The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…
Health promotion often presents a tension between "bottom up" and "top down" programming. "Bottom-up" is associated with community empowerment and begins on issues of concern to particular groups or individuals and regards an increase in overall control as an important element of the health outcome. "Top-down" is associated with disease prevention efforts and begins by seeking to involve beneficiaries on issues defined by health agencies. It regards improvements in health behaviours or bio-medical indicators as the important outcome and community empowerment is viewed simply as a means to the end of health behaviour change. The tension between these two approaches is not unresolvable, and this article presents a framework, the "parallel-track", intended to assist health promotion practitioners to systematically accommodate community empowerment goals within "top-down" health programming.
Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657
Parkerson, George R., Jr.; And Others
The Duke University School of Medicine conducts a health testing and promotion program to increase its students' awareness of their own health. The long-term goal is to prevent them from becoming impaired, as physicians, by emotional problems or addiction to alcohol or other drugs. (Author/MSE)
Exceptional Parent, 2011
This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…
Fielding, J E; Breslow, L
A survey of California employers with more than 100 employees at one or more sites was undertaken to determine: 1) the nature and extent of health promotion activities; 2) plans for continuation and/or expansion of these activities; 3) plans for initiation of new activities; and 4) the relationship between reported health promotion activities and other characteristics of employers. Of 511 employers with whom interviews were attempted, 49 possible respondents could not be reached and 38 respondents refused to be interviewed, leaving 424 or 83 per cent. Almost one-half of the sites where interviews were conducted had fewer than 200 employees. A total of 332 (78.3 per cent) of employers offered one or more health promotion activities. The most frequent activities provided were accident prevention (64.9 per cent) and CPR (52.8 per cent) with other frequent programs including alcohol/drug abuse (18.6 per cent), mental health counseling (18.4 per cent), stress management (13.0 per cent), fitness (11.6 per cent), hypertension screening (10.1 per cent), and smoking cessation (8.3 per cent). Employers with at least one activity averaged 2.8 activities. The likelihood of having health promotion activities increased with company size. Establishment of new programs appeared to accelerate rapidly in recent years. PMID:6837818
Goetzel, Ron Z; Shechter, David; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Stapleton, David C; Lapin, Pauline J; McGinnis, J Michael; Gordon, Catherine R; Breslow, Lester
The impact of an aging population on escalating US healthcare costs is influenced largely by the prevalence of chronic disease in this population. Consequently, preventing or postponing disease onset among the elderly has become a crucial public health issue. Fortunately, much of the total burden of disease is attributable to conditions that are preventable. In this paper, we address whether well-designed health promotion programs can prevent illness, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life. Furthermore, we assess evidence that these programs have the potential to reduce healthcare utilization and related expenditures for the Medicare program. We hypothesize that seniors who reduce their modifiable health risks can forestall disability, reduce healthcare utilization, and save Medicare money. We end with a discussion of a new Senior Risk Reduction Demonstration, which will be initiated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2007, to test whether risk reduction programs developed in the private sector can achieve health improvements among seniors and a positive return on investment for the Medicare program. PMID:18044084
Rost, Kathryn; And Others
A recruitment effort aimed at utility company employees enrolled 64 percent (679) in a health promotion program. Results demonstrate that sociodemographic predictors of recruitment are almost a mirror image of employee participation in worksite health promotion programs. (JOW)
Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others
As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…
Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254
Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.
Grossmeier, Jessica; Terry, Paul E; Cipriotti, Aldo; Burtaine, Jeffrey E
Program evaluation is generally recognized as a "best practice" activity for worksite health promotion programs. The importance of "best practice" worksite health promotion programming is increasing with the stakes anticipated by health care reform. Volvo's health promotion activities are used as an example of "best practice" programming with a particular focus on creating a dashboard of evaluation metrics that can meet the accountability needs of senior management. The role of a comprehensive evaluation framework using nine components is explored along with reasonable expectations for program outcomes. Finally, stakeholder utility from the evaluation approach is explored.
McKenzie, James F.; And Others
The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)
Downey, Ann M.; And Others
"Heart Smart," a research-based health promotion program for elementary schools, was tested in four elementary schools. The program's objectives, strategies, curriculum, and other components are described. (Author/MT)
Michaels, Carol Noel; Greene, Amanda Marie
Worksite wellness programs are important interventions to protect and promote employee health. They help reduce direct and indirect health care costs, absenteeism, and presenteeism; avoid illness or injury; and improve the quality of work life and morale. This Tool introduces key concepts and strategic tips for planning workplace-based wellness programs rather than individual health promotion events, while highlighting organizational change and development theories central to introducing and implementing effective proactive worksite wellness programs.
Herbert, Patrick C.; Lohrmann, David K.
Health promotion programs for school staff are an overlooked and underused resource that can reduce overweight and obesity among teachers and other staff members. They can also reduce staff absenteeism, increase productivity, reduce costs associated with health care and disability, and foster a climate that promotes good health schoolwide. An…
Casey, Meghan M; Payne, Warren R; Eime, Rochelle M; Brown, Sue J
The involvement of the sport and recreation sector as a setting for health promotion is a new strategy implemented by health policy makers and strategic planners. Strategies to promote and sustain health promotion activities are important considering the risk that programs may cease after initial funding ends. This study explored the factors affecting the sustainability of a sport- and recreation-based health promotion program. A stratified sampling method was used to select four of the nine Regional Sports Assemblies (RSAs) that delivered a state-wide health promotion program funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation in Australia. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with four Executive Officers (EOs) and focus group discussions with their Boards of Management. A sustainability checklist with pre-specified dimensions (e.g. organisational setting, broader community environment, and program design and implementation) guided data collection and analysis. The results showed that the organisational setting and the broader community environment supported program institutionalisation; whilst the design and implementation of the program worked against institutionalisation. The capacity of the organisations to generate new funds for the program was limited; the relationship between the central funding organisation and the Boards of Management was weak; and the program did not support the retention of staff. The engagement of sport and recreation organisations has potential to facilitate health promotion and public health. To enhance organisational capacity and achieve program sustainability, it is important that organisational processes, structures, and resources that support long-term health promotion practice are effectively and efficiently planned and managed.
Glasgow, Russell E.; Terborg, James R.
Surveys literature on worksite health promotion programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews findings on health-risk appraisal, hypertension control, smoking cessation, weight reduction, exercise, and programs addressing multiple risk factors. Discusses current knowledge, highlights exemplary studies, and identifies problems and…
Feldman, Robert H. L.
Behavioral, educational, and organizational methods for improving the degree to which workers comply with the objectives of industrial health promotion programs are discussed. Compliance can be enhanced through: (1) better program location and scheduling; (2) increased worker satisfaction; (3) use of psychological and educational techniques; and…
Herbert, Patrick C.; Lohrmann, David K.; Hall, Cougar
Health promotion programs for school staff are an overlooked and under-utilized resource that can lead to reductions in overweight and obesity among teachers and other staff members if implemented properly. In addition to increasing the overall staff wellness, boosting morale, increasing productivity, improving academic achievement, providing…
Cushon, Jennifer; Waldner, Cheryl; Scott, Christina; Neudorf, Cordell
Background: We assessed associations between key demographic risk factors and the outcome of depressed mood in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to inform the planning and implementation of mental health promotion programming in schools. Methods: In the 2008/2009 school year, 3,958 students from grades 5 through 8 from 76 elementary schools completed…
Marks, Beth; Sisirak, Jasmina; Heller, Tamar
Adults with developmental disabilities are at significant risk for health problems. Effective health promotion can improve outcomes--and that's why adult day and residential agencies, schools, and other organizations need this invaluable program development guide. An urgent call to action and a start-to-finish framework for health promotion, this…
Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi
OBJECTIVE Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil’s health system. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. RESULTS Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil. PMID:25372175
The Tanzania Media Women's Association (TAMWA) is a nongovernmental organization of female journalists who wish to better the status of Tanzanian women via the mass media, particularly radio and television. Their main objective is to promote and disseminate information on women's health. 51% of the population of Tanzania are women. These women are the main producers of food and cash crops. Women, even during pregnancy, work 18 hours a day in the field; men work 3 to 6 hours. Since male children are given preference for food, girls are often underdeveloped when they reach puberty and about 80% of pregnant Tanzanian women are anemic. Health programs are geared for mothers only. TAMWA uses mainstream media to remedy these problems. Mazungumza baada ya habari, a 5-minute editorial program on Radio Tanzania, is often used to discuss women's issues. Sauti ya Siti, a magazine, is produced by TAMWA to educate women about health issues and strategies to improve their daily lives. Brochures containing information on reproductive health are distributed to villages, schools, and colleges. In association with the Medical Women's Association of Tanzania (MEWATA), TAMWA holds an annual (May 28) community meeting of women, experts, and politicians to discuss problems in women's health and possible solutions. The results of these meetings are later published by TAMWA. An ongoing research program monitors the incidence of rape, abortion, maternal mortality, and other issues of interest. A major review of laws affecting reproductive health is underway. Since the media is male oriented and prohibited from taking an assertive public policy role, traditional structures need to be challenged to advance the status of women in Africa. Public opinion, as well as the law, must change.
Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie
Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…
Health-promotion in the workplace has existed for numerous years. However, the availability of health-promotion programs offered in institutions of higher education has seemed to lag behind other industries such as business. The purpose of this survey research project was to identify specific components of health-promotion programs within NCAA…
Gross, Sandra M; Cinelli, Bethann
Although research indicates that school meal programs contribute to improved academic performance and healthier eating behaviors for students who participate, fewer than 60% of students choose the National School Lunch Program or School Breakfast Program. School meal programs have a difficult time competing with foods that are marketed to young people through sophisticated advertising campaigns. Youth's preferences for fast foods, soft drinks, and salty snacks; mixed messages sent by school personnel; school food preparation and serving space limitations; inadequate meal periods; and lack of education standards for school foodservice directors challenge school meal programs as well. A coordinated school health program offers a framework for meeting these challenges and provides children and adolescents with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthful eating. This article identifies challenges facing school foodservice directors in delivering healthful meals and acquaints dietetics professionals with the coordinated school health program to be used as a tool for addressing unhealthful weight gain and promoting healthful eating.
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; Kotejoshyer, Rajashree; Fleishman, Jane; Henning, Robert; Punnett, Laura
Nursing home employees experience high physical and psychosocial workloads, resulting in poor health outcomes. An occupational health/health promotion program, designed to facilitate employee participation, was initiated in three nursing homes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate facilitators and barriers of the program after 3-year implementation. Focus groups with employees and in-depth interviews with top and middle managers were conducted. The Social Ecological Model was used to organize the evaluation. Facilitators and barriers were reported from both managers' and employees' perspectives, and were categorized as intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, and corporate level. Management support, financial resources, and release time for participation were identified as the three most important factors. Supports from multiple levels including both human and environment, and managers and employees, are important for a successful participatory occupational health/health promotion program. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 34-42.].
Kennedy, Betty M.; Ryan, Donna H.; Johnson, William D.; Harsha, David W.; Newton, Robert L.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Allen, H. Raymond
Preventing weight gain rather than treating recognized obesity is an important economic and public health response to the growing levels of obesity nationwide. Community centers offer potential sites for community health promotion programs targeting African Americans. In this paper, results from a pilot health promotion program at a community center are reported. The purpose of this 12-month pilot program was to improve diet and increase physical activity to prevent weight gain in African American adults by delivering a lifestyle intervention. Fifty-one African American adults were randomized into two groups: lifestyle intervention or financial counseling, and 73% completed the program. At the end of 12 months, weight for all participants was maintained from baseline to completion with no significant differences between the groups. Both lifestyle intervention and financial counseling groups were approximately 87% food secure with improvements observed in self-esteem and total quality of life scores. PMID:25898217
Cornish, James P.
Describes a pilot program designed to prepare models for health promotion and disease prevention through participation in a planned program for the expressed purpose of affecting improvement in the health and health promotion acuity of laboratory professionals, with a plan to expand the concept for use by other hospital employees, and the…
Peterson, M; Dunnagan, T
This study assessed the impact of participation in a health promotion program and engagement in healthy behaviors on job satisfaction. A survey response rate of 70% (n = 1,283) was obtained at a northern state university with an established worksite health promotion program. Significant differences in job satisfaction were obtained by education level, job classification, marital status, dependents, and regular exercise behaviors. No differences in job satisfaction were obtained by health promotion program involvement or any other health behavior other than regular exercise. Results suggest that health promotion programs do not significantly impact job satisfaction. Rather, job design and the psychosocial aspects of the work environment may be more influential in improving job satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, organizations attempting to improve employee health should provide health promotion programs and address the job itself. To improve job satisfaction, attention to the job itself is required.
Department of Defense DIRECTIVEAD-A269 638 , , AD-A29 638March 11, 1986 IIIIii!IN 111111111,11 Ii1111,111111[NUMBER 1010.10 SUBJECT: Health Promotion ...34 March 13, 1985 INC A. URPOSE SThis Directive establishes a health promotion policy within the Department of Defense to improve and maintain military...civilian employees. C. DEFINITIONS 1. Health Promotion . Any combination of health education and related organizational, social, economic or health care
Castro, Felipe G.; Jichaku, Patrick
The Lifestyle Management Project is a health promotion project and research study conducted in the spring of 1984 at five Los Angeles junior college campuses. Its goal was to increase knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CHD) risk factors among 400 to 2000 junior college students in each campus. This was done via five risk factor activities: blood…
Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L
This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.
Whisenant, Debra; Cortes, Cyndi; Hill, John
Obesity and related chronic diseases are on the rise in the United States. At the same time, 69% of Americans are religious, while 40% attend church regularly. This study evaluated the health benefits of two different biblically-based health promotion programs offered through rural and metropolitan churches with varying resources. Participants in both programs experienced weight loss and positive health changes, supporting that churches can be an effective way to promote health in America.
Massey, Marilyn S.
This Digest examines how Comprehensive School Health Programs (CSHPs) may promote stress management in children and adolescents. CSHPs contain four key elements. The first element, community participation and focus, can be achieved through school health newsletters, health fairs, local newspaper, radio, and television promotions, and guest…
Tanaka, Nobuko; Miyoshi, Miki
In Japan, the present school lunch program has been implemented under the "School Lunch Act" enacted in 1954. The main purpose of the school lunch program is to promote healthy development of the minds and bodies of school children. Later, "The School Lunch Act" was revised in 2008 and its aim was changed to "promoting Shokuiku". As of May 2009, approximately 10 million school children participate in the school lunch program. This program itself is an educational activity. School children are responsible for serving lunch and clearing the dishes. They could also learn proper manners, by having meals together with classmates. Furthermore, understanding of balanced diet and food culture can be enhanced through learning the menu of each meal. Recently, as eating disorders and obesity increase among adults and school children, there is rising concern on development of lifestyle-related diseases. Under this circumstance, the Basic Law on Shokuiku was enacted in 2005. Besides, in order to enhance Shokuiku to school children, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology established the Diet and Nutrition Teacher System in April 2007. It is reported that, in those schools with Diet and Nutrition Teachers, a positive impact has been observed in terms of awareness and interest in diet among teachers and guardians. It is also reported that proportion of children skipping breakfast has decreased, and quality of life has been improved. In this way, the Japanese school lunch program system is essential for fostering healthy mind and bodies for the next generation.
This Issue Brief describes employers' efforts to contain health expenditures through demand management programs. These programs are designed to reduce utilization by focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Demand management includes work site health promotion, wellness programs, and access management. Work site health promotion is a comprehensive approach to improving health and includes awareness, health education, behavioral change, and organizational health initiatives. Wellness programs usually include stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, back care, health screenings, nutrition education, work place safety, prenatal and well baby care, CPR and first aid classes, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). These programs are often viewed positively by workers and can have long-term benefits for employers above and beyond health care cost containment. Demand management can benefit employers by increasing productivity, employee retention, and employee morale and by reducing turnover, absenteeism, future medical claims, and ultimately expenditures on health care. Even though a growing number of employers are offering wellness programs, only 37 percent of full-time workers employed in medium and large private establishments were eligible for wellness programs by 1993. However, a recent survey found that 88 percent of major employers have introduced some form of health promotion, disease prevention, or early intervention initiative to encourage healthy lifestyles among their salaried employees. Distinctions must be drawn between short- and long-term strategies. Demand management can be thought of as a short-term strategy when the focus of the program is on creating more appropriate and efficient health care utilization. Disease prevention is characterized by longer-term health improvement objectives. Whether the purpose is to reduce utilization in the short term or in the long term, the ultimate goal remains the same: to reduce health
How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259
Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A
The field of worksite health promotion has moved toward the development and testing of comprehensive programs that target health behaviors with interventions operating at multiple levels of influence. Yet, observational and process evaluation studies indicate that such programs are challenging for worksites to implement effectively. Research has identified several organizational factors that promote or inhibit effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. The model is adapted from theory and research on the implementation of complex innovations in manufacturing, education and health care settings. The article uses the Working Well Trial to illustrate the model's theoretical constructs. Although the article focuses on comprehensive worksite health promotion programs, the conceptual model may also apply to other types of complex health promotion programs. An organization-level theory of the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.
Ferreira, Marcos Santos; Castiel, Luis David; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida
This article aims to discuss how the ambiguity of health promotion occurs in one physical activity institutional program. Firstly, different approaches to health promotion are presented as embodiments of such ambiguities. Then, after a brief discussion about manifestations of such ambiguity in everyday media coverage, we analyze the Agita São Paulo Program, regarded by the World Health Organization as an example of health promotion initiative. The conclusion is that, in spite of being under the umbrella of the so-called new health promotion movement, the Agita São Paulo Program is based upon behavioral/conservative approaches of health promotion because it demonizes sedentarism, blames its followers and supports its strategies in terms of behavioral changes as a way of reducing epidemiologic risks, in spite of social, economic and cultural determinants.
Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Snoijer, Mirjam; de Kok, Brenda P.H.; van Vilsteren, Jeroen; Hofstetter, Hedwig
Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at management, team, and individual level targeting self-management to perform healthy behaviors: a kick-off session, vitality training sessions, workshops, individual coaching, and intervision. Outcome measures were collected using questionnaires, health checks, and sickness absence data at baseline, after the intervention and at 10 months follow-up. For analysis linear and generalized mixed models were used. Results: Vitality, work performance, sickness absence, and self-management significantly improved. Good organizational support and involved supervisors were significantly associated with lower sickness absence. Conclusions: Including all organizational levels and focusing on increasing self-management provided promising results for improving vitality, health, and work-related outcomes. PMID:27136605
Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don; Keatley, Joanne; Nguyen, Hongmai; Sugano, Eiko
Transgender women are at high risk for HIV, substance abuse, and mental health problems. We describe a health promotion intervention program tailored to transgender women in San Francisco. The program creates a safe space for providing transgender-sensitive education about HIV risk reduction, substance abuse prevention, and general health promotion. Transgender health educators conduct workshops and make referrals to appropriate substance abuse treatment programs and other services in the community. Evaluation findings indicate that this community-tailored intervention may be an effective way to reach transgender women and reduce sexual risk behaviors, depression, and perceived barriers to substance abuse treatment.
Beamish, Nicola; Cannan, Philippa; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Matthews, Allison; Spiranovic, Caroline; Briggs, Kate; Kirkby, Kenneth; Mobsby, Caroline; Daniels, Brett
This article presents results of an evaluation of an online Youth Ambassador (YA) program designed to promote internet resources for mental health in an adolescent population. Results suggest that an online YA program delivered in school is useful in improving mental health awareness for workshop participants. (Contains 1 table.)
Golaszewski, Thomas; And Others
An evaluation instrument, DataPac, was developed and pilot-tested to assess the efficacy of corporate health promotion programs. This article reports results of a study to evaluate the DataPac questionnaire for construct validity, criterion validity, and stability reliability. Implications for worksite health programs are discussed. (IAH)
Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha
This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p < .05) predictors of self-assessed health, included perceived control to initiate, competence to carry out, and the organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation.
Hardison-Moody, Annie; Dunn, Carolyn; Hall, David; Jones, Lorelei; Newkirk, Jimmy; Thomas, Cathy
This article examines the role of multi-level partnerships in implementing Faithful Families Eating Smart and Moving More, a faith-based health promotion program that works with low-resource faith communities in North Carolina. This program incorporates a nine-lesson individual behavior change program in concert with policy and environmental…
Evans, Steven W.; Mullett, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D.; Franz, Kimberly
Assessed the feasibility of the Australian MindMatters program, a whole school mental health promotion program for application in the United States (U.S.). Forty-two participants representing school and community stakeholder groups from four U.S. communities (urban, rural, suburban, small town) evaluated the program for application in their…
Goodman, Robert M.; And Others
Responses from 322 (71%) health promotion program administrators tested a level of institutionalization scale. Results support four factors for routinization of program in each subsystem (production, maintenance, support, management) and four on degree of program saturation in subsystems. Routinization correlated more highly with program…
Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel
Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a
George, Melissa W; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Heather L; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D
The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program.
George, Melissa W.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Heather L.; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D.
The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program. PMID:24297005
Fisher, Shirley P.; Fisher, Michele M.
An evaluation of a health promotion program for employees at a New Jersey state college assessed the physical fitness and exercise program with educational components. Comparisons of experimental and control subjects indicated significant differences on high density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, and body weight in…
Mann, Joshua; Zhou, Huafeng; McDermott, Suzanne; Poston, Mary Beth
Participation in a health promotion program for 192 overweight and obese adults with mental retardation was associated with behavior change resulting in reduction of body mass index--BMI (weight in kg, divided by height in meters, squared) by the end of the program. We analyzed the mediating and intermediate factors contributing to weight…
Pescatello, Linda S.; Murphy, Donna; Vollono, Jeannine; Lynch, Elizabeth; Bernene, James; Costanzo, Dino
Examined the cardiovascular health profiles of hospital employees participating in an incentive screening program for 4 years. The program involved cardiovascular screenings, results counseling, and encouragement to participate in education and behavioral support programs. Cardiovascular health improvements related to long-term program…
Myer, Donna Foster
This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with conducting a health promotion seminar. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of a health care promotion seminar in rural health promotional training,…
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Beaudet, Nicole
In recent decades, reflexivity has received much attention in the professional education and training literature, especially in the public health and health promotion fields. Despite general agreement on the importance of reflexivity, there appears to be no consensus on how to assess reflexivity or to conceptualize the different forms developed among professionals and participants of training programs. This paper presents an analysis of the reflexivity outcomes of the Health Promotion Laboratory, an innovative professional development program aimed at supporting practice changes among health professionals by fostering competency development and reflexivity. More specifically, this paper explores the difference between two levels of reflexivity (formative and critical) and highlights some implications of each for practice. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with participants from two intervention sites. Results showed that involvement in the Health Promotion Laboratory prompted many participants to modify their vision of their practice and professional role, indicating an impact on reflexivity. In many cases, new understandings seem to have played a formative function in enabling participants to improve their practice and their role as health promoters. The reflective process also served a critical function culminating in a social and moral understanding of the impacts on society of the professionals' practices and roles. This type of outcome is greatly desired in health promotion, given the social justice and equity concerns of this field of practice. By redefining the theoretical concept of reflexivity on two levels and discussing their impacts on practice, this study supports the usefulness of both levels of reflexivity.
Skinner, Harvey A; Maley, Oonagh; Norman, Cameron D
Health education and health promotion have a tradition of using information and communication technology (ICT). In recent years, the rapid growth of the Internet has created innovative opportunities for Web-based health education and behavior change applications-termed eHealth promotion. However, many eHealth promotion applications are developed without an explicit model to guide the design, evaluation, and ongoing improvement of the program. The spiral technology action research (STAR) model was developed to address this need. The model comprises five cycles (listen, plan, do, study, act) that weave together technological development, community involvement, and continuous improvement. The model is illustrated by a case study describing the development of the Smoking Zine (www.SmokingZine.org), a youth smoking prevention and cessation Web site.
