EFHIAs conducted on health sector plans in New South Wales, Australia. Data was drawn from 14 semi-structured interviews and the analysis of seven related documents (draft plans and EFHIA reports). The case studies showed that the EFHIAs all had some impact on the decision-making about the plans and their implementation, most clearly in relation to participants' understandings of equity and in the development of options for modifying service plans to ensure this was addressed. The timing of the EFHIA and individual responses to the EFHIA process and its recommendations were identified as critical factors influencing the impact of the EFHIAs. Several modifications to the conceptual framework are identified, principally adding factors to recognise the role individuals play in influencing the impact and effectiveness of EFHIAs. EFHIA has the potential to improve the consideration of health equity in health service planning processes, though a number of contextual and individual factors affect this. Current approaches can be strengthened by taking into account personal and organisational responses to the EFHIA process.

  14. 75 FR 43109 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human... health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the Employee Retirement...

  15. Retiree Health Plans for Public School Teachers after GASB 43 and 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Most public elementary and high school teachers are covered by health insurance provided by their employer while they are employed. In most cases, these health plans are managed at the state level. At retirement, teachers with sufficient years of service are allowed to remain in the health plan. Retiree health plans for teachers vary widely across…

  16. Multistate Health Plans: Agents for Competition or Consolidation?

    PubMed

    Moffit, Robert E; Meredith, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss and evaluate the Multi-State Plan (MSP) Program, a provision of the Affordable Care Act that has not been the subject of much debate as yet. The MSP Program provides the Office of Personnel Management with new authority to negotiate and implement multistate insurance plans on all health insurance exchanges within the United States. We raise the concern that the MSP Program may lead to further consolidation of the health insurance industry despite the program's stated goal of increasing competition by means of health insurance exchanges. The MSP Program arguably gives a competitive advantage to large insurers, which already dominate health insurance markets. We also contend that the MSP Program's failure to produce increased competition may motivate a new effort for a public health insurance option. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Philanthropic hospitals and the operation of provider-owned health plans in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Gerschman, Silvia; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat

    2007-02-01

    To describe the management performance of philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans, in comparison with philanthropic hospitals as a whole in Brazil. The managerial structures of philanthropic hospitals that operated their own health plans were compared with those seen in a representative group from the philanthropic hospital sector, in six dimensions: management and planning, economics and finance, human resources, technical services, logistics services and information technology. Data from a random sample of 69 hospitals within the philanthropic hospital sector and 94 philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans were evaluated. In both cases, only the hospitals with less than 599 beds were included. The results identified for the hospitals that operate their own health plans were more positive in all the managerial dimensions compared. In particular, the economics and finance and information technology dimensions were highlighted, for which more than 50% of the hospitals that operated their own health plans presented almost all the conditions considered. The philanthropic hospital sector is important in providing services to the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The challenges in maintaining and developing these hospitals impose the need to find alternatives. Stimulation of a public-private partnership in this segment, by means of operating provider-owned health plans or providing services to other health plans that work together with SUS, is a field that deserves more in-depth analysis.

  18. Characterizing health plan price estimator tools: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Aparna; Brainard, Nicole; Veselovskiy, German

    2016-02-01

    Policy makers have growing interest in price transparency and in the kinds of tools available to consumers. Health plans have implemented price estimator tools that make provider pricing information available to members; however, systematic data on prevalence and characteristics of such tools are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of price estimator tools offered by health plans to their members and to identify potential trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing the utility of these tools. National Web-based survey. Between 2014 and 2015, we conducted a national Web-based survey of health plans with commercial enrollment (100 plans, 43% response rate). Descriptive analyses were conducted using survey data. Health plan members have access to a variety of price estimator tool capabilities for commonly used procedures. These tools take into account member characteristics, including member zip code and benefit design. Despite outreach to members, however, challenges remain with respect to member uptake of such tools. Our study found that health plans share price and provider performance data with their members.

  19. Consumer Perspectives on Information Needs for Health Plan Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Deborah A.; Sangl, Judith A.; Burrus, Barri

    1996-01-01

    The premise that competition will improve health care assumes that consumers will choose plans that best fit their needs and resources. However, many consumers are frustrated with currently available plan comparison information. We describe results from 22 focus groups in which Medicare beneficiaries, Medicaid enrollees, and privately insured consumers assessed the usefulness of indicators based on consumer survey data and Health Employer Data Information Set (HEDIS)-type measures of quality of care. Considerable education would be required before consumers could interpret report card data to inform plan choices. Policy implications for design and provision of plan information for Medicare beneficiaries and Medicaid enrollees are discussed. PMID:10165037

  20. Effect of premium, copayments, and health status on the choice of health plans.

    PubMed

    Naessens, James M; Khan, Mahmud; Shah, Nilay D; Wagie, Amy; Pautz, Rebecca A; Campbell, Claudia R

    2008-10-01

    Explore effects of comorbidity and prior health care utilization on choice of employee health plans with different levels of cost sharing. Mayo Clinic employees in Rochester, Minnesota (MCR) under age 65 in January 2004; N = 20,379. Assessment of a natural experiment where self-funded medical care benefit options were changed to contain costs within a large medical group practice. Before the change, most employees were enrolled in a plan with first dollar coverage, while 18% had a plan with copays and deductibles. In 2004, 3 existing plans were replaced by 2 new options, one with lower premiums and higher out-of-pocket costs and the other with higher premiums, a lower coinsurance rate, and lower out-of-pocket maximums. Data on employees were merged across insurance claims, medical records, eligibility files, and employment files for 2003 and 2004. As the number of chronic comorbidities among family members increased, the probability of choosing high-premium option also increased. Seventy-two percent of employees with at least 1 family member with comorbidity chose the high-cost option versus 54.7% of employees with no comorbidities. High-premium and low-premium plans seem to subdivide population into discrete risk categories, which may adversely affect the future stability of the insurance plan options. Various factors affect decision making of employees regarding the choice of plan with different levels of cost-sharing. In a natural experiment setting where all options were redesigned, the health status of employees and their dependents played a very significant role in plan choice.

  1. House committees refuse to limit health plan abortion coverage.

    PubMed

    1994-06-24

    Anti-choice efforts to eliminate and/or restrict abortion coverage in US health care reform proposals were overwhelmingly rejected by Congressional committees on June 22 and 23, 1994. The committees rejected Kentucky Republican Representative Jim Bunning's amendment to remove abortion services except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest; Wisconsin Democrat Gerald Kleczka's attempt to let health plans opt out of providing abortion coverage; Pennsylvania Republican Rick Santorum's attempt to prevent the health plan from preempting state constitutional laws and regulations on abortion; amendments by Pennsylvania Democrat Ron Klink to drop abortion coverage except in cases of life endangerment, rape, or incest, and to guarantee against the plan overturning state regulations on abortion; and an amendment by Wisconsin Republican Steve Gunderson to allow plans to single out abortion from the guaranteed benefits package and offer plans without that coverage as well as to allow self-insured businesses to opt out of abortion coverage. Moreover, a final proposal to move abortion services into an optional benefit category was withdrawn and the House Education and Labor Committee refused to endorse abortion restrictions in its version of Clinton's HR 3600 health care proposal. The Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee previously defeated restrictions on abortion coverage.

  2. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  3. The increased concentration of health plan markets can benefit consumers through lower hospital prices.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Glenn A; Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Yaling

    2011-09-01

    The long-term trend of consolidation among US health plans has raised providers' concerns that the concentration of health plan markets can depress their prices. Although our study confirmed that, it also revealed a more complex picture. First, we found that 64 percent of hospitals operate in markets where health plans are not very concentrated, and only 7 percent are in markets that are dominated by a few health plans. Second, we found that in most markets, hospital market concentration exceeds health plan concentration. Third, our study confirmed earlier studies showing that greater hospital market concentration leads to higher hospital prices. Fourth, we found that hospital prices in the most concentrated health plan markets are approximately 12 percent lower than in more competitive health plan markets. Overall, our results show that more concentrated health plan markets can counteract the price-increasing effects of concentrated hospital markets, and that-contrary to conventional wisdom-increased health plan concentration benefits consumers through lower hospital prices as long as health plan markets remain competitive. Our findings also suggest that consumers would benefit from policies that maintained competition in hospital markets or that would restore competition to hospital markets that are uncompetitive.

  4. Grandfathered, Grandmothered, And ACA-Compliant Health Plans Have Equivalent Premiums.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Heidi; Gabel, Jon R; Satorius, Jennifer L; Green, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Many small employers offer employees health plans that are not fully compliant with Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions such as covering preventive services without cost sharing. These "grandfathered" and "grandmothered" plans accounted for about 65 percent of enrollment in the small-group market in 2014. Premium costs for these and ACA-compliant plans were equivalent. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Nonprofit to for-profit conversions by hospitals, health insurers, and health plans.

    PubMed

    Needleman, J

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.

  6. The Clintons stump for health care reform plan as details slowly emerge.

    PubMed

    1993-10-05

    In September 1993, in the US, Hillary Rodham Clinton, testified before 5 key congressional committees on President Clinton's plan to reform health care. Most of the money needed to finance the plan would come from elimination of waste in the current system. The administration has not yet formally sent the proposal to Congress. Family planning services are part of the proposed mandated benefit package, but the draft document does not provide details on family planning coverage while it discusses other mandated services in detail. Further, the draft document mentions neither family planning supplies (e.g., pills, IUDs, or diaphragms) nor whether family planning services will be considered preventive care, thereby exempting them from copayments or deductibles. It specifies prenatal care, periodic examinations, and screening test for children and adults (e.g., well-baby care and immunizations) as preventive services. The plan covers pregnancy-related care, but, other than exclusion of in vitro fertilization, this is not defined. The plan has a conscientious exemption option, but it is not clear as to whether the administration plans to continue the standing policy granting conscientious exemption to individuals and medical facilities or to expand it to include entire health plans. The administration emphasizes that, even though the plan covers abortion. The Health Insurance Association of America opposes the plan while the American Medical Association (AMA) neither supports nor opposes it. The AMA does object, however, to the plans provisions on malpractice and limits on annual premium increases. Families USA strongly favors the plan. The Congressional Caucus on Women's Issues asks the President to include all reproductive health services. The National Black Women's Health Project appreciates the Administration's commitment and the plan's coverage of preventive care and reproductive health, but stresses that it must improve access to poor women, most of whom are black.

  7. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. 890.205 Section 890.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans...

  8. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. 890.205 Section 890.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans...

  9. 5 CFR 890.205 - Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonrenewal of contracts of health benefits plans. 890.205 Section 890.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans...

  10. Is health workforce planning recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level?

    PubMed

    Naccarella, Lucio; Wraight, Brenda; Gorman, Des

    2016-02-01

    The growing demands on the health system to adapt to constant change has led to investment in health workforce planning agencies and approaches. Health workforce planning approaches focusing on identifying, predicting and modelling workforce supply and demand are criticised as being simplistic and not contributing to system-level resiliency. Alternative evidence- and needs-based health workforce planning approaches are being suggested. However, to contribute to system-level resiliency, workforce planning approaches need to also adopt system-based approaches. The increased complexity and fragmentation of the healthcare system, especially for patients with complex and chronic conditions, has also led to a focus on health literacy not simply as an individual trait, but also as a dynamic product of the interaction between individual (patients, workforce)-, organisational- and system-level health literacy. Although it is absolutely essential that patients have a level of health literacy that enables them to navigate and make decisions, so too the health workforce, organisations and indeed the system also needs to be health literate. Herein we explore whether health workforce planning is recognising the dynamic interplay between health literacy at an individual, organisation and system level, and the potential for strengthening resiliency across all those levels.

  11. Gold and Silver Health Plans: Accommodating Demand Heterogeneity in Managed Competition

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    New regulation of health insurance markets creates multiple levels of health plans, with designations like “Gold” and “Silver”. The underlying rationale for the heavy-metal approach to insurance regulation is that heterogeneity in demand for health care is not only due to health status (sick demand more than the healthy) but also to other, “taste” related factors (rich demand more than the poor). This paper models managed competition with demand heterogeneity to consider plan payment and enrollee premium policies in relation to efficiency (net consumer benefit) and fairness (the European concept of “solidarity”). Specifically, this paper studies how to implement a “Silver” and “Gold” health plan efficiently and fairly in a managed competition context. We show that there are sharp tradeoffs between efficiency and fairness. When health plans cannot or may not (because of regulation) base premiums on any factors affecting demand, enrollees do not choose the efficient plan. When taste (e.g. income) can be used as a basis of payment, a simple tax can achieve both efficiency and fairness. When only health status (and not taste) can be used as a basis of payment, health status-based taxes and subsidies are required and efficiency can only be achieved with a modified version of fairness we refer to as “weak solidarity.” An overriding conclusion is that the regulation of premiums for both the basic and the higher level plans is necessary for efficiency. PMID:21767887

  12. World Cup 2010 planning: an integration of public health and medical systems.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Arthur H; Fuhri, Peter D; Pillay, Yogan; Greenwald, Ian

    2008-10-01

    To present crucial stages of planning and the resources involved in the medical and health care that will address issues affecting the health and safety of all participants in the 2010 World Cup. Relevant literature reviews of mass gathering medical care supplemented experience of the authors in planning for previous similar events. Attention is focused on issues wherein effective planning requires the integration of public health practices with those of clinical emergency medical services. The tables that are included serve to illustrate the depth and breadth of planning as well as the organizational relationships required to execute care of a universally acceptable standard. This article offers guidance in planning for the 2010 World Cup health and emergency medical care, emphasizing the need for integration of public health and medical practices. It depicts the span of planning envisioned, the organizational relationships crucial to it, and emphasizes the necessity of an early start.

  13. How institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped population health planning in Australian regional primary health care organisations.

    PubMed

    Javanparast, Sara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Ziersch, Anna; Mackean, Tamara; Reed, Richard; Sanders, David

    2018-03-20

    Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning. We reviewed the planning documents of the 61 Medicare Locals and rated population health activities in each Medicare Local. We also conducted an online survey and 50 interviews with Medicare Local senior staff, and an interview and focus group with Federal Department of Health staff. Despite policy emphasis on population health, Medicare Locals reported higher levels of effort and capacity in providing clinical services. Health promotion and social determinants of health activities were undertaken on an ad hoc basis. Regulatory conditions imposed by the federal government including funding priorities and time schedules, were the predominant forces constraining population health planning. In some Medicare Locals, this was in conflict with the normative values and what Medicare Locals felt ought to be done. The alignment between the governmental and the cultural-cognitive forces of a narrow biomedical approach privileged clinical practice and ascribed less legitimacy to action on social determinants of health. Our study also shed light on the range of PHC actors and how their agency influenced Medicare Locals' performance in population health. The presence of senior staff or community boards with a strong commitment to population health were important in directing action towards population health and equity. There are numerous institutional, normative and cultural factors influencing population health planning. The experience of Australian Medicare Locals highlights the difficulties of planning in

  14. Results from a national survey on chronic care management by health plans.

    PubMed

    Mattke, Soeren; Higgins, Aparna; Brook, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The growing burden of chronic disease necessitates innovative approaches to help patients and to ensure the sustainability of our healthcare system. Health plans have introduced chronic care management models, but systematic data on the type and prevalence of different approaches are lacking. Our goal was to conduct a systematic examination of chronic care management programs offered by health plans in the commercial market (ie, in products sold to employers and individuals. We undertook a national survey of a representative sample of health plans (70 plans, 36% response rate) and 6 case studies on health plans' programs to improve chronic care in the commercial market. The data underwent descriptive and bivariate analyses. All plans, regardless of size, location, and ownership, offer chronic care management programs, which identify eligible members from claims data and match them to interventions based on overall risk and specific care gaps. Plans then report information on care gaps to providers and offer self-management support to their members. While internal evaluations suggest that the interventions improve care and reduce cost, plans report difficulties in engaging members and providers. To overcome those obstacles, plans are integrating their programs into provider work flow, collaborating with providers on care redesign and leveraging patient support technologies. Our study shows that chronic care management programs have become a standard component of the overall approach used by health plans to manage the health of their members.

  15. A dynamic family planning and health campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-11-01

    Any successful development program that combines family planning, nutrition, and parasite control such as the integrated project, must include effective information, education, and communication (IEC) components. The Population an Community Development Association (PDA), the largest nonprofit organization in Thailand provides a network of family planning service delivery composed of volunteer distributors including midwives, school techers and shopkeepers. Reliability and accessibility are the 2 important elements. A concerted media campaign which exposes people to condoms and other contraceptives helps desensitize an otherwise "too personal" issue. The problem which confronts family planning communication is how to counteract the sensuous messages form advetisers while focusing on mundane topics such as maternal and child health, responsible parenthood, and family budgets. The PDA has tried to use the same attractions to promote family planning. It distributes promotional items such as T-shirts, pens towels and cigarette lighters bearing family planning messages. In addition to the use of television and radio, PDA also utilizes every possible channel of communication. Approaches include: the Youth-to-Youth Program; informational exhibits; video-mobile vans which visit schools and factories; and the holding of PDA's vasectomy festivals. Informational exhibits on family planning and health care use a variety of audio-visual methods. Video is an effective communication medium. The PDA video material ordinarily consists of family dramas illustrating good and bad family planning practices. By holding vasectomy festivals, PDA provides a media-attracting forum to educate the public and promote vasectomey as the most effective birth control method. Mass media campaigns must be linked with fieldwork outreach.

  16. Beyond consumer-driven health care: purchasers' expectations of all plans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter V; Hoo, Emma

    2006-01-01

    Skyrocketing health care costs and quality deficits can only be addressed through a broad approach of quality-based benefit design. Consumer-directed health plans that are built around better consumer information tools and support hold the promise of consumer engagement, but purchasers expect these features in all types of health plans. Regardless of plan type, simply shifting costs to consumers is a threat to access and adherence to evidence-based medicine. Comparative and interactive consumer information tools, coupled with provider performance transparency and payment reform, are needed to advance accountability and support consumers in getting the right care at the right time.

  17. Show Me My Health Plans: Using a Decision Aid to Improve Decisions in the Federal Health Insurance Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Mary C.; Kuzemchak, Marie D.; Liu, Jingxia; Barker, Abigail R.; Peters, Ellen; Ubel, Peter A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; McBride, Timothy; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Shacham, Enbal; Philpott, Sydney E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Since the Affordable Care Act was passed, more than 12 million individuals have enrolled in the health insurance marketplace. Without support, many struggle to make an informed plan choice that meets their health and financial needs. Methods We designed and evaluated a decision aid, Show Me My Health Plans (SMHP), that provides education, preference assessment, and an annual out-of-pocket cost calculator with plan recommendations produced by a tailored, risk-adjusted algorithm incorporating age, gender, and health status. We evaluated whether SMHP compared to HealthCare.gov improved health insurance decision quality and the match between plan choice, needs, and preferences among 328 Missourians enrolling in the marketplace. Results Participants who used SMHP had higher health insurance knowledge (LS-Mean = 78 vs. 62; P < 0.001), decision self-efficacy (LS-Mean = 83 vs. 75; P < 0.002), confidence in their choice (LS-Mean = 3.5 vs. 2.9; P < 0.001), and improved health insurance literacy (odds ratio = 2.52, P <0.001) compared to participants using HealthCare.gov. Those using SMHP were 10.3 times more likely to select a silver- or gold-tier plan (P < 0.0001). Discussion SMHP can improve health insurance decision quality and the odds that consumers select an insurance plan with coverage likely needed to meet their health needs. This study represents a unique context through which to apply principles of decision support to improve health insurance choices. PMID:28804780

  18. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P < 0.001). The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  19. Succession Planning and Management Practice in Washington State Local Public Health Agencies.

    PubMed

    Wiesman, John M; Babich, Suzanne M; Umble, Karl; Baker, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Turnover of top local public health officials is expected to be great, with 23% being 60 years of age or older, and another 42% being 50 to 59 years of age. Yet, we know little about the use of succession planning in public health agencies. Describe succession planning practices in local public health agencies. We conducted a Web-based, cross-sectional survey of succession planning practices and followed the career paths of public health officials for 40 months. The top local public health officials from Washington State's 35 local governmental public health agencies. Twenty-five succession planning best practices. All 35 agencies responded, resulting in a 100% response rate. Our study found evidence of succession planning practices in Washington State local public health agencies: 85% of agencies selected high-performing high potential employees for development, 76% sent them to formal technical and management/leadership training, 70% used cross-functional team projects, and 67% used stretch assignments to develop their employees. Impetuses to implement succession planning were discovering that large percentages of employees were able to retire soon and that national accreditation requires workforce development plans. Barriers to implementing succession planning included other competing demands for time, belief that the agency's workforce was too small for a formal program, and concerns that there would be union barriers. In 2012, 50% of the officials surveyed said that it would be at least possible that they would leave their current jobs within 5 years. Forty months later, 12 (34%) had left their positions. We were encouraged by the level of succession planning in Washington State and recommend creating a greater sense of urgency by focusing on agency retirement profiles and emphasizing the need for workforce development plans for accreditation. Developing the public health leaders of tomorrow is too important to be left to chance.

  20. Labor force planning issues for allied health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; Crowley, S

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss labor force planning issues for allied health professionals in Australia. Health system reform and changes in the demand for health labor, combined with key characteristics of the professions, will have a profound influence on future needs for career development of allied health professionals. Key issues include the increasing need for allied health professionals to undertake business management and public health training, the growing trend of multiskilling versus specialization, and the need for the professions to diversify their skill base to ensure a range of career options in a changing health care system. The challenge for allied health professions is to improve tools of analysis in relation to labor force planning and to systematically investigate various factors influencing labor force supply and demand, on both a short-term and long-term basis.

  1. Trends Affecting the U.S. Health Care System. Health Planning Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, Carol

    This integrated review of national trends affecting the health care system is primarily intended to facilitate the planning efforts of health care providers and consumers, Government agencies, medical school administrators, health insurers, and companies in the medical market. It may also be useful to educators as a textbook to give their students…

  2. Health plan liability and ERISA: the expanding scope of state legislation.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred J; Young, Gary J

    2005-02-01

    The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) supersedes state laws as they relate to employer-based health care plans. Thus, cases brought under ERISA are heard in federal courts. We examined the intent, scope, and impact of recent laws passed in 10 states attempting to expand the legal rights of health plan enrollees to sue their plans. In June 2004, the US Supreme Court ruled that state-law causes of action brought under the Texas Health Care Liability Act involving coverage decisions by Aetna Health Inc and CIGNA Health Care of Texas were preempted by ERISA. The full implications of this decision are not evident at present.

  3. Curricula for Health Planning, Policy, and Marketing: Conference Papers 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergwall, David F., Ed.

    Papers from a 1981 conference on curriculum for health planning, policy, and marketing and from a 1982 conference on curriculum for strategic planning are presented. Responses to the papers and summaries of the proceedings are also presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "A Curriculum in Community Health Planning: An Approach for Today…

  4. Nonprofit to for-profit conversions by hospitals, health insurers, and health plans.

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, J

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services. Images p109-a p110-a p115-a p116-a PMID:10199712

  5. 42 CFR 407.20 - Special enrollment period related to coverage under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND... coverage under group health plans. (a) Terminology—(1) Group health plan (GHP) and large group health plan...

  6. 42 CFR 407.20 - Special enrollment period related to coverage under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND... coverage under group health plans. (a) Terminology—(1) Group health plan (GHP) and large group health plan...

  7. 42 CFR 407.20 - Special enrollment period related to coverage under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND... coverage under group health plans. (a) Terminology—(1) Group health plan (GHP) and large group health plan...

  8. 42 CFR 407.20 - Special enrollment period related to coverage under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND... coverage under group health plans. (a) Terminology—(1) Group health plan (GHP) and large group health plan...

  9. 42 CFR 407.20 - Special enrollment period related to coverage under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND... coverage under group health plans. (a) Terminology—(1) Group health plan (GHP) and large group health plan...

  10. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H.; Betts, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:23147247

  11. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Health Care in the United States [and] Health Care Issues: A Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John; Dempsey, Joanne R.