Terry, Paul E; Seaverson, Erin Ld; Staufacker, Michael J; Tanaka, Akiko
Extensive research on tobacco cessation affirms the effectiveness of interventions, although the literature is more limited concerning the impact of programs designed specifically for the workplace. The present study examines the effectiveness of a telephone-based health coaching tobacco cessation program that was provided as part of worksite health promotion programs by 10 large employers. The participants were recruited based on their health risks as identified by health assessments, and the program was personalized to meet their individual needs and stages of change. The results indicate that at 12 months, health coaching program participants achieved a 32% quit rate, compared to 18% for nonparticipants. The quit rate was highest (44%) among program completers who were ready to change at baseline. These results suggest that a tobacco cessation program offered as part of a worksite health promotion program can be highly effective, especially for those who are ready to change. However, the relatively low annual participation rate may indicate that tobacco users remain among the most difficult to engage and to support in their efforts to complete programs. Therefore, implementing a variety of engagement strategies, such as policy changes, as well as social and financial incentives and penalties will most likely have a positive effect at the population level.
Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina
The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate
Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A
Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs.
Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole
Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants.
Hooyman, Nancy; And Others
The Wallingford Wellness Project was a 3-year community-based health promotion program for the independent elderly (persons over 54 years of age) which offered education and behavior change training in physical fitness, stress management, nutrition, and environmental awareness and action. The experimental group (N=90) participated in a pretest,…
FallCreek, Stephanie, Ed.; Stam, Sue Bailey, Ed.
This monograph discusses the Wallingford Wellness Project, a 3-year Administration on Aging model project designed to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion and training with older adults. (The program in the Wallingford Senior Center offered classes focusing on exercise, nutrition, stress management, and…
Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.
Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…
Mishara, Brian L.; Ystgaard, Mette
We present the results of an evaluation of the implementation and short-term effects of "Zippy's Friends," a school-based 24-week mental health promotion program to teach children coping skills. The evaluation was conducted in Denmark (322 children in 17 first grade classes) and Lithuania (314 children in 16 kindergartens classes) with…
Power, Elaine M; Little, Margaret H; Collins, Patricia A
Food insecurity is an urgent public health problem in Canada, affecting 4 million Canadians in 2012, including 1.15 million children, and associated with significant health concerns. With little political will to address this significant policy issue, it has been suggested that perhaps it is time for Canada to try a food stamp-style program. Such a program could reduce rates of food insecurity and improve the nutritional health of low-income Canadians. In this article, we explore the history of the US food stamp program; the key impetus of which was to support farmers and agricultural interests, not to look after the needs of people living in poverty. Though the US program has moved away from its roots, its history has had a lasting legacy, cementing an understanding of the problem as one of lack of food, not lack of income. While the contemporary food stamp program, now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), reduces rates of poverty and food insecurity, food insecurity rates in the USA are significantly higher than those in Canada, suggesting a food stamp-style program per se will not eliminate the problem of food insecurity. Moreover, a food stamp-style program is inherently paternalistic and would create harm by reducing the autonomy of participants and generating stigma, which in itself has adverse health effects. Consequently, it is ethically problematic for health promoters to advocate for such a program, even if it could improve diet quality.
Edwards, Michael B; Miller, Jennifer L; Blackburn, Linda
Rural youth have a higher risk for lower health and developmental outcomes, often facing numerous constraints (eg, poor socioeconomic conditions, lower levels of social support, fewer recreational programs and facilities, and inadequate transportation). After-school programs have the potential to effectively deliver health-promoting activities but often face significant challenges in these areas. Ashe County is a rural community in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. Ashe County is economically depressed and its youth population has many poor health and developmental indicators. However, with more than 20 years of sustained activity, one important community resource trying to address disparities in youth health and development is the Ashe County 4-H After-School Program. To successfully overcome inherent challenges, the program has positioned itself as essential to community development, supported and retained qualified personnel, and cultivated a network of key partners to continue its efforts to provide essential youth programs for this rural community.
Crewe, Sandra Edmonds
African American elders are often acknowledged for their resilience in overcoming discrimination. Because of their unique historical experience, many have relied upon family support and spirituality to address mental health problems and have shunned professional mental health services. Despite the strengths of African American elders, there are mental health needs that require professional intervention. This article specifically discusses a mental health promotion program sponsored by the Mental Health Association of the District of Columbia. It provides a description of the program and an evaluation of its outcomes. An analysis of pre and post intervention evaluations (n = 228) shows success of the intervention in raising participant awareness of normal and abnormal mental health as well as resources available to them.
Donaldson, M S; Nicklason, J A; Ott, J E
A needs assessment survey was originally conducted at the George Washington University Health Plan in 1981 and repeated in 1983 for evaluation and redirection. The survey resulted in a program which attempted to address the perceived needs of its members. The response, not only of the patients, but also of both the HMO clinical and marketing staffs, resulted in further program development, and established role for health promotion in HMO marketing, and a model of preventive care teaching in ambulatory primary care medicine. PMID:3923532
Park, J; Jee, SH; Edington, DW
Background Longitudinally observed cohort data can be utilized to assess the potential for health promotion and healthcare planning by comparing the estimated risk factor trends of non-intervened with that of intervened. The paper seeks (1) to estimate a natural transition (patterns of movement between states) of health risk state from a Korean cohort data using a Markov model, (2) to derive an effective and necessary health promotion strategy for the population, and (3) to project a possible impact of an intervention program on health status. Methods The observed transition of health risk states in a Korean employee cohort was utilized to estimate the natural flow of aggregated health risk states from eight health risk measures using Markov chain models. In addition, a reinforced transition was simulated, given that a health promotion program was implemented for the cohort, to project a possible impact on improvement of health status. An intervened risk transition was obtained based on age, gender, and baseline risk state, adjusted to match with the Korean cohort, from a simulated random sample of a US employee population, where a health intervention was in place. Results The estimated natural flow (non-intervened), following Markov chain order 2, showed a decrease in low risk state by 3.1 percentage points in the Korean population while the simulated reinforced transition (intervened) projected an increase in low risk state by 7.5 percentage points. Estimated transitions of risk states demonstrated the necessity of not only the risk reduction but also low risk maintenance. Conclusions The frame work of Markov chain efficiently estimated the trend, and captured the tendency in the natural flow. Given only a minimally intense health promotion program, potential risk reduction and low risk maintenance was projected. PMID:15538950
Fano, Tara J; Tyminski, Sheila M; Flynn, Mary A T
To evaluate the impact of the Calgary Health Region Collective Kitchen Program on various Population Health Promotion Model health determinants, data were collected through mail-in questionnaires that examined the members' (n=331) and coordinators' (n=58) perspectives of the program. Seventy-nine members (24%) and 26 coordinators (45%) were included in the study. Three incomplete questionnaires (from prenatal program members) were discarded. Sixty-one percent of members who reported income level and family size (n=61) had incomes below the low-income cut-off. Fifty-eight members (73%) reported improvements in their lives because of the program. Sixty-four members (81%) perceived they learned to feed their families healthier foods. The members reported their fruit and vegetable consumption before and since joining a collective kitchen, and the proportion of those consuming at least five fruit and vegetable servings a day rose from 29% to 47%. The most common reasons for joining this program concerned social interactions and support. Over 90% of the coordinators perceived that they were competent to coordinate a kitchen. The results indicate that the collective kitchens program addresses several health determinants, and may increase members' capacity to attain food security and to achieve improved nutritional health.
Shiner, Brian; Whitley, Rob; Van Citters, Aricca D.; Pratt, Sarah I.; Bartels, Stephen J.
Sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary behaviors and metabolic alterations associated with psychiatric medications contribute to poor health and high rates of obesity among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Interventions that increase engagement in physical exercise, dietary modifications, lifestyle changes and preventive health care can provide health benefits across the lifespan. These interventions have led to substantial physical improvements in some persons with SMI, while others have not improved or have experienced worsening physical health. We set out to identify characteristics of a health promotion program that persons with SMI associated with physical health improvements. Interviews were conducted with eight participants from the In SHAPE health-promotion program who lost at least 10 pounds or diminished their waist circumference by at least 10 cm. Interviews aimed to determine which aspects of the program were perceived to be most helpful in promoting physical health improvement. Among successful participants, three themes emerged, highlighting the importance of: (i) individualized interventions promoting engagement in the program; (ii) relationships with health-promotion program employees and (iii) self-confidence resulting from program participation. Health-promotion programs that target these areas may have better success in achieving health benefits for persons with SMI. PMID:18552363
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Gladstone, Emilie J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Substantial research illuminates many factors effecting the implementation of evidence-based mental health promotion programs in schools; however, research on how schools plan for sustaining their investments in these programs is limited. In this qualitative study, we elicited descriptions of opportunities and challenges for sustainability. We interviewed 24 individuals from schools involved in a longitudinal, qualitative research project that followed uptake and implementation of the evidence-based WITS Programs across 2 years (Leadbeater et al. 2012). WITS stands for Walk away, Ignore, Talk it out and Seek help and the online WITS Programs focus on preventing peer victimization ( www.witsprograms.ca ). Our findings suggest that sustainability planning in schools is not merely a next step following high quality implementation, but rather involves multiple ongoing processes that need to be anticipated and supported by school leadership and program champions and developers in order to realize investments in evidence-based programs.
Wagner, E H; Wickizer, T M; Cheadle, A; Psaty, B M; Koepsell, T D; Diehr, P; Curry, S J; Von Korff, M; Anderman, C; Beery, W L; Pearson, D C; Perrin, E B
OBJECTIVES: To present results from an outcome evaluation of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation's Community Health Promotion Grants Program (CHPGP) in the West, which represented a major community-based initiative designed to promote improved health by changing community norms, environmental conditions, and individual behavior in 11 western communities. METHODS: The evaluation design: 14 randomly assigned intervention and control communities, 4 intervention communities selected on special merit, and 4 matched controls. Data for the outcome evaluation were obtained from surveys, administered every two years at three points in time, of community leaders and representative adults and adolescents, and from specially designed surveys of grocery stores. Outcomes for each of the 11 intervention communities were compared with outcomes in control communities. RESULTS: With the exception of two intervention communities-a largely Hispanic community and a Native American reservation-we found little evidence of positive changes in the outcomes targeted by the 11 intervention communities. The programs that demonstrated positive outcomes targeted dietary behavior and adolescent substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of health through community-based interventions remains a critical public health challenge. The CHPGP, like other prominent community-based initiatives, generally failed to produce measurable changes in the targeted health outcomes. Efforts should focus on developing theories and methods that can improve the design and evaluation of community-based interventions. PMID:10966086
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, Joy A; Whaley, Cathy; Bowman, Sharon
Nearly half of the U.S. adult population will have a major mental illness during their lifetimes. At any point in time, almost a fifth of all American adults have a serious mental illness (SMI). Too many in our society do not understand mental illnesses, placing the blame for the illness on those with the illness, resulting in isolation, marginalization, or incarceration of individuals with SMIs. They may experience stigma, inadequate and delayed health and mental health care, and major socioeconomic disadvantages. They may struggle with activities of daily living, lose many of their resources, and spiral down into poverty. The disadvantages and decreased ability to function experienced by individuals with SMIs lead to increased unhealthy behaviors, reduced participation in wellness-related activities, and premature morbidity and mortality. The general and physical health of individuals with SMIs poses greater challenges from both practice and research standpoints. However, health educators are poised uniquely to provide health promotion programs, conduct research, and advocate for the health and well-being of individuals with SMIs. In this review, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for health promotion in individuals with SMIs.
Northridge, Mary E; Kavathe, Rucha; Zanowiak, Jennifer; Wyatt, Laura; Singh, Hardayal; Islam, Nadia
The Sikh American Families Oral Health Promotion Program used a community-based participatory approach to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate a culturally tailored oral health/healthy living curriculum for the Sikh-South Asian community. Here, we examine the impact of community engagement throughout the process of program implementation in five Gurdwaras (places of worship) in New York and New Jersey and dissemination of the findings through targeted venues and the curriculum via e-Health resources. An interactive curriculum was developed (consisting of four core and three special topics) based upon a community-led needs assessment, adaptation of evidence-based oral health curricula, guidance from professional dental and medical associations, and input from Community Advisory Board (CAB) members. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided a mixed-method evaluation, consisting of both process and outcome measures. Five trained community educators delivered a total of 42 educational sessions. Improved oral hygiene behaviors and self-efficacy were found among program participants. For participants with no dental insurance prior to program enrollment (n = 58), 81.0% credited the program with helping them obtain insurance for themselves or their children. Further, for participants with no dentist prior to program enrollment (n = 68), 92.6% credited the program with helping them or their children find a local dentist. Short videos in Punjabi were created in response to feedback received from community educators and CAB members to reach men, especially. Community engagement was key to successful program implementation and dissemination, from the implementation leaders (community educators) to the opinion leaders and champions (CAB members).
Hersch, Rebekah K; Schlossberg, Dana; Leaf, Samantha L
Background Recent evidence supports the efficacy of programs that promote improvements in the health practices of workers 50 years and older who are at higher risk for chronic diseases than younger workers are. Internet-based programs that promote healthy practices have also shown promise and, therefore, should be especially appropriate for workers aged 50 years and older. Objective The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of HealthyPast50, a fully automated Web-based health promotion program based on social cognitive theory and aimed specifically at workers 50 years and older. Methods The randomized controlled trial was conducted across multiple US offices of a large global information technology company. The sample included 278 employees aged 50 to 68 who were recruited online and randomly assigned to the Web-based HealthyPast50 program or to a wait-list control condition. Self-report measures of diet, physical activity, stress, and tobacco use were collected online before and 3 months after the program group was given access to the program. Use data included number of log-ins and number of pages accessed. The primary analysis was multiple linear regression, following intent-to-treat principles with multiple imputation using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for nonmonotone missing data. Potential moderators from demographic characteristics and program dosage effects were assessed using multiple linear regression models. Additional analyses were conducted on complete (nonimputed) cases, excluding program participants who used the program for less than 30 minutes. Results Retention rates were good for both groups: 80.4% (111/138) for the program group and 94.3% (132/140) for the control group. Program group participants spent a mean of 102.26 minutes in the program (SD 148.32), logged in a mean of 4.33 times (SD 4.28), and viewed a mean of 11.04 pages (SD 20.08). In the analysis of the imputed dataset, the program group performed
Anderson, J V; Palombo, R D; Earl, R
A healthful diet and wise food choices are critical components of promoting health and reducing the risk of chronic disease. A substantial amount of health care resources could be saved by expanding health promotion and disease prevention programs that target dietary change among Americans. To effectively reduce health care costs, the emphasis and delivery of health care must promote health as well as deliver treatment and rehabilitative services to the sick. Prevention measures, such as nutrition interventions that also encourage physical activity, can help prevent or halt progression of full-blown chronic disease and thus decrease chronic disease disability. Health promotion and disease prevention need to be integral parts of all health care, community, public health, and worksite programs across the life cycle. Correspondingly, such programs must be culturally competent and address the specific needs of vulnerable or underserved populations. Dietetics professionals in all areas of practice should play an integral role in health promotion and disease prevention programs. Achieving this goal will require expansion of training programs and active learning by dietetics professionals that includes theory and practice in using team approaches, developing coalitions, and managing complex systems. Dietetics professionals also need to amplify their understanding of politics, administration, health care financing, and reimbursement. Attention must also be expanded to include social and behavioral sciences and to address program evaluation, outcomes, and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness in nutrition-focused health promotion and disease prevention programs. Continued training in program development, research, and evaluation will help build the body of evidence that supports ongoing inclusion of prevention in a rapidly changing health care environment.
Background Firefighters suffer from high prevalence of obesity, substandard fitness, and cardiovascular-related deaths. There have been a limited number of firefighter health promotion programs that have been developed and empirically-tested for this important occupational group. We evaluated the health of firefighters from departments with well-developed health promotion programs and compared them with those from departments not having such programs using a large national sample of career fire departments that varied in size and mission. We measured a broad array of important individual firefighter health outcomes (e.g., body composition, physical activity, and general and behavioral health) consistent with national fire service goals and addressed significant statistical limitations unaccounted for in previous studies. Methods Using the approach of purposive sampling of heterogeneous instances, we selected and conducted a national evaluation of 10 departments already implementing wellness and fitness programs (Wellness Approach; WA) with 10 departments that did not (Standard). Participants were 1,002 male firefighters (WA n = 522; Standard n = 480) who underwent assessments including body composition, fitness, and general/behavioral health (e.g., injury, depressive symptoms). Results Firefighters in WA departments were healthier than their Standard department counterparts. For example, they were less likely to be obese (adjusted [A]OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41-0.82), more likely to meet endurance capacity standards for firefighting (AOR = 5.19; 95% CI = 2.49-10.83) and have higher estimated VO2max (40.7 ± 0.6 vs. 37.5 ± 1.3 for firefighters in Standard departments; p = 0.001). In addition, WA firefighter were substantially less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.17-0.54) or ever have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.14-0.52) and they expressed higher job satisfaction across several domains. However, WA firefighters were somewhat
Cali, Salvatore; Scheff, Peter; Mucha, Amy; Nickels, Leslie; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel
The Great Lakes Center of Excellence in Environmental Health (GLCEEH), an innovative capacity-building component of the University of Illinois, performs health hazard evaluations in collaboration with the Illinois Department of Public Health and local health departments. GLCEEH has provided state and local health departments with faculty, industrial-hygiene expertise, and research expertise to help them investigate a variety of environmental health issues. This article describes health hazard evaluations performed with support from the National Center for Environmental Health, lessons learned, and recommendations for successful collaboration between academic and public health departments. From the academic perspective, health hazard evaluations are beneficial because they provide faculty and students with the opportunity to engage in public health practice and encounter new issues that advance the science of environmental health through research. From the perspective of a public health department, health hazard evaluations are beneficial because they address priority environmental health concerns and build the capacity of department personnel to conduct health hazard evaluations with internal resources. A collaborative health hazard evaluation program increases public health capacity by developing new approaches to environmental health problems and by sharing limited resources.
Carothers, Richard; Breslin, Curtis; Denomy, Jennifer; Foad, Mamdouh
Microfinance programs are recognized as a way of improving incomes and creating employment for large numbers of low-income families, but there are concerns that working conditions within these informal microenterprises are far from ideal. For example, when families receive loans to expand a microenterprise, children may make up the labor shortfall until the family can afford to hire adult workers. Through the Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Children who Work (PPIC-Work) project being carried out in Egypt, a set of interventions that can not only improve working conditions, but can also be integrated into standard microfinance programs has been developed. By working with and through self-financing microfinance programs, the PPIC-Work approach provides a way of improving occupational safety and health not only for children working in microenterprises but also for large numbers of children and adults working in the informal sector more generally.
Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N
Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts.
Lemos, Letícia Vargas Freire Martins; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Walter, Luiz Reynaldo de Figueiredo; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the interference of age in the entrance into a public dental care program for infants as well as family behavioral aspects about tooth decay experience in children 0 to 4 years old. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 465 children who were divided into 3 groups: infants whose mothers joined the program during pregnancy (n=50); infants enrolled in the program during the first year of life (n=230); and infants enrolled in the program between 13 and 18 months old (n=185). The χ2 and Kruskal-Walis tests (95% confidence interval) were used to assess the relationship among variables. Results: There was an association between the age of entrance in the programs and dental caries (p<0.001). A lower prevalence was seen in infants whose mothers joined the program during pregnancy, and among those infants enrolled in the program during the first year of life. The same low prevalence occurred in relation to mothers' commitment to attend follow-up visits with their infants, cariogenic diet, nighttime oral care, duration of night feeding and parents' educational level (p<0.001). Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions (p>0.05) and daily oral care (p=0.214) were common variables in the groups with 99% of occurrence. Commitment to attend follow-up visits, nighttime oral care and parents' educational level (p>0.05) were considered protective factors for dental caries. Cariogenic diet and night feeding were determinant factors to the appearance of dental caries. Conclusion: To promote children oral health it is essential to enroll children in oral health programs and adopt healthy habits as early as possible, besides the adherence of the child to their parents' advice. PMID:24728238
Williams, Laverne; Gorman, Robyn; Hankerson, Sidney
Social workers have successfully collaborated with African American faith-based organizations to improve health outcomes for numerous medical conditions. However, the literature on Faith-Based Health Promotion for major depression is sparse. Thus, the authors describe a program used to implement a Mental Health Ministry Committee in African American churches. Program goals are to educate clergy, reduce stigma, and promote treatment seeking for depression. Key lessons learned are to initially form partnerships with church staff if there is not a pre-existing relationship with the lead pastor, to utilize a community-based participatory approach, and to have flexibility in program implementation. PMID:24717187
Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.
Dreer, Laura E.; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research. PMID:25346876
Marcotte, Brian; Price, James H.
Employers are realizing that worksite health programs which help prevent illness or accidents cost less than does rehabilitation of employees. Corporate health programs that involve hypertension screening, physical fitness, alcohol and drug abuse assistance, and stress management are described. (PP)
McLellan, Deborah L.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Nelson, Candace C.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kia L.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Sorensen, Glorian
Objective We explored associations between organizational factors (size, sector, leadership support, and organizational capacity) and implementation of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) and Worksite Health Promotion (WHP) programs in smaller businesses. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of Human Resource Managers of 117 smaller businesses (<750 employees) and analyzed factors associated with implementation of OSH and WHP among these sites using multivariate analyses. Results Implementation of OSH but not WHP activities were related to industry sector (p= 0.003). Leadership support was positively associated with OSH activities (p<.001), but negatively associated with WHP implementation. Organizational capacity (budgets, staffing, and committee involvement) was associated with implementation of both OSH and WHP. Size was related to neither. Conclusions Leadership support and specifically allocated resources reflecting that support are important factors for implementing OSH and WHP in smaller organizations. PMID:26340290
Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, W Kerry; Joyner, Kelly
The Women's Active Living Kits (WALK) Community Grant Scheme was a key component of a federally funded Australian initiative aimed at increasing local capacity to promote and engage priority women's groups in health-related physical activity. Under the program, community groups and organizations were provided with the opportunity to apply and receive small grants to support the development of women's walking groups with the aim of increasing physical activity participation levels in women, supporting innovative community ideas for increasing women's physical activity by improving social structures and environments, or both. This article describes the development and administration of the WALK Community Grant Scheme, outlines challenges and barriers encountered throughout the grant program process, and provides practical insights for replicating this initiative.
Background It is well documented that black males are more likely to suffer from heart disease, type II diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic diseases than any other racial group in the United States. It is also undeniable fact that physical activity, healthy eating behavior, and accessing routine medical checkups can help prevent or control some of those chronic diseases. However, little is known about black African males’ physical activity, nutritional and health screening behaviors in the US. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the first generation black African males’ perceptions, beliefs and attitudes about healthy lifestyle and preventive care and culturally appropriate way to promote health promotion programs among them. Methods Convenient sample and snowball methods were used to recruit 50 (mean age=38 years) first generation black African males to participate in an one hour long face-to-face interview. Fifteen semi-structured open ended questions were used but there were other follow-up questions. The interview data were descriptively analyzed to find trends. Results The study reveals obesity and overweight problem among the participants. However, most of the participants; lead sedentary behavior, engage in poor eating habit, and do not access routine physical checkups. More than half (n=28) of the participants reported that they do not do exercise or engage in physical activities because of: lack of time, laziness, lack of discipline, and lack of understanding of the importance of physical activities. Some of the participants also indicated that having a physical activity regimen is foreign to their African culture. Most of the respondents reported that they do not eat balanced diet regularly and most of their daily food intake contains too much carbohydrate. In addition, they eat similar food almost every day, skip meals which results in eating large portion size at irregular eating time. On accessing routine health
de Sousa Eskenazi, Ednalva; de Arruda Martins, Mílton; Ferreira, Mario
The objective of this study was to compare the impact on knowledge and counseling skills of face-to-face and Internet-based oral health training programs on medical students. Participants consisted of 148 (82 percent) of the 180 invited students attending their fifth academic year at the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brasil, in 2007. The interventions took place during a three-month training period in the clinical Center for Health Promotion, which comprised part of a clerkship in Internal Medicine. The students were divided into four groups: 1) Control Group (Control), with basic intervention; 2) Brochure Group (Br), with basic intervention plus complete brochure with oral health themes; 3) Cybertutor Group (Cy), with basic intervention plus access to an Internet-based training program about oral health themes; and 4) Cybertutor + Contact Group (Cy+C), the same as Cy plus brief proactive contact with a tutor. The impact of these interventions on student knowledge was measured with pre- and post assessments, and student skills in asking and counseling about oral health were assessed with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify the odds ratios of scoring above Control's medians on the final assessment and the OSCE. In the results, Cy+C performed significantly better than Control on both the final assessment (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.7-32.8) and the OSCE (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.9-16.3) and outperformed all the other groups. The Cy+C group showed the most significant increase in knowledge and the best skills in asking and counseling about oral health.
Anderson, Chelsie; Seff, Laura R.; Batra, Anamika; Bhatt, Chintan; Palmer, Richard C.
Evidence-based health promotion programs are effective at reducing health risks and healthcare costs among older adults, but few men participate in the programs. This mixed methods study aimed to gain insight into the barriers to recruiting and engaging older men in evidence-based health promotion programs offered by the Healthy Aging Regional Collaborative of South Florida (HARC). Fourteen program coordinators participated in a focus group to identify barriers and strategies to improve male participation, and 49 instructors participated in a survey to triangulate the findings. Themes among barriers to male participation included women outnumbering men in the implementation sites and programs, conflict between male gender roles and the programs, and preference for other activities. Themes among strategies included public support of programs by male community leaders, program advertisements featuring males, and adapting program content. Survey results supported themes identified in the focus group. Nearly 78% of the survey respondents agreed that the perception of exercise programs as feminine was a barrier and over 90% of the survey respondents believed program advertisements featuring men would increase male participation. Findings indicate that health promotion programs and recruiting strategies need to be tailored to the unique needs and preferences of older men to improve participation. PMID:27366330
Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen
Background Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Methods Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. Results The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Conclusion Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable. PMID:27760131
Martin, Angela; Sanderson, Kristy; Scott, Jenn; Brough, Paula
Background Workplace mental health promotion (WMHP) aims to prevent and effectively manage the social and economic costs of common mental illnesses such as depression. The mental health of managers and employees within small-medium enterprises (SMEs) is a neglected sector in occupational health research and practice, despite the fact that this sector is the most common work setting in most economies. The availability and propensity of SME staff to attend face-to-face training/therapy or workshop style interventions often seen in corporate or public sector work settings is a widely recognised problem. The 'Business in Mind' program employs a DVD mode of delivery that is convenient for SME managers, particularly those operating in regional and remote areas where internet delivery may not be optimal. The objective of the intervention program is to improve the mental health of SME managers, and examine whether employees of managers' whose mental health improves, report positive change in their psychosocial work environment. The mechanisms via which we aim to improve managers' mental health are through the development of their psychological capital (a higher order construct comprised of hope, self efficacy, resilience and optimism) and their skills and capacities for coping with work stress. Methods/Design The effectiveness of two versions of the program (self administered and telephone facilitated) will be assessed using a randomised trial with an active control condition (psychoeducation only). We aim to recruit a minimum of 249 managers and a sample of their employees. This design allows for 83 managers per group, as power analyses showed that this number would allow for attrition of 20% and still enable detection of an effect size of 0.5. The intervention will be implemented over a three month period and postal surveys will assess managers and employees in each group at baseline, intervention completion, and at 6 month follow up. The intervention groups (managers
Phillips, Kathleen; Dietz, Julie; Borzi, Mark; Harrison, Gaye
I Sing the Body Electric (BODY ELECTRIC) is a fine arts and health promotion program that supports communication of healthy lifestyle choices among youth. BODY ELECTRIC connects youth in 27 high schools with health and education communities in the largest rural geographic education region in a Midwestern state. The three-phase prevention plan…
McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…
Koehn, Sharon; Habib, Sanzida; Bukhari, Syeda
The Seniors Support Services for South Asian Community (S4AC) project was developed in response to the underutilization of available recreation and seniors' facilities by South Asian seniors who were especially numerous in a suburban neighbourhood in British Columbia. Addressing the problem required the collaboration of the municipality and a registered non-profit agency offering a wide range of services and programs to immigrant and refugee communities. Through creative outreach and accommodation, the project has engaged more than 100 Punjabi-speaking seniors annually in diverse exercise activities. Case study research methods with staff and current and former senior participants of S4AC include participant observation, individual interviews, and focus groups. Viewed through the critical interpretive lens of the "candidacy framework", findings reveal the myriad ways in which access to health promotion and physical activity for immigrant older adults is a complex iterative process of negotiation at multiple levels.
Walter, U; Schwartz, F W
The importance of health promotion for persons in the second half of their life span is increasing. Results of different studies published at the end of the eighties show that health risks and anatomical deterioration can be effectively reduced in later life. From a medical viewpoint, these results provide the basis for preventive and rehabilitative measures. Knowledge from gerontology, social sciences and psychology demonstrates the necesserity of health promotion including the total way of life. First, the demographic and social framework for a concept of health promotion will be presented. The article will start with a short overview of the demographic-historical situation and the focus on the situations of different generations. Finally, the concrete requirements for the development of health promotion programmes will be formulated.
Bopp, Melissa; Saunders, Ruth P; Lattimore, Diana
Researchers across multiple fields have described the iterative and nonlinear phases of the translational research process from program development to dissemination. This process can be conceptualized within a "program life cycle" framework that includes overlapping and nonlinear phases: development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, sustainability or termination, and dissemination or diffusion, characterized by tensions between fidelity to the original plan and adaptation for the setting and population. In this article, we describe the life cycle (phases) for research-based health promotion programs, the key influences at each phase, and the issues related to the tug-of-war between fidelity and adaptation throughout the process using a fictionalized case study based on our previous research. This article suggests the importance of reconceptualizing intervention design, involving stakeholders, and monitoring fidelity and adaptation throughout all phases to maintain implementation fidelity and completeness. Intervention fidelity should be based on causal mechanisms to ensure effectiveness, while allowing for appropriate adaption to ensure maximum implementation and sustainability. Recommendations for future interventions include considering the determinants of implementation including contextual factors at each phase, the roles of stakeholders, and the importance of developing a rigorous, adaptive, and flexible definition of implementation fidelity and completeness.
Background Several studies have reported the following as determining factors for the adoption of healthy lifestyles among undergraduate students: gender, socioeconomic level, prior lifestyles, environment, parental lifestyles and health status, career choice, and healthy support networks. However, these factors are influenced by students’ knowledge about healthy lifestyles. Methods/design We will carry out a randomized trial in a sample of 280 new undergraduate students at the National Autonomous University of Mexico’s Faculty of Higher Studies-Zaragoza (FES-Zaragoza, UNAM). There will be an experimental group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven university departments (careers); these students will receive training as university student health promoters through an e-learning course. This course will allow the topics necessary for such promoters to be reviewed. There will be a control group (n = 140), comprising 20 students from each of the seven departments (careers); these students will not undergo the training. Later, the students who comply satisfactorily with the e-learning course will replicate the course to 10 of their classmates. A healthy-lifestyle questionnaire will be given to all the participants, and the parameters established in the self-care card will be recorded before and after the training. The study variables are as follows: (i) independent variable—compliance with the e-learning course; (ii) dependent variables—lifestyles changes prior to the educative intervention (including healthy eating, physical activity, and addiction prevention) and parameters related to health status established in self-care (including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference). Data will be analyzed using Student’s t test and logistic regression analysis odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The analysis of the open answers will be carried out with ATLAS. ti 5.5 software. Discussion Health promotion
Sharma, Manoj; Galletly, Carol
Discusses four key community-based coronary heart disease prevention interventions, elaborating on some of the challenges they encountered. The four interventions are the Stanford Three Community Study, Stanford Five-City Project, Minnesota Heart Health Program, and Pawtucket (Rhode Island) Heart Health Program. (SM)
Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo
The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.
O'Connor, Patrick J.
This bulletin examines wellness programs and what they mean to Oregon educators. The opening sections describe what is meant by "wellness" and trace the growth of wellness programs in Oregon to the annual Seaside Health Education Conference. To illustrate how wellness programs operate, the next two sections describe how two Oregon school…
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.
This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…
Pelletier, Kenneth R.
Fourth in a series of articles summarizing studies that examined the impact of comprehensive health-promotion and disease-management programs on health and cost. The focus is on worksite health promotion and education. Study results provide cautious optimism about the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these worksite programs and…
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Beaudet, Nicole
The emergence over the past 20 years of health promotion discourse poses a specific challenge to public health professionals, who must come to terms with new roles and new intervention strategies. Professional development is, among other things, a lever for action to be emphasized in order to meet these challenges. To respond to the specific training needs of public health professionals, a team from the Direction de santé publique de Montréal (Montreal Public Health Department) in Quebec, Canada, established in 2009 the Health Promotion Laboratory, an innovative professional development project. An evaluative component, which supports the project's implementation by providing feedback, is also integrated into the project. This article seeks to demonstrate that it is possible to integrate the basic principles of health promotion into a professional development program and its evaluation. To this end, it presents an analytical reading of both the intervention and its evaluation component in light of the cardinal principles in this field. Initiatives such as the Health Promotion Laboratory and its evaluation are essential to consolidate the foundations of professional development and its assessment by concretely integrating health promotion discourse into these practices.
Marcus, Marianne T; Taylor, Wendell C; Walker, Thomas; Carroll, Deidra D; Cron, Stanley G; Marcus-Mendoza, Susan T; Liehr, Patricia
Interdisciplinary collaborations and effective community partnerships can be important in advancing public health initiatives in economically disadvantaged communities. This community-based participatory research pilot study determined the feasibility of designing and implementing Project SMART, a mentored after-school health promotion program for school children in an underserved neighborhood. Interdisciplinary faculty and their students collaborated with community stakeholders to provide a program tailored to address community identified health risks. Preassessment and postassessment of study participants revealed a significant increase in nutrition knowledge among the children and a significant increase in the general health subscale of Short-Form Health Survey for the mentors. Content analysis of interviews conducted with the mentors revealed four themes on the meaning of the experience for them: being present; having purpose; raising personal health consciousness; and transferring life experiences. University faculty and students strengthened their relationships in the community and their ability to conduct community-based participatory research. The program was a catalyst for other important ongoing changes in the community. The Project SMART program is an initiative that may be applied successfully in other communities where it is important to address environmental health disparities and promote health.
Muscat, J E; Axelrad, C; Ray, K; Weston, R; Landers, C; Vaccaro, D; Orlandi, M A; Haley, N J
The prevalence and interrelationship of high blood cholesterol levels with other cardiovascular disease risk factors were studied in a biracial suburb of New York City. Participants in community-based screenings to determine blood cholesterol levels have been predominantly white women in older age groups, highly educated and nonsmokers. To reach a more representative segment of a local population and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors, cholesterol screenings were conducted within an ongoing health promotion program in Mount Vernon, NY. Plasma cholesterol levels were determined for 5,011 participants, including 2,308 whites and 1,778 blacks. Of the men, 29 percent had high cholesterol levels; among women, it was 27 percent. Of the men with high levels, half had levels greater than 200 milligrams per deciliter, as did 55 percent of the women. After statistical adjustments were made for age and other risk factors for high blood cholesterol, mean cholesterol levels were higher for whites than blacks. The level for white men was 204 milligrams per deciliter; for women, 212. For black men, the level was 199 milligrams per deciliter; for women, 208, P < .10. Hispanic men had levels of 199, P < .10. The levels for Hispanic women (203 milligrams per deciliter) were significantly lower than that of white women. Among whites who smoked more than 1 pack of cigarettes per day, mean cholesterol levels were 11 milligrams per deciliter higher than for those who never smoked or were light smokers (0, 1-20 cigarettes per day, P < .10). There were too few who smoked more than 1 pack to test this association adequately among blacks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8303021
Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier
This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…
Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah
The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…
Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye
This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.
This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922
Golaszewski, Thomas; And Others
A six-step process defines and validates the role of worksite health promotion directors: developing expert opinion consensus, examining current job descriptions, reviewing literature, reviewing independent role delineations, developing competency statements, and validating statements to reduce the number to 80. The competencies are categorized as…
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao
This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a workplace-based intervention program to improve mental health, work ability, and work productivity in privately owned enterprises in China. A prospective cohort intervention study design was employed in which the intervention program was implemented for 30 months (from July 2009 to December 2012). Nine privately owned retail enterprises in China participated in the intervention study. Researchers administered a self-report survey to 2768 employees. The research team measured participants' job stress, resilience, work ability, absenteeism, depression, and work performance. A comprehensive Health Promotion Enterprise Program was implemented that entailed the following components: policies to support a healthy work environment, psychosocial interventions to promote mental health, provision of health services to people with mental illness, and professional skills training to deal with stress and build resilience. Analysis of variance was used to examine preintervention versus postintervention differences in stress, resilience, and work ability. Logistic regression was used to examine absenteeism related to depression. The results suggest that the intervention program was effective at improving participants' ability to work, their sense of control over their jobs, and, in particular, their ability to meet the mental demands of work. The intervention program also reduced participants' job stress levels and reduced the probability of absenteeism related to depression. The intervention programs incorporating both individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote mental health were effective and have implications for both practice and policy regarding enterprises taking more responsibility for the provision of mental health services to their employees.
School-based nutrition programs can play an important role in promoting lifelong healthy eating. Healthy eating patterns in childhood and adolescence improve childhood health and prevent health problems. School health programs can help children attain full educational potential and good health by providing them with the skills, social support, and…
Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.
Palaniswamy, Saranya; Williams, Dylan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain
Studies linking vitamin D and long-term metabolic health have generated much debate. Recommendations for the intake of vitamin D by the general public and by the health care professionals have been complicated by a number of inconsistencies in the literature. These caveats relate to the methodological approaches, differences in the populations (and the species) of study, and the definitions used for thresholds of vitamin D status. This review addresses current evidence available for assessing the potential programming of long-term metabolic health of offspring by maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy. It summarizes knowledge on the early origins of metabolic health and analyzes evidence for an association between the vitamin D status in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health status. In addition, we analyze the link between the regulation of inflammation and the vitamin D status in the general population to inform on the general mechanisms through which early vitamin D might affect the programming of long-term health. The evidence suggests an association between the vitamin D status in early life and the programming of long-term health. However, to the best of our knowledge, the current finding is insufficient to draw a final conclusion for evidence-based preventive actions. The data warrant replication in prospective studies and additional research substantiating the causal factors and pathways. PMID:26843814
Palaniswamy, Saranya; Williams, Dylan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sebert, Sylvain
Studies linking vitamin D and long-term metabolic health have generated much debate. Recommendations for the intake of vitamin D by the general public and by the health care professionals have been complicated by a number of inconsistencies in the literature. These caveats relate to the methodological approaches, differences in the populations (and the species) of study, and the definitions used for thresholds of vitamin D status. This review addresses current evidence available for assessing the potential programming of long-term metabolic health of offspring by maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy. It summarizes knowledge on the early origins of metabolic health and analyzes evidence for an association between the vitamin D status in pregnancy and maternal and fetal health status. In addition, we analyze the link between the regulation of inflammation and the vitamin D status in the general population to inform on the general mechanisms through which early vitamin D might affect the programming of long-term health. The evidence suggests an association between the vitamin D status in early life and the programming of long-term health. However, to the best of our knowledge, the current finding is insufficient to draw a final conclusion for evidence-based preventive actions. The data warrant replication in prospective studies and additional research substantiating the causal factors and pathways.
Schneider, Robert H.; Walton, Kenneth G.; Salerno, John W.; Nidich, Sanford I.
This article summarizes the background, rationale, and clinical research on a traditional system of natural health care that may be useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and promotion of health. Results recently reported indude reductions in blood pressure, psychosocial stress, surrogate markers for atherosclerotic CVD, and mortality. The randomized clinical trials conducted so far have involved applications to both primary and secondary prevention as well as to health promotion more generally. The results support the applicability of this approach for reducing ethnic health disparities associated with environmental and psychosocial stress. Proposed mechanisms for the effects of this traditional system include enhanced resistance to physiological and psychological stress and improvements in homeostatic and self-repair processes. This system may offer clinical and cost effectiveness advantages for health care, particularly in preventive cardiology. PMID:16938913
Hutchison, Shari L; Terhorst, Lauren; Murtaugh, Stephanie; Gross, Sarah; Kogan, Jane N; Shaffer, Sherry L
The current study describes physical and mental health outcomes during a health promotion program for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). A sample of 43 adults in a long-term residential facility volunteered for an individualized, healthy lifestyle program designed to promote physical activity and combat premature mortality among individuals with SMI. Nurses and residential counselors were trained in the program and encouraged to work collaboratively with the program's personal trainers. Weekly nutrition and activity logs were obtained over the year-long evaluation. Assessments of physical and psychological health indicators were collected quarterly. Qualitative data through focus groups described staff experience. Self-report of moderate and vigorous physical activity improved over time as did fitness level as measured through a walking challenge (p = .001). Significant decreases in weight (p < .001), BMI (p = .001), and total cholesterol (p < .001) were observed from baseline through 12 months. Mean recovery scores (RMQ) were significantly higher between baseline and all time points (p < .001). Participants reported decreasing levels of depression (PHQ-9) by the 12-month time point (p < .001). Staff encouraged participation in physical activity and observed improved motivation and socialization among participants. A health promotion program with participation encouraged by health care staff is effective for increasing physical activity and improving physical and mental health outcomes in individuals with SMI in long-term residential care.
Su, Qingjie; Li, Chaoyun; Long, Faqing; Chen, Bin; Wan, Zhongqin; Wu, Yingman; Dai, Mingming; Wang, Desheng; Zhang, Yuhui; Wang, Bufei
Survivors of ischemic stroke are still at a significant risk for recurrence. Antiplatelet agents are the treatment of first choice for long-term secondary prevention of vascular events. This study aims to assess a health promotion program on medication adherence to antiplatelet therapy among ischemic stroke patients in Hainan province, China. In five hospitals from the intervention group, four highly experienced physicians trained 62 neurologists, who in turn trained 613 stroke patients to improve their awareness and adherence to antiplatelet therapy. Physicians and patients of the control group received usual stroke management programs. After one-year follow-up, the proportion of patients who took the antiplatelet therapy increased significantly in the intervention group, reaching 73.2%, with a pre-post difference between two arms of 22.9% ( P < 0.01). There was also a significant net increase in the proportion of patients with awareness of antiplatelet therapy (24.4%, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis illustrated health promotion program, higher education, annual household income, insurance, and medical status affected antiplatelet drug use in stroke patients. In conclusion, the health promotion program, based on a train-the-trainer approach, showed positive eﬀects on awareness of and adherence to antiplatelet therapy, which has the potential to be scaled up to other resource-limited areas.
Kreuter, Matthew W; Lukwago, Susan N; Bucholtz, R D Dawn C; Clark, Eddie M; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta
It is a truism of health education that programs and interventions will be more effective when they are culturally appropriate for the populations they serve. In practice, however, the strategies used to achieve cultural appropriateness vary widely. This article briefly describes five strategies commonly used to target programs to culturally defined groups. It then explains how a sixth approach, cultural tailoring, might extend these strategies and enhance our ability to develop effective programs for cultural groups. The authors illustrate this new approach with an example of cultural tailoring forcancer prevention in a population of lower income urban African American women.
McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.
Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077
Rand, Jenny R
Background There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. Objective The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. Design This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. Results From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Conclusion Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that
Rand, Jenny R.
Background There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. Objective The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. Design This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18–61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. Results From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Conclusion Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants’ stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that
VanSickle, Jennifer; Hancher-Rauch, Heidi; Hicks, Lisa
Health and physical education departments across the United States often face perception and reputation problems on campus and a general misunderstanding of the nature of their academic work. One solution is to offer a faculty-and-staff fitness program that showcases the academic and leadership skills of the faculty, opens doors for collaboration…
Gadbois, Christine; Chin, Elizabeth D; Dalphonse, Lee
Community assessment and review of the literature indicate that individuals supported in opioid treatment programs are at a significant disadvantage for access to preventative and primary healthcare. In addition, this population faces increased comorbidities and chronic disease. Finally, access to housing, nutritious food, and other social determinants of health is also a challenge for these individuals. This project, aimed at addressing healthcare disparities and improving health outcomes for the opioid treatment program client, was undertaken at a large, private, not-for-profit, community mental health center in an urban area. An education-practice partnership was created between the center and the local university's College of Nursing, which includes undergraduate and graduate programs. Working with administration, nurses, medical staff, and clinicians, the advanced practice nurse guided nursing practice change within the context of an interdisciplinary team to increase attention to clients' health needs. Outcomes included a more comprehensive nursing health assessment and increased attention to nursing care coordination. The partnership between the university and the facility continues with the goal of addressing clients' unmet healthcare needs and improving wellness via on-site intervention, referral, and education.
Koehly, Laura; Pederson, Rockie; Morera, Osvaldo
Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness and spillover of an after-school health education and physical activity program among Hispanic elementary school children. Methods. In fall 2008, students in third through fifth grades in 6 schools in El Paso, Texas (n = 901), were randomized to intervention (n = 292 participants) or control (n = 354) classrooms (4 unknown). Intervention classrooms also contained a spillover group (n = 251) that did not join the after-school program but that completed measurements and surveys. The intervention was a 12-week culturally tailored after-school program meeting twice a week. Four-month outcomes were body mass index, aerobic capacity, and dietary intentions and knowledge. We calculated intervention exposure as the proportion of after-school participants per classroom. Results. Intervention exposure predicted lower body mass index (P = .045), higher aerobic capacity (P = .012), and greater intentions to eat healthy (P = .046) for the classroom at follow-up. Intervention effectiveness increased with increasing proportions of intervention participants in a classroom. Nonparticipants who had classroom contact with program participants experienced health improvements that could reduce their risk of obesity. Conclusions. Spillover of beneficial intervention effects to nonparticipants is a valuable public health benefit and should be part of program impact assessments. PMID:21852659
Bavin, Lynda M; Owens, R Glynn
Research suggests that health-promoting storylines in developed nations' fictional television programs can have a beneficial impact on viewers' beliefs, attitudes, intentions, or behaviors. The sizes of the effects are generally modest; however, the audience reach is substantial. Given that many fictional programs may hold the prolonged attention of millions of viewers, it is of value to examine potential strategies for enhancing the persuasive impact of their health-promoting storylines. Complementary public service announcements may be a promising strategy. This randomized experimental study (N = 310) examined the effects of viewing a complementary public service announcement after an organ donation story in an episode of Grey's Anatomy. Results indicated that the public service announcement enhanced the beneficial impact of the story on viewers' discussion behavior (about one's organ donor wishes), discussion intention, and perceived learning. This experimental study is the first to examine the effects of viewing a non-character public service announcement after a health-related storyline in a developed nation's fictional program compared to viewing the same episode of the program on its own. It is important for future research to examine whether these findings replicate for different health issues and with a nationally representative sample.
Azarmina, Pejman; Prestwich, Graham; Rosenquist, Joel; Singh, Debbie
Governments and health service providers around the world are under pressure to improve health outcomes while containing rising healthcare costs. In response to such challenges, many regions have implemented services that have been successful in other countries-but 'importing' initiatives has many challenges. This article summarizes factors found to be critical to the success of adapting a US disease management and health promotion programme for use in Italy and the UK. Using three illustrative case studies, it describes how in each region the programme needed to adapt (i) the form and content of the disease management service, (ii) the involvement and integration with local clinicians and services and (iii) the evaluation of programme outcomes. We argue that it is important to implement evidence-based practice by learning lessons from other countries and service initiatives, but that it is equally important to take into consideration the '3Ps' that are critical for successful service implementation: payers, practitioners and patients.
Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.
Heck, Nicholas C.
This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship. PMID:26366425
Heck, Nicholas C
This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship.
Because health promotion is a relatively new concept in Europe, a study was undertaken to gather information on informal and organized health promoting behavior and programs in Europe. The study attempts, through a review of literature, interviews, and surveys, to clarify the meaning of health promotion in both theory and practice and to identify…
Babazadeh, Towhid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Allahverdipour, Hamid
Background: Health promoting schools (HPS) project is currently being used in Iran but many challenges still lie ahead. The present study aimed, to test feasibility of implementing a comprehensive advocacy program (CAP) to overcome the obstacles and problems associated with the consummation of school health programs based on the HPS framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through recruiting all schools that were enrolled in the national HPS program and located in Jolfa as the intervention group and all of the schools situated in the East Azerbaijan province as control. In order to collect data, Iranian Ministry of Health's checklists and external audit guidelines for HPS were utilized. In addition, to plan a CAP required data for coordinating fund raising activities including current rules and regulations regarding implementation of local health promotion interventions were collected. Results: Findings of the study revealed that the implemented CAP had improved all HPS dimensions' mean score in the intervention group. The observed change in the pre- and post-test score in the intervention group was significant (P < 0.05). The intervention was also successful in encouraging signing of an agreement among the participated organizations to be committed to pursue the adopted policies in facilitation of progress towards full implementation of the local HPS project. Conclusion: Commencing changes in the recruited schools' structure through coordinated multi-level activities is feasible and this must be considered as a priority where contextual determinants exist to motivate progress towards providing healthier educational settings for school aged children in Iran.
Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa
PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also
Lytle, Leslie A; Ward, Jerri; Nader, Phillip R; Pedersen, Sheryl; Williston, B J
To better understand the institutionalization process in Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) intervention and control schools, 199 key informant interviews were conducted with school food service staff, physical education teachers, classroom teachers, and administrators at the four CATCH-ON field centers. School personnel were asked to talk about the degree of CATCH program implementation, who at the school or school district was instrumental in promoting CATCH, and the conditions that facilitated or impeded the institutionalization of CATCH activities and philosophies. The CATCH Physical Education (PE) component appeared to have the highest level of institutionalization, and the CATCH classroom curriculum and family components appeared to have the lowest levels of institutionalization. The primary barriers expressed included the low priority for health promotion activities and time constraints of schools: lack of mechanisms for training of school staff; and lack of sufficient funds for materials, equipment, and lower fat vendor products.
Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi
This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n=67) and their mothers (n=67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers.
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi
This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n = 67) and their mothers (n = 67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers. PMID:24447886
Shirzad, Mahboube; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Dehdari, Tahereh; Abolghasemi, Jamileh
Background: Preschool children have a limit ability to take care of their teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention based on Albanian’s Health Promoting Schools Model (Albanian’s HPSM) on the oral health behaviors among a group of Iranian female preschool (5-6 years old) children. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 children in seventh district of Tehran, Iran were randomly recruited and assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. A scale was designed and validated to assess the oral health behaviors among the children and knowledge,attitude, self-efficacy beliefs, perceived barriers and oral health behaviors among the parents and the schoolteachers. An expert panel approved the content validity of the scale (CVR = 0.89,CVI = 0.90). The reliability was also approved applying intraclass correlation coefficient (range,0.83–0.92) and Cronbach alpha (range, 0.83–0.96). Based on the preliminary data, a 6-week intervention was designed and conducted to the intervention group. One month following the intervention, both groups were followed-up. The data were analyzed using covariance and paired t tests. Results: Following the intervention, significant differences were found in the oral health behaviors of the children in the intervention group (P < 0.05) and knowledge, attitude, oral health behaviors, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers of their parents and the schoolteachers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Using Albanian’s health-promoting schools (HPSs) approach was useful in improving the oral hygiene behaviors among the preschool children. PMID:27579261
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Penney, Tarra L; Ata, Nicole; Munro-Sigfridson, Lori; Cunningham, Jane; Veugelers, Paul J; Storey, Kate; Ohinmaa, Arto; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan
A Health promoting schools (HPS) approach aims to make schools a healthy place through a holistic approach that promotes a supportive 'school ethos' and emphasizes improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being and educational outcomes. A HPS initiative in rural Nova Scotia (Canada) provided an opportunity for a population-level natural experiment. This study investigated student well-being and health behaviours between schools with and without HPS implementation and schools with high and low school ethos scores. Student well-being, nutrition, and physical activity were examined in a cross-sectional survey of elementary students in Nova Scotia, Canada in 2014. Multiple regression was used to assess the relationship with student well-being using the Quality of Life in School (QoLS) instrument and health behaviours. The main exposure was attending one of the 10 HPS schools; secondary exposure was the school ethos score. The overall QoLS score and its subdomain scores in the adjusted models were higher in students attending HPS schools compared to those in non-HPS schools, but the differences were not statistically significant and the effect sizes were small. Students in schools that scored high on school ethos score had higher scores for the QoLS and its subdomains, but the difference was only significant for the teacher-student relationship domain. Although this study did not find significant differences between HPS and non-HPS schools, our results highlight the complexity of evaluating HPS effects in the real world. The findings suggest a potential role of a supportive school ethos for student well-being in school.
Ravesloot, C H; Seekins, T; Cahill, T; Lindgren, S; Nary, D E; White, G
People with disabilities can benefit from health promotion opportunities to reduce the incidence and severity of secondary conditions that further limit their participation in society. This paper describes participatory action research (PAR) methods we used to develop, implement and evaluate the Living Well with a Disability program. Community-based agencies that provide information and referral services to people with disabilities (independent living centers funded under Title VII, Rehabilitation Act) recruited a convenience sample of 246 people with mobility impairments to participate in a randomly assigned, wait-list control health promotion intervention study. Paper-and-pencil outcome measures included the secondary conditions surveillance instrument, unhealthy days and health care utilization. Logistic regression on outcomes controlling for demographic variables and pre-test measures indicated reductions in all three outcome variables. People with mobility impairments who participated in the Living Well with a Disability program reported less limitation from secondary conditions, fewer unhealthy days and less health care utilization. PAR methods are particularly important to design useful interventions for this population.
Hong, Jingfang; Fongkaew, Warunee; Senaratana, Wilawan; Tonmukayakul, Ouyporn
The purpose of this study was to develop a theory-based program for Chinese early adolescents in order to promote their sexual and reproductive health and to prevent HIV infection. The program was designed based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and a needs assessment among the stakeholders. A technical collaborative action research approach was applied. The study's participants were 102 early adolescents in a public middle school in mainland China, with the involvement of other key stakeholders, including 15 teachers and 12 parents. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in the scores of sexual and reproductive health promotion and HIV prevention information, motivation, and behavioral skills after the program's implementation. Meanwhile, qualitative data from the early adolescents' reflection indicated that the content was useful and comprehensive, the trainers were friendly and knowledgeable, and participatory learning with an "edutainment" style was especially impressive. Additionally, the early adolescents expressed that they could apply the knowledge and skills in their daily life, which would benefit themselves and their family and peers. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model could be explored in a non-Western context and the program was shown to be acceptable for use in a Chinese middle school setting.
Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.
Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…
Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Garrett, Judy; Ross, Chip
This study assessed the effectiveness of a worksite wellness program. A within-group study design was conducted. Assessment was based on 3737 continuously employed workers at a large agribusiness during 2007-2009. More than 80% of employees participated in the program, with a higher percentage of women participating. Clinically significant improvements occurred in those who were underweight, those with high systolic or diastolic blood pressure, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein, low high-density lipoprotein, high triglycerides, and high glucose. Among obese employee participants, significant improvements occurred in selected mental health and dietary variables. Among those who lowered their BMI, significant decrease occurred in fat intake, and significant increase resulted in weekly aerobic exercise and feelings of calmness and peace, happiness, ability to cope with stress, and more physical energy.
Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Zehan Shahnaz; Rasheedy, Alian A L; Aljadhey, Hisham
The present study aims to explore the perceptions and understanding of future pharmacists towards volunteerism in health promotional activities. The study was designed as a cross sectional, descriptive survey. All pharmacy undergraduates (n = 293) from the first, second and third professional years enrolled at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia were targeted for the study. A pre validated, 15-itemed questionnaire was used for data collection and was analysed by using SPSS. Dichotomous groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate the trend of association. Where significant associations were reported, effect size was calculated by using Kendall tau correlation coefficient. p value of <0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance. Out of 200 respondents, 185 completed the study with a response rate of 92.5 %. Agreement with mandatory status of volunteerism at community services was significant with gender (p = 0.003) and year of study (p = 0.045). Confidence in performing health promotional activities (p = 0.001, τ = 0.155) and needed communication skills during health promotional activities (p = 0.022, τ = 0.322) were also significantly associated with year of study with a moderate positive trend from junior to senior classes. Although pharmacy undergraduates showed positive interest and will to volunteer at the health promotional programs, certain issues were also highlighted. Therefore, in order to address these challenges, pharmacy curriculum needs to include a greater emphasis on role of pharmacists in public health. This can be achieved by having a dedicated core course as part of pharmacy curriculum.
Lindqvist, Olav; Tishelman, Carol
Introduction: Public health approaches to end-of-life (EoL) research and care are relatively rare in Sweden, and health-promoting palliative care (HPPC) remains a foreign concept for most. We recently consolidated our HPPC endeavors into a cohesive research program, DöBra, to promote constructive change and awareness to support better quality of life and death among the general population, in specific sub-groups, and in interventions directed to professional groups caring for dying individuals, their friends and families. Objectives: In this article, we aim to share ideas, experiences, and reflections from the early stages of this research program, particularly in relation to how we try to work with new ‘publics’, to contribute to the development of HPPC as a new research field. Methods and Results: We discuss some considerations which arise in the Swedish context, and present the underlying ideas and approaches used in the research program, with examples of their application. HPPC, based on ideas from new public health, is essential as an umbrella for the DöBra program. Action research, experience-based co-design, and knowledge exchange, all aim to bring together a variety of stakeholders to exchange ideas and expertise, and co-create experience-based evidence through knowledge generation, dissemination, and sharing. Discussion: In reflecting on what we have learned about publics and partnerships in EoL research to date, we question distinctions made between professionals and publics, concluding that including publics in public health research, means also including ourselves and making public many of the reflections, the mistakes, and the experiences we all have, to foster collective learning. PMID:27134417
Prasodjo, Rachmalina; Musadad, D Anwar; Muhidin, Salut; Pardosi, Jerico; Silalahi, Maria
Families in the Timor society of Indonesia have customarily used traditional houses, called Ume Kbubu, for confinement practices of a newborn baby and the mother during the first 40 days after birth. The practice, known as Sei (smoke) tradition, involves retaining heat, which is believed to foster healing, inside the house by continuously burning a wood burning stove. Exacerbated by inadequate ventilation in the traditional house, this practice results in poor indoor air quality and negatively affects the health of the mother and baby. Preliminary findings from a baseline study conducted in 2009 identified high levels of indoor air pollution in Ume Kbubu where mothers practiced the Sei tradition. Many respondents expressed that they suffered from respiratory health problems during the practice. On the basis of those results, a follow-up study was conducted in 2011 to develop and test a communication-focused behavior change intervention that would foster conversion of traditional houses into healthy Ume Kbubu and promote changes to traditional practices for better health outcomes. The study suggests that redesigning an Ume Kbubu house could promote better air quality inside the house and involving the community in the health intervention program led to positive changes in the Sei practice (i.e., decreasing the Sei period's length from 40 days to 4 days on average and attempting to reduce household air pollution). The study resulted in several recommendations in relation to sustained transformation to improve health behaviors.
Leininger, Lisa Janzen
The worksite can be an effective arena to elicit health behavior change. Worksite health promotion programs now exist in 90% of all companies with more than 50 employees. These programs have become prevalent due to the high rates of obesity and lifestyle related diseases that are present in the United States. The purpose of this study was to…
Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S.
We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers. PMID:19339644
Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Wray, Linda A; Treviño, Roberto P; Hernandez, Arthur E; Yin, Zenong; Ulbrecht, Jan S
We investigated whether barriers to onsite parental involvement in the Bienestar Health Program Parent Component could be identified and whether participation rates could be increased by addressing these barriers. All nonparticipating parents of fourth-grade students of San Antonio Independent School District from 4 schools, which were selected randomly from 20 intervention schools in Bienestar, were invited to take part in this study. A total of 47 of 223 (21%) parents engaged in one of four focus groups offered. Parents identified barriers to their involvement in Bienestar that fit into five descriptive categories: (a) low value, (b) high cost, (c) competing family demands, (d) concerns about the program design, and (e) social role norms. The Bienestar Parent Component was then modified according to the focus group findings, which resulted in a marked increase in parental involvement from 17% to 37% overall. These findings suggest that even when parents are involved in the initial design of parent-friendly and culturally sensitive programs, as was the case for Bienestar, maximizing parental involvement may require additional assessment, identification, and remediation of barriers.
Hendrickson, Gayle A.
This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…
Engels, Hermann-J; Gretebeck, Randall J; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Jiménez, Linda
This study examined the effectiveness of a unique extracurricular after-school initiative designed to promote healthy diets and exercise in urban African Americans. The Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit after-school program was offered for 12 weeks to students and their parents/guardians at an urban middle school. Specific aims of the intervention were to increase participants' vegetable and fruit intake by using established 5 A Day for Better Health educational resource materials/activities and to affect their health-related fitness through dance, games, and fitness activities. Fifty-six children and 25 parents/guardians completed a standard battery of evaluations before and after the program. Pre-post pairwise t test revealed that both children and their parents/guardians showed an increase in fruit consumption and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P <.05). Moreover, children showed improvements in systolic blood pressure and fruit juice, salad, and nonfried potato consumption while parents/guardians showed a decrease in body fat, body mass index, and endurance walk/run time (P <.05). Overall, findings indicate that children tended to gain more diet-related benefits while parents/guardians tended to derive more fitness-related benefits. After-school programs like the Students and Parents Actively Involved in Being Fit initiative can potentially contribute to improved health levels in urban African Americans.
Dattalo, M; Wise, M; Ford Ii, J H; Abramson, B; Mahoney, J
As of October 2016, use of federal Older Americans Act funds for health promotion and disease prevention will be restricted to the Administration on Aging's criteria for high-level evidence-based health promotion programs. Dissemination of these programs to rural communities remains limited. Therefore a strong need exists to identify strategies that facilitate program implementation and sustainability. The objective of this study was to compare organizational readiness and implementation strategies used by rural communities that achieved varying levels of success in sustaining evidence-based health promotion programs for older adults. We utilized a qualitative multi-site case study design to analyze the longitudinal experiences of eight rural sites working to implement evidence-based health promotion program over 3 years (8/2012-7/2015). Multiple sources of data (interviews, documents, reports, surveys) from each site informed the analysis. We used conventional content analysis to conduct a cross-case comparison to identify common features of rural counties that successfully implemented and sustained their target evidence-based health promotion program. Readiness to implement evidence-based programs as low at baseline as all site leaders described needing to secure additional resources for program implementation. Sites that successfully utilized six essential resources implemented and sustained greater numbers of workshops: (1) External Partnerships, (2) Agency Leadership Commitment, (3) Ongoing Source of Workshop Leaders, (4) Health Promotion Coordination Tasks Assigned to Specific Staff, (5) Organizational Stability, and (6) Change Team Engagement. The six essential resources described in this study can help rural communities assess their readiness to implement health promotion programs and work secure the resources necessary for successful implementation.
Reflecting the current international trends toward proactive risk assessment and control at work with practical procedures, participatory action-oriented approaches are gaining importance in various sectors. The roles of these approaches in promoting the safety and health at work are discussed based on their recent experiences in preventing work-related risks and improving the quality of work life, particularly in small-scale workplaces. The emphasis placed on the primary prevention at the initiative of workers and managers is commonly notable. Participatory steps, built on local good practices, can lead to many workplace improvements when the focus is on locally feasible low-cost options in multiple aspects. The design and use of locally adjusted action toolkits play a key role in facilitating these improvements in each local situation. The effectiveness of participatory approaches relying on these toolkits is demonstrated by their spread to many sectors and by various intervention studies. In the local context, networks of trainers are essential in sustaining the improvement activities. With the adequate support of networks of trainers trained in the use of these toolkits, participatory approaches will continue to be the key factor for proactive risk management in various work settings.
Ross, Levi; Gwede, Clement K.
The barbershop has been portrayed as a culturally appropriate venue for reaching Black men with health information and preventive health screenings to overcome institutional and socio-cultural barriers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the peer-reviewed literature on barbershop-based health programs to provide lessons learned for researchers and practitioners. A literature search was conducted to identify articles for the review. Inclusion criteria specified that studies had to be based in the United States and reported about research where barbers were either being assessed for the feasibility of their participation or recruited to administer health education/screening outreach or research activities. The literature search produced 901 unique bibliographic records from peer-reviewed publications. After eliminating articles not meeting the inclusion criteria, 35 articles remained for full-text review. The final article sample consisted of 16 articles for complete abstraction to assess characteristics of studies, role and training of barbers, outcomes targeted, effectiveness, and key findings. All barbershop-based studies reviewed targeted Black men in urban settings. Common study designs were cross-sectional studies, feasibility studies, needs assessments, and one-shot case studies. Barber administered interventions addressed primarily prostate cancer and hypertension, and barbers provided health education, screening, and referrals to health care. Nonintervention studies focused mostly on surveying or interviewing barbers for assessing the feasibility of future interventions. Barbershops are a culturally appropriate venue for disseminating health education materials in both print and media formats. Barbershops are also acceptable venues for training barbers to conduct education and screening. In studies where barbers received training, their knowledge of various health conditions increased significantly and knowledge gains were sustained over time. They
Babazadeh, Towhid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Allahverdipour, Hamid
Background: Health promoting schools (HPS) project is currently being used in Iran but many challenges still lie ahead. The present study aimed, to test feasibility of implementing a comprehensive advocacy program (CAP) to overcome the obstacles and problems associated with the consummation of school health programs based on the HPS framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through recruiting all schools that were enrolled in the national HPS program and located in Jolfa as the intervention group and all of the schools situated in the East Azerbaijan province as control. In order to collect data, Iranian Ministry of Health’s checklists and external audit guidelines for HPS were utilized. In addition, to plan a CAP required data for coordinating fund raising activities including current rules and regulations regarding implementation of local health promotion interventions were collected. Results: Findings of the study revealed that the implemented CAP had improved all HPS dimensions’ mean score in the intervention group. The observed change in the pre- and post-test score in the intervention group was significant (P < 0.05). The intervention was also successful in encouraging signing of an agreement among the participated organizations to be committed to pursue the adopted policies in facilitation of progress towards full implementation of the local HPS project. Conclusion: Commencing changes in the recruited schools’ structure through coordinated multi-level activities is feasible and this must be considered as a priority where contextual determinants exist to motivate progress towards providing healthier educational settings for school aged children in Iran. PMID:28058237
Social isolation and disengagement fragments local communities. Evidence indicates that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. Research to identify approaches to best address this is needed. Football United is a program that aims to foster social inclusion and cohesion in areas with high refugee settlement in New South Wales, Australia, through skills and leadership development, mentoring, and the creation of links with local community and corporate leaders and organisations. The Social Cohesion through Football study's broad goal is to examine the implementation of a complex health promotion program, and to analyse the processes involved in program implementation. The study will consider program impact on individual health and wellbeing, social inclusion and cohesion, as well as analyse how the program by necessity interacts and adapts to context during implementation, a concept we refer to as plasticity. The proposed study will be the first prospective cohort impact study to our knowledge to assess the impact of a comprehensive integrated program using football as a vehicle for fostering social inclusion and cohesion in communities with high refugee settlement. Methods/design A quasi-experimental cohort study design with treatment partitioning involving four study sites. The study employs a 'dose response' model, comparing those with no involvement in the Football United program with those with lower or higher levels of participation. A range of qualitative and quantitative measures will be used in the study. Study participants' emotional well being, resilience, ethnic identity and other group orientation, feelings of social inclusion and belonging will be measured using a survey instrument complemented by relevant data drawn from in-depth interviews, self reporting measures and participant observation. The views of key informants from the program and the wider community will also be solicited. Discussion
Glass, Thomas A; Freedman, Marc; Carlson, Michelle C; Hill, Joel; Frick, Kevin D; Ialongo, Nick; McGill, Sylvia; Rebok, George W; Seeman, Teresa; Tielsch, James M; Wasik, Barbara A; Zeger, Scott; Fried, Linda P
Population aging portends a crisis of resources and values. Desired solutions could include intergenerational strategies to harness the untapped potential of older adults to address societal needs and to generate health improvements for older adults. Despite the desire of many older adults to remain socially engaged and productive, the creation of productive roles has lagged. This report describes the conceptual framework and major design features of a new model of health promotion for older adults called Experience Corps. Experience Corps operates at, and leads to benefits across, multiple levels, including individuals, schools, and the larger community. At the individual level, we propose a model based on Erikson's concept of generativity to explain how and why Experience Corps works. At the level of schools, we propose a parallel model based on social capital. Experience Corps is a volunteer service program designed to improve the lives of urban children and to yield health improvement for older persons. It illustrates how population aging creates new opportunities to address difficult social problems. This article explores how the linkage of concepts at multiple levels motivates a potentially cost-effective, feasible, and high-impact program.
Moeti, M R
The underlying factors of poverty, migration, marginalization, lack of information and skills, disempowerment, and poor access to services which affect HIV/STD risk are also closely related to those which affect sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive health problems include unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related illness and death, and STDs including HIV/AIDS. This interrelationship between factors is leading increasingly to the integration of HIV/STD education and prevention within the broader framework of sexual and reproductive health promotion. Such intervention allows the possible reinforcement of the impact of interventions upon important underlying factors and behaviors linked to individual, family, and community vulnerability to HIV/STDs as well as other reproductive health problems. Integration will also optimize the use of increasingly scarce resources and increase the likelihood of responses, interventions, and programs being sustainable. Sexual and reproductive health, placing HIV/STD prevention into context, and focus upon men are discussed.
Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L
Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final
Kelder, Steven H.; And Others
Minnesota Heart Health Program involved a project to reduce cardiovascular disease via school-based physical activity and health promotion. Researchers took seven annual waves of measurements from sixth graders in intervention and control communities. Results indicate school behavioral education together with community strategies can produce…
Roberts, Meagan; Lobo, Roanna; Sorenson, Anne
Issue addressed: Rates of sexually transmissible infections among young people are high, and there is a need for innovative, youth-focused sexual health promotion programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Sharing Stories youth theatre program, which uses interactive theatre and drama-based strategies to engage and educate multicultural youth on sexual health issues. The effectiveness of using drama-based evaluation methods is also discussed.Methods: The youth theatre program participants were 18 multicultural youth from South East Asian, African and Middle Eastern backgrounds aged between 14 and 21 years. Four sexual health drama scenarios and a sexual health questionnaire were used to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes.Results: Participants reported being confident talking to and supporting their friends with regards to safe sex messages, improved their sexual health knowledge and demonstrated a positive shift in their attitudes towards sexual health. Drama-based evaluation methods were effective in engaging multicultural youth and worked well across the cultures and age groups.Conclusions: Theatre and drama-based sexual health promotion strategies are an effective method for up-skilling young people from multicultural backgrounds to be peer educators and good communicators of sexual health information. Drama-based evaluation methods are engaging for young people and an effective way of collecting data from culturally diverse youth.So what?: This study recommends incorporating interactive and arts-based strategies into sexual health promotion programs for multicultural youth. It also provides guidance for health promotion practitioners evaluating an arts-based health promotion program using arts-based data collection methods.
Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985
Three articles suggest that the roots of health promotion in business and industry extend back into the early twentieth century: (1) "Health Programs of Business Concerns" (Schirmer); (2) "Teach Health, Not Disease" (Bauer); and (3) "A Leader in Health Education: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company" (Means). (CB)
Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B
Love has consequences for health and well-being. Engaging in joyful activities such as love may activate areas in the brain responsible for emotion, attention, motivation and memory (i.e., limbic structures), and it may further serve to control the autonomic nervous system, i.e., stress reduction. This specific CNS activity pattern appears to exert protective effects, even on the brain itself. Moreover, anxiolytic effects of pleasurable experiences may occur by promotion of an inhibitory tone in specific areas of the brain. Thus, love and pleasure clearly are capable of stimulating health, well-being and (re)productivity: This wonderful biological instrument makes procreation and maintenance of organisms and their species a deeply rewarding and pleasurable experience, thus ensuring survival, health, and perpetuation.
Wang-Schweig, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Altfeld, Susan J; Miller, Arlene M; Miller, Brenda A
The debate on the effectiveness and merit for the amount of time, effort, and resources to culturally adapt health promotion and prevention programs continues. This may be due, in large part, to the lack of theory in commonly used methods to match programmatic content and delivery to the culture of a population, particularly at the deep structural level. This paper asserts that prior to the cultural adaptation of prevention programs, it is necessary to first develop a conceptual framework. We propose a multiphase approach to address key challenges in the science of cultural adaptation by first identifying and exploring relevant cultural factors that may affect the targeted health-related behavior prior to proceeding through steps of a stage model. The first phase involves developing an underlying conceptual framework that integrates cultural factors to ground this process. The second phase employs the different steps of a stage model. For Phase I of our approach, we offer four key steps and use our research study as an example of how these steps were applied to build a framework for the cultural adaptation of a family-based intervention to prevent adolescent alcohol use, Guiding Good Choices (GGC), to Chinese American families. We then provide a summary of the preliminary evidence from a few key relationships that were tested among our sample with the greater purpose of discussing how these findings might be used to culturally adapt GGC.
Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Jessen, Cornelia; Gorman, Gwenda; Torres, Jennifer; Lambert, William E; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Miller, Leslie; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Addy, Robert C; Peskin, Melissa F; Shegog, Ross
Background American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth face multiple health challenges compared to other racial/ethnic groups, which could potentially be ameliorated by the dissemination of evidence-based adolescent health promotion programs. Previous studies have indicated that limited trained personnel, cultural barriers, and geographic isolation may hinder the reach and implementation of evidence-based health promotion programs among AI/AN youth. Although Internet access is variable in AI/AN communities across the United States, it is swiftly and steadily improving, and it may provide a viable strategy to disseminate evidence-based health promotion programs to this underserved population. Objective We explored the potential of using the Internet to disseminate evidence-based health promotion programs on multiple health topics to AI/AN youth living in diverse communities across 3 geographically dispersed regions of the United States. Specifically, we assessed the Internet’s potential to increase the reach and implementation of evidence-based health promotion programs for AI/AN youth, and to engage AI/AN youth. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 25 participating sites in Alaska, Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. Predominantly AI/AN youth, aged 12-14 years, accessed 6 evidence-based health promotion programs delivered via the Internet, which focused on sexual health, hearing loss, alcohol use, tobacco use, drug use, and nutrition and physical activity. Adult site coordinators completed computer-based education inventory surveys, connectivity and bandwidth testing to assess parameters related to program reach (computer access, connectivity, and bandwidth), and implementation logs to assess barriers to implementation (program errors and delivery issues). We assessed youths’ perceptions of program engagement via ratings on ease of use, understandability, credibility, likeability, perceived impact, and motivational appeal, using
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Background Health promotion programs (HPPs) are thought to improve health behavior and health, and their effectiveness is increasingly being studied. However, participation in HPPs is usually modest and effect sizes are often small. This study aims to (1) gain insight into the degree of participation of employees in HPPs, and (2) identify factors among employees that are associated with both their intention to participate and actual participation in HPPs. Methods Employees of two organizations were invited to participate in a six-month follow-up study (n = 744). Using questionnaires, information on participation in HPPs was collected in two categories: employees’ intention at baseline to participate and their actual participation in a HPP during the follow-up period. The following potential determinants were assessed at baseline: social-cognitive factors, perceived barriers and facilitators, beliefs about health at work, health behaviors, and self-perceived health. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics and organization, were used to examine associations between potential determinants and intention to participate, and to examine the effect of these determinants on actual participation during follow-up. Results At baseline, 195 employees (26%) expressed a positive intention towards participation in a HPP. During six months of follow-up, 83 employees (11%) actually participated. Participants positively inclined at baseline to participate in a HPP were more likely to actually participate (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.88-4.83). Privacy-related barriers, facilitators, beliefs about health at work, social-cognitive factors, and poor self-perceived health status were significantly associated with intention to participate. The odds of employees actually participating in a HPP were higher among participants who at baseline perceived participation to be expected by their colleagues and supervisor (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.17-7.02) and among those who said they
Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy
Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total
Bayarsaikhan, Dorjsuren; Nakamura, Keiko
Health promotion is receiving more attention in Mongolia. A survey is undertaken to examine health promotion in terms of health-related information, education, counseling, screening, preventive and medical checkups. Almost all (97.5%) of the subjects feel that access to reliable and systematically organized health-related information is important. About 60% of the subjects expressed that the amount of currently available information is inadequate. There are several factors that limit the implementation of public health programs. These include inadequate focus on promoting health at individual level, lack of funds, and limited incentives to promote health. This article examined social health insurance as an option to address these issues. Three hypothetical benefits package options expanded to health promotion were developed and simulated by a computerized tool. The simulations show that all 3 options are financially sustainable at the existing level of contribution if Mongolia will gain near universal health insurance coverage and improve revenue collection practices.
Barenfeld, Emmelie; Gustafsson, Susanne; Wallin, Lars; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher–community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70–83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration. PMID:26654636
Barenfeld, Emmelie; Gustafsson, Susanne; Wallin, Lars; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve
Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs) from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher-community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70-83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.
Tindale, Joseph A.
A researcher observed older adults participating in planning meetings and a Search Conference to identify community needs. Participants were successfully engaged in addressing important health and social needs. Participant observation was validated as a flexible, effective means of collecting data on older persons whose circumstances might make…
Marks, Beth; Sisirak, Jasmina; Heller, Tamar; Wagner, Mark
Health screenings conducted during Special Olympics competitions and games have consistently shown that a significant number of athletes with intellectual disabilities (IDs) were overweight or obese, and surveys have indicated that athletes need more fitness training than they receive from their sport practices. In 2002, Special Olympics initiated…
Aguiar, Fernando Henrique Rezende; Conceição, Maria Inês Gandolfo
This qualitative study investigates underprivileged students' perceptions of their future, their health, and the relevance of a career counseling process. Interviews regarding career guidance were conducted during a workshop with nine eleventh-grade students from a public high school in Brazil's capital. The data were analyzed according to…
Bartholomew, L. Kay; And Others
Social learning theory formed the basis of a program to develop self-management skills in cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies for practical learning activities for patients and their families included goal setting, reinforcement, modeling, skill training, and self-monitoring. (SK)
Burke, Julie A.; And Others
This study examined a smoking intervention program, which employed group competitions with rewards, to determine its effects on adolescents' smoking-relevant beliefs, their subjective norms, and peer influence. Initially, 1,187 seventh graders in Burlington, Clinton, and Muscatine, Iowa were surveyed in 1984. Data were gathered from a re-survey…
Espada, Jose P; Escribano, Silvia; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia
The aim is to evaluate the effects of the Competencias para adolescentes con una sexualidad saludable (COMPAS) program and compare them with an evidence-based program (¡Cuídate!) and a control group (CG). Eighteen public high schools were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions. Initially, 1,563 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 16 years of age participated, and 24 months after their implementation, 635 of them completed a survey. Self-report measures collected data on sexual behavior, knowledge, attitudes, intention, sexual risk perception, and perceived norm. Compared to the CG, COMPAS increased the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and improved the attitudes toward people living with human immunodeficiency virus at the 2-year follow-up. Neither intervention had a long-term impact on behavioral variables. Results suggest that COMPAS has a comparable impact to the other intervention on the variables predicting consistent condom use. Reinforcing the messages and skills that have the greatest impact on condom use and adding booster sessions following program completion as strategies to maintain long-term effects are necessary.
Moy, Foong Ming; Ab Sallam, Atiya; Wong, Mee Lian
Lifestyle modification is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was a quasi-experimental trial with a follow up of two years. The intervention group (n = 102) received intensive individual and group counselling on diet and physical activity. The comparison group (n = 84) was given minimal education through mail and group counselling. Following the intervention, both groups reduced their total fat intake through a replacement in carbohydrate intake. The saturated fat and cholesterol intake was also reduced with a larger magnitude in the intervention group. Fruits and vegetables consumption was increased within the intervention group. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% C.I. = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. This study has achieved moderate improvement in dietary intakes as well as the total cholesterol of the participants.
Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose
Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159
Holliday, Jo; Audrey, Suzanne; Campbell, Rona; Moore, Laurence
Methods used to select opinion leaders for informal behavior change interventions vary, affecting the role they adopt and the outcomes of interventions. The development of successful identification methods requires evidence that these methods achieve their aims. This study explored whether the "whole community" nomination process used in the ASSIST smoking prevention program successfully identified "peer supporters" who were well placed within their school social networks to diffuse an antismoking message to their peers. Data were collected in the United Kingdom during A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial. Behavioral data were provided at baseline and post intervention by all students. Social network data were provided post intervention by students in four control and six intervention schools. Centrality measures calculated using UCINET demonstrate that the ASSIST nomination process successfully identified peer supporters who were more socially connected than others in their year and who had social connections across the entire year group including the program's target group. The results indicate that three simple questions can identify individuals who are held in high esteem by their year group and who also have the interpersonal networks required of opinion leaders to successfully disseminate smoke-free messages through their social networks. This approach could be used in other informal health promotion initiatives.
Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra
This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Loesch-Griffin, Deborah A.; And Others
A report is given of the problems and successes of an evaluation team engaged in examining a 9-year community research demonstration project. The project, the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program, was designed to develop effective health education programs and to institutionalize these programs through community organizations so that they are…
Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Jaswal, Nidhi; Grover, Ashoo
Context: Health promotion (HP) has been an integral part of all national programs although it has been a low priority in India, which has resulted in a failure to achieve the desired results. Settings and Design: Situation analysis of information education communication (IEC)/behavior change communication (BCC)/HP activities within the existing national health programs was undertaken in the district of Hoshiarpur in Punjab and the district of Ambala in Haryana during 2013-14. Materials and Methods: Facility-based assessments were done by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, program officers, medical officers, health workers, and counselors. Household survey (332 individuals) and exit interview (102 interviews) were conducted to assess the knowledge of the community regarding key risk factors. Results: There was a high vacancy in the mass media division with 40% (2 out of 5) and 89% (8 out of 9) of the sanctioned positions vacant in Hoshiarpur and Ambala, respectively, with low capacity of staff and budget. There was no annual calendar, logbook of activities with poor recording of IEC material received and disseminated. The knowledge of community members regarding key risk factors such as tobacco use, salt intake, blood pressure level, anemia, and tuberculosis was 77.3%, 26.4%, 16.4%, 32.7%, and 91.8%, respectively, in the district of Ambala as compared to 77.5%, 37.5%, 33.3%, 25.8%, and 88.3%, respectively, in the district of Hoshiarpur. The village health and sanitation committee (VHSC) in the district of Hoshiarpur and village level core committee (VLCC) in the district of Ambala were found to be nonfunctional with no Iec/Bcc activities in the covered villages in the last month. Monitoring and supervision of Iec/Bcc activities were poor in both the districts. Conclusions: Iec/Bcc/HP is a neglected area in national health programs in the selected districts with inadequate budget, human resources with poor implementation, and requires strengthening for
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers' and daughters' reaction to the word "cancer" specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to the term "cancer." We found that most South African mothers and daughters had a fear-based attitude toward the illness. When we asked mothers what they immediately thought of upon hearing "cancer," a majority of women (69%) thought of death, and another 43% thought of suffering and the detrimental consequences of the illness. Similarly, 50% of the daughters also thought of death, and 42% thought of the detrimental aspects of cancer. Fatalistic attitudes and negative emotional reactions have important implications in cancer prevention and need to be addressed within a public health context.
Northridge, Mary E; Kum, Susan S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Greenblatt, Ariel Port; Marshall, Stephen E; Wang, Hua; Kunzel, Carol; Metcalf, Sara S
This study extends the concept of third places to include community sites where older adults gather, often for meals or companionship. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided program implementation and evaluation. Depending upon health promotion program needs, the physical infrastructure of a site is important, but a supportive director (champion) can often overcome identified deficits. Senior centers may be locally classified into four types based upon eligibility requirements of residents in affiliated housing and services offered. Participants who attend these centers differ in important ways across types by most sociodemographic as well as certain health and health care characteristics.
Sclafane, Jamie Heather
Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14-to 17-year-old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context, a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them, and future implications for…
Sclafane, Jamie Heather
Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14 to 17 year old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context; a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them; and future implications for its use.
Pelletier, Kenneth R.
Reviewed clinical- and cost-effectiveness studies, including quasi-experimental studies, of comprehensive, multifactorial worksite health promotion programs. Searching such sources as MEDLINE, ERIC, and ADI identified 15 studies. Results suggest that providing individualized risk reduction for high- risk employees within the context of…
Mistry, Kamila B.; Minkovitz, Cynthia S.; Riley, Anne W.; Johnson, Sara B.; Grason, Holly A.; Dubay, Lisa C.; Guyer, Bernard
Although the connection between early life experiences and later health is becoming increasingly clear, what is needed, now, is a new organizing framework for childhood health promotion, grounded in the latest science. We review the evidence base to identify the steps in the overall pathway to ensuring better health for all children. A key factor in optimizing health in early childhood is building capacities of parents and communities. Although often overlooked, capacities are integral to building the foundations of lifelong health in early childhood. We outline a framework for policymakers and practitioners to guide future decision-making and investments in early childhood health promotion. PMID:22813416
Hong, Kyungeui; Gittelsohn, Joel; Joung, Hyojee
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of personal characteristics and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to participate in a restaurant health promotion program. In total, 830 adults residing in Seoul were sampled by a multi-stage cluster and random sampling design. Data were collected from a structured self-administered questionnaire, which covered variables concerning demographics, health status and TPB constructs including attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. A path analysis combining personal characteristics and TPB constructs was used to investigate determinants of the customers' intention. Positive and negative attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control directly affected the intention to participate. Demographics and health status both directly and indirectly affected the intention to participate. This study identifies personal characteristics and TPB constructs that are important to planning and implementing a restaurant health promotion program.
Holliday, Jo; Audrey, Suzanne; Campbell, Rona; Moore, Laurence
ABSTRACT Methods used to select opinion leaders for informal behavior change interventions vary, affecting the role they adopt and the outcomes of interventions. The development of successful identification methods requires evidence that these methods achieve their aims. This study explored whether the “whole community” nomination process used in the ASSIST smoking prevention program successfully identified “peer supporters” who were well placed within their school social networks to diffuse an antismoking message to their peers. Data were collected in the United Kingdom during A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial. Behavioral data were provided at baseline and post intervention by all students. Social network data were provided post intervention by students in four control and six intervention schools. Centrality measures calculated using UCINET demonstrate that the ASSIST nomination process successfully identified peer supporters who were more socially connected than others in their year and who had social connections across the entire year group including the program’s target group. The results indicate that three simple questions can identify individuals who are held in high esteem by their year group and who also have the interpersonal networks required of opinion leaders to successfully disseminate smoke-free messages through their social networks. This approach could be used in other informal health promotion initiatives. PMID:26699125
SUNDRAM, Bala Murali; DAHLUI, Maznah; CHINNA, Karuthan
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace. PMID:26726829
Sundram, Bala Murali; Dahlui, Maznah; Chinna, Karuthan
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace.
Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; Nery-Hurwit, Mara; Driver, Simon; MacDonald, Megan
The Health Education for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (HEMS) program was developed in response to the need for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It was developed and evaluated using Drum and colleagues (2009) guidelines for implementing health promotion programs for individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this feasibility study is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the HEMS program. Thirteen individuals with MS completed the 8-week health education program. A mixed method approach for evaluation was implemented (i.e., survey and focus groups). Process and resource feasibility demonstrated that over half of the participants attended at least 80% of the weekly sessions. Focus group data provided valuable feedback for future iterations of the program including critiques on the delivery, content, and group support provided. Outcome evaluation showed increases in self-efficacy (survey), improvements in theoretical constructs (focus groups), and increased physical activity (focus groups). Results show that health promotion programs for persons with MS can improve physical activity and related constructs. Next steps will be to revise, implement, and reevaluate the HEMS program in a larger randomized control trial.
López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J
The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice.
Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D
eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.
Ryan, Kelly M.
Health promotion of school faculty and staff is an important part of a coordinated school health program. The lack of evaluation of health promotion programs and inconsistent results highlighting the efficacy and benefits of programs adds to employers' perceptions of inconsistent benefits. More studies evaluating effectiveness and development of…
Chico-Jarillo, Tara M; Crozier, Athena; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Hutchens, Theresa; George, Miranda
Young people can be valuable motivational resources for health promotion. A project implemented from 2009 through 2013 in a small American Indian community in northwest Arizona recruited American Indian young people aged 10 to 21 as agents of change for health promotion through radio programming. Thirty-seven participants were recruited and trained in broadcasting and creative writing techniques; they produced and aired 3 radio dramas. In post-project evaluation, participants were confident they could influence community behaviors but thought that training techniques were too similar to those used in school activities and thus reduced their drive to engage. Effective engagement of young people requires creativity to enhance recruitment, retention, and impact.
McQueen, David V
Though not necessarily using the same terminology historically, people concerned with the public's health have long been addressing the social context of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the actions of promoting health. This commentary places the current interest in NCDs within that history and discusses the challenges that continue to face institutions in dealing with NCDs. It makes a particular plea for the role of health promotion as the area of public health that takes actions to address the global burden of NCDs. Without a health promotion focus, we will just continue to describe the NCD burden rather than reduce it.
Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Briggs, Paige D; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Forman, Daniel E; Cipriano, Gerson; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Lavie, Carl J
Given the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), increasing the prevalence of healthy lifestyle choices is a global imperative. Currently, cardiac rehabilitation programs are a primary way that modifiable risk factors are addressed in the secondary prevention setting after a cardiovascular (CV) event/diagnosis. Even so, there is wide consensus that primary prevention of CVD is an effective and worthwhile pursuit. Moreover, continual engagement with individuals who have already been diagnosed as having CVD would be beneficial. Implementing health and wellness programs in the workplace allows for the opportunity to continually engage a group of individuals with the intent of effecting a positive and sustainable change in lifestyle choices. Current evidence indicates that health and wellness programs in the workplace provide numerous benefits with respect to altering CV risk factor profiles in apparently healthy individuals and in those at high risk for or already diagnosed as having CVD. This review presents the current body of evidence demonstrating the efficacy of worksite health and wellness programs and discusses key considerations for the development and implementation of such programs, whose primary intent is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of CVD and to prevent subsequent CV events. Supporting evidence for this review was obtained from PubMed, with no date limitations, using the following search terms: worksite health and wellness, employee health and wellness, employee health risk assessments, and return on investment. The choice of references to include in this review was based on study quality and relevance.
Hirschhorn, Joel S
Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.
Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Bryan; Darby, Anita; Nillson, Jodi; Quirk, Frances; Owen, Cathy
Attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) were compared among young adult women at low risk of an eating disorder (n = 332), at high risk (n = 83), or already showing symptoms (n = 94). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included a measure of eating disorder symptoms. A vignette of a fictional person suffering from BN was presented, followed by a series of questions addressing the nature and treatment of the problem described. High-risk and symptomatic participants were more likely than low-risk participants to report that they would not approach anyone for advice or help, were they to have BN or a similar problem, because they would not want anyone to know. Symptomatic participants were more likely to believe that someone with BN would be discriminated against, more likely to consider bulimic behaviors to be acceptable, and more likely to view BN as being common among women in the community, than low-risk participants, participants in the high-risk group being intermediate on each of these questions. The findings suggest that the attitudes and beliefs of individuals with eating disorder symptoms differ systematically from those of individuals at high risk, but who do not yet have symptoms, and from those at low risk. They also indicate specific attitudes and beliefs that may need to be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs. The potential benefits of assessing individuals' attitudes and beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of eating-disordered behaviour and tailoring program content accordingly may be worthy of investigation.
Rosenstein, Alan H.
As industry, individuals, and insurance providers realize the benefits of disease prevention, the demand for information and services will grow. Health promotion activities should be tapered to individual needs and resource requirements of the institution planning the program. Programs should include screening procedures to identify underlying…
Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Linnan, Laura A; McLellan, Deborah L
Most American workplaces are smaller, with fewer than 1,000 employees. Many of these employees are low-wage earners and at increased risk for chronic diseases. Owing to the challenges smaller workplaces face to offering health-promotion programs, their employees often lack access to health-promotion opportunities available at larger workplaces. Many smaller employers do not offer health insurance, which is currently the major funding vehicle for health-promotion services. They also have few health-promotion vendors to serve them and low internal capacity for, and commitment to, delivery of on-site programs. The programs they offer, whether aimed at health promotion alone or integrated with health protection, are rarely comprehensive and are understudied. Research priorities for health promotion in smaller workplaces include developing programs feasible for the smallest workplaces with fewer than 20 employees. Policy priorities include incentives for smaller workplaces to implement comprehensive programs and an ongoing system for monitoring and evaluation.
Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305
Hahn, Robert A; Truman, Benedict I
This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health - an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits.
Teal, Randall; Moore, Alexis A; Long, Debra G; Vines, Anissa I; Leeman, Jennifer
Despite a growing body of evidence concerning effective approaches to increasing breast cancer screening, the gap between research and practice continues. The North Carolina Breast Cancer Screening Program (NC-BCSP) is an example of an evidence-based intervention that uses trained lay health advisors (LHA) to promote breast cancer screening. Partnerships that link academic researchers knowledgeable about specific evidence-based programs with community-based practitioners offer a model for increasing their use. This article describes a partnership between CrossWorks, Inc., a community-based organization, and the UNC-CH Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center in planning and implementing an evidence-based program for promoting breast cancer screening among older African American women in rural eastern North Carolina communities. We used in-depth interviews to explore the relationship of the partnership to the activities that were undertaken to launch the evidence-based program.
Carter, Stacy M
Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.
The recognition that health is intimately related to economic status, education, physical living conditions, culture, history, issues of gender and human rights, the level of peace and safety, and the life people live, is not entirely new. The health sector has been making its way towards this position for a very long time. The literature describes recognition of the connection between living conditions and health status from the early 19th century. To ensure that people live in societies that create health, there is a need to first recognize the following: that there are multiple and diverse forces within society which create or undermine health; and that most of the factors which are essential for a healthy community reside outside the formal health sector. Action to create healthy societies with healthy people then must tap multiple power sources and involve broad collaboration and alliances. The health promotion strategies of the Caribbean Health Promotion Charter and the Ottawa Charter are outlined. Some of these strategies include the establishment of public policies on health, creation of supportive environments, empowerment of communities through community action, promotion of personal health skills, reorientation of health services, and the need to create alliances. The health promotion is an approach, which respects people's rights to healthy living and is based on the recognition that health is the result of an interconnection between all aspects of life. The strategy can best be achieved through full participation of the various sectors, interest groups and communities in a society.
Meng, Hongdao; Wamsley, Brenda; Liebel, Diane; Dixon, Denise; Eggert, Gerald; Van Nostrand, Joan
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent health promotion and disease self-management intervention on physical function and health care expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries. To determine if these outcomes vary by urban or rural residence. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from a 22-month randomized controlled trial of a health…
Austin, David R.
Describes the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model of therapeutic recreation, highlighting its underlying concepts: the humanistic perspective, high-level wellness, the stabilization and actualization tendencies, and health. Describes components of the model (prescribed activities, recreation, and leisure), discusses utilization of the model…
Fridinger, Fred; Dehart, Beverly
Describes treatment program at Charter Hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, which incorporates comprehensive medical examination, fitness and nutritional screenings, and appropriate exercise activities into alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Notes that educational sessions are offered on health fitness, risk reduction, stress management,…
Stewart, Kerry J.; And Others
Reports a study that compared a program of nutrition education guided by social learning theory with a more traditional teaching approach for elementary students. Pretests and posttests of students' nutrition knowledge and behavior and physical health indicated that children in both groups showed similar improvements. (SM)
Uses Chaim Perelman's theories of argumentation to examine a recent Institute of Medicine report, "Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research" (2000). Notes that it focuses on social, economic, behavioral, and political health as a means of assuring population health--and thereby expands the…
Green, Lawrence W.; And Others
In this article, human ecology is defined; its historical and intellectual roots are traced through various disciplines to its applications in public health and health promotion today; its strengths and limitations are described; some potential contributions to systems theory are suggested; and some emerging ecological models of health promotion…
Mustanski, Brian; Greene, George J; Ryan, Daniel; Whitton, Sarah W
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience multiple sexual health inequities driven, in part, by deficits in parental and peer support, school-based sex education programs, and community services. Research suggests that the Internet may be an important resource in the development of sexual health among LGBT youth. We examined the feasibility of recruiting youth in same-sex relationships into an online sexual health intervention, evaluated intervention acceptability, and obtained initial estimates of intervention efficacy. LGBT youth (16 to 20 years old) completed Queer Sex Ed (QSE), an online, multimedia sexual health intervention consisting of five modules. The final sample (N = 202) completed the pretest, intervention, and posttest assessments. The primary study outcomes were sexual orientation identity and self-acceptance (e.g., coming-out self-efficacy), sexual health knowledge (e.g., sexual functioning), relationship variables (e.g., communication skills), and safer sex (e.g., sexual assertiveness). Analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 outcomes were found to be significant (p < .05). Effect sizes ranged from small for sexual orientation (e.g., internalized homophobia) and relationship variables (e.g., communication skills) to moderate for safer sex (e.g., contraceptive knowledge) outcomes. This study demonstrated the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of QSE, an innovative online comprehensive sexual health program for LGBT youth.