    1984-01-01

    An article on American health care which focuses on health care costs and benefits is combined with a lesson plan on health care issues to enable students to consider both issues of cost effectiveness and morality in decisions about the allocation of health care. The article covers the history of interest in health care, the reasons for the…

  13. Introducing risk adjustment and free health plan choice in employer-based health insurance: Evidence from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pilny, Adam; Wübker, Ansgar; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-12-01

    To equalize differences in health plan premiums due to differences in risk pools, the German legislature introduced a simple Risk Adjustment Scheme (RAS) based on age, gender and disability status in 1994. In addition, effective 1996, consumers gained the freedom to choose among hundreds of existing health plans, across employers and state-borders. This paper (a) estimates RAS pass-through rates on premiums, financial reserves, and expenditures and assesses the overall RAS impact on market price dispersion. Moreover, it (b) characterizes health plan switchers and investigates their annual and cumulative switching rates over time. Our main findings are based on representative enrollee panel data linked to administrative RAS and health plan data. We show that sickness funds with bad risk pools and high pre-RAS premiums lowered their total premiums by 42 cents per additional euro allocated by the RAS. Consequently, post-RAS, health plan prices converged but not fully. Because switchers are more likely to be white collar, young and healthy, the new consumer choice resulted in more risk segregation and the amount of money redistributed by the RAS increased over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunization Initiation Among Infants in the Oregon Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jessica W.; Arbor, Susan A.; Broich, Steven L.; Peterson, Judy Mohr; Hutchinson, Jean E.

    2006-01-01

    Infants who start receiving immunizations on time are more likely to be up to date at age 2 years. Among 39708 infants aged 3 months covered by the Oregon Health Plan (expanded Medicaid), those who did not have health care coverage within the first month of life were less likely to start receiving immunizations on time. Also at risk were infants in foster care, in subadoptive care, who were blind or disabled, who were Native American or Black, or whose mothers were not covered by the Oregon Health Plan. PMID:16571692

  15. Managed care redux: health plans shift responsibilities to consumers.

    PubMed

    Draper, Debra A; Claxton, Gary

    2004-03-01

    Confronted with conflicting pressures to stem double-digit premium increases and provide unfettered access to care, health plans are developing products that shift more financial and care management responsibilities to consumers, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2002-03 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Plans are pursuing these strategies in collaboration with employers that want to gain control over rapidly rising premiums while continuing to respond to employee demands for less restrictive managed care practices. Mindful of the managed care backlash, health plans also are stepping up utilization management activities for high-cost services and focusing care management on high-cost patients. While the move toward greater consumer engagement is clear, the impact on costs and consumer willingness to assume these new responsibilities remain to be seen.

  16. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-21

    This document announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to modify the Hawaii State Plan's ``final approval'' determination under Section 18(e) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (the Act) and to transition to ``initial approval'' status. OSHA is reinstating concurrent federal enforcement authority over occupational safety and health issues in the private sector, which have been solely covered by the Hawaii State Plan since 1984.

  18. The North Carolina State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees: Strategies in Creating Financial Stability While Improving Member Health.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dee; Horner, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The North Carolina State Health Plan provides health care coverage to more than 700,000 members, including teachers, state employees, retirees, current and former lawmakers, state university and community college personnel, and their dependents. The State Health Plan is a division of the North Carolina Department of State Treasurer, self-insured, and exempt from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as a government-sponsored plan. With health care costs rising at rates greater than funding, the Plan must take measures to stem cost growth while ensuring access to quality health care. The Plan anticipates focusing on strategic initiatives that drive results and cost savings while improving member health to protect the Plan's financial future. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  19. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes.

  20. Health Plan Liability and ERISA: The Expanding Scope of State Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Hellinger, Fred J.; Young, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    The federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) supersedes state laws as they relate to employer-based health care plans. Thus, cases brought under ERISA are heard in federal courts. We examined the intent, scope, and impact of recent laws passed in 10 states attempting to expand the legal rights of health plan enrollees to sue their plans. In June 2004, the US Supreme Court ruled that state-law causes of action brought under the Texas Health Care Liability Act involving coverage decisions by Aetna Health Inc and CIGNA Health Care of Texas were preempted by ERISA. The full implications of this decision are not evident at present. PMID:15671453

  1. Framing health for land-use planning legislation: A qualitative descriptive content analysis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Thow, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Framing health as a relevant policy issue for other sectors is not well understood. A recent review of the New South Wales (Australia) land-use planning system resulted in the drafting of legislation with an internationally unprecedented focus on human health. We apply a political science approach to investigate the question 'how and to what extent were health and wider issues framed in submissions to the review?' We investigated a range of stakeholder submissions including health focussed agencies (n = 31), purposively identified key stakeholders with influence on the review (n = 24), and a random sample of other agencies and individuals (n = 47). Using qualitative descriptive analysis we inductively coded for the term 'health' and sub-categories. We deductively coded for 'wider concerns' using a locally endorsed 'Healthy Urban Development Checklist'. Additional inductive analysis uncovered further 'wider concerns'. Health was explicitly identified as a relevant issue for planning policy only in submissions by health-focussed agencies. This framing concerned the new planning system promoting and protecting health as well as connecting health to wider planning concerns including economic issues, transport, public open space and, to a slightly lesser extent, environmental sustainability. Key stakeholder and other agency submissions focussed on these and other wider planning concerns but did not mention health in detail. Health agency submissions did not emphasise infrastructure, density or housing as explicitly as others. Framing health as a relevant policy issue has the potential to influence legislative change governing the business of other sectors. Without submissions from health agencies arguing the importance of having health as an objective in the proposed legislation it is unlikely health considerations would have gained prominence in the draft bill. The findings have implications for health agency engagement with legislative change processes and beyond in

  2. Provider-owned health plans: El Dorado or Armageddon?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, E J

    1999-11-01

    The development of provider-owned health plans continues to be an important strategy of integrated delivery systems (IDSs). While HMO enrollment growth has continued, reaching almost 70 million people, average health plan profit margins have declined from 8 percent in 1994 to less than 1 percent in 1997. About 56 percent of HMOs lost money in 1998. The ability to successfully develop and operate a provider-owned HMO is affected by conditions inherent to the managed care industry, the level of cooperation among IDS business, units, and local market conditions.

  3. Transition Planning for Students with Chronic Health Conditions. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baszler, Rita; Rochkes, Laura; Dolatowski, Rosemary; Mendes, Irene; Yow, Barbara; Butler, Sarah; Fekaris, Nina

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that all children with chronic health conditions should receive coordinated and deliberate transition planning to maximize lifelong functioning and well-being. Transition planning refers to a coordinated set of activities to assist students with chronic health conditions to…

  4. A model of succession planning for mental health nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Sally; Procter, Nicholas; Deuter, Kate

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews current literature on succession planning for mental health nurse practitioners (NPs) and discusses a model of succession planning that is underpinned by principals of leadership development, workforce participation and client engagement. The paper identifies succession planning as a means of managing a present and future workforce, while simultaneously addressing individual and organizational learning and practice development needs. A discussion of the processes attendant upon sustainable succession planning - collegial support, career planning and development, information exchange, capacity building, and mentoring is framed within the potential interrelationships between existing NP, developing NP and service directors and/or team managers. Done effectively and in partnership with wider clinical services, succession planning has the potential to build NP leadership development and leadership transition more broadly within mental health services.

  5. Health Card: a new reform plan.

    PubMed

    Seidman, L S

    1995-01-01

    Health Card is a new reform plan. Every household, regardless of employment of health status, would receive a government-issued health credit card to use at the doctor's office or hospital like MasterCard. Later, it would be billed a percentage of the provider's charge--a percentage scaled to its last income tax return; its annual burden would never exceed a designated percentage of its income. Health Card would simply and directly achieve universal coverage and equitable patient cost-sharing. Like MasterCard, government would pay bills, not regulate providers. Each household would choose its medical provider (fee-for-service or HMO), bearing a percentage of the charge. Provider competition for cost-sharing consumers would help contain health care costs.

  6. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include...

  7. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include...

  8. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include...

  9. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include...

  10. 42 CFR 495.332 - State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State Medicaid health information technology (HIT... HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.332 State Medicaid health information technology (HIT) plan requirements. Each State Medicaid HIT plan must include...

  11. Telemedicine in the Malaysian Multimedia Super Corridor: towards personalized lifetime health plans.

    PubMed

    Abidi, S S; Yusoff, Z

    1999-01-01

    The Malaysian Telemedicine initiative advocates a paradigm shift in healthcare delivery patterns by way of implementing a person-centred and wellness-focused healthcare system. This paper introduces the Malaysian Telemedicine vision, its functionality and associated operational conditions. In particular, we focus on the conceptualisation of one key Telemedicine component i.e. the Lifetime Health Plan (LHP) system--a distributed multimodule application for the periodic monitoring and generation of health-care advisories for all Malaysians. In line with the LHP project, we present an innovative healthcare delivery info-structure--LifePlan--that aims to provide life-long, pro-active, personalised, wellness-oriented healthcare services to assist individuals to manage and interpret their health needs. Functionally, LifePlan based healthcare services are delivered over the WWW, packaged as Personalised Lifetime Health Plans that allow individuals to both monitor their health status and to guide them in healthcare planning.

  12. Environmental health discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in environmental health. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; animal and human subjects; and research and development. This document summarizes the history and current status of the program elements, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies scientific priorities, and defines critical questions in the three disciplines: (1) Barophysiology, (2) Toxicology, and (3) Microbiology. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Officers and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area. The document is divided into sections addressing these three disciplines.

  13. Hospital and Health Plan Partnerships: The Affordable Care Act's Impact on Promoting Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reforms, centered on achieving the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Triple Aim goals of improving patient care quality and satisfaction, improving population health, and reducing costs, have led to increasing partnerships between hospitals and insurance companies and the implementation of employee wellness programs. Hospitals and insurance companies have opted to partner to distribute the risk and resources and increase coordination of care. To examine the ACA's impact on the health and wellness programs that have resulted from the joint ventures of hospitals and health plans based on the published literature. We conducted a review of the literature to identify successful mergers and best practices of health and wellness programs. Articles published between January 2007 and January 2015 were compiled from various search engines, using the search terms "corporate," "health and wellness program," "health plan," "insurance plan," "hospital," "joint venture," and "vertical merger." Publications that described consolidations or wellness programs not tied to health insurance plans were excluded. Noteworthy characteristics of these programs were summarized and tabulated. A total of 44 eligible articles were included in the analysis. The findings showed that despite rising healthcare costs, joint ventures prevent hospitals from trading-off quality and services for cost reductions. Administrators believed that partnering would allow the companies to meet ACA standards for improving clinical outcomes at reduced costs. Before the implementation of the ACA, some employers had wellness programs, but these were not standardized and did not need to produce measurable results. The ACA encouraged improvement of employee wellness programs by providing funding for expanded health services and by mandating quality care. Successful workplace health and wellness programs have varying components, but all include monetary incentives

  14. Health Plans Can't Ignore The Customer Experience Any Longer.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    With regulations limiting differentiation between products, health plans must rethink consumer experience to meet expectations of today's consumers, who seek convenience, quality, and speed from their health care organizations. Many plans understand they need to connect more effectively with their end customers, but technological, cultural, and other obstacles are in the way.

  15. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2014-01-01

    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Discharge planning in mental health care: an integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nurjannah, Intansari; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim; Park, Tanya

    2014-05-01

    To identify the evidence base related to discharge planning in the context of acute and community mental healthcare service provision to ascertain the need for future research. Discharge planning is an important activity when preparing consumers to transition from hospital to home. The efficiency of discharge planning for consumers living with a mental health issue can influence both the number of future readmissions to acute-care facilities and their quality of life at home. An integrative review of the peer-reviewed literature. This review uses specific search terms and a 21-year time frame to search two key nursing databases CINAHL (Cinahl Information Systems, Glendale, CA, USA) and PSYCHINFO (American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA) for research reports investigating the substantive area of enquiry. Hand searches of reference lists and author searches were also conducted. Nineteen peer-reviewed journal articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Research findings about discharge planning for people living with a mental health issue identify the importance of communication between health professionals, consumers and their families to maximise the effectiveness of this process. The complexity of consumer's healthcare needs influences the discharge planning process and impacts on aftercare compliance and readmission rates. There is a limited amount of research findings relating to differences between health professionals and families' perceptions of the level of information required for effective discharge planning, and the appropriate level of involvement of individuals living with a mental health issue in their own discharge planning. Results from this integrative review will inform future research related to this topic. Discharge planning for consumers living with a mental health issue involves many stakeholders who have different expectations regarding the type of information required and the necessary level of involvement of people

  17. 45 CFR 156.250 - Health plan applications and notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health plan applications and notices. 156.250 Section 156.250 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS...

  18. 45 CFR 156.250 - Health plan applications and notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health plan applications and notices. 156.250 Section 156.250 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS...

  19. 45 CFR 156.250 - Health plan applications and notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health plan applications and notices. 156.250 Section 156.250 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS...

  20. School-Sponsored Health Insurance: Planning for a New Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Health care reform efforts in both the Clinton and Obama administrations have attempted to address college and university health. Yet, although the world of health care delivery has almost universally evolved to managed care, school health programs have not. In general, school-sponsored health plans do little to improve access and have adopted…

  1. Succession planning in local health departments: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Julie S; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Succession planning has received scant attention in the public health sector, despite its potential to generate operational efficiencies in a sector facing chronic budgetary pressures and an aging workforce. We examined the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) are engaged in succession planning and assessed the factors associated with having a succession plan. We conducted a national cross-sectional Web-based survey of workforce recruitment and retention activities in a sample of LHDs responding to the National Association of County & City Health Officials' 2010 Profile Study and then linked these data sets to fit a multivariable logistic regression model to explain why some LHDs have succession plans and others do not. Top executives in a national sample of LHDs. Presence or absence of succession planning. Two hundred twenty-five LHDs responded to the survey, yielding a 43.3% response rate, but no statistically significant differences between respondents and nonrespondents were detected. Only 39.5% reported having a succession plan. Performance evaluation activities are more common in LHDs with a succession plan than in LHDs without a plan. In adjusted analyses, the largest LHDs were 7 times more likely to have a succession plan than the smallest. Compared with state-governed LHDs, locally governed LHDs were 3.5 times more likely, and shared governance LHDs were 6 times more likely, to have a succession plan. Every additional year of experience by the top executive was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of having a succession plan. Local health departments that report high levels of concern about retaining staff (vs low concern) had 2.5 times higher adjusted odds of having a succession plan. This study provides the first national data on succession planning in LHDs and sheds light on LHDs' readiness to meet the workforce-related accreditation standards.

  2. Can health feasibly be considered as part of the planning process in Scotland?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Higgins, Martin; Douglas, Margaret; Muirie, Jill

    2005-10-15

    The planning system is significant because of its capacity to determine the quality of the built environment as well as the health, well-being and quality of life of the individuals and communities therein. Development planning is especially important because of the long-term impact of the decisions. This paper was developed in response to increasing recognition amongst HIA practitioners in Scotland of the importance of planning for health. It focuses on the relationship between the planning system in Scotland, specifically the Development Planning element of it, and population health and considers how the health impact assessment (HIA) approach can facilitate andmore » support joint working with planners. In particular, consideration is given to the potential impact of the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the linkages between health, HIA and planning.« less

  3. Developing a Spanish-language consumer report for CAHPS health plan surveys.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Kanouse, David E; Weidmer, Beverly; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; García, Rosa Elena; Hays, Ron D

    2007-11-01

    A Spanish-language consumer report on health plan quality was developed for the Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) project. Multiple translations, a committee review, and a readability assessment were performed to produce a draft Spanish report. The report was revised on the basis of a series of cognitive interviews with 24 Latinos. The median age of participants was 41 years, and the median number of years in the United States was 9; 67% were female, and 63% had less than a high school education. In general, participants understood the report and said they would use it to choose a health plan. Less-educated respondents had difficulty understanding the segmented bar graphs that showed the proportion of health plan members' responses. A summary chart comparing all health plans on all dimensions was easier to comprehend when differences were represented by word icons rather than by stars. Concepts and terms about health care quality translated well from English to Spanish. Simplifying graphical information involves losing some detail but makes information more usable. Summary charts facilitate comparisons across plans, but differences relative to a mean are difficult for both Spanish- and English-speaking consumers to understand.

  4. Unhealthy Competition: Consequences of Health Plan Choice in California Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Bindman, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the quality of care received by managed care Medicaid beneficiaries in counties with a choice of health plans and counties with no choice. Methods. This cross-sectional study among California Medicaid beneficiaries was conducted during 2002. We used a multivariate Poisson model to calculate adjusted rates of hospital admissions for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions by duration of plan enrollment. Results. Among beneficiaries with continuous Medicaid coverage, the percentage with 12 months of continuous enrollment in a health plan was significantly lower in counties with a choice of plans than in counties with no choice (79.2% vs 95.2%; P < .001). Annual ambulatory care–sensitive admission rates adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity were significantly higher among beneficiaries living in counties with a choice of plans (6.58 admissions per 1000 beneficiaries; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.57, 6.58) than among those in counties with no choice (6.27 per 1000; 95% CI = 6.27, 6.28). Conclusions. Potential benefits of health plan choice may be undermined by transaction costs of delayed enrollment, which may increase the probability of hospitalization for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions. PMID:20864718

  5. Robustness in practice--the regional planning of health services.

    PubMed

    Best, G; Parston, G; Rosenhead, J

    1986-05-01

    Earlier work has criticized the dominant tendencies in operational research contributions to health services planning as characterized by optimization, implausible demands for data, depoliticization, hierarchy and inflexibility. This paper describes an effort which avoids at least some of these pitfalls. The project was to construct a planning system for a regional health council in Ontario, Canada, which would take account of the possible alternative future states of the health-care system's environment and would aim to keep options for future development open. The planning system devised is described in the paper. It is based on robustness analysis, which evaluates alternative initial action sets in terms of the useful flexibility they preserve. Other features include the explicit incorporation of pressures for change generated outside the health-care system, and a satisficing approach to the identification of both initial action sets and alternative future configurations of the health-care system. It was found possible to borrow and radically 're-use' techniques or formulations from the mainstream of O.R. contributions. Thus the 'reference projection' method was used to identify inadequacies in performance which future health-care system configurations must repair. And Delphi analysis, normally a method for generating consensus, was used in conjunction with cluster analysis of responses to generate meaningfully different alternative futures.

  6. Changing workforce demographics necessitates succession planning in health care.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2007-01-01

    Health care organizations continue to be plagued by labor shortage issues. Further complicating the already existing workforce challenges is an aging population poised to retire en masse within the next few years. With fewer cohorts in the age group of 25 to 44 years (Vital Speeches Day. 2004:71:23-27), a more mobile workforce (Grow Your Own Leaders: How to Identify, Develop, and Retain Leadership Talent, 2002), and an overall reduction in the number of individuals seeking employment in the health care field (J Healthc Manag. 2003:48:6-11), the industry could be faced with an unmanageable number of vacant positions throughout the organization. Bracing for the potential impact of these issues is crucial to the ongoing business continuity of health care organization. Many health care organizations have embraced succession planning to combat the potential labor famine. However, the health care industry as a whole seems to lag behind other industries in terms of succession planning efforts (Healthc Financ Manage. 2005;59:64-67). This article seeks to provide health care managers with a framework for improving the systematic preparation of the next generation of managers by analyzing the succession planning process. The proposition of these models is to initiate and simplify the gap reduction between theoretical concepts and future organizational application.

  7. Plan choice, health insurance cost and premium sharing.

    PubMed

    Kosteas, Vasilios D; Renna, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    We develop a model of premium sharing for firms that offer multiple insurance plans. We assume that firms offer one low quality plan and one high quality plan. Under the assumption of wage rigidities we found that the employee's contribution to each plan is an increasing function of that plan's premium. The effect of the other plan's premium is ambiguous. We test our hypothesis using data from the Employer Health Benefit Survey. Restricting the analysis to firms that offer both HMO and PPO plans, we measure the amount of the premium passed on to employees in response to a change in both premiums. We find evidence of large and positive effects of the increase in the plan's premium on the amount of the premium passed on to employees. The effect of the alternative plan's premium is negative but statistically significant only for the PPO plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  9. A Guide for Environmental Health Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gene M.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines objectives and resources to be assessed in a community environmental health plan. Considers: water; liquid waste disposal; housing maintenance; solid waste disposal; air pollution; food and food protection; rodent control; insect control; migrant labor camps; recreation sites; mobile homes - trailer parks; schools, institutions - public…

  10. Succession Planning in the Iranian Health System: A Case Study of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtak, Mohamad; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Gholipour, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Succession planning promotes the culture of private ownership, staff loyalty to the organization and develops organizational commitment, and increases organizational stability. The study was conducted to examine the status of succession planning in the Iranian health system in order to highlight the key concepts, provide new insight, and attract the attention of senior managers of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education to the importance of succession planning in achieving organizational goals. Methods: In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample selected using purposive and snowball sampling procedure. The MAXQDA-10 was used to apply the codes and manage the data. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. Results: Fourteen themes and six main subthemes were identified, including planning, organizational culture, system approach, competency model, career path, and senior managers. Our findings indicate a lack of succession planning in the Iranian health system. Conclusion: lack of succession planning could lead to inefficiency and ineffectiveness in health services provision. Implementation of succession planning could maximize human resources utilization. PMID:25168998

  11. Succession planning in the Iranian health system: a case study of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Mehrtak, Mohamad; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Gholipour, Arian

    2014-05-30

    Succession planning promotes the culture of private ownership, staff loyalty to the organization and develops organizational commitment, and increases organizational stability. The study was conducted to examine the status of succession planning in the Iranian health system in order to highlight the key concepts, provide new insight, and attract the attention of senior managers of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education to the importance of succession planning in achieving organizational goals. In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample selected using purposive and snowball sampling procedure. The MAXQDA-10 was used to apply the codes and manage the data. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. Fourteen themes and six main subthemes were identified, including planning, organizational culture, system approach, competency model, career path, and senior managers. Our findings indicate a lack of succession planning in the Iranian health system. lack of succession planning could lead to inefficiency and ineffectiveness in health services provision. Implementation of succession planning could maximize human resources utilization.

  12. Health planning as context-dependent language play.

    PubMed

    Degeling, P

    1996-01-01

    The concept of planning as context-dependent language play is proposed as a heuristic device to overcome shortcomings which are traced to the planner centered, means-end and prescriptive orientations of much of the existing literature on health planning. The model proposed suggests that planning should be analysed not simply in terms of the capacities and/or responsibilities that it claims to assign to planners, but also in the way that different planning discourses are mobilized, for strategic effect, by a range of other players in front-stage and back-stage settings. Within this conception, a planning exercise comes to be seen as an episode in dramas which have been running for extended periods of time. What distinguishes planning episodes from others in these dramas, is not simply the entry of players designated as planners, but also the discourses that both planners and other players mobilize as they attempt to structure and contest their relationships with one another. The implications of what this conception of planning holds for future research are then discussed.

  13. Joint Venture Health Plans May Give ACOs a Run for Their Money.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Joint venture plans are starting to demonstrate their ability to implement clinical management and financial management reforms. A JV health plan replaces the offloading of financial risk by health plans to ill-equipped providers with an executive-level cost management committee stated jointly by the hospital and payer.

  14. Health literacy and health care spending and utilization in a consumer-driven health plan.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Nancy A; Kyanko, Kelly; Busch, Susan; Losasso, Anthony T; Levin, Regina A

    2011-01-01

    We examined health literacy and health care spending and utilization by linking responses of three health literacy questions to 2006 claims data of enrollees new to consumer-driven health plans (n = 4,130). Better health literacy on all four health literacy measures (three item responses and their sum) was associated with lower total health care spending, specifically, lower emergency department and inpatient admission spending (p < .05). Similarly, fewer inpatient admissions and emergency department visits were associated with higher adequate health literacy scores and better self-reports of the ability to read and learn about medical conditions (p-value <.05). Members with lower health literacy scores appear to use services more appropriate for advanced health conditions, although office visit rates were similar across the range of health literacy scores.

  15. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate

    2017-09-27

    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method

  16. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. Methods: We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts. Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from

  17. The Big Red How-To Guide: Planning a Health Fair for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Christina A.

    Community health fairs usually focus on adult health issues and seldom on child and family health or the link between health and education. This guide's purpose is to assist communities in developing child and family-focused health fairs. The guide is divided into two major sections: pre-planning and planning. The pre-planning section covers steps…

  18. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future

  19. Case study in health information management: strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Homan, C V

    1992-08-01

    The strategic planning process has proven to be invaluable to Riverside Hospital's success. Involvement of all levels of the organization and integration of plans solidifies organizational commitments and provides a framework that assures accomplishment of overall goals. With major developments in computerization of medical records and other systems that support patient care data analysis on the horizon, Riverside's integrated plans are defining crucial information system projects. As the pool of available resources for projects continues to shrink, the planning format described assures funding of information system needs that will secure a position for Riverside in the health care marketplace of the future.

  20. Health plans and selection: formal risk adjustment vs. market design and contracts.

    PubMed

    Frank, R G; Rosenthal, M B

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the demand for risk adjustment by health plans that contract with private employers by considering the conditions under which plans might value risk adjustment. Three factors reduce the value of risk adjustment from the plans' point of view. First, only a relatively small segment of privately insured Americans face a choice of competing health plans. Second, health plans share much of their insurance risk with payers, providers, and reinsurers. Third, de facto experience rating that occurs during the premium negotiation process and management of coverage appear to substitute for risk adjustment. While the current environment has not generated much demand for risk adjustment, we reflect on its future potential.

  1. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    PubMed

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  2. Mental health and substance abuse insurance parity for federal employees: how did health plans respond?

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Ridgely, M Susan

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental concern with competitive health insurance markets is that they will not supply efficient levels of coverage for treatment of costly, chronic, and predictable illnesses, such as mental illness. Since the inception of employer-based health insurance, coverage for mental health services has been offered on a more limited basis than coverage for general medical services. While mental health advocates view insurance limits as evidence of discrimination, adverse selection and moral hazard can also explain these differences in coverage. The intent of parity regulation is to equalize private insurance coverage for mental and physical illness (an equity concern) and to eliminate wasteful forms of competition due to adverse selection (an efficiency concern). In 2001, a presidential directive requiring comprehensive parity was implemented in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. In this study, we examine how health plans responded to the parity directive. Results show that in comparison with a set of unaffected health plans, federal employee plans were significantly more likely to augment managed care through contracts with managed behavioral health "carve-out" firms after parity. This finding helps to explain the absence of an effect of the FEHB Program directive on total spending, and is relevant to the policy debate in Congress over federal parity.

  3. 42 CFR 457.805 - State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS... child otherwise eligible for CHIP is disenrolled from coverage under a group health plan. (2) A waiting period may not be applied to a child following the loss of eligibility for and enrollment in Medicaid or...

  4. Health care planning and education via gaming-simulation: a two-stage experiment.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, J H; Greenblat, C S

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage process of gaming-simulation design was conducted: the first stage of design concerned national planning for hemophilia care; the second stage of design was for gaming-simulation concerning the problems of hemophilia patients and health care providers. The planning design was intended to be adaptable to large-scale planning for a variety of health care problems. The educational game was designed using data developed in designing the planning game. A broad range of policy-makers participated in the planning game.

  5. Harvard Community Health Plan's Mental Health Redesign Project: a managerial and clinical partnership.

    PubMed

    Abrams, H S

    1993-01-01

    Harvard Community Health Plan, founded in 1969 as a staff model HMO, is currently a staff and group model HMO with 521,000 members, 19 health centers and 12 independently owned group practices with 26 locations. In 1987, the Plan initiated a review of its mental health benefit and program because its costs were rising, member and clinician dissatisfaction was increasing and many believed the problem was the nature and scope of the benefit. After two years of study, surveys, interviews, cost and utilization analysis, the Plan identified its professional staff as its key asset but recognized many problem areas, including problems with access, variation from site to site, inconsistent service delivery, lack of consistent utilization management and the need for greater diversity along the spectrum of care available to members. From 1989 to 1990, more than 200 clinicians and support staff were engaged in the process of developing a variety of components to the "mental health redesign program." Three simultaneous efforts included developing a method of categorizing patients, restructuring the delivery system and redesigning the benefit. A Mental Health Patient Assessment Tool was created which assists clinicians in performing comprehensive evaluations, administers the benefit, measures progress and supports outcomes research. Delivery system changes included the implementation of self-referral, access standards, intake triage functions by non-clinical staff, program development and an outpatient utilization management function.

  6. [General aspects of planning and care in mental health].

    PubMed

    Saforcada, E

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the

  7. Health plan budget impact analysis for pimecrolimus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jane; Sung, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Budget impact models are useful tools for managed care organizations to make drug formulary decisions. The objective of this study was to estimate the incremental budgetary change in per-member-per-month (PMPM) medical and pharmacy costs for atopic dermatitis (AD) or eczema after the introduction of pimecrolimus cream 1%, a topical calcineurin inhibitor. Estimates of the percentage of patients seeking care, treatment patterns, and quantities of medications dispensed for AD were measured using 2001 and 2002 medical and pharmacy records in a proprietary database for health plans distributed throughout the United States. Approximately 2.5 million health plan members had continuous health insurance coverage during the study period. Costs for medications were assigned using the 2003 wholesale acquisition cost, and costs for physician visits were based on average 2003 Medicare reimbursement rates. Efficacy data from clinical trials were used to model the impact of pimecrolimus on subsequent physician visits. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of varying the percentage of patients seeking care, practice patterns, medication quantities, percentage of pimecrolimus users, and levels of patient cost sharing. The estimated percentage of health plan members seeking care for AD in 2001 was 3.2%. The estimated total cost PMPM for AD treatment prior to introduction of pimecrolimus was 0.362 dollars for all covered lives, assuming no patient cost sharing. In the year after its introduction, 5.2% of the AD population filled a prescription for pimecrolimus. The incremental increase in pharmacy benefit cost was 0.008 dollars PMPM in 2003 dollars, but the total incremental medical and pharmacy cost was 0.002 dollars PMPM after accounting for the projected reduction in physician visit costs, representing a 0.7% increase in all AD-related costs. Based on sensitivity analyses, the incremental total cost PMPM after the introduction of pimecrolimus ranged from -0

  8. Physician participation in alternative health plans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbach, Margo L.; Harrow, Brooke S.; Hurdle, Sylvia

    1988-01-01

    In this article, physician participation in alternative health plans is examined, using cross-sectional data from the Physicians' Practice Costs and Income Survey, 1983-85. Overall, about one-third of physicians participated in one or more plans, ranging from 18 percent of general practitioners to 46 percent of medical subspecialists. Only 19 percent, however, received income from prepaid sources, averaging $5,275 per physician. Reasons for joining or not joining are also examined. Participants joined most often to maintain or increase workload, while nonparticipants most often declined to join because they would be giving up independence. PMID:10312633

  9. Hospital and Health Plan Partnerships: The Affordable Care Act's Impact on Promoting Health and Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P.; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) healthcare reforms, centered on achieving the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Triple Aim goals of improving patient care quality and satisfaction, improving population health, and reducing costs, have led to increasing partnerships between hospitals and insurance companies and the implementation of employee wellness programs. Hospitals and insurance companies have opted to partner to distribute the risk and resources and increase coordination of care. Objective To examine the ACA's impact on the health and wellness programs that have resulted from the joint ventures of hospitals and health plans based on the published literature. Method We conducted a review of the literature to identify successful mergers and best practices of health and wellness programs. Articles published between January 2007 and January 2015 were compiled from various search engines, using the search terms “corporate,” “health and wellness program,” “health plan,” “insurance plan,” “hospital,” “joint venture,” and “vertical merger.” Publications that described consolidations or wellness programs not tied to health insurance plans were excluded. Noteworthy characteristics of these programs were summarized and tabulated. Results A total of 44 eligible articles were included in the analysis. The findings showed that despite rising healthcare costs, joint ventures prevent hospitals from trading-off quality and services for cost reductions. Administrators believed that partnering would allow the companies to meet ACA standards for improving clinical outcomes at reduced costs. Before the implementation of the ACA, some employers had wellness programs, but these were not standardized and did not need to produce measurable results. The ACA encouraged improvement of employee wellness programs by providing funding for expanded health services and by mandating quality care. Successful workplace health and wellness

  10. Consumer price sensitivity and health plan choice in a regulated competition setting.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Tamara; Schmid, Christian P R

    2018-05-21

    We estimate premium elasticities in a regulated competition market based on a quasi-exogenous premium increase for young adults in Switzerland. We exploit that individuals born before the turn of the year ("treatment group") face a larger increase in premiums than individuals born after the turn of the year ("control group"). We find that the treatment group is 1.5 times more likely to switch their health plan than the control group. Overall, individuals respond to premium increases by choosing more frequently health plans with managed care features, increasing the deductible, and by switching the insurer. Regarding health plan choice, we find an average elasticity of -0.56 with regard to the relative premium difference of any plan to the status quo contract. The elasticity is up to 5 times larger for the treated (-1.03) than for the controls (-0.19). Our results are not driven by health status as measured by health care expenditures and chronic conditions. Rather, our findings suggest that the difference in the premium elasticity is driven by the salience of the premium increase. We argue that this finding is of high relevance for health care policies that aim at fostering health plan competition. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Planning a graduate programme in public health nutrition for experienced nutrition professionals.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ann; Beyers, Joanne

    2011-08-01

    Public health renewal in Canada has highlighted the need for development and expansion of the public health nutrition workforce, particularly in northern and rural communities. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the planning of a more accessible graduate programme for experienced nutrition professionals. The planning effort was challenged by a short timeframe between programme approval and implementation and required intense collaboration with stakeholders and students. The programme planning model developed by The Health Communication Unit (THCU) at the Centre for Health Promotion was used to guide the process. This six-step model was familiar to key stakeholders and involved pre-planning, conducting a situational assessment, establishing goals and objectives, developing strategies and outcome indicators, and monitoring feedback. Resource constraints, short timelines and debates around distance education options presented challenges that were overcome by conducting a thorough needs assessment, creating an advisory committee, engaging key stakeholders in the planning process, and building on existing resources. Extensive involvement of the first cohort of students in ongoing planning and evaluation was particularly helpful in informing the evolution of the programme. The THCU planning model provided a useful framework for stakeholder collaboration and for planning and implementing the new graduate programme in public health nutrition. Preliminary data suggest that graduates are benefiting from their educational experiences through career enhancement opportunities. The evaluation strategies built into the programme design will be useful in informing ongoing programme development.

  12. Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Perceptions of Health Care: Does Health Plan Type Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelly A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine whether racial and ethnic differences in the distribution of individuals across types of health plans explain differences in satisfaction and trust with their physicians. Data Sources Data were derived from the 1998–1999 Community Tracking Household and Followback Studies and consisted of a nationwide sample of adults (18 years and older). Data Collection The data were collected by telephone survey. Surveys were administered in English and Spanish. The response rate for the Household Survey was 63 percent, and the match rate for the Followback Survey was 59 percent. Study Design Multivariate analyses used regression methods to detect independent effects of respondent race and ethnicity on satisfaction and trust with physician, while controlling for enrollment in different types of health plans. Principal Findings Racial and ethnic minorities are more likely than whites to have lower levels of trust and satisfaction with their physician. The most prominent differences occurred within the Latino and Native American/Asian American/Pacific Islander/Other (“Other”) populations. Plan type does not mitigate the relationship between race/ethnicity and trust and satisfaction for the overall adult population. Conclusions Disparate levels of trust and satisfaction exist within ethnic and minority populations, even when controlling for the distribution of individuals across types of health plans. The results demonstrate a need to better understand the health care-related factors that drive disparate trust and satisfaction. PMID:15762907

  13. 75 FR 70114 - Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...This document contains an amendment to interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding status as a grandfathered health plan; the amendment permits certain changes in policies, certificates, or contracts of insurance without loss of grandfathered status.

  14. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives. Significance for public health This article describe and discuss how the Search conference can be used as a method when working with knowledge based health promotion actions in local communities. The article describe the sequences of the conference and shows how this have been adapted when planning and prioritizing health promotion actions in three Norwegian municipalities. The significance of the article is that it shows how central elements in the planning of health promotion actions, as participation and involvements as well as evidence was a fundamental thinking in how the conference were accomplished. The article continue discussing how the method function as both a top-down and a bottom-up strategy, and in what way working evidence based can be in conflict with a bottom-up strategy. The experiences described can be used as guidance planning knowledge based health promotion actions in communities. PMID:27747199

  15. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-06-11

    Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985-2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Oman has successfully innovated workforce

  16. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Basu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate). All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain self-reliance. Discussion and

  17. State landscape in public health planning and quality improvement: results of the ASTHO survey.

    PubMed

    Madamala, Kusuma; Sellers, Katie; Pearsol, Jim; Dickey, Michael; Jarris, Paul E

    2010-01-01

    Limited data exist on state public health agencies and their use of planning and quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Using the 2007 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) State Public Health Survey, this article describes how state public health agencies perform tasks related to planning, performance management (PM), and QI. While 82 percent of respondents report having a QI process in place, only 9.8 percent have it fully implemented departmentwide. Seventy-six percent reported having a PM process in place, with 16 percent (n = 8) having it fully implemented departmentwide. A state health improvement plan was used by 80.4 percent of respondents, with 56.9 percent of respondents completing the plan more than 3 years ago. More than two-thirds (68.2%) of the respondents developed the plan by using results of their state health assessment. Analysis of state health department level planning, PM, and QI initiatives can inform states' efforts to ready themselves to meet the proposed national voluntary accreditation standards of the Public Health Accreditation Board.

  18. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008.

    PubMed

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-06

    Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries). This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79%) and the majority were dispensaries (91%). 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for improving planning. Expansion in public health care in Kenya has

  19. Patterns of service use in two types of managed behavioral health care plans.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Elizabeth L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Hiatt, Deirdre; Horgan, Constance M; Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Ritter, Grant; Zolotusky, Galima; McGuire, Thomas G; Reif, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The study examined service use patterns by level of care in two managed care plans offered by a national managed behavioral health care organization (MBHO): an employee assistance program (EAP) combined with a standard behavioral health plan (integrated plan) and a standard behavioral health plan. The cross-sectional analysis used 2004 administrative data from the MBHO. Utilization of 11 specific service categories was compared. The weighted sample reflected exact matching on sociodemographic characteristics (unweighted N=710,014; weighted N=286,750). A larger proportion of enrollees in the integrated plan than in the standard plan used outpatient mental health and substance abuse office visits (including EAP visits) (p<.01) and substance abuse intensive outpatient or day treatment (p<.05), and the proportion using residential substance abuse rehabilitation was lower (p<.05). The integrated and standard products had distinct utilization patterns in this large MBHO. In particular, greater use of certain outpatient services was observed in the integrated plan.

  20. Do employers know the quality of health care benefits they provide? Use of HEDIS depression scores for health plans.

    PubMed

    Robst, John; Rost, Kathryn; Marshall, Donna

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Dissemination of health quality measures is a necessary ingredient of efforts to harness market-based forces, such as value-based purchasing by employers, to improve health care quality. This study examined reporting of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures for depression to firms interested in improving depression care. METHODS During surveys conducted between 2009 and 2011, a sample of 325 employers that were interested in improving depression treatment were asked whether their primary health plan reports HEDIS scores for depression to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and if so, whether they knew the scores. Data about HEDIS reporting by the health plans were collected from the NCQA. RESULTS HEDIS depression scores were reported by the primary health plans of 154 (47%) employers, but only 7% of employers knew their plan's HEDIS scores. Because larger employers were more likely to report knowing the scores, 53% of all employees worked for employers who reported knowing the scores. A number of structural, health benefit, and need characteristics predicted knowledge of HEDIS depression scores by employers. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that motivated employers did not know their depression HEDIS scores even when their plan publicly reported them. Measures of health care quality are not reaching the buyers of insurance products; however, larger employers were more likely to know the HEDIS scores for their health plan, suggesting that value-based purchasing may have some ability to affect health care quality.

  1. Health Manpower Planning: A Comparative Study in Four Countries. Volume 1. Health Manpower References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Daniel F.; And Others

    The health manpower planning experiences of four countries reported here were presented in a traveling seminar held for member countries of the Pan American Health Organization. Focus was on what should be carried out in any country to coordinate the training of health workers with the operation of health services. Following the introduction, the…

  2. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  3. "We are all in this together": integrated health service plans in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Eliasoph, Hy; Monaghan, Barry; Beaudoin, Rémy; Cushman, Robert; DuBois-Wing, Gwen; Emery, Marilyn J; Fenn, W Michael; Hanmer, Sandra J; Huras, Paul; Lowi-Young, Mimi; Mandy, Pat; Trimnell, Jean; Switzer, Garry; Woolgar, Tony; Butler, John

    2007-01-01

    Ontario's 14 Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) produced their first major deliverable when they issued their integrated health service plans in October 2006. This article reviews the experience of LHINs in meeting this challenge, outlines the process and outcome dimensions of the plans and discusses eight opportunities for LHINs as they act on the basis of their plans.

  4. 42 CFR 417.801 - Agreements between CMS and health care prepayment plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreements between CMS and health care prepayment... CMS and health care prepayment plans. (a) General requirement. (1) In order to participate and receive... written agreement with CMS. (2) An existing group practice prepayment plan (GPPP) that continues as an...

  5. Occupational health in the Negev: A model for regional planning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blanc, P.D.

    In the Negev region of Israel, I tested a model approach to occupational health planning. This model included components assessing exposures, measuring adverse health outcomes, and evaluating health services. I analyzed employment survey data, compiled an exposure data base, and carried out site visits covering 10,707 employees (over 50% of the regional industrial work force). Site visits identified exposure hazards of inorganic and organic dusts, heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, and noise. I identified elevated relative regional injury rates by Standard Morbidity Ratios (SMRs) in a variety of industries, including sixfold increases for mining and non-metallic minerals manufacture (SMR 6.8, 99%more » CI 6.1-7.7). Review of biological monitoring data suggested deficiencies in pesticide and heavy metals surveillance. A survey of primary care clinics estimated 13,707 cases of occupational injury and illness untreated by existing occupational medical services. Based on these findings, I formulated regional occupational health planning goals, including targeting high-risk industries for increased preventive activities. This regional approach, combining multiple measures of occupational health status, can serve as a model for assessing local public health planning needs.« less

  6. Understanding experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health care discussions within mental health care planning.

    PubMed

    Small, Nicola; Brooks, Helen; Grundy, Andrew; Pedley, Rebecca; Gibbons, Chris; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny

    2017-04-13

    People with severe mental illness suffer more physical comorbidity than the general population, which can require a tailored approach to physical health care discussions within mental health care planning. Although evidence pertaining to service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning is accumulating, current understanding of how physical health is prioritised within this framework is limited. Understanding stakeholder experiences of physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and the key domains that underpin this phenomena is essential to improve quality of care. Our study aimed to explore service user, carer and professional experiences of and preferences for service user and carer involvement in physical health discussions within mental health care planning, and develop a conceptual framework of effective user-led involvement in this aspect of service provision. Six focus groups and four telephone interviews were carried out with twelve service users, nine carers, three service users with a dual service user and carer role, and ten mental health professionals recruited from one mental health Trust in the United Kingdom. Data was analysed utilising a thematic approach, analysed separately for each stakeholder group, and combined to aid comparisons. No service users or carers recalled being explicitly involved in physical health discussions within mental health care planning. Six prerequisites for effective service user and carer involvement in physical care planning were identified. Three themes confirmed general mental health care planning requirements: tailoring a collaborative working relationship, maintaining a trusting relationship with a professional, and having access to and being able to edit a living document. Three themes were novel to feeling involved in physical health care planning discussions: valuing physical health equally with mental health; experiencing coordination of care between physical-mental health

  7. 5 CFR 890.204 - Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of approval of health benefits... (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.204 Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers. (a) The Director may...

  8. 5 CFR 890.204 - Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of approval of health benefits... (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Health Benefits Plans § 890.204 Withdrawal of approval of health benefits plans or carriers. (a) The Director may...

  9. Covered California: The Impact of Provider and Health Plan Market Power on Premiums.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M; Kessell, Eric; Brandt, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    We explain the establishment of Covered California, California's health insurance marketplace. The marketplace uses an active purchaser model, which means that Covered California can selectively contract with some health plans and exclude others. During the 2014 open-enrollment period, it enrolled 1.3 million people, who are covered by eleven health plans. We describe the market shares of health plans in California and in each of the nineteen rating regions. We examine the empirical relationship between measures of provider market concentration--spanning health plans, hospitals, and medical groups--and rating region premiums. To do this, we analyze premiums for silver and bronze plans for specific age groups. We find both medical group concentration and hospital concentration to be positively associated with premiums, while health plan concentration is not statistically significant. We simulate the impact of reducing hospital concentration to levels that would exist in moderately competitive markets. This produces a predicted overall premium reduction of more than 2 percent. However, in three of the nineteen rating regions, the predicted premium reduction was more than 10 percent. These results suggest the importance of provider market concentration on premiums. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. Huge "wellness incentives" are more about health plan benefit design than health promotion.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Regulations governing employers' use of financial incentives for employees who participate in health promotion programs or are successful in achieving health goals go into effect today (January 1, 2014). It is important to recognize that huge incentives have more to do with health plan design and less to do with effective strategies to improve health. Comprehensive health promotion programs need to increase awareness of the link between lifestyle and health, enhance motivation to improve health, build the skills important for a healthy lifestyle, and provide an abundance of opportunities to practice a healthy lifestyle.

  11. [Applicability of Children's Environment and Health Action Plan in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Ilić, Miroslava Kristoforović

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe was adopted at the 4th Ministry Conference on Environment (the World Health Organization, 2004). It is focused on children health care against hazards originating from the human environment. In its conclusion, the need is expressed for the development of national plans in the field of Environmental and Children Health for European region by 2007. Mutual activities would be obligatory for each country and their realization should be the responsibility of Ministers of Health Care and Environmental Health. In our country, a draft version of this document was recently adopted, where the following priority regional goals are proposed: safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, injury prevention and adequate physical activity, clean indoor and outdoor air, the human environment without chemicals. Every segment has been explained in details through activities, expected results, indicators, sources of verification and the main participants in the project implementation. The end of the action plan period is proposed to be the year 2019. It is also followed by a defined set of indicators: exposure, activities and health status. The analyses of particular activities or data to be used have pointed to some drawbacks of this draft version, which can be overcome by respecting expert opinions.

  12. Workshop on promotion of reproductive health and family planning held.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Two reproductive health advocacy networks have been established in two districts in eastern Africa to help promote family planning and reproductive health among the people in this area. The districts are the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and the New Juaben Municipality. To enhance the performance of the network, a 4-day workshop was held at Koforidua for the members to prepare an action plan for their advocacy and map out areas of collaboration between the public and the private sector group. The workshop, organized by the Futures Group International based in the US with support from the USAID, was attended by 30 participants from nongovernmental organizations and public offices. In an address, Ms. Patience Adow, the Regional Minister observed that through the idea of family planning has been promoted in the country over the past two decades, the country continues to experience a population growth rate of about 2.8%. She expressed the hope that the workshop will equip the participants with the relevant skills to develop and implement their advocacy strategy effectively. Dr. J. E. Taylor, Medical Administrator of the Koforidua Central Hospital, who chaired the function in a bid to improve the health of women and the quality of life of the people. The Ministry of Health as part of its medium term strategic plan has developed the national reproductive health and service policy.

  13. Trend analysis of key solvency ratios for health plans in Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is to assess the solvency of health plans that manage Medicaid members across key plan traits, specifically Medicaid dominant or plans with more than 75 percent Medicaid members, and plans owned by publicly traded companies, and sponsored by health care providers. The study accessed National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) financial data and computed key solvency ratios for 117 Medicaid health plans over a five-year time trend from 2007 to 2011. A mean test compared the mean values for each year and for the entire study period on risk-based capital (RBC), cash-flow margin and debt to total capital ratios across these plan traits. For all years except 2008 Medicaid dominant plans had a lower RBC ratio for all four out of five years. Cash-flow margin ratio for Medicaid dominant plans was only lower in 2011 than non-Medicaid dominant plans. From 2007 to 2010, debt to total capital was higher for plans owned by publicly traded companies than non-publicly traded companies. Given the potential for an expanding Medicaid market, Medicaid health plans have reduced their risk of insolvency by increasing the RBC over time and reducing their debt capital. However between 2010 and 2011 cash-flow margin ratio decreased by almost 180 basis points for Medicaid dominant plans.

  14. [Diffusion of clinical governance among the Italian Local Health Units (LHUs). Analysis of the Health Surveys, the Firm Acts and the Health Plans].

    PubMed

    de Belvis, A G; Biasco, A; Pelone, F; Romaniello, A; De Micco, F; Volpe, M; Ricciardi, W

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our research is to report on the diffusion of Clinical Governance, as introduced with the National Health Plan 2006-2008, by analysing the planning instruments set up by each Region (Regional Health Plans and Emergency Plans in regions with budget deficit), the organizational frameworks (Atti Aziendali, firm acts), and the surveys on performance and quality of healthcare among the Italian Local Health Units (Health Surveys). Our research was realized on September-December 2007 and consisted of the collection of all retrieved documents available on the web and on the online public access catalog (OPAC SBN) of the National Library Service. Futhermore, each document has been classified and analysed according to Chambers' Clinical Governance definition. A descriptive statistical and inferential analysis by applying the Chi-2 Test was performed to test the correlation between the diffusion of such a classified documents and the geographical partition of each LHU. Our results show a scarce diffusion of Firm acts (43%) and Health Surveys (24.9% of the total). Any remind to Clinical Governance instruments and methods inside each document resulted even poorer among both the organizational and performance surveys and the regional health planning frameworks, respectively.