Feldman, Robert H. L.
By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)
Billings, Douglas W; Hersch, Rebekah K; Back, Anita S; Hendrickson, April
Background Most work sites engage in some form of health promotion programming designed to improve worker health and reduce health care costs. Although these programs have typically been delivered through combinations of seminars and print materials, workplace health promotion programs are increasingly being delivered through the Internet. Objective The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based multimedia health promotion program for the workplace, designed to improve dietary practices, reduce stress, and increase physical activity. Methods Using a randomized controlled trial design with pretest-posttest comparisons within each group, 419 employees of a human resources company were randomly assigned to the Web-based condition or to a condition that provided print materials on the same topics. All subjects were assessed at pretest and posttest through an online questionnaire containing multiple measures of health behavior and attitudes. The test period was 3 months. Questionnaire data were analyzed mainly by analysis of covariance and t tests. Results Retention rates were good for both groups—85% for the Web-based group and 87% for the print group. Subjects using the Web-based program performed significantly better than the print group on Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F1,415 = 7.104, P = .008) and Dietary Stage of Change (F1,408 = 6.487, P = .01), but there were no significant group differences on the five other dietary measures. Both groups also showed improvement from pretest to posttest on most dietary measures, as indicated by significant t tests. Within the Web-based group, dosage analyses showed significant effects of the number of times the subject accessed the program on measures of Dietary Self-Efficacy (F2,203 = 5.270, P = .003), Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet (F2,204 = 2.585, P = .045), and Dietary Stage of Change (F2,200 = 4.627, P = .005). No significant differences were found between the two groups on measures
Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah
The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.
South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.
Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun
Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and
Dombrowski, Jill J; Snelling, Anastasia M; Kalicki, Michelle
Health promotion practice has evolved over the past four decades in response to the rising rates of chronic disease. The focus of health promotion is attaining wellness by managing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet, or physical activity. Occupational health nurses are often asked to conduct worksite health promotion programs for individuals or groups, yet may be unfamiliar with evidence-based strategies. Occupational health nurses should lead interprofessional groups in designing and implementing worksite health promotion programs. This article introduces occupational health nurses to health promotion concepts and discusses evidence-based theories and planning models that can be easily introduced into practice.
Hodges, Bonni C
The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.
Magner, Antoinette; Phillipi, Carrie Anne
In the United States, many women stop breastfeeding within the first month that they return to work. Working mothers experience challenges in maintaining milk supply and finding the time and space to express breast milk or feed their babies in workplace settings. Changing attitudes and culture within the workplace may be accomplished in conjunction with ensuring compliance with state and federal laws regarding breastfeeding to improve breastfeeding rates after return to work. Employee wellness programs can be 1 avenue to promote breastfeeding and human milk donation as healthy behaviors.
Each year, the Shils Fund recognizes outstanding activities that help improve oral health. The program is named in memory of Dr. Edward B. Shils, who led the Dental Manufacturers of America and Dental Dealers of America for more than 50 years. A 2010 Shils Award will be given to an innovative school health initiative called Fit For Schools Program (FFSP) in the Philippines. Such recognition in the US indicates the lessons that can be learned from a program initially tailored for another country. Health in a highly industrialized nation can be enhanced by heeding the FFSP principles used to craft an effective health promotion initiative. This evidence-based intervention is not exclusively an oral health initiative; it is an integration with other evidence-based health interventions and models a sustainable public-private partnership to advance positive health outcomes in socially responsible entrepreneurial ways. As the editor of this column in Compendium, I wish to applaud both leaders of FFSP: Dr. Habib Benzian and Dr. Bella Monse. The following article was written by the senior advisor, Dr. Benzian, who modestly refers to the program's receipt of another award from the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, and the World Health Organization in 2009. To my knowledge, the presentation of that award was the first time a health promotion project led by dentists has ever received such high-level global recognition and was one of three projects so recognized for innovative solutions to global health in that year.
Discusses how mentoring in health promotion differs from other key support roles, noting what the underlying rationale is behind mentoring, how a mentoring program should be designed, what the historical and theoretical roots of mentoring are, and what strategies mentors can use to be more effective. A research agenda for the mentoring approach is…
Nader, Philip R.; Rissel, Chris; Rowling, Louise; Marshall, Bernard J.; Sheehan, Margaret M.; Northfield, Jeff R.; Maher, Shelley; Carlisle, Rachel; St. Leger, Lawrence H.; Stewart, Donald E.; Parker, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Amaya; Stokes, Helen; Mukherjee, Dev; Nutbeam, Don; Mitchell, Anne; Ollis, Debbie; Watson, Jan
Eight papers on Australia's school health programs discuss: creating health promoting schools in the United States; intersectoral collaboration for developing a national framework for health promoting schools; school-based health promotion nationwide; auditing health promoting schools policy documentation; the nature of health service/school…
Presents a model curriculum on health promotion and disease prevention for allied health students. Suggested program elements include (1) promoting personal health patterns, (2) fitting health promotion into daily routines, (3) using persuasion, (4) working with support groups and individuals, and (5) serving as a clearinghouse. (CH)
Mclntyre, L; Belzer, E G; Manchester, L; Blanchard, W; Officer, S; Simpson, A C
The Dartmouth Health Promotion Study was a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study with a qualitative research arm, designed to learn whether coordinating school health instruction, health services, and a healthful environment enhanced the program's effect on the heart health and mental health of children. The research strategy-the Coordinated Approach-was applied to approximately 300 children in each of two cohorts in grades four to six attending nine trial schools; a further 600 children attended 10 comparison schools in Dartmouth and nine distal comparison schools. Although the qualitative analysis demonstrated that positive feelings were engendered in most areas of the study, when either the classroom or the individual was used as the unit of analysis, the Coordinated Approach did not have a more favorable effect on the heart or mental health of children than did the standard school health program. Thus, the effect of an existing school health program was not directly enhanced through coordinating its components.
Bahraminejad, Nasrin; Ibrahim, Faisal; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hamzah, Azimi; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran
Community-based health promotion requires effective participation and partnership of diverse and numerous stakeholders from community as well as external professional organizations. Although effective partnership of stakeholders is often the key for success of health promotion practice and research, but this has proved to be a complex and challenging task. This study is an exploratory study to identify professional stakeholder's perspectives and experiences toward the partner's engagement challenges in community-based participatory research conducted in Population Research Centers in Iran. A qualitative study design with in-depth semi-structured interviews as data collection method was chosen. Using purposeful sampling technique, policy-makers and managers (mainly academics) involved in community-based participatory research in these centers were invited to be interviewed. Data were collected to the point where no new information was forthcoming. All interviews were taped and transcribed. To provide answers for research questions, qualitative content analysis was employed to extract emerging main themes from numerous cods. Findings were categorized in three main themes as Partnership's relationship and trust issues, Partnership's individual issues and Partnership's system issues. Although community-based participatory research in Iran benefits from more than a decade history and some physical infrastructures, but it seems that public health experts and researchers and other partner organizations are lagging behind in terms of capacities and competencies required to effectively utilize the available structure and opportunities. Hence, capacity development, both among professional partners and community may be the main way forward to tackling the future challenges for strengthening community actions but should include both levels of individuals and systems.
Background Depression and poor social support are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), and stress and anxiety can trigger coronary events. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be physically inactive, which is also an independent risk factor for CHD. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program (READY) to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health, and the added value of integrating physical activity promotion. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized trial, 95 participants will be allocated to either a waitlist or one of two intervention conditions. Both intervention conditions will receive a 10 × 2.5 hour group resilience training program (READY) over 13 weeks. The program targets five protective factors identified from empirical evidence and analyzed as mediating variables: positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning, and active coping. Resilience enhancement strategies reflect the six core Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (values, mindfulness, defusion, acceptance, self-as-context, committed action) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies such as relaxation training and social support building skills. Sessions include psychoeducation, discussions, experiential exercises, and home assignments. One intervention condition will include an additional session and ongoing content promoting physical activity. Measurement will occur at baseline, two weeks post intervention, and at eight weeks follow-up, and will include questionnaires, pedometer step logs, and physical and hematological measures. Primary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of psychosocial well-being and depression. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of stress, anxiety and physical
Smith, Chris; Ryan, Andrew
Studies have shown that diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be controlled and prevented through the modification of behavioral risk factors. The transtheoretical model of behavior change, also known as the stages of change model, offers promise for designing behavior change interventions. However, this model has rarely been applied in group settings with minority communities. To address racial and ethnic disparities related to the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative has designed and implemented Change for Life/Cambia tu vida, a health promotion program based on the stages of change model for African descendent and Latino residents of southern New Hampshire. The program guides participants through the five stages of change and provides resources to support healthy behavior change. We also sponsor periodic class reunions that help program graduates to maintain these healthy habits. This article describes curriculum development, participant feedback, and early pretest and posttest evaluation results from a standardized assessment.
Radis, Molly E; Updegrove, Stephen C; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result, nurses' time is poorly utilized and students may suffer adverse outcomes including delayed school entry. In response to this pressing public health issue, a school medical advisor and director of school nurses in a local health department successfully negotiated access for school nurses to three health record systems: a state immunization tracking system, an electronic lead surveillance program, and an electronic health record system. This negotiation process is presented within a framework of the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation and provides a strategy for other school nurses seeking access to student health information.
Mackie, J W; Oickle, P
At the August 1995 meeting of the General Council of the CMA, a resolution supporting school-based health promotion (comprehensive School Health) was adopted. This article briefly reviews the research supporting this integrated approach to school and community programs, applies the recommended approach to reducing tobacco use and outlines a role for physicians in promoting Comprehensive School Health in their communities. PMID:9145058
Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin
Background Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs) and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this
higher than that of Liaoning (28.79 Yuan). Comparing the 2011 figures with those from 2008 to 2010, the gap in 2011 clearly narrowed. Conclusion In the three-year health reform program, the Chinese government increased its investment to PHIs gradually and significantly. Thus promote equity to access and universal coverage. However, the increase in government investment stemmed from political desire and from the lack of institutionalization of practice and experience. Hence, a mode of financial allocation must be formulated to promote consistency in government input after the three-year health reform program. PMID:23530658
Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi
Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.
Robroek, Suzan JW; Lindeboom, Dennis EM
Background Determinants of participation in health promotion programs are largely unknown. To evaluate and implement interventions, information is needed regarding their reach as well as regarding the characteristics of program users and non-users. Objective In this study, individual, lifestyle, and health indicators were investigated in relation to initial, and sustained participation in an Internet-delivered physical activity and healthy nutrition program in the workplace setting. In addition, determinants of program website use were studied. Methods Determinants of participation were investigated in a longitudinal study among employees from six workplaces participating in a two-year cluster randomized controlled trial. The employees were invited by email to participate. At baseline, all participants visited a website to fill out the questionnaire on lifestyle, work, and health factors. Subsequently, a physical health check was offered, followed by face-to-face advice. Throughout the study period, all participants had access to a website with information on lifestyle and health, and to fully automated personalized feedback on the questionnaire results. Only participants in the intervention received monthly email messages to promote website visits during the first year and had access to additional Web-based tools (self-monitors, a food frequency questionnaire assessing saturated fat intake, and the possibility to ask questions) to support behavior change. Website use was monitored by website statistics measuring access. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify characteristics of employees who participated in the program and used the website. Results Complete baseline data were available for 924 employees (intervention: n=456, reference: n=468). Lifestyle and health factors were not associated with initial participation. Employees aged 30 years and older were more likely to start using the program and to sustain their participation. Workers with a
Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji
This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.
Alaviani, Mehri; Khosravan, Shahla; Alami, Ali; Moshki, Mahdi
Background Loneliness is one of the most significant problems during aging. This research has been done to determine the effect of a multi-strategy program based on Pender’s Health Promotion model to prevent loneliness of elderly women by improving social relationships. Methods In this quasi-experimental study done in 2013 from January to November, 150 old women suffering medium loneliness referred to Gonabad urban Health Centers were enrolled. Data were gathered using Russell’s UCLA loneliness questionnaire and the questionnaires based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model about loneliness. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square, T-pair, and independent-T tests through SPSS, version 20. Results Loneliness decreased significantly in the interventional group compared to the control group (P<0.00). In addition, mean scores related to variables of Health Promotion Model (received benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, interpersonal effectives of loneliness) in both groups were significantly different before and after the study (P<0.05). Conclusion Constructs of Pender’s Health Promotion Model can be used as a framework for planning interventions in order to anticipate, improve and modify related behaviors related to loneliness in old women. PMID:26005693
Better Health for Our Children: A National Strategy. The Report of the Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health to the United States Congress and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Volume II: Analysis and Recommendations for Selected Federal Programs.
Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
This second volume of the 1981 Report of the Select Panel for the Promotion of Child Health presents an examination of selected federal programs affecting maternal and child health and proposes detailed recommendations for federal legislative, regulatory, and other administrative improvements. Five federal programs, identified by the panel as…
The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.
Health promotion programs often lack a clearly specified theoretical foundation or are based on narrowly conceived conceptual models. For example, lifestyle modification programs typically emphasize individually focused behavior change strategies, while neglecting the environmental underpinnings of health and illness. This article compares three distinct, yet complementary, theoretical perspectives on health promotion: behavioral change, environmental enhancement, and social ecological models. Key strengths and limitations of each perspective are examined, and core principles of social ecological theory are used to derive practical guidelines for designing and evaluating community health promotion programs. Directions for future health promotion research are discussed, including studies examining the role of intermediaries (e.g., corporate decision-makers, legislators) in promoting the well-being of others, and those evaluating the duration and scope of intervention outcomes.
Buasai, Supakorn; Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Siwaraksa, Parichart
A landmark in health promotion in Thailand came in 2001 with the launching of the Universal Health Coverage Scheme at the cost of approximately USD 2 billion a year. Another important event was the establishment of the Thai Health Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) as a health promotion funding mechanism that draws upon a 2 percent surcharge levied on alcohol and tobacco excise tax, approximately USD 50-60 million a year. The most significant institutional development is the promulgation of the National Health Act in 2007. The Act embraces the principle of human rights and key principles of the Ottawa Charter in 2005. It is a result of five years of extensive public dialogues on important health issues that enhanced public awareness and nation wide networking on health promotion. ThaiHealth regards itself as a catalyst for health promotion. The organisation collaborates with all sectors of the society, from the national to the grassroots level, and is the most notable organisation for health promotion in Thailand. ThaiHealth funds programs on health risks/issues such as alcohol, tobacco, accidents, exercise, as well as area or setting based programs, for example, school, work place, community, and programs that target specific population groups such as the youth, the elderly, Muslim community. The open grants program invites proposals from all kinds of organizations/groups interested in launching health promotion initiatives. The endeavour has started to bear fruit. Smoking and alcohol consumption rates have dropped and more people have become health conscious and do more exercise. However, much remains to be done as some population groups especially the youth have become susceptible to various kinds of health risks. This remarkable start must be sustained and reinforced by the continuation and expansion of knowledge generation and dissemination, relentless policy advocacy and creative public campaign, with a strong health promotion network as the most critical
Kickbusch, Ilona; Reddy, K Srikanth
Communities are characterized by common interests, common ecology, and common social system or structure. These characteristics, qualities, and processes involved in the community affect both health behaviors and health outcomes during disease outbreaks. Hence, health promotion theorists and practitioners emphasize working 'with' rather than 'on' communities. They believe health promotion, with all its experiences in community mobilization, empowerment, and health literacy programs, should be part of disease prevention and control efforts from the very beginning. Health promotion knowledge needs to be fully integrated into infectious disease control, especially in the context of outbreaks.
The health promotion discourse is comprised of assumptions about health and health care that are compatible with primary health care. An examination of the health promotion discourse illustrates how assumptions of health can help to inform primary health care. Despite health promotion being a good fit for primary health care, this analysis demonstrates that the scope in which it is being implemented in primary health care settings is limited. The health promotion discourse appears largely compatible with primary health care-in theory and in the health care practices that follow. The aim of this article is to contribute to the advancement of theoretical understanding of the health promotion discourse, and the relevance of health promotion to primary health care.
Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret
The Localities Embracing and Accepting Diversity (LEAD) program aimed to improve the mental health of Aboriginal Victorians by addressing racial discrimination and facilitating social and economic participation. As part of LEAD, Whittlesea Council adopted the Aboriginal Employment Pathways Strategy (AEPS) to increase Aboriginal employment and retention within the organisation. The Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Training Program was developed to build internal cultural competency and skills in recruiting and retaining Aboriginal staff. Analysis of surveys conducted before (pre; n=124) and after (post; n=107) the training program indicated a significant increase in participant understanding across all program objectives and in support of organisational policies to improve Aboriginal recruitment and retention. Participants ended the training with concrete ideas about intended changes, as well as how these changes could be supported by their supervisors and the wider organisation. Significant resources have since been allocated to implementing the AEPS over 5 years. In line with principles underpinning the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013-23, particularly the focus on addressing racism as a determinant of health, this paper explores the AEPS and training program as promising approaches to health promotion through addressing barriers to Aboriginal employment. Possible implications for other large organisations are also considered.
Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.
As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898
Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith
The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and…
Davis, Kathryn; Zhang, Guili; Hodson, Patricia
The Motivate, Adapt, and Play Program was specifically designed as an adapted physical activity (PA) program for students with intellectual disabilities (ID) to meet required school PA policies to combat childhood obesity. The policies commonly require a minimum of 30 min of PA per school day. A study was undertaken to test the efficacy of the…
Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.
Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard.
Minckley, Barbara B., Ed.; Young, Lu Ann, Ed.
Focusing on innovative and cost-effective alternatives to traditional, custodial, and institutional health care systems, the papers in these proceedings identify the contributions of nursing and the benefits for patients of the new national emphasis on cost-effective health care. The proceedings contain: (1) "Trends in Health Promotion:…
Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility. PMID:26380374
O'Hara, Lily; Taylor, Jane; Barnes, Margaret
The field of health promotion has arguably shifted over the past thirty years from being socially proactive to biomedically defensive. In many countries this has been accompanied by a gradual decline, or in some cases the almost complete removal of health promotion designated positions within Government health departments. The language or discourse used to describe the practice and discipline of health promotion is reflective of such changes. In this study, critical discourse analysis was used to determine the representation of health promotion as a practice and a discipline within 10 Australian Government weight-related public health initiatives. The analysis revealed the invisibilization of critical health promotion in favour of an agenda described as 'preventive health'. This was achieved primarily through the textual practices of overlexicalization and lexical suppression. Excluding document titles, there were 437 uses of the terms health promotion, illness prevention, disease prevention, preventive health, preventative health in the documents analysed. The term 'health promotion' was used sparingly (16% of total terms), and in many instances was coupled with the term 'illness prevention'. Conversely, the terms 'preventive health' and 'preventative health' were used extensively, and primarily used alone. The progressive invisibilization of critical health promotion has implications for the perceptions and practice of those identifying as health promotion professionals and for people with whom we work to address the social and structural determinants of health and wellbeing. Language matters, and the language and intent of critical health promotion will struggle to survive if its speakers are professionally unidentifiable or invisible.
The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a rural walking program led by local community members, who served as walking group leaders. For the study, 39 participants (98% female; 54% elderly; community population 1,395) were recruited. Measurements included height, w...
OBJECTIVE: Identify unique cultural needs, priorities, program delivery preferences and barriers to achieving a healthy diet and lifestyle in one Native American community. DESIGN: A novel modified nominal group technique (NGT) conducted in four districts and three age groups (Elders, adults and...
Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum
The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…
Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill
The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)
American Journal of Health Promotion, 1995
The paper reviews demographic and health status data for Hispanic communities and relates them to the role of culture in health care, recommending that health promotion programs focus on specific community data, understand the impact of culture and language, develop powerful outreach, and team up with community-based organizations. (SM)
Kizito, Alex; Caitlin, Meredith; Wang, Yili; Kasangaki, Arabat; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale and potential for the WHO health promoting schools (HPS) to improve children's oral health, and describe validated quantitative methodologies and qualitative approaches to measure program impact. Design/Methodology/Approach: Critical discussion of the impact of poor oral health and…
Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan
Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.
Blair, J E
1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.
Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.
Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don
The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community.
Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L
The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada.
Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen
Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…
MacTaggart, Patricia; Bagley, Bruce
Government, through its unique roles as regulator, purchaser, provider, and facilitator, has an opportunity and an obligation to play a major role in accelerating the implementation of electronic health record systems and electronic health information exchange. Providers, who are expected to deliver appropriate care at designated locations at an appropriate cost, are dependent on health information technology for efficient effective health care. As state and federal governments move forward with health care purchasing reforms, they must take the opportunity to leverage policy and structure and to align incentives that enhance the potential for provider engagement in electronic health record adoption.
Mariño, R J
The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section
Ringsberg, Karin C
The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015.
Horton, Shalonda E B
Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).
Barnes, Donelle M; Harrison, Cara; Heneghan, Richard
Refugees resettling in the U.S. are generally low-income and underserved by health promotion interventions. To begin to address refugee health promotion issues, this study describes health behaviors of newly arrived (less than 90 days) adult refugees in the U.S. The methods used were retrospective description of clients from one refugee health screening program. The sample consisted of adult refugees (n=591), men and women, from Cuba, Bosnia, Vietnam, Kosovo, Iran, Iraq, and other countries. Rates of overweight were highest among Bosnians and lowest among Vietnamese. Cubans reported the most physical activity and Kosovars the least. Rates of smoking were highest among Bosnians and lowest among Cubans. Older refugees were more overweight and reported less physical activity and more smoking than younger adults. In some cases, different refugee groups have similar health promotion needs, while in others needs differ. This baseline descriptive data supports calls for further health promotion research and interventions in refugee populations.
Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena
Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.
Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel
Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008.
Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...
Robertson, A; Minkler, M
In the last decade, a revolution has been occurring in the field of health promotion. Guided to a large extent by position papers disseminated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Health Promotion Office, and furthered by the Ottawa Charter, the Epp Report in Canada, the Healthy Cities project, as well as by other efforts, this new health promotion movement has introduced new ideas, new language, and new concepts about what constitutes health and how health promotion efforts should be configured to achieve health. Punctuated by the terms like empowerment and community participation, this movement has generated a whole new discourse about the theory and practice of health promotion. This paper explores the multiple meanings that surround these terms, and the implications for practice, by addressing questions like: What does health mean in this new context? What is empowerment? What does participation look like? Has the tyranny of the professional been replaced by the tyranny of the community? Has anything changed about the practice of health promotion other than the language? Finally, it is argued that an acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of these concepts may facilitate their translation from rhetoric into health promotion practice.
Clark, Peter A.; Schadt, Sam
The foreign-born population in the United States, according to the “Current Populations Report” published in 2010, is estimated to exceed 39.9 million, or “12.9 percent of the U.S. population.” The increase in foreign-born peoples and their need for health care is a complicated issue facing many cities, health systems and hospitals. Over the course of the past few years Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia has treated increasing numbers of foreign-born African patients. The majority have been presenting in the late stages of disease. The increase of foreign-born documented and undocumented African patients seen by Mercy Hospitals seems to reflect a foreign-born population “boom” in Philadelphia over the past decade. To meet the needs of this growing population, the Mercy Hospital Task Force on African Immigration and the Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University designed a program that centers on the third world concept of “Health Promoters.” This program is intended to serve as one possible solution for hospitals to cost-effectively manage the care of this growing percentage of foreign-born individuals in the population. This notion of a “Health Promoter” program in Philadelphia is unique as one of those rare occasions when a third world concept is being utilized in a first world environment. It is also unique in that it can serve as a paradigm for other hospitals in the United States to meet the growing need of health care for the undocumented population. As of November 2012 the Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic became operative for patients who were referred from the Health Promoter clinics. To date, a total of forty-two patients have actively participated in the screenings, sixteen of which have been referred to Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic for further evaluation. More than 75% of patient referrals were a result of high blood pressure. According to the American Medical Association, readings of 140–159 mmHg and
Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita
More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.