  15. Strategic Planning for Health Care Cost Controls in a Constantly Changing Environment.

    PubMed

    Hembree, William E

    2015-01-01

    Health care cost increases are showing a resurgence. Despite recent years' comparatively modest increases, the projections for 2015 cost increases range from 6.6% to 7%--three to four times larger than 2015's expected underlying inflation. This resurgence is just one of many rapidly changing external and internal challenges health plan sponsors must overcome (and this resurgence advances the date when the majority of employers will trigger the "Cadillac tax"). What's needed is a planning approach that is effective in overcoming all known and yet-to-be-discovered challenges, not just affordability. This article provides detailed guidance in adopting six proven strategic planning steps. Following these steps will proactively and effectively create a flexible strategic plan for the present and future of employers' health plans that will withstand all internal and external challenges.

  16. 26 CFR 46.4376-1 - Fee on sponsors of self-insured health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capita amount of the National Health Expenditures most recently released by the Department of Health and... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fee on sponsors of self-insured health plans... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON CERTAIN INSURANCE POLICIES, SELF-INSURED HEALTH PLANS...

  17. Patient demographics and health plan paid costs in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Jeffrey T; Bromberg, Mark B; Zhu, Li; Sharma, Bal K; Thompson, Amy R; Krueger, Andrew; Sanders, Donald B

    2014-07-01

    We determined health plan paid costs and healthcare resource usage of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP patients from 9 U.S. commercial health plans with claims in 2011 were identified from the Accordant Health Services claims database. We examined demographics, prevalence of comorbidities, prescribed drugs, place of service, and mean annual health plan paid costs per patient. From 6.5 million covered lives, 73 (56% men; mean age 47) met study entry criteria. The most prescribed therapies were intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (26% of patients), gabapentin (26%), and prednisone (16%). The annual health plan paid cost was $56,953. Pharmacy cost was the major cost driver (57% of the total), and IVIg totaled 90% of the pharmacy costs. Healthcare costs for CIDP patients are substantial, with a large burden in pharmacy usage. Studies are needed to determine optimal long-term treatment strategies for CIDP, particularly related to IVIg. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Greater Southern Area Health Service Tobacco Control Plan 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Gow, Andrew J; Weir, Kylie M; Marich, Andrew J N

    2008-01-01

    In response to the NSW Tobacco Action Plan 2005-2009, Greater Southern Area Health Service (GSAHS) has developed a local plan. This short report describes how activities promoted in the state plan were prioritised and six outcomes identified as the focus for the GSAHS Tobacco Control Plan 2006-2009.

  19. Health Canada unveils plan to distribute marijuana for medical use.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism

  20. Succession Planning in State Health Agencies in the United States: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Harper, Elizabeth; Leider, Jonathon P; Coronado, Fatima; Beck, Angela J

    2017-11-02

    Approximately 25% of the public health workforce plans to retire by 2020. Succession planning is a core capability of the governmental public health enterprise; however, limited data are available regarding these efforts in state health agencies (SHAs). We analyzed 2016 Workforce Gaps Survey data regarding succession planning in SHAs using the US Office of Personnel Management's (OPM's) succession planning model, including 6 domains and 27 activities. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all 41 responding SHAs. On average, SHAs self-reported adequately addressing 11 of 27 succession planning activities, with 93% of SHAs adequately addressing 1 or more activities and 61% adequately addressing 1 or more activities in each domain. The majority of OPM-recommended succession planning activities are not being addressed, and limited succession planning occurs across SHAs. Greater activity in the OPM-identified succession planning domains may help SHAs contend with significant turnover and better preserve institutional knowledge.

  1. All health is local: state and local planning for physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Harold W; Satinsky, Sara B; Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Evenson, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is a leading cause of death in the world. Although state and local public health planning is a useful strategy to address noncommunicable disease health concerns such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity, physical activity frequently is subsumed in such disease-centric planning efforts. This strategy could dilute broader efforts to promote physical activity, create administrative silos that may be trying to accomplish similar goals, and weaken efforts to more collectively address a variety of noncommunicable diseases. Currently, few stand-alone state plans directed specifically at physical activity exist. The reasons and barriers for this situation are not understood. In 2011, we surveyed public health care practitioners to describe state and local efforts for physical activity planning. Cross-sectional study. Survey of physical activity practitioners in the United States. A total of 227 former or current members of the US National Society of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health who completed a survey. Overall, 48.0% of respondents indicated that they were aware of public health plans for physical activity promotion in their state, whereas 36.6% indicated that they did not know. Respondents at the state level more frequently reported awareness of a plan (62.1%) than those with local-level (52.4%) or other job responsibilities (36.0%). A greater proportion of respondents reported that stand-alone physical activity plans existed in their state than actually did exist in the respective states. Integration with the National Physical Activity Plan was least often identified as a moderately or extremely relevant aspect of a state-level physical activity plan, although it was chosen at a high percentage (75.7%). Respondents identified financial support (88.0%) and political will and support (54.6%) most frequently as very or somewhat difficult barriers to moving forward with state-level physical activity plans. These data suggest

  2. Community Characteristics and Qualified Health Plan Selection during the First Open Enrollment Period.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Michel; Blewett, Lynn A; Fried, Brett; Hempstead, Katherine; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar

    2017-06-01

    To examine state and community factors that contributed to geographic variation in qualified health plan selection during the first open enrollment period. Administrative data on qualified health plan selections at the ZIP code area merged with survey estimates from the American Community Survey. Descriptive and regression analyses. Data were generated by healthcare.gov and from a household survey. Thirty-one percent of the variation in qualified health plan selection ratios resulted from between-state differences, and the rest was driven by local area differences. Education, language, age, gender, and the ethnic composition of communities contributed to disparate levels of plan selection. Medicaid expansion states had a qualified health plan selection ratio that was 4.4 points lower than non-Medicaid expansion states, controlling for covariates. Our results suggest community-level differences in the intensity or receptiveness to outreach and enrollment activities during the first open enrollment period. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Health sector operational planning and budgeting processes in Kenya-"never the twain shall meet".

    PubMed

    Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Operational planning is considered an important tool for translating government policies and strategic objectives into day-to-day management activities. However, developing countries suffer from persistent misalignment between policy, planning and budgeting. The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) was introduced to address this misalignment. Kenya adopted the MTEF in the early 2000s, and in 2005, the Ministry of Health adopted the Annual Operational Plan process to adapt the MTEF to the health sector. This study assessed the degree to which the health sector Annual Operational Plan process in Kenya has achieved alignment between planning and budgeting at the national level, using document reviews, participant observation and key informant interviews. We found that the Kenyan health sector was far from achieving planning and budgeting alignment. Several factors contributed to this problem including weak Ministry of Health stewardship and institutionalized separation between planning and budgeting processes; a rapidly changing planning and budgeting environment; lack of reliable data to inform target setting and poor participation by key stakeholders in the process including a top-down approach to target setting. We conclude that alignment is unlikely to be achieved without consideration of the specific institutional contexts and the power relationships between stakeholders. In particular, there is a need for institutional integration of the planning and budgeting processes into a common cycle and framework with common reporting lines and for improved data and local-level input to inform appropriate and realistic target setting. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Strategic Teleconference Planning in Rural Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Liza; Boswell, Judy

    1997-01-01

    An introduction to planning interactive health education teleconferences via satellite discusses participant recruitment, satellite transmission coordination, scheduling considerations, format design, and use of site facilitators. Teleconference training of community service providers and community leaders should combine passive delivery of…

  5. Risk-Adjustment Simulation: Plans May Have Incentives To Distort Mental Health And Substance Use Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Montz, Ellen; Layton, Tim; Busch, Alisa B.; Ellis, Randall P.; Rose, Sherri; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Under the Affordable Care Act, the risk-adjustment program is designed to compensate health plans for enrolling people with poorer health status so that plans compete on cost and quality rather than the avoidance of high-cost individuals. This study examined health plan incentives to limit covered services for mental health and substance use disorders under the risk-adjustment system used in the health insurance Marketplaces. Through a simulation of the program on a population constructed to reflect Marketplace enrollees, we analyzed the cost consequences for plans enrolling people with mental health and substance use disorders. Our assessment points to systematic underpayment to plans for people with these diagnoses. We document how Marketplace risk adjustment does not remove incentives for plans to limit coverage for services associated with mental health and substance use disorders. Adding mental health and substance use diagnoses used in Medicare Part D risk adjustment is one potential policy step toward addressing this problem in the Marketplaces. PMID:27269018

  6. Family Planning: Its Impact on the Health of Women and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Deborah

    This document explores risks to the health and lives of women and children that can be avoided or reduced by family planning. Emphasis throughout is on case studies and statistics from developing nations. Data are presented in expository and chart form. Information is presented in four chapters. Chapter I, Child Health and Family Planning,…

  7. Planning for Health: Development and Application of Social Change Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Henrik L.

    This book undertakes the task of portraying the application of planning theory to health concerns. It defines the purposes planning is meant to serve; analyzes the dynamics of social change; identifies the major determinants of change; and examines how planning can best affect those determinants. The book is organized into five major sections: (1)…

  8. Dose as a Tool for Planning and Implementing Community-Based Health Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Elena S; Harner, Lisa T; Frost, Madeline C; Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M

    2018-05-01

    A major challenge in community-based health promotion is implementing strategies that could realistically improve health at the population level. Population dose methodology was developed to help understand the combined impact of multiple strategies on population-level health behaviors. This paper describes one potential use of dose: as a tool for working collaboratively with communities to increase impact when planning and implementing community-level initiatives. Findings are presented from interviews conducted with 11 coordinators who used dose for planning and implementing local efforts with community coalitions. During early-stage planning, dose was used as a tool for strategic planning, and as a framework to build consensus among coalition partners. During implementation, a dose lens was used to revise strategies to increase their reach (the number of people exposed to the intervention) or strength (the relative change in behavior for each exposed person) to create population-level impact. A case study is presented, illustrating how some community coalitions and evaluators currently integrate dose into the planning and implementation of place-based healthy eating and active living strategies. Finally, a planning checklist was developed for program coordinators and evaluators. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  10. How Home Health Nurses Plan Their Work Schedules: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Irani, Elliane; Hirschman, Karen B; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2018-06-12

    To describe how home health nurses plan their daily work schedules and what challenges they face during the planning process. Home health nurses are viewed as independent providers and value the nature of their work because of the flexibility and autonomy they hold in developing their work schedules. However, there is limited empirical evidence about how home health nurses plan their work schedules, including the factors they consider during the process and the challenges they face within the dynamic home health setting. Qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses who had greater than 2 years of experience in home health and were employed by one of the three participating home health agencies in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four themes emerged about planning work schedules and daily itineraries: identifying patient needs to prioritize visits accordingly, partnering with patients to accommodate their preferences, coordinating visit timing with other providers to avoid overwhelming patients, and working within agency standards to meet productivity requirements. Scheduling challenges included readjusting the schedule based on patient needs and staffing availability, anticipating longer visits, and maintaining continuity of care with patients. Home health nurses make autonomous decisions regarding their work schedules while considering specific patient and agency factors, and overcome challenges related to the unpredictable nature of providing care in a home health setting. Future research is needed to further explore nurse productivity in home health and improve home health work environments. Home health nurses plan their work schedules to provide high quality care that is patient-centered and timely. The findings also highlight organizational priorities to facilitate continuity of care and support nurses while alleviating the burnout

  11. [Primary and secondary data on dementia care as an example of regional health planning].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Lisa-R; Schatz, Tanja R; Lappe, Veronika; Ihle, Peter; Barthen, Linda; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2017-12-01

    Health service planning that takes into account as far as possible the regional needs and regional discrepancies is a controversial health issue in Germany. In a pilot scheme, we tested a planning process for regional healthcare services, based on the example of dementia care. The aim of this article is to present the strengths and limitations of this planning process. We developed an indicator set for dementia care based on routine regional data obtained from two German statutory health insurance companies. Additionally, primary data based on a questionnaire sent to all GPs in the area were evaluated. These data were expanded through the addition of official socio-demographic population data. Procedures and evaluation strategies, discussion of the results and the derivation of planning measures followed, in close agreement with a group of local experts. Few epidemiological data on regional variations in health care planning are publicly available. Secondary data from statutory health insurance companies can be assessed to support the estimation of regional health care needs, but interpretation is difficult. The use of surveys to collect primary data, and the assessment of results by the local health board may facilitate interpretation and may contribute towards more valid statements regarding regional health planning. Despite the limited availability of data and the considerable efforts involved in data analysis, the project demonstrates how needs-based health service planning can be carried out in a small region, taking into account the increasing demands of the local health care providers and the special local features.

  12. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICE UNIT WITH SUGGESTED PLANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, JESSE T.; PEEPLES, G.S.T.

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PLANNING AND USE OF SPACE ALLOCATED FOR RENDERING NEEDED SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES. ITEMS FOR CONSIDERATION ARE--(1) PURPOSES, (2) SITE, (3) LOCATION, (4) SPECIAL FEATURES, (5) SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, AND (6) SUGGESTED PLANS OR LAYOUT OF THE UNIT. FUNCTIONAL AREAS WITHIN THE UNITS MAY INCLUDE--(1) REST…

  13. [A decade of reflection on health plans in Spain. SESPAS report 2010].

    PubMed

    Fiuza Pérez, María Dolores; Aguiar Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Monzón Batista, Nayra

    2010-12-01

    This article reports the experience of the Working Group of the SESPAS-SCSP (Spanish Society of Public Health and Healthcare Administration-Canary Islands Society of Public Health) in health policy and planning during the first decade of the 21st century and its possible impact on the design of health planning. We review the conclusions reached from 2000 to 2008 in the first five Biannual Planning and Health Policy meetings that took place during that period. The workshops were designed with two speakers who presented different views of the subject under discussion, a moderator, who led the debate on the findings, and a narrator who served as a notary and also took responsibility for the text summary of each table. Two general narrators were responsible for the final wording of the conclusions of each workshop or biannual meeting. From 2000 to 2008, there were 25 round tables with 121 conclusions and 160 participants. We believe that the SESPAS working groups provide multidisciplinary professional values within a context of debate in a professional environment, and create spaces for reflection, thus helping to improve the health planning system in Spain. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of business planning methods to monitor global health budgets in Turkmenistan.

    PubMed Central

    Ensor, T.; Amannyazova, B.

    2000-01-01

    After undergoing many changes, the financing of health care in countries of the former Soviet Union is now showing signs of maturing. Soon after the political transition in these countries, the development of insurance systems and fee-for-service payment systems dominated the discussions on health reform. At present there is increasing emphasis on case mix adjusted payments in larger hospitals and on global budgets in smaller district hospitals. The problem is that such systems are often mistrusted for not providing sufficient financial control. At the same time, unless further planned restructuring is introduced, payment systems cannot on their own induce the fundamental change required in the health care system. As described in this article, in Tejen etrap (district), Turkmenistan, prospective business plans, which link planned objectives and activities with financial allocations, provide a framework for setting and monitoring budget expenditure. Plans can be linked to the overall objectives of the restructuring system and can be used to ensure sound financial management. The process of business planning, which calls for a major change in the way health facilities examine their activities, can be used as a vehicle to increase awareness of management issues. It also provides a way of satisfying the requirement for a rigorous, bottom-up planning of financial resources. PMID:10994288

  15. Corporate buying of health care plans: a framework for marketing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Lindenmuth, L J; Burger, P C

    1990-06-01

    Much of the research in health care plan and provider selection has focused on the patient's selection process. The authors report on the increasing need to understand the corporation's decision process in selecting health care plans and providers. Managed care marketers need to understand this process in order to design and market such plans successfully.

  16. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gunning, Colleen, E-mail: Colleen_Gunning@health.qld.gov.a; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-07-15

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  17. Responding to the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan in Egypt: A Technical Consultancy to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan.

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    A technical consultation to develop a National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plan (NDHRP) for Egypt was carried out in 2015. Its overall goal was to improve health, functioning, well-being, quality of life, and participation of persons with disability in Egypt by supporting the Ministry of Health and Population and other stakeholders to improve access to health services and strengthen health-related rehabilitation services for all persons in need. The methodological steps of the technical consultation were as follows: collecting and reviewing accessible documents and data; site visits to state institutions, health and rehabilitation services; discussions with relevant stakeholders in rehabilitation, including persons with disability; drafting recommendations based on the principles of the World Report on Disability and the World Health Organization Global Disability Action Plan and the information collected; discussion with stakeholders in a workshop; and preparation of a final report. The development of a NDHRP was successful and led to recommendations with a good level of consensus among stakeholders in Egypt. The authors hope that the NDHRP will lead to improved rehabilitation service provision, and health and quality of life of persons with disability and chronic health conditions living in Egypt.

  18. Future states: the axioms underlying prospective, future-oriented, health planning instruments.

    PubMed

    Koch, T

    2001-02-01

    Proscriptive planning exercises are critical to and generally accepted as integral to health planning at varying scales. These require specific instruments designed to predict future actions on the basis of present knowledge. At the macro-level of health economics, for example, a number of future-oriented Quality of Life Instruments (QL) are commonly employed. At the level of individual decision making, on the other hand, Advance Directives (AD's) are advanced as a means by which healthy individuals can assure their wishes will be carried out if at some future point they are incapacitated. As proscriptive tools, both instrument classes appear to share an axiomatic set whose individual parts have not been rigorously considered. This paper attempts to first identify and then consider a set of five axioms underlying future oriented health planning instruments. These axioms are then critiqued using data from a pre-test survey designed specifically to address their assumptions. Results appear to challenge the validity of the axioms underlying the proscriptive planning instruments.

  19. Ten years of health workforce planning in the Netherlands: a tentative evaluation of GP planning as an example

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In many countries, health-care labour markets are constantly being challenged by an alternation of shortage and oversupply. Avoiding these cyclic variations is a major challenge. In the Netherlands, a workforce planning model has been used in health care for ten years. Case description Since 1970, the Dutch government has explored different approaches to determine the inflow in medical schools. In 2000, a simulation model for health workforce planning was developed to estimate the required and available capacity of health professionals in the Netherlands. In this paper, this model is explained, using the Dutch general practitioners as an example. After the different steps in the model are clarified, it is shown how elements can be added to arrive at different versions of the model, or ‘scenarios’. A comparison is made of the results of different scenarios for different years. In addition, the subsequent stakeholder decision-making process is considered. Discussion and evaluation Discussion of this paper shows that workforce planning in the Netherlands is a complex modelling task, which is sensitive to different developments influencing the balance between supply and demand. It seems plausible that workforce planning has resulted in a balance between supply and demand of general practitioners. Still, it remains important that the modelling process is accepted by the different stakeholders. Besides calculating the balance between supply and demand, there needs to be an agreement between the stakeholders to implement the advised training inflow. The Dutch simulation model was evaluated using six criteria to be met by models suitable for policy objectives. This model meets these criteria, as it is a comprehensive and parsimonious model that can include all relevant factors. Conclusion Over the last decade, health workforce planning in the Netherlands has become an accepted instrument for calculating the required supply of health professionals on a

  20. Report of Workshop on Traffic, Health, and Infrastructure Planning

    PubMed Central

    White, Ronald H.; Spengler, John D.; Dilwali, Kumkum M.; Barry, Brenda E.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent air pollutant measurement data document unique aspects of the air pollution mixture near roadways, and an expanding body of epidemiological data suggests increased risks for exacerbation of asthma and other respiratory diseases, premature mortality, and certain cancers and birth outcomes from air pollution exposures in populations residing in relatively close proximity to roadways. The Workshop on Traffic, Health, and Infrastructure Planning, held in February 2004, was convened to provide a forum for interdisciplinary discussion of motor vehicle emissions, exposures and potential health effects related to proximity to motor vehicle traffic. This report summarizes the workshop discussions and findings regarding the current science on this issue, identifies planning and policy issues related to localized motor vehicle emissions and health concerns, and provides recommendations for future research and policy directions. PMID:16983859

  1. National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public. This article provides an overview of the need for this research plan, an outline of its development, and a listing of six priority areas for research. The NIH is committed to working with all stakeholder communities engaged in rehabilitation research to track progress made on these priorities and to work to advance the science of medical rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Change in health care use after coordinated care planning: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bielska, Iwona A; Cimek, Kelly; Guenter, Dale; O'Halloran, Kelly; Nyitray, Chloe; Hunter, Linda; Wodchis, Walter P

    2018-05-31

    We sought to determine whether patients with a coordinated care plan developed using the Health Links model of care in the Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant Local Health Integration Network differed in their use of health care (no. of emergency department visits, inpatient admissions, length of inpatient stay) when compared with a matched control group of patients with no care plans. We performed a propensity score-matched study of 12 months pre- and 12 months post-health care use. Patients who had a coordinated care plan that started between 2013 and 2015 were propensity score matched to patients in a control group. Patient information was obtained from Client Health and Related Information System, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and Discharge Abstract Database. Differences in health care use pre- and post-index date were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A negative binomial regression model was fit for each health care use outcome at 6 and 12 months post-index date. Six hundred coordinated care plan enrollees and 25 449 potential control patients were included in the matching algorithm, which resulted in 548 matched pairs (91.3%). Both groups showed decreases in health care use post-index date. Matched care plan enrollees had significantly fewer emergency department visits at 6 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.91, p < 0.01) and 12 months post-index date (IRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p < 0.05) compared with the matched controls. Other use parameters were not significantly different between care plan enrollees and the control group. Care plan enrollees show a decrease in the number of times they visit emergency departments, which may be attributed to integrated and coordinated care planning. This association should be examined to see whether these reductions persist for more than 1 year. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  3. Enhancing the Career Planning Self-Determination of Young Adults with Mental Health Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Swank, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an intervention on the self-determination and career planning engagement of young adults with mental health challenges was studied. Sixty-seven young adults, 20 to 30 years of age, with mental health diagnoses (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Statistically significant greater increases were made by the intervention group versus the control group for self-determination and career planning engagement, and self-determination at least partially mediated increases in career planning engagement. With career planning self-determination interventions, young adults with mental health challenges might be able to achieve better career and life outcomes than is typical for this population.

  4. The Evolution of Health Care Advance Planning Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Context: The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. Methods: This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. Findings: While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a “legal transactional approach” to a “communications approach,” the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients’ goals into visible and portable medical orders. Conclusions: States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients’ wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice. PMID:20579283

  5. The evolution of health care advance planning law and policy.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Charles P

    2010-06-01

    The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a "legal transactional approach" to a "communications approach," the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients' goals into visible and portable medical orders. States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients' wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice.

  6. The role of strategic health planning processes in the development of health care reform policies: a comparative study of Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Collins, Charles; Stefanini, Angelo; Ferrinho, Paulo; Chapman, Glyn; Hagos, Besrat; Adams, Yussuf; Omar, Mayeh

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on comparative analysis of health planning and its relationship with health care reform in three countries, Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The research examined strategic planning in each country focusing in particular on its role in developing health sector reforms. The paper analyses the processes for strategic planning, the values that underpin the planning systems, and issues related to resources for planning processes. The resultant content of strategic plans is assessed and not seen to have driven the development of reforms; whilst each country had adopted strategic planning systems, in all three countries a more complex interplay of forces, including influences outside both the health sector and the country, had been critical forces behind the sectoral changes experienced over the previous decade. The key roles of different actors in developing the plans and reforms are also assessed. The paper concludes that a number of different conceptions of strategic planning exist and will depend on the particular context within which the health system is placed. Whilst similarities were discovered between strategic planning systems in the three countries, there are also key differences in terms of formality, timeframes, structures and degrees of inclusiveness. No clear leadership role for strategic planning in terms of health sector reforms was discovered. Planning appears in the three countries to be more operational than strategic. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting: Results of a European programme to improve health workforce policies.

    PubMed

    Kroezen, Marieke; Van Hoegaerden, Michel; Batenburg, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Health workforce (HWF) planning and forecasting is faced with a number of challenges, most notably a lack of consistent terminology, a lack of data, limited model-, demand-based- and future-based planning, and limited inter-country collaboration. The Joint Action on Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting (JAHWF, 2013-2016) aimed to move forward on the HWF planning process and support countries in tackling the key challenges facing the HWF and HWF planning. This paper synthesizes and discusses the results of the JAHWF. It is shown that the JAHWF has provided important steps towards improved HWF planning and forecasting across Europe, among others through the creation of a minimum data set for HWF planning and the 'Handbook on Health Workforce Planning Methodologies across EU countries'. At the same time, the context-sensitivity of HWF planning was repeatedly noticeable in the application of the tools through pilot- and feasibility studies. Further investments should be made by all actors involved to support and stimulate countries in their HWF efforts, among others by implementing the tools developed by the JAHWF in diverse national and regional contexts. Simultaneously, investments should be made in evaluation to build a more robust evidence base for HWF planning methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.

    PubMed

    Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries.

  9. Integrating pharmacies into public health program planning for pandemic influenza vaccine response.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Kang, Yoonjae; Bridges, Carolyn B; Talbert, Todd; Vagi, Sara J; Lamont, Brock; Graitcer, Samuel B

    2016-11-04

    During an influenza pandemic, to achieve early and rapid vaccination coverage and maximize the benefit of an immunization campaign, partnerships between public health agencies and vaccine providers are essential. Immunizing pharmacists represent an important group for expanding access to pandemic vaccination. However, little is known about nationwide coordination between public health programs and pharmacies for pandemic vaccine response planning. To assess relationships and planning activities between public health programs and pharmacies, we analyzed data from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assessments of jurisdictions that received immunization and emergency preparedness funding from 2012 to 2015. Forty-seven (88.7%) of 53 jurisdictions reported including pharmacies in pandemic vaccine distribution plans, 24 (45.3%) had processes to recruit pharmacists to vaccinate, and 16 (30.8%) of 52 established formal relationships with pharmacies. Most jurisdictions plan to allocate less than 10% of pandemic vaccine supply to pharmacies. While most jurisdictions plan to include pharmacies as pandemic vaccine providers, work is needed to establish formalized agreements between public health departments and pharmacies to improve pandemic preparedness coordination and ensure that vaccinating pharmacists are fully utilized during a pandemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of Health Research Recommendation in Policy and Planning in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhimal, M; Pandey, A R; Aryal, K K; Budhathoki, C B; Vaidya, D L; Karki, K K; Onta, S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade in Nepal, a large number of studies have been carried in a variety of health areas; however whether evidence derived from these studies has been used to inform health policy has not been explored. This study aims to assess the utilization of recommendations from health research in health policy and plans, and to identify the factors that influence utilization of research findings by policy makers' in Nepal. Qualitative study incorporating literature review and semi-structured interviews was used. Research reports and health related policies were collected from governmental and non-governmental bodies. Documents were reviewed to identify the utilization of research-based recommendations in health policy and plan formulation. In-depth interviews were conducted with key policy makers and researchers to identify factors that hinder the utilization of research recommendations. A total of 83 health related research reports were identified, of which 48 had recommendations. Four policies and three plans, from total 21 identified plans and policies, were found to have incorporated recommendations from research. Of the 48 studies that had recommendations, 35 were found to be used in the policy making process. Lack of appropriate communication mechanisms, and concerns related to the quality of research conducted, were the main factors hindering the translation of evidence into policy. Communication gaps exist between researchers and policy makers, which seem to have impeded the utilization of research-based information and recommendations in decision-making process. Establishing a unit responsible for synthesizing evidences and producing actionable messages for policy makers can improve utilization of research findings.

  11. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part I—Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine whether workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments (HRAs), individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives succeeded in improving employee health and reducing employer health benefit costs. Methods We reviewed the proprietary HRA available to us and conducted a literature review to determine the efficacy of HRRPs using HRAs, individualized employee interventions, and financial incentives for employee participation. Results There is some evidence that HRRPs in employer-sponsored programs improve measures of employee health, but the results of these studies are somewhat equivocal. Conclusion Employer-sponsored HRRPs may have some benefits, but problems in plan design and in the studies assessing their efficacy complicate drawing conclusions. PMID:19625972

  12. Employee choice of a high-deductible health plan across multiple employers.

    PubMed

    Lave, Judith R; Men, Aiju; Day, Brian T; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuting

    2011-02-01

    To determine factors associated with selecting a high-deductible health plan (HDHP) rather than a preferred provider plan (PPO) and to examine switching and market segmentation after initial selection. Claims and benefit information for 2005-2007 from nine employers in western Pennsylvania first offering HDHP in 2006. We examined plan growth over time, used logistic regression to determine factors associated with choosing an HDHP, and examined the distribution of healthy and sick members across plan types. We linked employees with their dependents to determine family-level variables. We extracted risk scores, covered charges, employee age, and employee gender from claims data. We determined census-level race, education, and income information. Health status, gender, race, and education influenced the type of individual and family policies chosen. In the second year the HDHP was offered, few employees changed plans. Risk segmentation between HDHPs and PPOs existed, but it did not increase. When given a choice, those who are healthier are more likely to select an HDHP leading to risk segmentation. Risk segmentation did not increase in the second year that HDHPs were offered. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Curriculum Planning and Some Current Health Problems. Educational Studies and Documents, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Warren H.

    This document is a supplement to the UNESCO Source Book "Planning for Health Education in Schools" by C. E. Turner. It is intended for those directly concerned with curriculum planning in relation to health--school administrators, health education supervisors, curriculum specialists, individual teachers--but it is also thought to be of interest to…

  14. The Drive towards Sustainable Health Systems Needs an Alignment: Where are the Innovations in Health Systems Planning?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet; Purkis, Mary Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Clarifying the healthcare innovation agenda is critical in order to advance the impact of system innovations. As part of this agenda-setting it is important to address the four conditions within which innovations can enhance system sustainability: 1) the innovation agenda reflects and is aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 2) planning methodologies for services, workforce and funding are aligned with healthcare objectives and policy; 3) innovations in services are accommodated in systems through innovations in policy, planning and funding; and 4) innovations are systematically monitored and evaluated. In order to illustrate these conditions, the authors present a case study of an evaluation of one Canadian Health Authority's efforts to transform healthcare delivery. This case study reveals that aligning innovations in policy, planning, funding and health services is critical to transforming health systems and that, in the absence of such alignment, sustainable health systems are difficult to achieve.

  15. Inequalities in neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics: potential evidence-base for neighbourhood health planning

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola; Wray, Ron; Emo, Marion; Birch, Stephen; Hutchison, Brian; Eyles, John; Abernathy, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Background Population health planning aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups. Socioeconomic factors are increasingly being recognized as major determinants of many aspects of health and causes of health inequities. Knowledge of socioeconomic characteristics of neighbourhoods is necessary to identify their unique health needs and enhance identification of socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Careful integration of this knowledge into health planning activities is necessary to ensure that health planning and service provision are tailored to unique neighbourhood population health needs. In this study, we identify unique neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics and classify the neighbourhoods based on these characteristics. Principal components analysis (PCA) of 18 socioeconomic variables was used to identify the principal components explaining most of the variation in socioeconomic characteristics across the neighbourhoods. Cluster analysis was used to classify neighbourhoods based on their socioeconomic characteristics. Results Results of the PCA and cluster analysis were similar but the latter were more objective and easier to interpret. Five neighbourhood types with distinguishing socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were identified. The methodology provides a more complete picture of the neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics than when a single variable (e.g. income) is used to classify neighbourhoods. Conclusion Cluster analysis is useful for generating neighbourhood population socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that can be useful in guiding neighbourhood health planning and service provision. This study is the first of a series of studies designed to investigate health inequalities at the neighbourhood level with a view to providing evidence-base for health planners, service providers and policy makers to help address health inequity issues at the

  16. Challenges in Patient Discharge Planning in the Health System of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholizadeh, Masumeh; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Gorji, Hasan Abulghasem; Torani, Sogand; Janati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the main factors relating to quality of hospitals is effective discharge planning. Discharge planning promotes the quality of inpatient care and reduces unplanned hospital readmission. The current study investigated the challenges of discharge planning observed in the health system of Iran. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted using a thematic and framework analyses to identify the challenges under each themes defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), to understand barriers in developing an effective discharge planning system in Iran health system. The data was collected from detailed semi-structured interviews and sessions of focus group discussions. This study involved 51 participants including health policy makers, hospital and health managers, faculty members, nurses, practitioners, community medicine specialists and other professionals of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME). To reduce the bias and to increase the credibility of the study, evaluation criteria from Lincoln and Guba were used. All interviews and FGDs were recorded and transcribed, then analyzed by the software MAXQDA-11 and also manually. Results: According to the WHO health systems framework, challenges of effective hospital discharge planning were divided into six areas, leadership/governance, service delivery, information, financing, health workforce, and medical production(themes), in which there were 5,3,2,2,3,1 subthemes respectively. Conclusion: It is evident from the findings of this study that changes in the perspective of policy makers, health staff and managers, strengthening of systematic approach, and establishment of required infrastructures are essential for successful implementation of effective discharge planning in health systems in Iran. PMID:26755460

  17. School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Crossett, Linda; Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Pritzl, Jane; Wechsler, Howell; Kuester, Sarah A.; Pederson, Linda; Graffunder, Corinne; Rainford, Neil; Sleet, David

    2004-01-01

    The "School Health Index" is a self-assessment and planning guide that will enable schools to: (1) identify the strengths and weaknesses of school policies and programs for promoting health and safety; (2) develop an action plan for improving student health and safety, and (3) involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving…

  18. Beneficiaries' perceptions of new Medicare health plan choice print materials.

    PubMed

    Harris-Kojetin, L D; McCormack, L A; Jaël, E M; Lissy, K S

    2001-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study involving seven focus groups with aged and disabled Medicare beneficiaries in the Kansas City area regarding their impressions of a pilot version of the Medicare & You 1999 handbook and the Medicare Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) survey report. Beneficiaries generally had positive reactions to both booklets and viewed the handbook as an important reference tool. Based on the findings, we present policy recommendations for the development and dissemination of Medicare health plan information to beneficiaries.

  19. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Enrollment Options Following the Termination of a Plan or Plan Option. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-10-28

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations regarding enrollment options following the termination of a plan or plan option.

  20. Poor Consumer Comprehension and Plan Selection Inconsistencies Under the 2016 HealthCare.gov Choice Architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Annabel Z; Scherr, Karen A; Wong, Charlene A; Ubel, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Many health policy experts have endorsed insurance competition as a way to reduce the cost and improve the quality of medical care. In line with this approach, health insurance exchanges, such as HealthCare.gov, allow consumers to compare insurance plans online. Since the 2013 rollout of HealthCare.gov, administrators have added features intended to help consumers better understand and compare insurance plans. Although well-intentioned, changes to exchange websites affect the context in which consumers view plans, or choice architecture, which may impede their ability to choose plans that best fit their needs at the lowest cost. By simulating the 2016 HealthCare.gov enrollment experience in an online sample of 374 American adults, we examined comprehension and choice of HealthCare.gov plans under its choice architecture. We found room for improvement in plan comprehension, with higher rates of misunderstanding among participants with poor math skills (P < 0.05). We observed substantial variations in plan choice when identical plan sets were displayed in different orders (P < 0.001). However, regardless of order in which they viewed the plans, participants cited the same factors as most important to their choices (P > 0.9). Participants were drawn from a general population sample. The study does not assess for all possible plan choice influencers, such as provider networks, brand recognition, or help from others. Our findings suggest two areas of improvement for exchanges: first, the remaining gap in consumer plan comprehension and second, the apparent influence of sorting order - and likely other choice architecture elements - on plan choice. Our findings inform strategies for exchange administrators to help consumers better understand and select plans that better fit their needs.

  1. Paying for individual health insurance through tax-sheltered cafeteria plans.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A; Monahan, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    When employees without group health insurance buy individual coverage, they do so using after-tax income--costing them from 20% to 50% more than others pay for equivalent coverage. Prior to the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), several states promoted a potential solution that would allow employees to buy individual insurance through tax-sheltered payroll deduction. This technical but creative approach would allow insurers to combine what is known as "list-billing" with a Section 125 "cafeteria plan." However, these state-level reform attempts have failed to gain significant traction because state small-group reform laws and federal restrictions on medical underwriting cloud the legality of tax-sheltered list-billing. Several authorities have taken the position that insurance paid for through a cafeteria plan must meet the nondiscrimination requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act with respect to eligibility, premiums, and benefits. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act addresses some of the legal uncertainty in this area, but much remains. For health reform to have its greatest effect, federal regulators must clarify whether individual health insurance can be purchased on a pre-tax basis through a cafeteria plan.

  2. Employee choice of flexible spending account participation and health plan.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Barton H; Marton, James

    2008-07-01

    Despite the fact that flexible spending accounts (FSAs) are becoming an increasingly popular employer-provided health benefit, there has been very little empirical study of FSA use among employees at the individual level. This study contributes to the literature on FSAs using a unique data set that provides three years of employee-level-matched benefits data. Motivated by the theoretical model of FSA choice presented in Cardon and Showalter (J. Health Econ. 2001; 20(6):935-954), we examine the determinants of FSA participation and contribution levels using cross-sectional and random-effect two-part models. FSA participation and health plan choice are also modeled jointly in each year using conditional logit models. We find that, even after controlling for a number of other demographic characteristics, non-whites are less likely to participate in the FSA program, have lower contributions conditional on participation, and have a lower probability of switching to new lower cost share, higher premium plans when they were introduced. We also find evidence that choosing health plans with more expected out-of-pocket expenses is correlated with participation in the FSA program. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Status of health sector strategic plans in five countries of the WHO African Region.

    PubMed

    Barry, S P; Sambo, L G; Bakeera, S; Kirigia, J M; Diarra-Nama, A J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of the existing strategic plans and compare the format and content of health sector strategic plans with the guidelines in selected countries of the African region. The health strategic plans for Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda, which are kept at the WHO/AFRO, were reviewed. All health strategic plans among the Anglophone countries (Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mauritius, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) that were developed after the year 2000 were eligible for inclusion. Fifty percent of these countries that fitted this criterion were randomly selected. They included Gambia, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. The analysis framework used in the review included situation analysis; an assessment of appropriateness of strategies that are selected; well developed indicators for each strategy; the match between the service and outcomes targets with available resources; and existence of a clear framework for partnership engagement for implementation. Most of the strategic plans identify key ill health conditions and their contributing factors. Health service and resource gaps are described but not quantified in the Botswana, Gambia, Malawi, Tanzania strategic documents. Most of the plans selected strategies that related to the situational analysis. Generally, countries' plans had clear indicators. Matching service and outcome targets to available resources was the least addressed area in majority of the plans. Most of the strategic plans identified stakeholders and acknowledged their participation in the implementation, providing different levels of comprehensiveness. Some of the areas that are well addressed according to the analysis framework included: addressing the strategic concerns of the health policies; identifying key partners for implementation; and selection of appropriate strategies. The following areas needed more emphasis: quantification of health system gaps; setting targets that are cognisant of the

  4. The impact of health plan delivery system organization on clinical quality and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Robin R; Chenok, Kate Eresian; Shortell, Stephen M; Pawlson, Gregory; Wimbush, Julian J

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which measures of health plan clinical performance and measures of patient perceptions of care are associated with health plan organizational characteristics, including the percentage of care provided based on a group or staff model delivery system, for-profit (tax) status, and affiliation with a national managed care firm. Data describing health plans on region, age of health plan, for-profit status, affiliation with a national managed care firm, percentage of Medicare business, total enrollment, ratio of primary care physicians to specialists, HMO penetration, and form of health care delivery system (e.g., IPA, network, mixed, staff, group) were obtained from InterStudy. Clinical performance measures for women's health screening rates, child and adolescent immunization rates, heart disease screening rates, diabetes screening rates, and smoking cessation were developed from HEDIS data. Measures of patient perceptions of care are obtained from CAHPS survey data submitted as Healthplan Employer Data and Information Set, Consumer Assessment of Health Plans 2.0 H. Multivariate regression cross-sectional analysis of 272 health plans was used to evaluate the relationship of health plan characteristics with measures of clinical performance and patient perceptions of care. The form of delivery system, measured by percent of care delivered by staff and group model systems, is significantly related (p < or = .05) with four of the five clinical performance indices but none of the three satisfaction performance indices. Other variables significantly associated with performance were being geographically located in the Northeast, having nonprofit status, and for patient satisfaction, not being part of a larger insurance company. These comparative results provide evidence suggesting that the type of delivery system used by health plans is related to many clinical performance measures but is not related to patient perceptions

  5. The Obama health care plan: what it means for mental health care of older adults.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2009-01-01

    Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.

  6. Salubridad Chicana: Su Preservacion Y Mantenimiento -- The Chicano Plan for Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Ruben, Ed.; And Others

    In devising the mental health plan for Chicanos, the social, economic, and political forces that adversely affect their emotional well-being must be considered. While defining mental health needs and proposing ways to meet those needs, the cultural background of the Chicano people must seriously be considered. The plan should stress the importance…

  7. An Education and Development Program for Michigan's State Health Planning Advisory Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Office of Health and Medical Affairs, Lansing.

    The report describes a Federally supported education and development program conducted during the 1973-74 fiscal year for members of the Michigan State Health Planning Advisory Council. The program sought to increase: (1) the council members' awareness of and insight into the comprehensive health planning process, (2) their knowledge of the health…

  8. PLAN Bicol, Philippines: health manpower development program in action.

    PubMed

    Lind, K

    1994-06-01

    PLAN Bicol in the Philippines is a community based Health Manpower Development Program (HMDP) geared toward training and mobilization of indigenous health practitioners, providing infrastructural and logistical support to individual families, and educating the community about health, nutrition, and the environment. The field officer recommends at the initiation of a project that program staff have roles that are well defined. New programs should be introduced to the community first and should involve the community in the planning stages. The HMDP program is directed to 38 villages located around national parks that have suffered from deforestation. Community health issues are malnutrition, low immunization, and lack of access to health services. HMDP established a training program for auxiliary health workers (AHWs), who make a commitment to return to their villages after training. Midwives are being trained at local schools. Village houses are being built and repaired; water systems and sanitary toilet facilities are being installed. Village health stations have been constructed and equipped with basic medicines, supplies, and equipment, and are open 5 days a week. Health education classes inform the community about nutrition and health. The problems at inception were the unwillingness of field staff to participate in the program and a high drop out rate among AHWs. Problems were worked out as the program progressed. Facilitative factors are the close coordination with the provincial health office, community acceptance, and the availability of qualified people.

  9. Health insurance: how does your plan compare? Plus, a look to new reforms.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    A good insurance plan can steer you to the care that helps and away from wasting your time and money on unnecessary tests and treatments. For the third year running, we are presenting health plan rankings from the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), a nonprofit health care accreditation and quality measurement group, of a record 984 plans on their quality of care, customer satisfaction, and commitment to improvement and disclosure of information. This year, the NCQA ranked 474 private plans (which consumers obtain through a job or purchase on their own), 395 Medicare Advantage plans, and 115 Medicaid HMOs.

  10. The health plan choices of retirees under managed competition.

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, T C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of price on the health insurance decisions of Medicare-eligible retirees in a managed competition setting. DATA SOURCE: The study is based on four years of administrative data from the University of California (UC) Retiree Health Benefits Program, which closely resembles the managed competition model upon which several leading Medicare reform proposals are based. STUDY DESIGN: A change in UC's premium contribution policy between 1993 and 1994 created a unique natural experiment for investigating the effect of price on retirees' health insurance decisions. This study consists of two related analyses. First, I estimate the effect of changes in out-of-pocket premiums between 1993 and 1994 on the decision to switch plans during open enrollment. Second, using data from 1993 to 1996, I examine the extent to which rising premiums for fee-for-service Medigap coverage increased HMO enrollment among Medicare-eligible UC retirees. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Price is a significant factor affecting the health plan decisions of Medicare-eligible UC retirees. However, these retirees are substantially less price sensitive than active UC employees and the non-elderly in other similar programs. This result is likely attributable to higher nonpecuniary switching costs facing older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is not clear exactly how price sensitive enrollees must be in order to generate price competition among health plans, the behavioral differences between retirees and active employees suggest that caution should be taken in extrapolating from research on the non-elderly to the Medicare program. PMID:11130806

  11. Are Integrated Plan Providers Associated With Lower Premiums on the Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    PubMed

    La Forgia, Ambar; Maeda, Jared Lane K; Banthin, Jessica S

    2018-04-01

    As the health insurance industry becomes more consolidated, hospitals and health systems have started to enter the insurance business. Insurers are also rapidly acquiring providers. Although these "vertically" integrated plan providers are small players in the insurance market, they are becoming more numerous. The health insurance marketplaces (HIMs) offer a unique setting to study integrated plan providers relative to other insurer types because the HIMs were designed to promote competition. In this descriptive study, the authors compared the premiums of the lowest priced silver plans of integrated plan providers with other insurer types on the 2015 and 2016 HIMs. Integrated plan providers were associated with modestly lower premiums relative to most other insurer types. This study provides early insights into premium competition on the HIMs. Examining integrated plan providers as a separate insurer type has important policy implications because they are a growing segment of the marketplaces and their pricing behavior may influence future premium trends.