Torres, Myriam E; Smithwick-Leone, Julie; Willms, Lucy; Franco, Margarita M; McCandless, Romina; Lohman, Mary
Maternal and Child Health (MCH) experts emphasize the importance of preconception health (PCH) in achieving healthy pregnancies and positive birth outcomes. Research demonstrates that Latinas face significant PCH disparities, yet no comprehensive PCH promotion strategy exists to reach them. As a trusted community-based organization that uses culturally competent strategies to promote MCH in the Latino community, PASOs is well-positioned to address PCH among Latinos in South Carolina. With the input and support of Latino community members, PASOs is pioneering a PCH strategy using its successful model of education, outreach, partnerships and resource navigation.
Crosser, Gail Hoddlebrink
Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Chapman, Larry S.
This meta-evaluation provides a standardized look at the quality of the economic evaluation literature for multi-component worksite health promotion programs. Analysis of 42 studies suggests that the evidence is very strong for average reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, and workers' compensation and disability costs of slightly more than…
Allred, John B.
Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…
Shephard, Roy J.
Attempts to change employees' personal behavior to promote a healthy workplace raise ethical and professional questions. Needs for successful wellness programs must be balanced against individual rights to remain unhealthy. The paper discusses potential fiscal benefits of wellness programs, ethics of motivation, personal responsibility for health,…
Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle
Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…
The [World Health Organisation, 2000. Nurse and Midwives for Health: A WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen] European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education calls for the explicit inclusion and application of health promotion in all nursing curricula. Prior to this strategy, and subsequently, studies have explored the nature and extent of health promotion in nursing education. This article extensively reviews this body of literature. Overall, the literature, both included in this review and its supporting discussion, presents a picture suggesting that the call for effective inclusion of health promotion has in many cases gone unheeded. The literature also identifies that the educational delivery of broader elements of health promotion is muted in comparison to the 'traditional' constructs of health education. Considerations for wider reform, born out of the literature, are presented.
Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron
This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…
Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B
Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278
Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.
The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…
Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Celata, Corrado; Vecchio, Luca
Objectives: The study explores the relationships among teachers' health representations, their ideas about health promotion, their working conditions and their involvement in health-promotion activities at school. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 107 teachers in 86 schools in Milan (Italy). The questionnaire was structured in four…
Marketing strategies are employed to ensure the success of new products, services or programs. Both profit and non-profit organizations have used social marketing strategies to inform, to motivate interest, and to engage the involvement of the consumer. A client-dependent health care system did not find it necessary to market services, but a health care system that encourages clients to choose the most appropriate health promotion service available must market services. Nurses are in the business of promoting the health of clients. Therefore, it is essential that nurses become familiar with, and involved in, the development of marketing plans and strategies. The connection between the four variables of the marketing mix (product, promotion, place, and price) and promoting the health of clients is described. A case example recapitulating the marketing strategies employed to raise public awareness of a self-help group for family caregivers is related, the marketing response is evaluated, and future recommendations are proposed.
Gavidia Catalán, V
The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located.
Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth
This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…
Wilson, Mark G.; And Others
Reports a study that examined 316 studies of the effects of worksite health promotion programs on individuals and organizations, targeting research on exercise, health risk appraisal, nutrition, cholesterol, and weight control. Results suggest the effectiveness of such programs, though further research is needed for conclusive evidence of their…
Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo
This article focuses on health promotion (HP) outcomes, illustrated through evaluation of case studies and identification of strategies which have contributed to their success and sustainability. Evaluation research and practice in three distinct sceneries are discussed: (i) institutional and governmental agencies; (ii) communities in the "Manguinhos Complex" and Nova Iguaqu Municipality, and (iii) building of potentially healthy municipality networks. The effectiveness of a social program in a health promotion perspective was based in the "School for Parents" program, undertaken by the First Court of Childhood and Youth of Rio de Janeiro, between 2001 and 2004. The analysis was grounded in the monitoring of 48 parents in charge of children under 18, who were victims of abuse, violence or negligence, and social exclusion, most of all. The study's objectives were: illustrating the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion, discussing the concept of HP effectiveness under macro unfavorable conditions, and identifying strategies that foster sustainability of results. Institutional resources included a multi-professional staff, multidisciplinary approaches, participatory workshops, family case management, partnership with public and private institutions, and volunteer and civil society sponsorship of the families. Evaluation was based on social impact indicators, and psychosocial and contextual determinants. Evaluation methods included program monitoring and quantitative-qualitative methods, through a longitudinal evaluation of 3 years, including one year post program. The evaluation showed highly favorable results concerning "family integration', "quality of family relations" and "human rights mobilization". Unsatisfactory results such as "lack of access to formal employment" are likely related to structural factors and the need for new public policies in areas such as education, professional training, housing, and access to formal employment. The training process
My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.
Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS
Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Reed, Hope C
The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society.
There have been many attempts to define mental health promotion. To date, there is no consensus in the field as to what it entails. While some understand it as a holistic concept including intervening at structural, societal and political levels to positively influence mental health, others conceptualise it basically as strategies with an individual focus to improve personal competencies. Many of these differences are related to the distinct understanding of the concepts of mental well-being and positive mental health. The lack of clarity on the boundaries of mental health promotion has divided professionals and is a missed opportunity, as momentum is moving mental health promotion on to political agendas. In Europe, two important milestones for mental health, the WHO Ministerial Conference and the EC Green Paper on Mental Health, have moved mental health promotion into the political landscape, recognising positive mental health and mental well-being as fundamental to the quality of life and productivity of Europeans and a contributor to sustainable development. Although proven efficacious, ad hoc implementation of mental health promotion programs alone is not sufficient to ensure improvement of the population's mental health. Co-ordinated action that includes efficient ways to deliver such interventions in a sustainable way is essential. Two such delivery mechanisms in the search for efficiency are discussed in this paper: a) identifying co-occurrence of mental and physical health problems in order to include mental health promotion components into existing health promotion interventions; and, b) supporting the inclusion of mental health indicators into sound public policy options in order to prove that efficacious policies in labour, education, environment, etc, also bring about positive mental health outcomes. To support the current interest to bring about positive mental health it is essential that evaluation of existing initiatives is put in place, as well as
Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles
The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health.
Kulbok, P A; Baldwin, J H; Cox, C L; Duffy, R
Attention must be redirected toward health promotion as nursing evaluates the goal of health for all. Confusion regarding health promotion behavior is illustrated by terms with diverse meanings and uses. In a process of critical analysis, five multidisciplinary experts in health promotion responded to a survey targeting the distinction of health promotion, health promotion behavior, health protection behavior, disease prevention behavior, preventive health behavior, health behavior, and healthy lifestyle. Descriptors of health promotion were derived from a multidimensional conception of well-being. Disagreement existed concerning health protection and health behavior. Nursing interventions are linked to reflective discourse regarding health promotion behavior.
Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.
Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli
OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640
Shrader, Sarah; Mauldin, Mary; Hammad, Sammar; Mitcham, Maralynee; Blue, Amy
There is an on-going transformation in health professions education to prepare students to function as competent members of an interprofessional team in order to increase patient safety and improve patient care. Various methods of health education and practice directed toward students have been implemented, yet descriptions of faculty development initiatives designed to advance interprofessional education and practice are scarce. This article describes a faculty development program at the Medical University of South Carolina, USA, based on the conceptual framework of adult transformational learning theory. Three components comprise the faculty development program: an institute, fellowship and teaching series. Evaluations of the three components indicate that the faculty development program aided in the sustainability of the university's interprofessional program, and built capacity for improvement and growth in interprofessional endeavors.
Woodrow, M; Wheat, R P
In order to encourage citizens to take a more active role in their health care management, a 464-bed community hospital presented a series of 12 health forums during a two-year period. A multidisciplinary panel of speakers was gathered to discuss specific health-related topics. The following article details the selection of forum topics, the general structure of the forums, use of publicity, audiovisual support, cost, and implications for planning further series.
In order to improve the health, fitness and education standards of the nation, Myanmar has initiated efforts for human resources development and promotion of the national health standard. Among these are the opening of new hospitals and clinics and upgrading of other health facilities, including health centers. The national health policies that were implemented focused on the areas of community health, disease control, environmental health, health systems development, and organization and management. These policies include the provision of health care services throughout the country and enabling cooperatives and private entrepreneurs to actively participate in health care activities, and extending health care services together with international organizations. Through these initiatives efforts are being taken to uplift national health services to international standards.
Atlanta Regional Commission, GA.
The aging network has been slow to embrace health promotion activities as core services to the aging population. Therefore, advocates for business and aging partnerships in health promotion activities must first educate their colleagues about the value of health promotion programs before looking for partners in the business community. The goal of…
Designed for policy makers and health education professionals, this paper presents a rationale and strategies for adapting health education to meet the needs of developing nations. Emphasis is placed on the need for health promotion rather than prescriptive health education. Section A, the first of two main sections, discusses perceptions of…
Health literacy research and scholarship has largely overlooked the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), though growing concern about the health inequalities they face has increasingly given rise to health promotion interventions for this group. However, these interventions reference a rather limited vision of health literacy…
Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…
Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…
Saphire, L S
1. Comprehensive health promotion is any intervention that attempts to move people toward a state of optimal health, including traditional disease prevention efforts. 2. Health promotion programs enhance employees' self responsibility, sense of balance with work, family, health, and social concerns, and ability to take action, all of which improve teamwork, innovation, quality, and creative thinking. 3. The design of a comprehensive health promotion program is directed by health goals or management goals, and based on data obtained by an assessment of all customers. 4. Health care cost reductions are more likely to be achieved when an array of programs are offered.
Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K; Montgomery, Michele; Cheshire, Michelle
The number of nurses working in community-based practices with a population focus is increasing rapidly, whereas the rate of employment for nurses in hospitals is expected to grow more slowly. The shift in health care toward primary health care and health promotion requires nurse educators to ensure that students learn to practice in collaborative partnerships in community settings. This article describes an innovative collaborative partnership with the Capstone College of Nursing and the Office of Health Promotion and Wellness at The University of Alabama. Through this partnership, community health nursing students provide health promotion for university employees in the University's wellness program. The program provides nursing students with a unique opportunity for interprofessional collaboration while improving their clinical and communication skills. This innovative collaborative approach serves as a useful model for nursing faculty members when delivering community health instruction.
Smith, Peggy B; Buzi, Ruth S
The purpose of this study was to assess reproductive health professionals' familiarity with and use of various electronic technologies to support health promotion. The study also examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes and beliefs of the effectiveness of new technologies and perceived barriers for usage. A total of 165 reproductive health professionals at two conferences related to reproductive health in the United States completed the study survey. Personal and organizational factors affected the adoption of electronic technologies for health promotion. This included lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence as well as privacy concerns. The results of the study also suggested that being from an older generation was associated with having lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence in using new media. These findings highlight the importance of creating learning opportunities on the use of new technology for health promotion as well as addressing specific perceived barriers among reproductive health professionals in order to promote the adoption of these technologies.
Beaulieu, Joyce; Webb, John
Complex community-based prevention programs are being held to scientific evidence of their effectiveness and rural public health departments that implement such programs often are not equipped to evaluate them. Rural public health departments are fettered by small budgets, small staffs, and less access to evaluation experts and similar resources. Community-based health promotion programs can include complex designs that may work differently in rural areas and evaluation of rural programs can be hampered by lack of control groups and the instability of results from small populations. The University of Kentucky has entered into a contract with the state Department for Public Health to implement an internal, participatory model of evaluation. In this model, the university evaluation expert trains local public health department staff in technical skills for program evaluation and acts as mentor and technical consultant to local public health departments on an ongoing basis. Through training and site visits, this model is one approach to addressing the challenges of evaluating rural health promotion programs.
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module is designed to help the classroom teacher introduce health-promoting…
Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S
Limited health literacy has been linked to worse health outcomes for a range of medical conditions. In addition, limited health literacy is more prevalent among specific racial and ethnic minorities. Although these findings have been widely acknowledged, little systematic research has been conducted to elucidate the role of health literacy in the creation of health disparities or to evaluate the possibility that interventions relating to health literacy may help eliminate health disparities. This paper presents recommendations for a research agenda that is focused on advancing the science for how health literacy research can promote the effort to eliminate health disparities.
Smoczyk, C M
Health promotion internships are an essential link between the university classroom and the corporate or public service environment. A well structured internship experience will provide the future health promotion professional with an opportunity to transfer learned theory into practical application within a controlled and supervised environment. The success of the internship experience is contingent upon the mutual effort of the student, academic institution, and sponsoring organization working together to develop a model that will reflect the goals and objectives of each group with primary long-term benefit accruing to the future health promotion professional. The purpose of this article is to explore the components of a successful health promotion internship model developed from the perspective of a sponsoring organization.
Horn, Michelle A; Rauscher, Alana B; Ardiles, Paola A; Griffin, Shannon L
Health Compass is an innovative, multiphased project that aims to transform health care practice and shift organizational culture by building the capacity of Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA) health care providers to further promote the mental health and well-being of patients and families accessing PHSA's health care services. Health Compass was developed within a health promotion framework, which involved collaboration and engagement with stakeholders across all partnering PHSA agencies. This approach led to the development of an educational and training resource that contributes to increased capacity for mental health promotion within the health care setting. Based on interviews with Health Compass' internal Project Team and findings from a Stakeholder Engagement Evaluation Report, this article outlines the participatory approach taken to develop the Health Compass Mental Health Promotion Resource and E-Learning Tool. A number of key facilitators for collaboration and engagement are discussed, which may be particularly applicable to the implementation of a mental health promotion program or initiative within a complex health care setting.
In Brazil, until 1990, the authorities could legally arrest a child found alone in the streets, and put them in prison-like institutions. Their crime? To be poor, usually black and living on the streets. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (SOS Crianca) was set up a few years ago with the aim of changing this legislation. Together with other nongovernment organizations, SOS Crianca drew up new legislation, lobbied politicians and policymakers, and publicized the issue at a new Child and Adolescent Statute, based on the International Declaration of Children's Rights, was made law. Lawyers volunteered their services to SOS Crianca, making sure that young people had access to legal support, so that the new law could be put into practiced. AIDS has added to the difficulties of young people living on the streets. In 1988, using a strategy similar to the one above, SOS Crianca started to work with key organizations and the children themselves, to draw up an HIV prevention strategy for street children. As well as being threatened with violence and police arrest, these children lack a basic human right--access to health care. Public health services in Brazil do not reach the 40% of the population who live in absolute poverty, which includes young people on the streets. Preventing AIDS is seen by SOS Crianca to be just a part of promoting better health and providing overall healthcare. Educational activities will not work if children do not have access to treatment, or to basic needs like food and shelter. SOS Crianca does not employ doctors because it is not the role of nongovernment organizations to take over the state's responsibility to provide basic health care. But how can the public clinics, staffed with underpaid professionals and lacking basic equipment meet the needs of street children? Meetings were organized with different health professionals, involving those most sensitive to the problem in setting up a referral
Jones, Sandra C; Donovan, Robert J
In recent years, there have been numerous papers discussing the importance of improving the link between health promotion researchers and practitioners. Several reviews have been undertaken to determine the extent to which health promotion research is disseminated to, and utilized by, practitioners in the development and implementation of health promotion programs. These studies have generally been limited to reviews of literature rather than directly gathering data from practitioners. This paper reports on a survey of Australian health promotion practitioners undertaken to investigate the extent to which they are aware of, understand and utilize the major health promotion theories and models derived from research in the areas of psychology and communication. We found that none of the theories or models included in this study-the 'standard' theories and models taught in health promotion courses, and included in the leading textbooks-were used by more than 50% of practitioners in their work. The only models being used by more than one-third of the practitioners were PRECEDE-PROCEED and the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model. The paper concludes with possible explanations for the low level of utilization of theories and models, and suggestions for increasing their usage based on information sources accessed by these practitioners.
Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.
The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.
Frenn, M; Malin, S
The article addresses the realities of health promotion practice in a managed care environment, synthesizing the most important findings from the midrange theories currently guiding wellness-oriented research. Factors that have been shown to predict engagement in a number of health behaviors are identified and are formulated into a guide for clinical assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation for clients across the life span.
Numerous gender differences in health-related behaviour are relevant in the planning of health promotion and prevention. More men than women consume amounts of alcohol that are a risk to their health. Tobacco consumption has fallen slightly among men but has risen among women. Women eat more healthy food. Man behave risky in leisure time and traffic, thus their mortality rates due to accidents are much higher, especially in young age groups. The epidemiological data lead to the conclusion that gender sensitive health promotion and prevention is necessary. Gender mainstreaming is declared as the main strategy to enhance gender equity in health. The paper focuses on the public health action cycle and demonstrates that at each step gender mainstreaming improves the quality of intervention. To implement gender mainstreaming in health promotion and prevention, a process of sensitization has to be initialized. An instrument is presented that supports this process at the foundation "Health Promotion Switzerland". A short description of some examples of gender adequate interventions is given at the end of the paper.
Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix
Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…
Sutherland, Mary; And Others
This article describes a health promotion demonstration project which addressed the health problem of hypertension, as related to variables of excercise, weight, blood pressure measurement and reduction, medication compliance, and nutritional practices. Participants (N=18) were senior citizens who were associated with a small, rural, predominantly…
Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…
Villa-Torres, Laura; Svanemyr, Joar
The purpose of this article was to reflect on the concepts of adolescence and youth, summarize models and frameworks developed to conceptualize youth participation, and assess research that has attempted to evaluate the implementation and impact of youth participation in the field of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). We searched and critically reviewed relevant published reports and "gray literature" from the period 2000-2013. "Young people" are commonly defined as those between the ages of 10 and 24 years, but what it means to be a young person varies largely across cultures and depends on a range of socioeconomic factors. Several conceptual frameworks have been developed to better understand youth participation, and some frameworks are designed to monitor youth development programs that have youth participation as a key component. Although none of them are SRHR specific, they have the potential to be adapted and applied also for adolescents' SRHR programs. The most monitored and evaluated intervention type is peer education programs, but the effectiveness of the approach is questioned. There are few attempts to systematically evaluate youth participation, and clear indicators and better methodologies still need to be developed. More research and documentation as well as the adoption of innovative practices for involving youth in sexual and reproductive health programs are needed. Participation is a right and should not only be evaluated in terms of effectiveness and impact. Youth participation in program and policy development should still be a priority.
Hazlett, Shirley Holder
This publication is designed to help high school students develop a lifestyle that promotes cardiovascular and overall health; activities are intended to promote total health and wellness. The handbook is composed of a curriculum guide and classroom materials, and is designed to fit into a comprehensive health education program. Multidisciplinary…
Boot, N. M. W. M.; de Vries, N. K.
Purpose: This case study aimed to examine the factors influencing the implementation of health promotion (HP) policies and programs in secondary schools and the consequences for professional assistance. Design/methodology/approach: Group interviews were held in two schools that represented the best and worst case of implementation of a health…
The continuing surge of women into the work force and the tendency for women to remain on the job throughout pregnancy and to return to work within months after delivery have led companies to initiate and place increasing importance on prenatal health promotion. Such programs have been found to improve employees' prospects for healthy pregnancies…
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.
da Silva, Claudia Osorio; Ramminger, Tatiana
Studies on the relation between health and work tend to highlight the negative and pathological aspects, as if work produces only sickness and alienation. On the contrary, our proposal is to stress how work can also produce health. Based on Canguillem's concept of health, and from the contributions of the so-called "work clinics", we intend to analyze the purpose of work as a promoter of health. Canguilhem affirms that health is not adaptive, as such it does not involve adapting well to the world, but to the creation of tenets of life. For their part, the work clinics provide tools to approximate us to the know-how-to-do produced by workers in their daily work, namely not only how workers adapt to work, but how they create and recreate it permanently Thus, we can think work as a promoter of health where there is room for collective and personal creation, as well as recognition of workers in their activity.
Whitelaw, S; Baxendale, A; Bryce, C; MacHardy, L; Young, I; Witney, E
Over the past 10 years, 'settings' based health promotion has become a central feature of efforts to promote health that recognize the significance of context. Emerging in part from a perception of an over-reliance on individualistic methods, the approach was built on a profound belief in its value and deployed a range of novel theoretical resources, mainly from organizational sociology and psychology. This initial enthusiasm has been maintained within policy directives, in the published literature and, from our own experience, amongst health promotion practitioners. At the same time, with the maturing of the approach, has come a healthy element of critical review. Drawing upon the literature and based upon our experiences within the Health Education Board for Scotland, this paper seeks to bring together a range of perspectives, casting a critical yet constructive eye on current settings theory and practice. The paper first reviews the nature of settings based work, highlighting the varied bases and expectations that underpin it. Similarly, the many factors that influence the ability of health promoters to deliver such activities are considered. In relation to the construction and delivery of such activity, the paper suggests that there needs to be an explicit and detailed assessment of the nature of the setting, the skills of the health promoter and the associated expectations.
The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.
Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.
Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)
Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, JiEun; Min, Jungwon; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. Development of effective and sustainable programs to promote healthy behaviors from a young age is important. This study developed and tested an intervention program designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity among young children in South Korea by adaptation of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission X (MX) Program. SUBJECTS/METHODS The intervention program consisted of 4 weeks of fitness and 2 weeks of nutrition education. A sample of 104 subjects completed pre- and post-surveys on the Children's Nutrition Acknowledgement Test (NAT). Parents were asked for their children's characteristics and two 24-hour dietary records, the Nutrition Quotient (NQ) at baseline and a 6-week follow-up. Child weight status was assessed using Korean body mass index (BMI) percentiles. RESULTS At baseline, 16.4% (boy: 15.4%; girl: 19.2%) of subjects were overweight or obese (based on BMI≥85%tile). Fat consumption significantly decreased in normal BMI children (48.6 ± 16.8 g at baseline to 41.9 ± 18.1 g after intervention, P < 0.05); total NQ score significantly increased from 66.4 to 67.9 (P < 0.05); total NAT score significantly improved in normal BMI children (74.3 at baseline to 81.9 after the program), children being underweight (from 71.0 to 77.0), and overweight children (77.1 at baseline vs. 88.2 after intervention, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The 6-week South Korean NASA MX project is feasible and shows favorable changes in eating behaviors and nutritional knowledge among young children. PMID:27698964
Eickholt, Clarissa; Hamacher, W; Lenartz, N
Health competence is a key concept in occupational health and safety and workplace health promotion for maintaining and enhancing health resources. The effects of governmental or occupational measures to protect or improve health fall short of what is required with regard to the challenges of a changing workplace, e.g., due to the delimitation of work. To secure employability it is becoming more and more important to encourage the personal responsibility of employees. To offer new conclusions on how employers and employees can promote health competence, a survey is required of the research within the fields of health competence and competence development, and of the status quo in enterprises. In this context, a Delphi Study provides an important contribution, with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. The development of an extensive understanding of health competence is essential in a work-related context. Beyond knowledge-based health literacy, an action-oriented concept of competence implies the ability and willingness to act in a reasonable and creative manner in complex situations. The development of health competence requires learning embedded in working processes, which challenges competent behaviour. Enabling informal learning is a promising innovative approach and therefore coordinated operational activities are necessary. Ultimately, this is a matter of suitable organisational measures being implemented to meet the health competence needs of an enterprise. Even though the each individual employee bears his or her own health competence, the development potential lies largely within the prevailing working conditions.
Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Pentz, Mary Ann
The overall aim of the two school-based pilot studies was to evaluate whether an approach to prevention that focused on changing child impulse control, decision making, and social competence can be effective in changing attitudes toward food intake and physical activity as risk factors for obesity. The strategy used was to translate specific components of one evidence-based program for violence prevention (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies: PATHS) into an elementary school curriculum program for obesity prevention. Both studies demonstrated significant changes in positive attitudes toward self-regulation of appetitive behavior. In addition, Study 2 demonstrated positive changes in actual food choices and television viewing patterns. Implications are that comprehensive efforts to prevent youth risk for obesity should include as one component school-based curricula that target self-regulation and decision-making skills.
This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.
National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.
The Public Health Service Act was amended in 1962 to authorize grants to establish family health service clinics for domestic agricultural migratory workers and to improve the health conditions of these workers and their families. Approximately 100 programs currently provide migrant health services. As a result of the low level of funding of these…
Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny
Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580
Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W
Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies.