  12. Profit-seeking, corporate control, and the trustworthiness of health care organizations: assessments of health plan performance by their affiliated physicians.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Quon, Nicole; Wynia, Matthew; Cummins, Deborah; Gray, Bradford

    2005-06-01

    To compare the relative trustworthiness of nonprofit and for-profit health plans, using physician assessments to measure dimensions of plan performance that are difficult for consumers to evaluate. A nationally representative sample of 1,621 physicians who responded to a special topics module of the 1998 Socioeconomic Monitoring System Survey (SMS), fielded by the American Medical Association. Physicians assessed various aspects of their primary managed care plan, defined as the plan in which they had the largest number of patients. Plan ownership was measured as the interaction of tax-exempt status (nonprofit versus for-profit) and corporate control (single state versus multistate health plans). Two sets of regression models are estimated. The dependent variables in the regressions are five measures of performance related to plan trustworthiness: two related to deceptive practices and three to dimensions of quality that are largely hidden from enrollees. The first set (baseline) models relate plan ownership to trustworthy practices, controlling for other characteristics of the plan, the marketplace for health insurance, and the physician respondents. The second (interactive) set of models examines how the magnitude of ownership-related differences in trustworthiness varies with the market share of nonprofit plans in each community. The 1998 SMS was fielded between April and September of 1998 by Westat Inc. The average time required for a completed interview was approximately 30 minutes. The overall response rate was 52.2 percent. Compared with more local nonprofit plans, for-profit plans affiliated with multistate corporations are consistently reported by their affiliated physicians to engage in practices associated with reduced trustworthiness. Nonprofit plans affiliated with multistate corporations have more physician-reported practices associated with trustworthiness than do for-profit corporate plans on four of five outcomes, but appear less trustworthy than

  13. Profit-Seeking, Corporate Control, and the Trustworthiness of Health Care Organizations: Assessments of Health Plan Performance by Their Affiliated Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Mark; Quon, Nicole; Wynia, Matthew; Cummins, Deborah; Gray, Bradford

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the relative trustworthiness of nonprofit and for-profit health plans, using physician assessments to measure dimensions of plan performance that are difficult for consumers to evaluate. Data Source A nationally representative sample of 1,621 physicians who responded to a special topics module of the 1998 Socioeconomic Monitoring System Survey (SMS), fielded by the American Medical Association. Physicians assessed various aspects of their primary managed care plan, defined as the plan in which they had the largest number of patients. Study Design Plan ownership was measured as the interaction of tax-exempt status (nonprofit versus for-profit) and corporate control (single state versus multistate health plans). Two sets of regression models are estimated. The dependent variables in the regressions are five measures of performance related to plan trustworthiness: two related to deceptive practices and three to dimensions of quality that are largely hidden from enrollees. The first set (baseline) models relate plan ownership to trustworthy practices, controlling for other characteristics of the plan, the marketplace for health insurance, and the physician respondents. The second (interactive) set of models examines how the magnitude of ownership-related differences in trustworthiness varies with the market share of nonprofit plans in each community. Data Collection The 1998 SMS was fielded between April and September of 1998 by Westat Inc. The average time required for a completed interview was approximately 30 minutes. The overall response rate was 52.2 percent. Principal Findings Compared with more local nonprofit plans, for-profit plans affiliated with multistate corporations are consistently reported by their affiliated physicians to engage in practices associated with reduced trustworthiness. Nonprofit plans affiliated with multistate corporations have more physician-reported practices associated with trustworthiness than do for

  14. Effects of Early Dual-Eligible Special Needs Plans on Health Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongkang; Diana, Mark L

    2017-10-18

    To examine the effects of the penetration of dual-eligible special needs plans (D-SNPs) on health care spending. Secondary state-level panel data from Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) public use file and Special Needs Plan Comprehensive Reports, Area Health Resource Files, and Medicaid Managed Care Enrollment Report between 2007 and 2011. A difference-in-difference strategy that adjusts for dual-eligibles' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, state health resources, beneficiaries' health risk factors, Medicare/Medicaid enrollment, and state- and year-fixed effects. Data from MMLEADS were summarized from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)'s Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse, which contains 100 percent of Medicare enrollment data, claims for beneficiaries who are enrolled in the fee-for-service (FFS) program, and Medicaid Analytic Extract files. The MMLEADS public use file also includes payment information for managed care. Data in Special Needs Plan Comprehensive Reports were from CMS's Health Plan Management System. Results indicate that D-SNPs penetration was associated with reduced Medicare spending per dual-eligible beneficiary. Specifically, a 1 percent increase in D-SNPs penetration was associated with 0.2 percent reduction in Medicare spending per beneficiary. We found no association between D-SNPs penetration and Medicaid or total spending. Involving Medicaid services in D-SNPs may be crucial to improve coordination between Medicare and Medicaid programs and control Medicaid spending among dual-eligible beneficiaries. Starting from 2013, D-SNPs were mandated to have contracts with state Medicaid agencies. This change may introduce new effects of D-SNPs on health care spending. More research is needed to examine the impact of D-SNPs on dual-eligible spending. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. The Effect of Florida Medicaid's State-Mandated Formulary Provision on Prescription Drug Use and Health Plan Costs in a Medicaid Managed Care Plan.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Kiraat D; Mager, Douglas; Ward, Krista M; Mischel, Brian; Henderson, Rochelle R

    2018-02-01

    Formulary or preferred drug list (PDL) management is an effective strategy to ensure clinically efficient prescription drug management by managed care organizations (MCOs). Medicaid MCOs participating in Florida's Medicaid program were required to use a state-mandated PDL between May and August 2014. To examine differences in prescription drug use and plan costs between a single Florida Medicaid managed care (MMC) health plan that implemented a state-mandated PDL policy on July 1, 2014, and a comparable MMC health plan in another state without a state-mandated PDL, controlling for sociodemographic confounders. A retrospective analysis with a pre-post design was conducted using deidentified administrative claims data from a large pharmacy benefit manager. The prepolicy evaluation period was January 1 through June 30, 2014, and the postpolicy period was January 1 through June 30, 2015. Continuously eligible Florida MMC plan members were matched on sociodemographic and health characteristics to their counterparts enrolled in a comparable MMC health plan in another state without a state-mandated formulary. Outcomes were drug use, measured as the number of 30-day adjusted nonspecialty drug prescriptions per member per period, and total drug plan costs per member per period for all drugs, with separate measures for generic and brand drugs. Bivariate comparisons were conducted using t-tests. Employing a difference-in-differences (DID) analytic approach, multivariate negative binomial regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to analyze prescription drug use and costs. The final analytical sample consisted of 18,372 enrollees, evenly divided between the 2 groups. In the postpolicy evaluation period, overall and generic use declined, while brand use increased for members in the Florida health plan. Drug costs, especially for brands, significantly increased for Florida health plan members. No significant changes were observed over the same time period

  16. The U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy: A Model for Positive Organizational Change.

    PubMed

    Baur, Cynthia; Harris, Linda; Squire, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy and its unique contribution to public health and health care in the U.S. The chapter details what the National Action Plan is, how it evolved, and how it has influenced priorities for health literacy improvement work. Examples of how the National Action Plan fills policy and research gaps in health care and public health are included. The first part of the chapter lays the foundation for the development of the National Action Plan, and the second part discusses how it can stimulate positive organizational change to help create health literate organizations and move the nation towards a health literate society.

  17. A national action plan for promoting preconception health and health care in the United States (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Floyd, R Louise; Johnson, Kay A; Owens, Jasmine R; Verbiest, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen

    2013-10-01

    Preconception health and health care (PCHHC) has gained increasing popularity as a key prevention strategy for improving outcomes for women and infants, both domestically and internationally. The Action Plan for the National Initiative on Preconception Health and Health Care: A Report of the PCHHC Steering Committee (2012-2014) provides a model that states, communities, public, and private organizations can use to help guide strategic planning for promoting preconception care projects. Since 2005, a national public-private PCHHC initiative has worked to create and implement recommendations on this topic. Leadership and funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention combined with the commitment of maternal and child health leaders across the country brought together key partners from the public and private sector to provide expertise and technical assistance to develop an updated national action plan for the PCHHC Initiative. Key activities for this process included the identification of goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and anticipated timelines for the five workgroups that were established as part of the original PCHHC Initiative. These are further described in the action plan. To assist other groups doing similar work, this article discusses the approach members of the PCHHC Initiative took to convene local, state, and national leaders to enhance the implementation of preconception care nationally through accomplishments, lessons learned, and projections for future directions.

  18. Birth plans and health insurance enrolment of pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey at two secondary health facilities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okusanya, Babasola O; Roberts, Alero A; Akinsola, Oluwatosin J; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated birth plans and health insurance enrolment of pregnant women at secondary health care level as a strategy for post-2015 goals. This was a cross-sectional study at two secondary health facilities in Lagos state, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data that were analysed and results presented with frequencies. An overall estimate with 95% confidence interval was used at significant p values of less than 0.05. Five hundred and twenty-four women, with a mean age of 3 0 ± 4.1 years, participated. Most women chose hospital delivery (84%) and had plan for transportation (86.3%) during labour. Few women were well prepared for birth (9.7%) and had health insurance (10.1%). Compared with women without insurance, more health-insured women had plans for transport in labour (p = 0.1383) and identified a place of birth (p = 0.2294), but did not have as much plan for someone to accompany them in the case of an emergency (p = 0.3855) and donate blood (p = 0.5065). Few health insured women saved money for delivery (p = 0.7439). Health insured women did not have better birth plans and expanding pregnant women's access to health insurance may be an insufficient strategy to achieve post MDG 2015 goals.

  19. Three years in - changing plan features in the U.S. health insurance marketplace.

    PubMed

    McKillop, Caitlin N; Waters, Teresa M; Kaplan, Cameron M; Kaplan, Erin K; Thompson, Michael P; Graetz, Ilana

    2018-06-15

    A central objective of recent U.S. healthcare policy reform, most notably the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Health Insurance Marketplace, has been to increase access to stable, affordable health insurance. However, changing market dynamics (rising premiums, changes in issuer participation and plan availability) raise significant concerns about the marketplaces' ability to provide a stable source of healthcare for Americans that rely on them. By looking at the effect of instability on changes in the consumer choice set, we can analyze potential incentives to switch plans among price-sensitive enrollees, which can then be used to inform policy going forward. Data on health plan features for non-tobacco users in 2512 counties in 34 states participating in federally-facilitated exchanges from 2014 to 2016 was obtained from the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services. We examined how changes in individual plan features, including premiums, deductibles, issuers, and plan types, impact consumers who had purchased the lowest-cost silver or bronze plan in their county the previous year. We calculated the cost of staying in the same plan versus switching to another plan the following year, and analyzed how costs vary across geographic regions. In most counties in 2015 and 2016 (53.7 and 68.2%, respectively), the lowest-cost silver plan from the previous year was still available, but was no longer the cheapest plan. In these counties, consumers who switched to the new lowest-cost plan would pay less in monthly premiums on average, by $51.48 and $55.01, respectively, compared to staying in the same plan. Despite potential premium savings from switching, however, the majority would still pay higher average premiums compared to the previous year, and most would face higher deductibles and an increased probability of having to change provider networks. While the ACA has shown promise in expanding healthcare access, continued changes in the availability and affordability of health

  20. Service-based health human resources planning for older adults.

    PubMed

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Rigby, Janet; Rockwood, Kenneth; Gough, Amy; Greeley, Gogi; Montpetit, Frederick; Dill, Donna; Alder, Robert; Lackie, Kelly

    2013-08-01

    To test a service-based health human resources (HHR) planning approach for older adults in the context of home and long term care (LTC); to create a practical template/tools for use in various jurisdictions and/or health care settings. The most serious health needs of seniors in 2 Canadian jurisdictions were identified and linked to the specific services and associated competencies required of health care providers (HCPs) to address those needs. The amounts of each service required were quantified and compared against the capacity of HCPs to perform the services, measured using a self-assessment survey, by using a previously developed analytical framework. Home and LTC sectors in Nova Scotia and Nunavut, Canada. Regulated and nonregulated HCPs were invited to complete either an online or paper-based competency self-assessment survey. Survey response rates in Nova Scotia and Nunavut were 11% (160 responses) and 20% (22 responses), respectively. Comparisons of the estimated number of seniors likely to need each service with the number who can be served by the workforces in each jurisdiction indicated that the workforces in both jurisdictions are sufficiently numerous, active, productive, and competent to provide most of the services likely to be required. However, significant gaps were identified in pharmacy services, ongoing client assessment, client/family education and involvement, and client/family functional and social supports. Service-based HHR planning is feasible for identifying gaps in services required by older adults, and can guide policy makers in planning hiring/recruitment, professional development, and provider education curricula. Implementation will require commitment of policy makers and other stakeholders, as well as ongoing evaluation of its effectiveness. More broadly, the ongoing effectiveness of the approach will depend on workforce planning being conducted in an iterative way, driven by regular reevaluation of population health needs and HHR

  1. Executive summary of the Strategic Plan for National Institutes of Health Obesity Research.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen M; Alving, Barbara M

    2005-07-01

    The Strategic Plan for National Institutes of Health (NIH) Obesity Research is intended to serve as a guide for coordinating obesity research activities across the NIH and for enhancing the development of new efforts based on identification of areas of greatest scientific opportunity and challenge. Developed by the NIH Obesity Research Task Force with critical input from external scientists and the public, the Strategic Plan reflects a dynamic planning process and presents a multidimensional research agenda, with an interrelated set of goals and strategies for achieving the goals. The major scientific themes around which the Strategic Plan is framed include the following: preventing and treating obesity through lifestyle modification; preventing and treating obesity through pharmacologic, surgical, or other medical approaches; breaking the link between obesity and its associated health conditions; and cross-cutting topics, including health disparities, technology, fostering of interdisciplinary research teams, investigator training, translational research, and education/outreach efforts. Through the efforts described in the Strategic Plan for NIH Obesity Research, the NIH will strive to facilitate and accelerate progress in obesity research to improve public health.

  2. eHealth and IMIA's Strategic Planning Process - IMIA conference introductory address.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter; Haux, Reinhold; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) is the only organization in health and biomedical informatics which is fully international in scope, bridging the academic, health practice, education, and health industry worlds through conferences, working groups, special interest groups and publications. Authored by the IMIA Interim Vice President for Strategic Planning Implementation and co-authored by the current IMIA President and the IMIA Past-President, the intention of this paper is to introduce IMIA's current strategic planning process and to set this process in relation to 'eHealth: Combining Health Telematics, Telemedicine, Biomedical Engineering and Bioinformatics to the Edge', the theme of this conference. From the viewpoint of an international organization such as IMIA, an eHealth strategy needs to be considered in a comprehensive way, including broadly stimulating high-quality health and biomedical informatics research and education, as well as providing support to bridging outcomes towards a new practice of health care in a changing world.

  3. The new US health care plan of 1993 and its terminology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C N

    1993-10-01

    The Clinton Administration is moving toward a fundamental change in the United States health care system. President Bill Clinton made the issue of health care reform one of his top campaign priorities and promised to introduce a reform proposal for consideration in 1993. To that end, he asked his wife, Hillary Clinton, to lead the newly established Health Care Reform Task Force as it develops alternatives and the plan for health reform as promised to be introduced in 1993. While some uncertainty exists regarding how President Clinton will differ from candidate Clinton, current indications are that the health care reform will be somewhere between "incremental reform' which the opposition Republican Party favours, and the 'Single Payor/Canadian Style' approaches under which the federal government would take over most responsibilities now carried out by private health insurance companies. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the health reform plan, and to present the specialised terminology that is growing from the health reform initiatives.

  4. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer

    2011-11-24

    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  5. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act: employer health insurance plans must cover prescription contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J M; Mehoves, C

    2001-09-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which recently took the position that employer health plans are required, in many instances, to cover prescription contraceptives, has issued guidelines to assist employers in complying with the law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex and pregnancy. Employers should review these guidelines carefully in relation to their health care plans.

  6. The component alignment model: a new approach to health care information technology strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Martin, J B; Wilkins, A S; Stawski, S K

    1998-08-01

    The evolving health care environment demands that health care organizations fully utilize information technologies (ITs). The effective deployment of IT requires the development and implementation of a comprehensive IT strategic plan. A number of approaches to health care IT strategic planning exist, but they are outdated or incomplete. The component alignment model (CAM) introduced here recognizes the complexity of today's health care environment, emphasizing continuous assessment and realignment of seven basic components: external environment, emerging ITs, organizational infrastructure, mission, IT infrastructure, business strategy, and IT strategy. The article provides a framework by which health care organizations can develop an effective IT strategic planning process.

  7. Electronic health records: a valuable tool for dental school strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Filker, Phyllis J; Cook, Nicole; Kodish-Stav, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if electronic patient records have utility in dental school strategic planning. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been used by all predoctoral students and faculty members at Nova Southeastern University's College of Dental Medicine (NSU-CDM) since 2006. The study analyzed patient demographic and caries risk assessment data from October 2006 to May 2011 extracted from the axiUm EHR database. The purpose was to determine if there was a relationship between high oral health care needs and patient demographics, including gender, age, and median income of the zip code where they reside in order to support dental school strategic planning including the locations of future satellite clinics. The results showed that about 51 percent of patients serviced by the Broward County-based NSU-CDM oral health care facilities have high oral health care needs and that about 60 percent of this population resides in zip codes where the average income is below the median income for the county ($41,691). The results suggest that EHR data can be used adjunctively by dental schools when proposing potential sites for satellite clinics and planning for future oral health care programming.

  8. Health sector operational planning and budgeting processes in Kenya—“never the twain shall meet”

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Sassy; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Operational planning is considered an important tool for translating government policies and strategic objectives into day‐to‐day management activities. However, developing countries suffer from persistent misalignment between policy, planning and budgeting. The Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) was introduced to address this misalignment. Kenya adopted the MTEF in the early 2000s, and in 2005, the Ministry of Health adopted the Annual Operational Plan process to adapt the MTEF to the health sector. This study assessed the degree to which the health sector Annual Operational Plan process in Kenya has achieved alignment between planning and budgeting at the national level, using document reviews, participant observation and key informant interviews. We found that the Kenyan health sector was far from achieving planning and budgeting alignment. Several factors contributed to this problem including weak Ministry of Health stewardship and institutionalized separation between planning and budgeting processes; a rapidly changing planning and budgeting environment; lack of reliable data to inform target setting and poor participation by key stakeholders in the process including a top‐down approach to target setting. We conclude that alignment is unlikely to be achieved without consideration of the specific institutional contexts and the power relationships between stakeholders. In particular, there is a need for institutional integration of the planning and budgeting processes into a common cycle and framework with common reporting lines and for improved data and local‐level input to inform appropriate and realistic target setting. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25783862

  9. Retiree Health Plans for Public School Teachers after GASB 43 and 45. Conference Paper 2009-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Most public elementary and high school teachers are covered by health insurance provided by their employer while they are employed. In most cases, these health plans are managed at the state level. At retirement, teachers with sufficient years of service are allowed to remain in the health plan. Retiree health plans for teachers vary widely across…

  10. Development of Articulation Models for Allied Health Statewide Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Joanne; And Others

    Under the auspices of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education and with the aim of delineating issues in allied health education and making recommendations for alleviating the issues, an in-depth, two-year study was completed in 1975. The primary recommendations pertained to the development of a statewide plan for allied health education that…

  11. The relationship between health plan advertising and market incentives: evidence of risk-selective behavior.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Grier, Sonya; Dudley, R Adams

    2006-01-01

    Medicare beneficiaries are now facing advertising from an unprecedented number of health plans that are offering prescription drug coverage. Previous Medicare managed care efforts have been undermined by risk selection, the practice of enrolling healthier and therefore less costly patients. In this study we explore how the content of health plan advertising is related to the competitiveness of the health plan market. We find that increased competition is associated with greater use of advertising that targets healthier patients.

  12. Nurse migration and health workforce planning: Ireland as illustrative of international challenges.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Niamh; Brugha, Ruairi; McGee, Hannah

    2012-09-01

    Ireland began actively recruiting nurses internationally in 2000. Between 2000 and 2010, 35% of new recruits into the health system were non-EU migrant nurses. Ireland is more heavily reliant upon international nurse recruitment than the UK, New Zealand or Australia. This paper draws on in-depth interviews (N=21) conducted in 2007 with non-EU migrant nurses working in Ireland, a quantitative survey of non-EU migrant nurses (N=337) conducted in 2009 and in-depth interviews conducted with key stakeholders (N=12) in late 2009/early 2010. Available primary and secondary data indicate a fresh challenge for health workforce planning in Ireland as immigration slows and nurses (both non-EU and Irish trained) consider emigration. Successful international nurse recruitment campaigns obviated the need for health workforce planning in the short-term, however the assumption that international nurse recruitment had 'solved' the nursing shortage was short-lived and the current presumption that nurse migration (both emigration and immigration) will always 'work' for Ireland over-plays the reliability of migration as a health workforce planning tool. This article analyses Ireland's experience of international nurse recruitment 2000-2010, providing a case study which is illustrative of health workforce planning challenges faced internationally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A health plan report card for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bader, J D; Shugars, D A; Hayden, W J; White, B A

    1996-01-01

    Employers are demanding information about the performance of the health care plans they purchase for their employees. As a result, "report cards" are now beginning to appear that provide standardized, population-based comparison data for managed medical care plans' quality of care, access and member satisfaction, utilization, and financial status. Although report cards for dental care plans have not yet been developed, it is likely that purchasers will soon expect such performance information. A prototype report card for dental managed care plans is proposed in an effort to facilitate the development of a consensus standard for dentistry. The thirty-eight measures proposed for the report card are designed to be obtainable with a realistic level of additional effort in most dental practices. They were selected to provide data on questions of importance to purchasers and to assess processes and outcomes important because there is strong evidence for their effectiveness. The rationale for the measures is discussed, as are the steps required to develop more sophisticated measures. While the responsibility for the procurement of the information needed for dental report cards will die initially with administrators of dental care plans, it is likely in the near future that individual practitioners will be expected to supply this information to both individual patients and potential contractors.

  14. Measuring migraine-related quality of care across 10 health plans.

    PubMed

    Pracilio, Valerie P; Silberstein, Stephen; Couto, Joseph; Bumbaugh, Jon; Hopkins, Mary; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Sennett, Cary; Goldfarb, Neil I

    2012-08-01

    To refine a previously published standardized quality and utilization measurement set for migraine care and to establish performance benchmarks. Retrospective application of the migraine measurement set to health plan data in order to assess patterns of health service utilization. Measurement specifications were applied to data from 10 health plans for measurement year 2009. Of the 2.9 million continuously enrolled members of the health plans, 138,004 (4.7%) met inclusion criteria for the migraine population. Of these, 26% did not have a migraine diagnosis, but were utilizing migraine drugs; 12% had a computed tomography scan within the year (range 8%-25% across plans); and 8% had magnetic resonance imaging (range 6%-11%). Nearly 18% of the migraineurs had 1 or more visits to an emergency department/urgent care center for migraine; few (6%) were followed up with primary care visits. Approximately one-fourth of the migraineurs were not being routinely monitored by a physician. Medication utilization also was examined for members of the migraine population with pharmacy benefits. A significant proportion (42%) were given a migraine preventive, 38% had at least 1 prescription for a triptan, and 2% of those on triptans were potentially overutilizing the medication. Among patients aged 18 to 49 years who were given triptans, 3% had a cardiac contraindication; this percentage rose to 7% for patients aged 50 to 64 years. This study demonstrates the value of standardized measures in identifying potential quality issues for migraine care, including underdiagnosis, overutilization of imaging, and underutilization of preventive drugs.

  15. Health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N.; Cipriano, D.J. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This Programmatic Health and Safety plan (PHASP) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This plan follows the format recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for remedial investigations and feasibility studies and that recommended by the EM40 Health and Safety Plan (HASP) Guidelines (DOE February 1994). This plan complies with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.120 and EM-40 guidelines for any activities dealing with hazardous waste operations and emergency response efforts and with OSHA requirements found in 29 CFR 1926.65.more » The policies and procedures in this plan apply to all Environmental Restoration sites and activities including employees of Energy Systems, subcontractors, and prime contractors performing work for the DOE ORNL ER Program. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health and safety and to the environment from event such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.« less

  16. Shopping on the Public and Private Health Insurance Marketplaces: Consumer Decision Aids and Plan Presentation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Charlene A; Kulhari, Sajal; McGeoch, Ellen J; Jones, Arthur T; Weiner, Janet; Polsky, Daniel; Baker, Tom

    2018-05-29

    The design of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) health insurance marketplaces influences complex health plan choices. To compare the choice environments of the public health insurance exchanges in the fourth (OEP4) versus third (OEP3) open enrollment period and to examine online marketplace run by private companies, including a total cost estimate comparison. In November-December 2016, we examined the public and private online health insurance exchanges. We navigated each site for "real-shopping" (personal information required) and "window-shopping" (no required personal information). Public (n = 13; 12 state-based marketplaces and HealthCare.gov ) and private (n = 23) online health insurance exchanges. Features included consumer decision aids (e.g., total cost estimators, provider lookups) and plan display (e.g., order of plans). We examined private health insurance exchanges for notable features (i.e., those not found on public exchanges) and compared the total cost estimates on public versus private exchanges for a standardized consumer. Nearly all studied consumer decision aids saw increased deployment in the public marketplaces in OEP4 compared to OEP3. Over half of the public exchanges (n = 7 of 13) had total cost estimators (versus 5 of 14 in OEP3) in window-shopping and integrated provider lookups (window-shopping: 7; real-shopping: 8). The most common default plan orders were by premium or total cost estimate. Notable features on private health insurance exchanges were unique data presentation (e.g., infographics) and further personalized shopping (e.g., recommended plan flags). Health plan total cost estimates varied substantially between the public and private exchanges (average difference $1526). The ACA's public health insurance exchanges offered more tools in OEP4 to help consumers select a plan. While private health insurance exchanges presented notable features, the total cost estimates for a standardized consumer varied widely on public

  17. Seizure Action Plans Do Not Reduce Health Care Utilization in Pediatric Epilepsy Patients.

    PubMed

    Roundy, Lindsi M; Filloux, Francis M; Kerr, Lynne; Rimer, Alyssa; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2016-03-01

    Management of pediatric epilepsy requires complex coordination of care. We hypothesized that an improved seizure management care plan would reduce health care utilization and improve outcomes. The authors conducted a cohort study with historical controls of 120 epilepsy patients before and after implementation of a "Seizure Action Plan." The authors evaluated for differences in health care utilization including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, clinic visits, telephone calls, and the percentage of emergency department visits that resulted in hospitalization in patients who did or did not have a Seizure Action Plan. The authors found that there was no decrease in these measures of health care utilization, and in fact the number of follow-up clinic visits was increased in the group with Seizure Action Plans (4.2 vs 3.3, P = .006). However, the study was underpowered to detect smaller differences. This study suggests that pediatric epilepsy quality improvement measures may require alternative approaches to reduce health care utilization and improve outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Ebola Preparedness Planning and Collaboration by Two Health Systems in Wisconsin, September to December 2014.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).

  19. Consumer responses to health plan report cards in two markets.

    PubMed

    Fowles, J B; Kind, E A; Braun, B L; Knutson, D J

    2000-05-01

    Health plans can compete on quality when consumers have helpful information. Report cards strive to meet this need, but consumer responses have not been measured. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare consumer responses to report cards in 2 markets, (2) to determine how personal characteristics relate to exposure, and (3) to assess the perceived helpfulness of the report cards. A postenrollment survey was used. The study included 784 employees of Monsanto (St Louis, 1996) and 670 employees of a health care purchasing cooperative (Denver, 1997). The dependent measures were (1) exposure, specifically remembering the report card, and intensity of reading it and (2) perceived helpfulness in learning about plan quality and in deciding to stay or switch. Except for remembering seeing the report card (Denver, 47%; St Louis, 55%), the 2 groups did not differ. Forty percent read most or all of the report card; 82% found the report helpful in learning about quality; and 66% found it helpful in deciding to stay or switch. Employees who used patient survey information in their plan decision were more likely to remember seeing the report card (odds ratio [OR], 4.85), to read it intensely (OR, 2.84), and to find it helpful in learning about plan quality (OR, 3.04) and deciding whether to stay or switch plans (OR, 2.64). Although the 2 samples differed markedly, their responses to report cards were similar. Exposure and helpfulness were related more to employee preferences for the type of information than to their health care decision needs.

  20. 76 FR 46621 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...This document contains amendments to the interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding preventive health services.

  1. 77 FR 58488 - Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) decision to modify the Hawaii State... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1952 [Docket ID. OSHA 2012-0029] RIN 1218-AC78 Hawaii State Plan for Occupational Safety and Health AGENCY: Occupational...

  2. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  3. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction. 162.1502 Section 162.1502 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and Disenrollment in a Health Plan § 162.1502...

  4. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction. 162.1502 Section 162.1502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and Disenrollment in a Health Plan § 162.1502...

  5. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction. 162.1502 Section 162.1502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and Disenrollment in a Health Plan § 162.1502...

  6. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction. 162.1502 Section 162.1502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and Disenrollment in a Health Plan § 162.1502...

  7. 45 CFR 162.1502 - Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for enrollment and disenrollment in a health plan transaction. 162.1502 Section 162.1502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Enrollment and Disenrollment in a Health Plan § 162.1502...

  8. 29 CFR 825.211 - Maintenance of benefits under multi-employer health plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is maintained pursuant to one or more collective bargaining agreements between employee..., unless the plan contains an explicit FMLA provision for maintaining coverage such as through pooled... by the group health plan, and benefits provided pursuant to the plan, must be maintained at the level...

  9. Dutch healthcare reform: did it result in performance improvement of health plans? A comparison of consumer experiences over time.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Michelle; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana M J

    2009-09-17

    Many countries have introduced elements of managed competition in their healthcare system with the aim to accomplish more efficient and demand-driven health care. Simultaneously, generating and reporting of comparative healthcare information has become an important quality-improvement instrument. We examined whether the introduction of managed competition in the Dutch healthcare system along with public reporting of quality information was associated with performance improvement in health plans. Experiences of consumers with their health plan were measured in four consecutive years (2005-2008) using the CQI(R) health plan instrument 'Experiences with Healthcare and Health Insurer'. Data were available of 13,819 respondents (response = 45%) of 30 health plans in 2005, of 8,266 respondents (response = 39%) of 32 health plans in 2006, of 8,088 respondents (response = 34%) of 32 health plans in 2007, and of 7,183 respondents (response = 31%) of 32 health plans in 2008. We performed multilevel regression analyses with three levels: respondent, health plan and year of measurement. Per year and per quality aspect, we estimated health plan means while adjusting for consumers' age, education and self-reported health status. We tested for linear and quadratic time effects using chi-squares. The overall performance of health plans increased significantly from 2005 to 2008 on four quality aspects. For three other aspects, we found that the overall performance first declined and then increased from 2006 to 2008, but the performance in 2008 was not better than in 2005. The overall performance of health plans did not improve more often for quality aspects that were identified as important areas of improvement in the first year of measurement. On six out of seven aspects, the performance of health plans that scored below average in 2005 increased more than the performance of health plans that scored average and/or above average in that year. We found mixed results concerning the

  10. Amendment to the interim final rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage relating to status as a grandfathered health plan under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Amendment to interim final rules with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2010-11-17

    This document contains an amendment to interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding status as a grandfathered health plan; the amendment permits certain changes in policies, certificates, or contracts of insurance without loss of grandfathered status.

  11. Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Milton, Beth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local levels), academia and voluntary organizations. Analysis was based on the framework method using N-VIVO software. Interviews were transcribed, coded and emergent themes identified. Results Many participants suggested that the timescales for public health decision-making are too short. Commissioners and some practitioners working at the national level particularly felt constrained in terms of planning for the long-term. Furthermore respondents felt that longer term planning was needed to address the wider determinants of health and to achieve societal level changes. Three prominent 'systems' issues were identified as important drivers of short term thinking: the need to demonstrate impact within the 4 year political cycle; the requirement to 'balance the books' within the annual commissioning cycle and the disruption caused by frequent re-organisations within the health service. In addition respondents suggested that the tools and evidence base for longer term planning were not well established. Conclusion Many public health decision and policy makers feel that the timescales for decision-making are too short. Substantial systemic barriers to longer-term planning exist. Policy makers need to look beyond short-term targets and budget cycles to secure investment for long-term improvement in public health. PMID:19094194

  12. Planning ahead in public health? A qualitative study of the time horizons used in public health decision-making.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Milton, Beth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-12-18

    In order to better understand factors that influence decisions for public health, we undertook a qualitative study to explore issues relating to the time horizons used in decision-making. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. 33 individuals involved in the decision making process around coronary heart disease were purposively sampled from the UK National Health Service (national, regional and local levels), academia and voluntary organizations. Analysis was based on the framework method using N-VIVO software. Interviews were transcribed, coded and emergent themes identified. Many participants suggested that the timescales for public health decision-making are too short. Commissioners and some practitioners working at the national level particularly felt constrained in terms of planning for the long-term. Furthermore respondents felt that longer term planning was needed to address the wider determinants of health and to achieve societal level changes. Three prominent 'systems' issues were identified as important drivers of short term thinking: the need to demonstrate impact within the 4 year political cycle; the requirement to 'balance the books' within the annual commissioning cycle and the disruption caused by frequent re-organisations within the health service. In addition respondents suggested that the tools and evidence base for longer term planning were not well established. Many public health decision and policy makers feel that the timescales for decision-making are too short. Substantial systemic barriers to longer-term planning exist. Policy makers need to look beyond short-term targets and budget cycles to secure investment for long-term improvement in public health.

  13. Health Promotion Interventions for Low-Income Californians Through Medi-Cal Managed Care Plans, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kohatsu, Neal D.; Paciotti, Brian M.; Byrne, Jennifer V.; Kizer, Kenneth W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention is the most cost-effective approach to promote population health, yet little is known about the delivery of health promotion interventions in the nation’s largest Medicaid program, Medi-Cal. The purpose of this study was to inventory health promotion interventions delivered through Medi-Cal Managed Care Plans; identify attributes of the interventions that plans judged to have the greatest impact on their members; and determine the extent to which the plans refer members to community assistance programs and sponsor health-promoting community activities. Methods The lead health educator from each managed care plan was asked to complete a 190-item online survey in January 2013; 20 of 21 managed care plans responded. Survey data on the health promotion interventions with the greatest impact were grouped according to intervention attributes and measures of effectiveness; quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Health promotion interventions judged to have the greatest impact on Medi-Cal members were delivered in various ways; educational materials, one-on-one education, and group classes were delivered most frequently. Behavior change, knowledge gain, and improved disease management were cited most often as measures of effectiveness. Across all interventions, median educational hours were limited (2.4 h), and median Medi-Cal member participation was low (265 members per intervention). Most interventions with greatest impact (120 of 137 [88%]) focused on tertiary prevention. There were mixed results in referring members to community assistance programs and investing in community activities. Conclusion Managed care plans have many opportunities to more effectively deliver health promotion interventions. Establishing measurable, evidence-based, consensus standards for such programs could facilitate improved delivery of these services. PMID:26564012

  14. Modelling Levels of Collaboration Among Health and Social Care Professionals in the Management of a Mental Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Daniela; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Tamburis, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    Professional collaboration among health and social care providers is considered an essential pattern to improve the integration of care. This is particularly important considering the planning activities for children with complex conditions. In this paper the level of collaboration among professionals in the development and implementation of the personalized plan in the mental health domain is analysed across 30 EU/EEA countries within the MOCHA project.

  15. Planning health education: Internet and computer resources in southwestern Nigeria. 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Oyadoke, Adebola A; Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    The use of the Internet as a health education tool and as a resource in health education planning is widely accepted as the norm in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, access to computers and the Internet is quite limited in developing countries. Not all licensed service providers operate, many users are actually foreign nationals, telephone connections are unreliable, and electricity supplies are intermittent. In this context, computer, e-mail, Internet, and CD-Rom use by health and health education program officers in five states in southwestern Nigeria were assessed to document their present access and use. Eight of the 30 organizations visited were government health ministry departments, while the remainder were non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Six NGOs and four State Ministry of Health (MOH) departments had no computers, but nearly two-thirds of both types of agency had e-mail, less than one-third had Web browsing facilities, and six had CD-Roms, all of whom were NGOs. Only 25 of the 48 individual respondents had computer use skills. Narrative responses from individual employees showed a qualitative difference between computer and Internet access and use and type of agency. NGO staff in organizations with computers indicated having relatively free access to a computer and the Internet and used these for both program planning and administrative purposes. In government offices it appeared that computers were more likely to be located in administrative or statistics offices and used for management tasks like salaries and correspondence, limiting the access of individual health staff. These two different organizational cultures must be considered when plans are made for increasing computer availability and skills for health education planning.

  16. Consumers, gag rules, and health plans: strategies for a patient-focused market.

    PubMed

    Etheredge, L; Jones, S B

    1997-05-01

    The "gag rule" controversy has become a symbol of new tensions and changing relationships among patients, physicians, and health plans. This paper offers a consumer-focused analysis of these fundamental issues from the point of view of a patient with a chronic illness. It starts with a case study of a specific individual and then considers the systemic incentives and other factors that lead to conflicts among patients, physicians, and health plans. This consumer focus invites the reader to consider managed care with the following question in mind: "What would you want for yourself it you were the patient?" The paper suggests that many private-sector initiatives, as well as government actions, could contribute to a better health care market. Among the reform strategies discussed are (a) professional responsibility and private-sector standards, (b) consumer assistance, and (c) government regulation. All of us, including persons with chronic illness, need a consumer-focused health system. So, too, do physicians and health plans that want to provide excellent care for all of their patients.

  17. Variation in US outpatient antibiotic prescribing quality measures according to health plan and geography.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rebecca M; Hicks, Lauri A; Bartoces, Monina

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic prescribing has become increasingly viewed as an issue related to patient safety and quality of care. The objective of this study was to better understand the differences between health plan reporting and the geographic variation seen in quality measures related to antibiotic use. We focused on 3 measures from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) related to antibiotic prescribing and testing to guide antibiotic prescribing. We analyzed data for 3 relevant measures for the years 2008 to 2012, including only commercial health plans. We analyzed the following 3 HEDIS measures: 1) "Appropriate Testing for Children With Pharyngitis," 2) "Appropriate Treatment for Children With Upper Respiratory Infections," and 3) "Avoidance of Antibiotic Treatment in Adults With Acute Bronchitis." Out of these 3 measures, health plans consistently performed poorly on the adult bronchitis measure. Performance was better on the 2 measures focused on the pediatric population. We also saw geographic variation between measures when looking at Census divisions across all years. There is wide variation between individual health plan performance on the measures related to antibiotic use. Geographic differences were also observed on these measures, with health plans in the South Central Census division performing worse than other parts of the country. Stakeholders, such as public health, advocacy groups, foundations, and professional societies, interested in improving the quality of care that patients receive related to antibiotic use in the outpatient setting should consider how existing measures and working with health plans could be used to improve prescribing.

  18. 20 CFR 1002.163 - What types of health plans are covered by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of health plans are covered by USERRA? 1002.163 Section 1002.163 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... by USERRA? (a) USERRA defines a health plan to include an insurance policy or contract, medical or...

  19. 45 CFR 156.298 - Meaningful difference standard for Qualified Health Plans in the Federally-facilitated Exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health Plans in the Federally-facilitated Exchanges. 156.298 Section 156.298 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE ISSUER STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT, INCLUDING STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Qualified Health Plan Minimum...

  20. Service user involvement in care planning: the mental health nurse's perspective.

    PubMed

    Anthony, P; Crawford, P

    2000-10-01

    A dissonance between espoused values of consumerism within mental health care and the 'reality' of clinical practice has been firmly established in the literature, not least in terms of service user involvement in care planning. In order to begin to minimize such dissonance, it is vital that mental health nurse perceptions of service user involvement in the core activity of care planning are better understood. The main findings of this qualitative study, which uses semistructured interviews, suggest that mental health nurses value the concept of user involvement but consider it to be problematic in certain circumstances. The study reveals that nurses hold similar views about the 'meaning' of patient involvement in care planning but limited resources, individual patients characteristics and limitations in nursing care are the main inhibiting factors. Factors perceived as promoting and increasing user involvement included: provision of accurate information, 'user-friendly' documentation, mechanisms for gaining service user feedback, and high staff morale.

  1. What must be the Pillars of Iran’s Health System in 2025? Values and Principles of Health System Reform Plan

    PubMed Central

    RAJABI, Fateme; ESMAILZADEH, Hamid; ROSTAMIGOORAN, Narges; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preparing long term reformatory plan for the health system, like other macro plans, requires guiding principles which is according to the values, and as a bridge, connect the ideals and values to the goals. This study was designed with the purpose of explaining the values and principles of health system, and as a pre-requisite to compilation of Iran’s health system reform plan at 2025. Method: The document of values and principles of health system reform plan for 2025 was developed by reviewing the literature and receiving the opinions of senior experts of health system, and was criticized in focus group discussion sessions of experts and decision makers. Results: The values of Iran are: dignity of human, the right to maximum attainable level of health, comprehensive health, equity and social cohesion. The principles of this health system include: institutionalizing the ethical values, responsiveness and accountability, equitable access (utilization), prevention and health promotion, community participation, inter-sectoral collaboration, integrated stewardship, benefit from innovation and desired technology, human resources promotion and excellence and harmony. Conclusion: Based on the perception of cultural and religious teachings in Iran, protecting of human dignity and human prosperity are the ultimate social goal. In this sense, health and healthy humans, in its holistic concept (physical, mental, social health and spiritual) are the center and development in any form should lead to the human prosperity in a way that each of the individuals could enjoy the maximum attainable level of health in its holistic meaning and in a faire manner. PMID:23515322

  2. An empty toolbox? Changes in health plans' approaches for managing costs and care.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Hurley, Robert E; Grossman, Joy M

    2003-02-01

    To examine how health plans have changed their approaches for managing costs and utilization in the wake of the recent backlash against managed care. Semistructured interviews with health plan executives, employers, providers, and other health care decision makers in 12 metropolitan areas that were randomly selected to be nationally representative of communities with more than 200,000 residents. Longitudinal data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study during three rounds of site visits in 1996-1997, 1998-1999, and 2000-2001. Interviews probed about changes in the design and operation of health insurance products--including provider contracting and network development, benefit packages, and utilization management processes--and about the rationale and perceived impact of these changes. Data from more than 850 interviews were coded, extracted, and analyzed using computerized text analysis software. Health plans have begun to scale back or abandon their use of selected managed care tools in most communities, with selective contracting and risk contracting practices fading most rapidly and completely. In turn, plans increasingly have sought cost savings by shifting costs to consumers. Some plans have begun to experiment with new provider networks, payment systems, and referral practices designed to lower costs and improve service delivery. These changes promise to lighten administrative and financial burdens for physicians and hospitals, but they also threaten to increase consumers' financial burdens.

  3. [Implementation of a safety and health planning system in a teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Mariani, F; Bravi, C; Dolcetti, L; Moretto, A; Palermo, A; Ronchin, M; Tonelli, F; Carrer, P

    2007-01-01

    University Hospital "L. Sacco" had started in 2006 a two-year project in order to set up a "Health and Safety Management System (HSMS)" referring to the technical guideline OHSAS 18001:1999 and the UNI and INAIL "Guidelines for a health and safety management system at workplace". So far, the following operations had been implemented: Setting up of a specific Commission within the Risk Management Committee; Identification and appointment of Departmental Representatives of HSMS; Carrying out of a training course addressed to Workers Representatives for Safety and Departmental Representatives of HSMS; Development of an Integrated Informative System for Prevention and Safety; Auditors qualification; Inspection of the Occupational Health Unit and the Prevention and Safety Service: reporting of critical situations and monitoring solutions adopted. Short term objectives are: Self-evaluation through check-lists of each department; Sharing of the Improvement Plan among the departments of the hospital; Planning of Health and Safety training activities in the framework of the Hospital Training Plan; Safety audit.

  4. Emergency planning and management in health care: priority research topics.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan; Chambers, Naomi; French, Simon; Shaw, Duncan; King, Russell; Whitehead, Alison

    2014-06-01

    Many major incidents have significant impacts on people's health, placing additional demands on health-care organisations. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a prioritised agenda for organisational and management research on emergency planning and management relevant to U.K. health care, based on a scoping study. A secondary aim is to enhance knowledge and understanding of health-care emergency planning among the wider research community, by highlighting key issues and perspectives on the subject and presenting a conceptual model. The study findings have much in common with those of previous U.S.-focused scoping reviews, and with a recent U.K.-based review, confirming the relative paucity of U.K.-based research. No individual research topic scored highly on all of the key measures identified, with communities and organisations appearing to differ about which topics are the most important. Four broad research priorities are suggested: the affected public; inter- and intra-organisational collaboration; preparing responders and their organisations; and prioritisation and decision making.

  5. Early Experience with Employee Choice of Consumer-Directed Health Plans and Satisfaction with Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Kind, Elizabeth A; Braun, Barbara L; Bertko, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the initial impact of offering consumer-defined health plan (CDHP) options on employees. Data Sources/Study Setting A mail survey of 4,680 employees in the corporate offices of Humana Inc. in June 2001. Study Design The study was a cross-sectional mail survey of employees aged 18 and older who were eligible for health care benefits. The survey was conducted following open enrollment. The primary outcome is the choice of consumer-directed health plan or not; the secondary outcome is satisfaction with the enrollment process. Important covariates include sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, educational level, exempt or nonexempt status, type of coverage), health status, health care utilization, and plan design preferences. Data Collection Methods A six-page questionnaire was mailed to the home of each employee, followed by a reminder postcard and two subsequent mailings to nonrespondents. Principal Findings The response rate was 66.2 percent. Seven percent selected one of the two new plan options. Because there were no meaningful differences between employees choosing either of the two new options, these groups were combined in multivariate analysis. A logistic regression modeled the likelihood of choosing the novel plan options. Those selecting the new plans were less likely to be black (odds ratio [OR] 0.46), less likely to have only Humana coverage (OR 0.30), and more likely to have single coverage (OR 1.77). They were less likely to have a chronic health problem (OR 0.56) and more likely to have had no recent medical visits (OR 3.21). They were more likely to believe that lowest premiums were the most important plan attribute (OR 2.89) and to think there were big differences in the premiums of available plans (OR 5.19). Employees in fair or poor health were more likely to have a difficult time during the online enrollment process. They were more likely to find the communications very helpful (OR 0.42) and the benefits

  6. Adolescent Health Research Updates: Supplement to the Adolescent Health Plan, Numbers 1-6, December 1996-November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleich, Ley, Ed.

    This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth…

  7. [Reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides].

    PubMed

    Moisés, Marcia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Peres, Frederico; Hennington, Elida; Beltrami, Aramis Cardoso; Beltrami Neto, Adelcki Camilo

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the issue of human and environmental contamination caused by abusive and undue use of pesticides and of its consequences for human health and the environment. It seeks to present reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides arising from the Federal District Assessment and Control Project for Human and Environmental Exposure. The methodology used in this study consisted of reading and analysis of reports from the aforementioned projects, as well as participating in preliminary meetings for drafting the General Coordination Plan for Environmental Health Surveillance and the workshop entitled "The integration of Occupational Health Surveillance and Sanitary Vigilance: the information issue." This was coordinated by the Occupational Health Working Group of the Brazilian Public Health Association and in meetings and workshops of the Federal District Project. The outcome of the discussions suggests that the investigation strategy used is a positive contribution and that the Federal District Project may serve as a pilot project for the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan.

  8. Protecting Home Health Care Workers: A Challenge to Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Planning

    PubMed Central

    McPhaul, Kathleen; Phillips, Sally; Gershon, Robyn; Lipscomb, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The home health care sector is a critical element in a pandemic influenza emergency response. Roughly 85% of the 1.5 million workers delivering in-home care to 7.6 million clients are low-wage paraprofessionals, mostly women, and disproportionately members of racial and ethnic minorities. Home health care workers' ability and willingness to respond during a pandemic depends on appropriate communication, training, and adequate protections, including influenza vaccination and respiratory protection. Preparedness planning should also include support for child care and transportation and help home health care workers protect their income and access to health care. We summarize findings from a national stakeholder meeting, which highlighted the need to integrate home health care employers, workers, community advocates, and labor unions into the planning process. PMID:19461108

  9. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  10. Supporting local planning and budgeting for maternal, neonatal and child health in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Responsibility for planning and delivery of health services in the Philippines is devolved to the local government level. Given the recognised need to strengthen capacity for local planning and budgeting, we implemented Investment Cases (IC) for Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) in three selected sub-national units: two poor, rural provinces and one highly-urbanised city. The IC combines structured problem-solving by local policymakers and planners to identify key health system constraints and strategies to scale-up critical MNCH interventions with a decision-support model to estimate the cost and impact of different scaling-up scenarios. Methods We outline how the initiative was implemented, the aspects that worked well, and the key limitations identified in the sub-national application of this approach. Results Local officials found the structured analysis of health system constraints helpful to identify problems and select locally appropriate strategies. In particular the process was an improvement on standard approaches that focused only on supply-side issues. However, the lack of data available at the local level is a major impediment to planning. While the majority of the strategies recommended by the IC were incorporated into the 2011 plans and budgets in the three study sites, one key strategy in the participating city was subsequently reversed in 2012. Higher level systemic issues are likely to have influenced use of evidence in plans and budgets and implementation of strategies. Conclusions Efforts should be made to improve locally-representative data through routine information systems for planning and monitoring purposes. Even with sound plans and budgets, evidence is only one factor influencing investments in health. Political considerations at a local level and issues related to decentralisation, influence prioritisation and implementation of plans. In addition to the strengthening of capacity at local level, a parallel process at

  11. Choosing among employer-sponsored health plans: what drives employee choices?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janet; Hadler, Nortin M; Ariely, Dan; Huber, Joel C; Emerick, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    To probe employee basis for choosing health plans. In a Web study, 337 employees from large private and public employers were asked to choose among health plans varying on several common dimensions. On per-dollar basis, respondents were more willing to spend $3 to $4 on out-of-pocket copayments than $1 on premiums. Nevertheless, sensitivity to monthly premium is greatest among those who are younger and cover only themselves, whereas sensitivity to the annual deductible is greatest among nonwhite families. Employees are facing a complicated choice and might be well-served by more information about the value of options under different likelihood scenarios.

  12. 76 FR 37207 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...This document contains amendments to interim final regulations implementing the requirements regarding internal claims and appeals and external review processes for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Affordable Care Act. These rules are intended to respond to feedback from a wide range of stakeholders on the interim final regulations and to assist plans and issuers in coming into full compliance with the law through an orderly and expeditious implementation process.

  13. Health human resource planning requires an effective staff retention policy.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Kent V

    2002-01-01

    Planning for health human resources requires us to think about the forces and factors that attract healthcare professionals to their jobs and keep them there. However, the forces for attracting healthcare employees to a job are not the same as those factors that keep them there. Without effective recruitment and retention policies for healthcare professionals, planning initiatives will continue to be ineffective.

  14. 76 FR 40457 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Eligibility for a Health Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Plan and Health Care Claim Status Transactions; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... Simplification: Adoption of Operating Rules for Eligibility for a Health Plan and Health Care Claim Status... rules for the health care industry and directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to ``adopt a...

  15. The Role of Publicly Funded Family Planning Sites In Health Insurance Enrollment.

    PubMed

    Yarger, Jennifer; Daniel, Sara; Biggs, M Antonia; Malvin, Jan; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-06-01

    Publicly funded family planning providers are well positioned to help uninsured individuals learn about health insurance coverage options and effectively navigate the enrollment process. Understanding how these providers are engaged in enrollment assistance and the challenges they face in providing assistance is important for maximizing their role in health insurance outreach and enrollment. In 2014, some 684 sites participating in California's family planning program were surveyed about their involvement in helping clients enroll in health insurance. Weighted univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine enrollment activities and perceived barriers to facilitating enrollment by site characteristics. Most family planning program sites provided eligibility screening (68%), enrollment education (77%), on-site enrollment assistance (55%) and referrals for off-site enrollment support (91%). The proportion of sites offering each type of assistance was highest among community clinics (83-96%), primary care and multispecialty sites (65-95%), Title X-funded sites (72-98%), sites with contracts to provide primary care services (64-93%) and sites using only electronic health records (66-94%). Commonly identified barriers to providing assistance were lack of staff time (reported by 52% of sites), lack of funding (47%), lack of physical space (34%) and lack of staff knowledge (33%); only 20% of sites received funding to support enrollment activities. Although there were significant variations among them, publicly funded family planning providers in California are actively engaged in health insurance enrollment. Supporting their vital role in enrollment could help in the achievement of universal health insurance coverage. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. Assessing quality of care for migraineurs: a model health plan measurement set.

    PubMed

    Leas, Brian F; Gagne, Joshua J; Goldfarb, Neil I; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Silberstein, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    Quality of care measures are increasingly important to health plans, purchasers, physicians, and patients. Appropriate measures can be used to assess quality and evaluate improvement and are necessary components of pay-for-performance programs. Despite the broad scope of activity in the development of quality measures, migraine headache has received little attention. Given the enormous costs associated with migraine, especially in terms of lost productivity and preventable health care utilization, health plans could gain from a structured approach to measuring the quality of migraine care their beneficiaries receive. A potential migraine quality measurement set was developed through a review of migraine care literature and guidelines, interviews with leaders in migraine care, health care purchasing, and managed care, and the assembly of an advisory board. The board discussed candidate measures and established consensus on a testable measurement set. Twenty measures were developed, focused primarily on diagnosis and utilization. Areas of utilization include physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and imaging. Use of both acute and preventive medications is included. More complex aspects of migraine care are also addressed, including triptan overuse, the relationship between acute and preventive medications, and follow-up after emergency department visits. The measures are currently being tested in health plans to assess their feasibility and value. A compelling case can be made for the development of migraine-specific quality measures for health plans. This effort to develop and test a starter set of measures should lead to new and innovative efforts to assess and improve quality of care for migraineurs.

  17. The Effect of Benefits, Premiums, and Health Risk on Health Plan Choice in the Medicare Program

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Adam; Dowd, Bryan E; Feldman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of Medicare+Choice (M+C) plan premiums and benefits and individual beneficiary characteristics on the probability of enrollment in a Medicare+Choice plan. Data Source Individual data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were combined with plan-level data from Medicare Compare. Study Design Health plan choices, including the Medicare+Choice/Fee-for-Service decision and the choice of plan within the M+C sector, were modeled using limited information maximum likelihood nested logit. Principal Findings Premiums have a significant effect on plan selection, with an estimated out-of-pocket premium elasticity of −0.134 and an insurer-perspective elasticity of −4.57. Beneficiaries are responsive to plan characteristics, with prescription drug benefits having the largest marginal effect. Sicker beneficiaries were more likely to choose plans with drug benefits and diabetics were more likely to pick plans with vision coverage. Conclusions Plan characteristics significantly impact beneficiaries' decisions to enroll in Medicare M+C plans and individuals sort themselves systematically into plans based on individual characteristics. PMID:15230931

  18. Developing Your Evaluation Plans: A Critical Component of Public Health Program Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S Rene; Snyder, Kimberly

    A program's infrastructure is often cited as critical to public health success. The Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) identifies evaluation as essential under the core component of engaged data. An evaluation plan is a written document that describes how to monitor and evaluate a program, as well as how to use evaluation results for program improvement and decision making. The evaluation plan clarifies how to describe what the program did, how it worked, and why outcomes matter. We use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) "Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health" as a guide for developing an evaluation plan. Just as using a roadmap facilitates progress on a long journey, a well-written evaluation plan can clarify the direction your evaluation takes and facilitate achievement of the evaluation's objectives.

  19. Management of Newer Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Commercial Health Plans

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance M.; Quinn, Amity E.; Merrick, Elizabeth; Stewart, Maureen T.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the US, many individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pay for their medications using private health insurance coverage. As in other drug classes, private insurers are actively seeking to influence utilization and costs, particularly for newer and costlier medications. The approaches that insurers use may have important effects on patients’ access to medications. This paper examines approaches (e.g., copayments, prior authorization, and step therapy) that commercial health plans are employing to manage newer medications used to treat ADHD and changes in approaches since 2003. Methods Data are from a nationally representative survey of commercial health plans in 60 market areas regarding alcohol, drug abuse and mental health services in 2010. Responses were obtained from 389 plans (89% response rate), reporting on 925 insurance products. For each of six branded ADHD medications, respondents were asked whether the plan covered the medication and if so, on what copayment tier each medication was placed, and whether it was subject to prior authorization or step therapy. Measures of management approach were constructed for each medication and for the group of medications. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to test for association of the management approach with various health plan characteristics. Findings There was considerable variation across these 6 medications in how tightly they were managed by health plans, with newer medications being subject to more stringent management. The proportion of insurance products relying solely on copay tiering to manage novel ADHD medications appears to have decreased since 2003. Less than half of insurance products (43%) managed these 6 medications solely by use of Tier 3/4 placement, and most of the remainder (48%) used other restrictions (with or without Tier 3/4 placement). The average insurance product restricted access to at least 3 of the 6 brand-only medications examined

  20. [The contradictions between the universal Unified Health System and the transfer of public funds to private health plans and insurances].

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ligia

    2008-01-01

    Trailing the whole group of trends and changes in the scenario of relations between the public and the private, this article analyses the effects of the rise in the rates of return of health plan operators and health insurance companies in 2007. Special attention is given to the segmentation of the system, the complaints about the naturalization of inequitable access to health services and to the depreciation of the original concepts of the Unified Health System. The study also gathers information regarding the production of knowledge about supplementary care with the intent to systemize the bases and methodological approaches adopted by a selected sub-group of scientific papers. Finally, the article develops conjectures and hypotheses with regard to possible associations between growth and stability of the health plan and insurance market and as refers to the nature of scientific production about this issue, taking into consideration the contradictions between the political and economical circuit in which the health plan and insurance companies are operating and the universality of the Brazilian Health System.

  1. The components of action planning and their associations with behavior and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lorig, Kate; Laurent, Diana D; Plant, Kathryn; Krishnan, Eswar; Ritter, Philip L

    2014-03-01

    Based on the works of Kiesler and Bandura, action plans have become important tools in patient self-management programs. One such program, shown effective in randomized trials, is the Internet Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. An implementation of this program, Healthy Living Canada, included detailed information on action plans and health-related outcome measures. Action plans were coded by type, and associations between action plans, confidence in completion and completion were examined. Numbers of Action Plans attempted and competed and completion rates were calculated for participants and compared to six-month changes in outcomes using regression models. Five of seven outcome measures significantly improved at six-months. A total of 1136 action plans were posted by 254 participants in 12 workshops (mean 3.9 out of 5 possible); 59% of action plans involved exercise, 16% food, and 14% role management. Confidence of completion was associated with completion. Action plan completion measures were associated with improvements in activity limitation, aerobic exercise, and self-efficacy. Baseline self-efficacy was associated with at least partial completion of action plans. Action planning appears to be an important component of self-management interventions, with successful completion associated with improved health and self-efficacy outcomes.

  2. [The consolidation of private health plans in Brazil: challenges for the regulator].

    PubMed

    Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the financial consolidation of Brazil's private health plan market warrants investigation, as this trend could enhance the power of large plans and affect the financing of the National Health System. From the standpoint of the political economics of this sector, while reflecting on the features of this consolidation, this paper discusses whether this more powerful market clout might require the State to adopt a more active stance, especially if it wishes to enforce the normative principles of the National Supplementary Health Regulator in order to protect consumers, ensure regulated competition and defend the public interest.

  3. The health educative role of the nurse in family planning.

    PubMed

    Kamel, W H; Kamel, N M; El-bindari, A K

    1971-12-01

    The role of the hospital nurse in family planning is discussed in light of a survey of 156 nurses who completed a family planning training course at the University of Alexandria, Egypt. Such a training course is very important since the nurse plays a key role in family planning counseling as a source of information and reassurance. Tabulation of the survey results showed 64.1% of the nurses had already participated in dissemination of family planning information. The vast majority responded that they benefited from the training. 79.5% knew where family planning services were offered, most citing obstetric hospitals. Only 75.6% said that they could contribute to information dissemination. This figure is distressing, for every nurse is a public health nurse, and her role in family planning is largely motivational. It is considered crucial that nurses be adequately trained in family planning and actively participate in informing and counseling the public.

  4. 78 FR 33157 - Incentives for Nondiscriminatory Wellness Programs in Group Health Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... business practice. A plan may also distinguish between beneficiaries based on, for example, their... participatory wellness programs and health-contingent wellness programs. Examples of participatory wellness... employees for attending a monthly, no-cost health education seminar. Examples of health-contingent wellness...

  5. Comprehensive health workforce planning: re-consideration of the primary health care approach as a tool for addressing the human resource for health crisis in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Munga, Michael A; Mwangu, Mughwira A

    2013-04-01

    Although the Human Resources for Health (HRH) crisis is apparently not new in the public health agenda of many countries, not many low and middle income countries are using Primary Health Care (PHC) as a tool for planning and addressing the crisis in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this paper is to appraise the inadequacies of the existing planning approaches in addressing the growing HRH crisis in resource limited settings. A descriptive literature review of selected case studies in middle and low income countries reinforced with the evidence from Tanzania was used. Consultations with experts in the field were also made. In this review, we propose a conceptual framework that describes planning may only be effective if it is structured to embrace the fundamental principles of PHC. We place the core principles of PHC at the centre of HRH planning as we acknowledge its major perspective that the effectiveness of any public health policy depends on the degree to which it envisages to address public health problems multi-dimensionally and comprehensively. The proponents of PHC approach in planning have identified inter-sectoral action and collaboration and comprehensive approach as the two basic principles that policies and plans should accentuate in order to make them effective in realizing their pre-determined goals. Two conclusions are made: Firstly, comprehensive health workforce planning is not widely known and thus not frequently used in HRH planning or analysis of health workforce issues; Secondly, comprehensiveness in HRH planning is important but not sufficient in ensuring that all the ingredients of HRH crisis are eliminated. In order to be effective and sustainable, the approach need to evoke three basic values namely effectiveness, efficiency and equity.

  6. Role of GIS in social sector planning: can developing countries benefit from the examples of primary health care (PHC) planning in Britain?

    PubMed

    Ishfaq, Mohammad; Lodhi, Bilal Khan

    2012-04-01

    Social sector planning requires rational approaches where community needs are identified by referring to relative deprivation among localities and resources are allocated to address inequalities. Geographical information system (GIS) has been widely argued and used as a base for rational planning for equal resource allocation in social sectors around the globe. Devolution of primary health care is global strategy that needs pains taking efforts to implement it. GIS is one of the most important tools used around the world in decentralization process of primary health care. This paper examines the scope of GIS in social sector planning by concentration on primary health care delivery system in Pakistan. The work is based on example of the UK's decentralization process and further evidence from US. This paper argues that to achieve benefits of well informed decision making to meet the communities' needs GIS is an essential tool to support social sector planning and can be used without any difficulty in any environment. There is increasing trend in the use of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in Pakistan with ample internet connectivity which provides well established infrastructure in Pakistan to implement GIS for health care, however there is need for change in attitude towards empowering localities especially with reference to decentralization of decision making. This paper provides GIS as a tool for primary health care planning in Pakistan as a starting point in defining localities and preparing locality profiles for need identification that could help developing countries in implementing the change.

  7. Planning Adolescent Mental Health Promotion Programming in Saskatoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushon, Jennifer; Waldner, Cheryl; Scott, Christina; Neudorf, Cordell

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed associations between key demographic risk factors and the outcome of depressed mood in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to inform the planning and implementation of mental health promotion programming in schools. Methods: In the 2008/2009 school year, 3,958 students from grades 5 through 8 from 76 elementary schools completed…

  8. The Face of Wellness: aspirational vision of health, renewing health behavior change process and balanced portfolio approach to planning change strategies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Health promotion needs to be made more practical and more memorable so that practitioners are not confused or overwhelmed by the theoretical and technical aspects of assuring the effectiveness of programming efforts. In this edition of The Art of Health Promotion the Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Health Promotion presents a planning strategy consisting of an aspirational model of health, a renewing behavior change process and a portfolio balancing approach to strategy planning.

  9. Delayed and forgone care for families with chronic conditions in high-deductible health plans.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Alison A; Soumerai, Stephen B; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Gay, Charlene; Lieu, Tracy A

    2012-09-01

    High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) are an increasingly common strategy to contain health care costs. Individuals with chronic conditions are at particular risk for increased out-of-pocket costs in HDHPs and resulting cost-related underuse of essential health care. To evaluate whether families with chronic conditions in HDHPs have higher rates of delayed or forgone care due to cost, compared with those in traditional health insurance plans. This mail and phone survey used multiple logistic regression to compare family-level rates of reporting delayed/forgone care in HDHPs vs. traditional plans. We selected families with children that had at least one member with a chronic condition. Families had employer-sponsored insurance in a Massachusetts health plan and >12 months of enrollment in an HDHP or a traditional plan. The primary outcome was report of any delayed or forgone care due to cost (acute care, emergency department visits, chronic care, checkups, or tests) for adults or children during the prior 12 months. Respondents included 208 families in HDHPs and 370 in traditional plans. Membership in an HDHP and lower income were each independently associated with higher probability of delayed/forgone care due to cost. For adult family members, the predicted probability of delayed/forgone care due to cost was higher in HDHPs than in traditional plans [40.0% vs 15.1% among families with incomes <400% of the federal poverty level (FPL) and 16.0% vs 4.8% among those with incomes ≥400% FPL]. Similar associations were observed for children. Among families with chronic conditions, reporting of delayed/forgone care due to cost is higher for both adults and children in HDHPs than in traditional plans. Families with lower incomes are also at higher risk for delayed/forgone care.

  10. Elements of progressive patient care in the Yale Health Plan HMO.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Rowe, D S; Goldberg, B; Seigel, E

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the use of intermediate care beds in the intermediate care facility (ICF) of the Yale Health Plan, a prepaid group practice plan for students and an enrolled non-student population, indicate that the ICF may be a possible model for other health maintenance organizations. The ICF, with 30 beds in active use, is located in the Yale health center. Approximately one-third of the ICF patients would have been admitted to the affiliated short-term general hospital if the ICF did not exist. The plan's medical staff also has the option of transferring patients between the affiliated hospital and the ICF, depending on which institution is most appropriate for the patient's needs. A comparison of the levels of care provided in the ICF with those presented in selected articles from the progressive patient care literature revealed that the ICF is not only providing intermediate care but several other classic elements of progressive patient care -self care, continuing care, minimal care, and partial care.

  11. Elements of progressive patient care in the Yale Health Plan HMO.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, D A; Rowe, D S; Goldberg, B; Seigel, E

    1975-01-01

    The results of a study of the use of intermediate care beds in the intermediate care facility (ICF) of the Yale Health Plan, a prepaid group practice plan for students and an enrolled non-student population, indicate that the ICF may be a possible model for other health maintenance organizations. The ICF, with 30 beds in active use, is located in the Yale health center. Approximately one-third of the ICF patients would have been admitted to the affiliated short-term general hospital if the ICF did not exist. The plan's medical staff also has the option of transferring patients between the affiliated hospital and the ICF, depending on which institution is most appropriate for the patient's needs. A comparison of the levels of care provided in the ICF with those presented in selected articles from the progressive patient care literature revealed that the ICF is not only providing intermediate care but several other classic elements of progressive patient care -self care, continuing care, minimal care, and partial care. PMID:805444

  12. Employee Choice of a High-Deductible Health Plan across Multiple Employers

    PubMed Central

    Lave, Judith R; Men, Aiju; Day, Brian T; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuting

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with selecting a high-deductible health plan (HDHP) rather than a preferred provider plan (PPO) and to examine switching and market segmentation after initial selection. Data Sources/Study Setting Claims and benefit information for 2005–2007 from nine employers in western Pennsylvania first offering HDHP in 2006. Study Design We examined plan growth over time, used logistic regression to determine factors associated with choosing an HDHP, and examined the distribution of healthy and sick members across plan types. Data Extraction We linked employees with their dependents to determine family-level variables. We extracted risk scores, covered charges, employee age, and employee gender from claims data. We determined census-level race, education, and income information. Principal Findings Health status, gender, race, and education influenced the type of individual and family policies chosen. In the second year the HDHP was offered, few employees changed plans. Risk segmentation between HDHPs and PPOs existed, but it did not increase. Conclusions When given a choice, those who are healthier are more likely to select an HDHP leading to risk segmentation. Risk segmentation did not increase in the second year that HDHPs were offered. PMID:20849558

  13. HMO market penetration and costs of employer-sponsored health plans.

    PubMed

    Baker, L C; Cantor, J C; Long, S H; Marquis, M S

    2000-01-01

    Using two employer surveys, we evaluate the role of increased health maintenance organization (HMO) market share in containing costs of employer-sponsored coverage. Total costs for employer health plans are about 10 percent lower in markets in which HMOs' market share is above 45 percent than they are in markets with HMO enrollments of below 25 percent. This is the result of lower premiums for HMOs than for non-HMO plans, as well as the competitive effect of HMOs that leads to lower non-HMO premiums for employers that continue to offer these benefits. Slower growth in premiums in areas with high HMO enrollments suggests that expanded HMO market share may also lower the long-run growth in costs.

  14. Nearly half of families in high-deductible health plans whose members have chronic conditions face substantial financial burden.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Alison A; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Soumerai, Stephen B; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Gay, Charlene; Lieu, Tracy A

    2011-02-01

    High-deductible health plans-typically with deductibles of at least $1,000 per individual and $2,000 per family-require greater enrollee cost sharing than traditional plans. But they also may provide more affordable premiums and may be the lowest-cost, or only, coverage option for many families with members who are chronically ill. We surveyed families with chronic conditions in high-deductible plans and families in traditional plans to compare health care-related financial burden-such as experiencing difficulty paying medical or basic bills or having to set up payment plans. Almost half (48 percent) of the families with chronic conditions in high-deductible plans reported health care-related financial burden, compared to 21 percent of families in traditional plans. Almost twice as many lower-income families in high-deductible plans spent more than 3 percent of income on health care expenses as lower-income families in traditional plans (53 percent versus 29 percent). As health reform efforts advance, policy makers must consider how to modify high-deductible plans to reduce the financial burden for families with chronic conditions.

  15. Gaps, conflicts, and consensus in the ethics statements of professional associations, medical groups, and health plans.

    PubMed

    Berkman, N D; Wynia, M K; Churchill, L R

    2004-08-01

    Patients today interact with physicians, physician groups, and health plans, each of which may follow distinct ethical guidelines. We systematically compared physician codes of ethics with ethics policies at physician group practices and health plans, using the 1998-99 policies of 38 organisations-18 medical associations (associations), nine physician group practices (groups), and 12 health plans (plans)-selected using random and stratified purposive sampling. A clinician and a social scientist independently abstracted each document, using a 397-item health care ethics taxonomy; a reconciled abstraction form was used for analysis. This study focuses on ethics policies regarding professional obligation towards patients, resource allocation, and care for the vulnerable in society. A majority in all three groups mention "fiduciary obligations" of one sort or another, but associations generally address physician/patient relations but not health plan obligations, while plans rarely endorse physicians' obligations of advocacy, beneficence, and non-maleficence. Except for occasional mentions of cost effectiveness or efficiency, ethical considerations in resource allocation rarely arise in the ethics policies of all three organisational types. Very few associations, groups, or plans specifically endorse obligations to vulnerable populations. With some important exceptions, we found that the ethics policies of associations, groups, and plans are narrowly focused and often ignore important ethical concerns for society, such as resource allocation and care for vulnerable populations. More collaborative work is needed to build integrated sets of ethical standards that address the aims and responsibilities of the major stakeholders in health care delivery.

  16. National Institutes of Health Research Plan on Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    O’Mara, Ann; Rowland, Julia H.; Greenwell, Thomas N.; Wiggs, Cheri L.; Fleg, Jerome; Joseph, Lyndon; McGowan, Joan; Panagis, James S.; Washabaugh, Charles; Peng, Grace C. Y.; Bray, Rosalina; Cernich, Alison N.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Marden, Sue; Michel, Mary Ellen; Nitkin, Ralph; Quatrano, Louis; Spong, Catherine Y.; Shekim, Lana; Jones, Teresa L. Z.; Juliano-Bult, Denise; Panchinson, David M.; Chen, Daofen; Jakeman, Lyn; Knebel, Ann; Tully, Lois A.; Chan, Leighton; Damiano, Diane; Tian, Biao; McInnes, Pamela; Khalsa, Partap; Reider, Eve; Shurtleff, David; Elwood, William; Ballard, Rachel; Ershow, Abby G.; Begg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public. This article provides an overview of the need for this research plan, an outline of its development, and a listing of six priority areas for research. The NIH is committed to working with all stakeholder communities engaged in rehabilitation research to track progress made on these priorities and to work to advance the science of medical rehabilitation. This article is being published almost simultaneously in the following six journals: American Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Physical Therapy, and Rehabilitation Psychology. Citation information is as follows: NIH Medical Rehabilitation Coordinating Committee. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;97(4):404—407. PMID:28499003

  17. Health Care Transition Planning among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Casey; Jones, Barbara; Schonwald, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Improving the health care transition process for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critically important. This study was designed to examine the overall national transition core outcome among youth with ASD and each of the component measures of health care transition planning. Fewer than 10% of youth with ASD meet the national transition…

  18. Family planning: an integral part of mental health care.

    PubMed

    Muhuhu, P

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems in the provision of maternal health care to mentally ill women; delineates problems faced in terms of health care, and ways in which these problems can be solved. The pregnant woman who is also emotionally ill faces some special problems during pregnancy. Emotional reactions to pregnancy, present in all women, may be exacerbated to dangerous levels. Also, the effect of psychotropic drugs on the fetus is a matter of concern, since long term treatment regimens have been found to negatively affect the fetus. Issues of social concern also arise, having to do with the frequent and unplanned pregnancies which often typify the mentally ill woman. In this regard, selection of a contraceptive method for the mentally ill requires careful thought because of the side effects brought on by the combination of oral contraceptives with certain psychotropic medication. The need for family planning education in psychiatric settings and for effective identification of mentally ill individuals during the general admission process are highlighted. As it is, traditional admissions procedures are failing to detect mentally ill maternal patients. Support groups in psychiatric settings have been found to be effective in maintaining motivation towards family planning among women, as well as in answering concerns regarding emotional problems. It is suggested that a workshop or a series of inservice classes would be of great benefit in alerting personnel to the special needs of this category of patients and in promoting the integration of family planning with mental health services.

  19. Quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Fikru; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Megerssa, Berhane

    2013-11-01

    Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted to assess the quality of family planning services in primary health centers of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted from March 1(st)-25(th), 2011 among family planning clients of government primary health care centers in southwest Ethiopia. Exit interview of 301 family planning clients identified through systematic random sampling technique was carried out using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Availability of resources was checked using provider interview and inventory checklist. Moreover, a total of 150 consultation sessions were observed using checklist. Descriptive statistics and linear regression coefficients were generated to meet the objective of the study. There was a shortage of some medical equipment, trained staffs, and information education and communication materials (IEC) in all of the family planning clinics. The mean waiting time at the service delivery points and consultation duration were 16.4 and 10.5 minutes, respectively. The providers used at least one information education and communication material in 33.3% of the consultation sessions. The overall satisfaction score was 8.64. Clients' perception on adequacy of information during consultation (β=0.24; ( 95%CI=0.02-0.16) ease of getting the clinic site, short waiting time (β=0.17; 95%CI=0.15-029) and educational level (β=0.09; 95%CI =0.09-0.29) were significantly associated with overall satisfaction. The findings of this study showed that there was lack of critical resources for the provision of quality family planning services in all of the primary health care centers included in the study. This has affected important aspects of

  20. Health Planning in the United States and the Decline of Public-interest Policymaking

    PubMed Central

    Melhado, Evan M

    2006-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, health planning formed a major theme of American health policy. Planners aimed to improve health services and make them broadly available while using resources efficiently. This article provides a history, both intellectual and political, of the origins of planning, its rise, and—in the face of mounting problems—its decline. The story also illustrates broader changes in the culture of policymaking in American health care. From the Progressive Era through the 1960s, reform-minded experts in health worked to advance the public interest. Thereafter, they increasingly left behind public-interest ideals and their underlying extramarket values in favor of organizing and improving health care markets. Whatever the deficiencies of traditional policymaking may be, this study suggests the need to resurrect extramarket values in health policy. PMID:16771822