Scharlach, Andrew E.; And Others
Describes Generation, geriatric clinic program for one company's retirees and dependents. Describes program's multidisciplinary team approach to health and psychosocial assessment, medication review, retiree advisors, health promotion programs, and case management services. Notes that, in addition to traditional medical care, participants receive…
Bourque, Michel; Perreault, Robert
The ever lowering prices of microcomputers along with recent developments in display technology justify the exploitation of the computer as a support for public health education and health promotion. Although many experimental efforts are being conducted in this area, the focus has up to now remained on the technologies rather than on application planning, thereby limiting the access to these technologies to workers well versed in computer culture. The present paper analyses some of the implications related to the introduction of hitherto unavailable features in the planning of health promotion efforts. The impact of computer supported possibilities is examined and a model for program-planning is offered. An extension of existing conceptualizations in the field of health education, the model is designed as a tool to facilitate integration of computer-assisted media within the health planner's conceptual reach. A study presently being conducted by the authors is used as an operational illustration of how the model works.
Rimmer, James H.; Braddock, David
Very little effort has been devoted to developing health promotion programs for people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities. Such programs must be developed with full recognition of limitations caused by both the primary and secondary disabilities. The paper describes three major areas of health promotion and their relationship to…
Marrazzo, R. M.
The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J
Peer education is popular both with governments and with young people. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a government-led peer education program on the self-reported sexual health behavior and related psychosocial outcomes of adolescent students in public high schools in the Western Cape of South Africa. Grade 10 students (n = 3934), at 30 public high schools (15 intervention, 15 comparison) were recruited to the study. In the intervention schools, peer educators were recruited and trained to provide information and support to their fellow students. Sexual health behaviors and related psychosocial outcomes of students were measured at baseline and at follow up 18 months later. Comparisons were made between those in the intervention and comparison group schools. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the age of sexual debut, use of condoms at last sex, goal orientation, decision-making or future orientation for students in the intervention group as compared to students in the comparison group. The findings suggest that the peer education program was not effective in reducing the age of sexual debut or condom use. Issues around the implementation of the program suggested that this was sub-optimal. Governments who advocate widespread use of peer education as an approach need to recognise barriers to implementation and ensure ongoing monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
Romano-Spica, V; Parlato, A; Palumbo, D; Lorenzo, E; Frangella, C; Montuori, E; Anastasi, D; Visciano, A; Liguori, G
Scientific evidences support the preventive role of physical activity in relation to different multifactorial pathologies. Health's promotion through the spreading of lifestyles that encourage movement, does not represent just an action in contrast with "sedentary life" risk-factor, but also a priority for "quality" of life, with relevant economical and social benefits. WHO indicates physical activity as one of the priorities for an effective prevention. Besides, the EU supports the realization and the diffusion of some prevention-programs. Main pilot experiences developed in Italy and other countries are summarized. Attention is focused on the role of the competences and structures involved in an integrated approach based on availability of medical support, social services and local structures, considering recent developments in health prevention and promotion. In Italy and Europe, new opportunities to implement health promotion through physical activity are offered by the development of higher education in movement and sport sciences.
Two Feathers, Jackie
Asserts that there are growing concerns among Native-American communities regarding chronic health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Provides health resources specific to particular tribes or regions, which can be applied to other indigenous people. Lists programs and organizations, databases, videos, Internet sites,…
... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...
Sousa, Josueida de Carvalho; Mallmann, Danielli Gavibo; Galindo Neto, Nelson Miguel; de Freitas, Natália Oliveira; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Maria Ribeiro; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante
The aim of this study was to analyze national and international scientific literature on nursing care for lesbian women. An integrative approach was adopted to review studies from MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and SCOPUS databases and SciELO and Cochrane libraries using the keywords: female homosexuality, nursing care, health promotion and women's health. Studies published between 1990 and 2013 in English, Portuguese or Spanish were considered for analysis. After analyzing data, four international studies were selected, being that three were from the United States and one was from Canada. This study revealed a scarcity of Brazilian and international studies and the importance of increasing scientific literature on this topic. Descriptors: Homosexuality, female. Nursing care. Health promotion. Women's health.
Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu
Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director.
Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.
In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... information and services National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder The center of excellence for research and ...
An increasing number of primary prevention programs aimed at promoting physical exercise in children and adolescents are being piloted. As resources are limited, it is important to ascertain the costs and benefits of such programs. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the currently available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of programs encouraging physical activity in children and adolescents and to assess their quality. A systematic review was conducted searching in well established literature databases considering all studies before February 2015. Citation tracking in Google Scholar and a manual search of the reference lists of included studies were used to consolidate this. The fundamental methodological elements of the included economic evaluations were extracted, and the quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality Appraisal Questionnaire (PQAQ). In total, 14 studies were included. Considering the performance of the economic evaluation, the studies showed wide variation. Most of the studies used a societal perspective for their analyses and discounted costs and effects. The findings ranged from US$11.59 for a person to become more active (cheapest intervention) up to US$669,138 for a disability adjusted life year (DALY) saved (most expensive intervention), with everything in between. Overall, the results of three studies are below a value of US$3061, with one of them even below US$200.00, for the achieved effects. For the other programs, the context-specific assessment of cost-effectiveness is problematic as there are different thresholds for cost-effectiveness in different countries or no clearly defined thresholds at all. There are multiple methodological difficulties involved in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, which results in little consistency between different evaluations. The quality of the evaluations ranged from poor to excellent while a large majority
Smith, James A; Crawford, Gemma; Signal, Louise
Issue addressed Over the last three decades there has been an incremental investment in health promotion and prevention across Australia; yet, the Commonwealth Government and some state/territory governments have more recently instigated funding cuts in health promotion and prevention. This paper argues that the role of health promotion is critical in contemporary Australia and discusses strategies needed to move forward within the context of recent disinvestments. Discussion Key areas of concern relating to recent health promotion and prevention disinvestment in Australia include the abolishment of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency, the cessation of the National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health and significant cuts to Indigenous programs. These changes pose a significant threat to the health, economic and social well being of Australians and the region, particularly those that are most vulnerable. Conclusions Future health promotion and prevention efforts will require strategic leadership and action to enhance the promotion of health equity in Australia over the coming decades. We call on governments to (re)invest in health promotion and prevention both in and outside the health sector so that health promotion professionals can continue their advocacy efforts aimed at articulating their professional place in improving population health. So what? Recent changes to national health promotion and prevention policy are detrimental to the health and well being of the Australian population, particularly those most vulnerable. Sound planning to revitalise and refocus health promotion action in Australia is urgently required.
The shift in health care towards primary health services and health promotion requires nursing education to ensure students learn to practice in partnership with communities. In primary health care settings opportunities for students to learn the participatory communication skills required for collaborative practice have been found to be constrained by a range of factors. An innovative approach increasingly being reported is for nurse educators and students to work with groups in the community, for example with teenage mothers. In mental health this approach is common, with consumers willingly working with nurse educators and students to complement the experience students gain working alongside health care professionals. This paper describes a partnership between a New Zealand nursing programme and a community trust whereby nursing students together with youth enrolled at a local high school promoted health. The nursing students reported that the experience encouraged them to view their practice from the perspective of the young people with whom they were working, and to see their efforts in the school setting as part of the wider community's health. It is argued that this strategy successfully contributed to the students' acquisition of the collaborative skills required to develop nursing partnerships within communities.
This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled 'Social capital, health and community action - implications for health promotion.' The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a 'cookbook' on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts.
This article is a review of the PhD Thesis of Malin Eriksson, entitled ‘Social capital, health and community action – implications for health promotion.’ The article presents a theoretical overview of social capital and its relation to health, reviews empirical findings of the links between social capital and (self-rated) health, and discusses the usefulness of social capital in health promotion interventions at individual and community levels. Social capital, conceptualized as an individual characteristic, can contribute to the field of health promotion by adding new knowledge on how social network interventions may best be designed to meet the needs of the target group. The distinction of different forms of social capital, i.e. bonding, bridging, and linking, can be useful in mapping the kinds of networks that are available and health-enhancing (or damaging) and for whom. Further, social capital can advance social network interventions by acknowledging the risk for unequal distribution of investments and returns from social network involvement. Social capital, conceptualized as characterizing whole communities, provides a useful framework for what constitutes health-supporting environments and guidance on how to achieve them. Mapping and mobilization of social capital in local communities may be one way of achieving community action for health promotion. Social capital is context-bound by necessity. Thus, from a global perspective, it cannot be used as a ‘cookbook’ on how to achieve supportive environments and community action smoothly. However, social capital can provide new ideas on the processes that influence human interactions, cooperation, and community action for health promotion in various contexts. PMID:21311607
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Chourdakis, Michael; Cramer, Simone; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Kirchberg, Franca; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina
At The Power of Programming 2014 Conference, researchers from multiple disciplines presented and discussed the effects of early nutrition and other environmental cues during the first thousand days of life and beyond on the lifelong risk of noncommunicable diseases. This paper aims to summarize the concepts and some of the first achievements of the EarlyNutrition research project that initiated the conference. The EarlyNutrition consortium is a multinational, multidisciplinary research collaboration of researchers from Europe, the USA, and Australia. A focus is placed on exploration of the developmental origins of obesity, adiposity, and related health outcomes. Here we report on the first findings of experimental approaches, cohort studies, randomized clinical trials, and systematic reviews of current information, as well as position papers, which have all been developed with the involvement of project partners. We conclude that the EarlyNutrition project has successfully established itself during the first 2 project years as a very strong platform for collaborative research on early programming effects. The first results, available already at this early stage of the project, point to great opportunities for health prevention strategies via the implementation of dietary and lifestyle modifications, with large effect sizes. Further results are expected which should support improved recommendations and related policies for optimized nutrition and lifestyle choices before and during pregnancy, in infancy, and in early childhood.
Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…
Sarmiento, Juan Pablo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…
Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan
Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…
Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Rowling, Louise; Nutbeam, Don
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore educational perspectives towards the concept of health promoting schools and its potential benefits for schools in more depth. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on interviews with school staff including principals, and teachers with…
This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…
Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Odom, Darcel; Fortenberry, Marty; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna
Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) Community Outreach Center (CORC) to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction. PMID:26703681
Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin; Chiou, Shu-Ti
Since 1990, the WHO Health Promoting Hospital (HPH) movement has tried to facilitate and support hospitals to assume a core responsibility in health promotion. The Taiwan HPH Network was established in December 2006, and became the largest HPH network in the world in 2013. Compared to Europe where the HPH has been more established, the pace of HPH development has been much more rapid. This rapid development provides an inspiring example for research and health promotion practice. Systematic data and empirical information have been collected about HPH in Taiwan, allowing for research to be published about the achievements of the HPH movement. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on current progress of the HPH project according to the four main perspectives of the WHO-HPH movement: promoting the health of patients, promoting the health of staff, changing the organization to a health-promoting setting, and promoting the health of the community in the catchment area of the hospital. The assessment can serve as a stepping stone in understanding current HPH development in Taiwan and as a reference for future research.
Background Inequities in both health status and coverage of health services are considered important barriers to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Community-based health promotion is a strategy that is believed to reduce inequities in rural low-income settings. This paper examines the contributions of community-based programming to improving the equity of newborn health in three districts in Malawi. Methods This study is a before-and-after evaluation of Malawi’s Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Care (CBMNC) program, a package of facility and community-based interventions to improve newborn health. Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) within the catchment area of 14 health facilities were trained to make pregnancy and postnatal home visits to promote healthy behaviors and assess women and newborns for danger signs requiring referral to a facility. “Core groups” of community volunteers were also trained to raise awareness about recommended newborn care practices. Baseline and endline household surveys measured the coverage of the intervention and targeted health behaviors for this before-and-after evaluation. Wealth indices were constructed using household asset data and concentration indices were compared between baseline and endline for each indicator. Results The HSAs trained in the intervention reached 36.7% of women with a pregnancy home visit and 10.9% of women with a postnatal home visit within three days of delivery. Coverage of the intervention was slightly inequitable, with richer households more likely to receive one or two pregnancy home visits (concentration indices (CI) of 0.0786 and 0.0960), but not significantly more likely to receive a postnatal visit or know of a core group. Despite modest coverage levels for the intervention, health equity improved significantly over the study period for several indicators. Greater improvements in inequities were observed for knowledge indicators than for coverage of routine health services. At
O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Gebel, Klaus; Banovic, Debbie; Buffett, Kym M; Bauman, Adrian E
The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) was introduced in New South Wales in February 2009. It used mass reach media advertising and direct mail and/or proactive marketing to recruit participants. This article reports on the long-term impact of the campaign on GHS participation from July 2011 to June 2012. A stand-alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge, and behavioral variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544, August-September 2010), during the advertising period (n = 1,500, February-March 2011; n = 1,500, June-July 2011; n = 1,500, February 2012), and after the advertising period (n = 1,500, June-July 2012). GHS usage data (n = 6,095) were collated during July 2011-June 2012. Unprompted and prompted awareness of GHS mass media significantly increased (0% to 8.0%, p < .001; and 14.1% to 43.9%, p < .001, respectively) as well as knowledge and perceived effectiveness of the GHS. Those from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic disadvantage and respondents who were overweight or obese were significantly more likely to report prompted campaign awareness. The majority (84.4%) of new GHS calls occurred when television advertising was present. Participants who cited mass media as their referral source were significantly more likely to enroll in the intensive coaching program. Mass media campaigns remain an effective method of promoting a telephone-based statewide lifestyle program.
Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.
This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency promotion programs. 335.103... PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.103 Agency promotion programs. (a) Merit promotion plans. Except as otherwise specifically authorized by OPM, an agency may make promotions under §...
McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D
The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the
Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.
Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485
Leveton, Lauren B.
The project goal is to develop behavioral health prevention and maintenance system for continued crew health, safety, and performance for exploration missions. The basic scope includes a) Operationally-relevant research related to clinical cognitive and behavioral health of crewmembers; b) Ground-based studies using analog environments (Antarctic, NEEMO, simulations, and other testbeds; c) ISS studies (ISSMP) focusing on operational issues related to behavioral health outcomes and standards; d) Technology development activities for monitoring and diagnostic tools; and e) Cross-disciplinary research (e.g., human factors and habitability research, skeletal muscle, radiation).
Eddy, James M; Stellefson, Michael L
The nature of health education and health promotion (HE/HP) offers a fertile ground for entrepreneurial activity. As primary prevention of chronic diseases becomes a more central component of the health and/ or medical care continuum, entrepreneurial opportunities for health educators will continue to expand. The process used to design, implement, and evaluate health promotion and disease prevention has clear articulation with entrepreneurial, marketing management, and other business processes. Thus, entrepreneurs in HE/HP must be able to utilize business process to facilitate creative, new HE/HP business ideas. The purpose of this article is to weave theory and practical application into a primer on entrepreneurial applications in HE/HP. More specifically, the authors meld their prospective experiences and expertise to provide background thoughts on entrepreneurship in HE/HP and develop a framework for establishing an entrepreneurial venture in HE/HP. Five Cardinal Rules for Entrepreneurs in HE/HP are proposed.
Henke, Rachel M; Goetzel, Ron Z; McHugh, Janice; Isaac, Fik
Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole.
Merzel, Cheryl; D’Afflitti, Joanna
Contemporary public health emphasizes a community-based approach to health promotion and disease prevention. The evidence from the past 20 years indicates, however, that many community-based programs have had only modest impact, with the notable exception of a number of HIV prevention programs. To better understand the reasons for these outcomes, we conducted a systematic literature review of 32 community-based prevention programs. Reasons for poor performance include methodological challenges to study design and evaluation, concurrent secular trends, smaller-than-expected effect sizes, limitations of the interventions, and limitations of theories used. The effectiveness of HIV programs appears to be related in part to extensive formative research and an emphasis on changing social norms. PMID:12660197
Karpur, Arun; Bruyere, Susanne M.
Workplace health-promotion programs have the potential to reduce health care expenditures, especially among people with disabilities. Utilizing nationally representative survey data, the authors provide estimates for health care expenditures related to secondary conditions, obesity, and health behaviors among working-age people with disabilities.…
Hajebi, A; Damari, B; Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Nasehi, A; Nikfarjam, A; Bolhari, J
Background: According to the last existing documents, the prevalence rate of mental disorders is about 20% which is considered to be 14% of all country’s burden of disease. In the fifth economical, social, and cultural development plan of the country in accordance with the 20 year vision, “healthy human being” and “comprehensive health” approaches and also improving of mental health indicators are emphasized. Aim of study was preparing national policy and interventions for promoting mental health. Methods: Using secondary data, analytical review of country’s mental health programs, recommendations of WHO, descriptive situation of mental health and its trend during the last decade were drafted and a group of experts and stakeholders was formed following a sound stakeholder’s analysis. After three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), main points of the meetings, influencing factors of present situation, and oncoming strategies were agreed upon. Results: Based on different studies and the experts’ opinions, the prevalence of mental disorders in the last decade has increased. Coverage of mental health programs in two last decades in the best could be equal to rural population. Urban areas have been deprived of these services. Analysis of mental health system of the country shows that internal environment is weak and the external one is concede to be in threat. Eight principal challenges in country’s mental health are considered. Conclusion: Improving current situation requires increasing internal capacity of mental health system and developing inter-sectoral cooperation. During next five years, the Ministry of Health, Iran should mainly focus on improving mental health services particularly in urban and peri-urban areas, promoting mental health literacy of different groups and minimizing mental health risk factors. PMID:23865026
Martin, Angela; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Blizzard, Leigh; Teale, Brook; Sanderson, Kristy
This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women’s psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors. PMID:27513577
Ambrose, P J
The paper assesses the empirical evidence concerning the interface between living conditions and health status provided by a number of case studies of urban regeneration in London, and Brighton and Hove. These studies were carried out in the theoretical framework provided by the Cost-effectiveness in Housing Investment programme that has been seeking since 1993 to identify and measure additional 'exported' costs to services such as health, education and policing which derive from poor living conditions. A chronological study of the 'health gain' associated with the Central Stepney Single Regeneration Budget improvement to two run-down estates indicates that a seven-fold health improvement in the rate of 'illness days' experienced has taken place over a four-year period (1996-2000). This 7:1 differential was identical to that found in the synoptic comparison of illness days, and some health and policing costs, between the Stepney area and an area of improved housing in Paddington carried out in 1996. The paper presents an exploratory attempt to list and categorise in various ways the exported costs associated with poor living conditions and offers some preliminary assessment of their measurability. Finally, a number of health promoting strategies that should be borne in mind when carrying out urban renewal programmes are discussed. It is argued that the provision of satisfactory housing is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to promote good health. Attention must also be paid to community development, especially of 'organic' activities, the quality of services especially in relation to benefits, access to healthy food, crime reduction and, critically, the promotion of jobs and the reduction of poverty.
Souza, Aline de Jesus Fontineli; Matias, Gina Nogueira; Gomes, Kenia de Fátima Alencar; Parente, Adriana da Cunha Menezes
A descriptive study whose objective was to identify the education and actions of the nurse in Mental Health (MH), in the Family Health Program. The sample consisted of 134 acting nurses at the Family Health Program in Teresina, Piauí The results show that 95.5% don't have the specified education in MH. Of those interviewed, 97% state that there are patients, in their assigned areas, that need this type of care. The referenced actions were home visits (60%) appointments (27.7%), referrals (21.5%), medication delivery (15.4%), inactivity (14.6%), ambulatory service (7.7%), community therapy (5.4%) and casework (0.8%). Methods and strategies of public policies related to this area should be revisited and instituted in order to (re)direct ways of reform in the actions and services of mental health.
Bergtholdt, C. P.
Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.
Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne
Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506
Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne
Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.
Gore, Dana M; Kothari, Anita R
Although extensive research shows that the social determinants of health influence the distribution and course of chronic diseases, there is little programming in public health that addresses the social determinants as a disease prevention strategy. This paper discusses different types of health promotion initiatives and differentiates them based on whether they attempt to impact intermediate (environmental) determinants of health or structural determinants of health. We argue for the importance of programming targeted at the structural determinants as opposed to programming targeted solely at the immediate environment. Specifically, the former has more potential to create significant improvements in health, contribute to long-term social change and increase health equity. We urge public health leaders to take this distinction into consideration during public health program planning, and to build capacity in the public health workforce to tackle structural mechanisms that lead to poor health and health inequities.
Whitelaw, S; McKeown, K; Williams, J
This paper suggests that there is a tendency for health promotion to be located within models that consider health to be a product of a range of forces, with practice itself assumed to comprise a similarly wide range of activities. This paper develops a critique of this tendency that is essentially accommodating, all embracing and 'neutral'. It is argued that this leads to the masking of tensions between the conflicting values contained within the different elements of the models. We suggest that for health promoters, this is neither conceptually appropriate nor practically sensible. These notions are developed in five main stages. We start by defining some of the key concepts in the piece, e.g. the nature of a 'model' and examples of 'global' models. We then examine some of the general reasons why global models are favoured, with respect to the emergence of the UK's strategy for health, The Health of the Nation. The third stage of the discussion identifies and considers, within the British context, professional and governmental factors perceived to have driven this choice. The fourth aspect of the paper will introduce a critique of the use of global modelling. The paper concludes by critically questioning this evolving relationship, and suggests that it will be essentially conservative and unproductive. We end by reviewing the implications for practice and suggesting a useful way forward.
During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Health System. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will be...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Park Health Council, Inc. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Area Primary Health Care, Inc. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Park Health Council, Inc. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Health Care Affiliates. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will...
Background Increasing prevalences of overweight and obesity in children are known problems in industrialized countries. Early prevention is important as overweight and obesity persist over time and are related with health problems later in adulthood. "Komm mit in das gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is a school-based program to promote a healthier lifestyle. Main goals of the intervention are to increase physical activity, decrease the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, and to decrease time spent sedentary by promoting active choices for healthy lifestyle. The program to date is distributed by 34 project delivery consultants in the state of Baden-Württemberg and is currently implemented in 427 primary schools. The efficacy of this large scale intervention is examined via the Baden-Württemberg Study. Methods/Design The Baden-Württemberg Study is a prospective, stratified, cluster-randomized, and longitudinal study with two groups (intervention group and control group). Measurements were taken at the beginning of the academic years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Efficacy of the intervention is being assessed using three main outcomes: changes in waist circumference, skinfold thickness and 6 minutes run. Stratified cluster-randomization (according to class grade level) was performed for primary schools; pupils, teachers/principals, and parents were investigated. An approximately balanced number of classes in intervention group and control group could be reached by stratified randomization and was maintained at follow-up. Discussion At present, "Komm mit in das Gesunde Boot - Grundschule" is the largest school-based health promotion program in Germany. Comparative objective main outcomes are used for the evaluation of efficacy. Simulations showed sufficient power with the existing sample size. Therefore, the results will show whether the promotion of a healthier lifestyle in primary school children is possible using a relatively low effort within a school-based program
Lipana, J. G.; Masters, R. L.; Winter, W. R.
Some concepts of an operational program for medical and environmental health are outlined. Medical services of this program are primarily concerned with emergency care, laboratory examinations, advice to private physician with patient permission, medical monitoring activities, and suggestions for treatment or control of the malfunction.
Colarossi, Lisa G.; Dean, Randa; Balakumar, Kavitha; Stevens, Alexandra
We present an organizational capacity building program that is a systemic approach to training professionals, creating organizational policies and practices, and enhancing the physical environment with materials about sexual and reproductive health. The evaluation of four different organizations showed increases over six months in: staff reports…
Hill, Elizabeth K; Alpi, Kristine M; Auerbach, Marilyn
This review examines evidence-based practice (EBP) in health education and promotion with a focus on how academically trained health educators develop EBP skills and how health education and promotion practitioners access the literature to inform their activities. Competencies and credentialing in health education related to evidence-based practice are outlined and sources for evidence-based practice literature in health education and promotion are described. An exploratory questionnaire to consider teaching and resources in evidence-based practice was distributed to faculty and librarians from the top 10 ranked health education doctoral programs. Findings highlighted the integral value of EBP instruction to the curriculum. Growth opportunities in evidence-based health education and health promotion for instructors, practitioners, and librarians include promotion and expansion of online evidence-based public health resources to close the evidence-practice gap.
Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.
Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies and experimental interventions shows that improvements in subjective well-being lead to short-term and long-term reductions in medical morbidity and mortality, as well as to healthier functioning and longevity. However, these effects are inconsistent and weak (correlations of about 0.15). The most consistent and strong predictor of both subjective well-being and objective health status in longitudinal studies is a creative personality profile characterized by being highly self-directed, cooperative, and self-transcendent. There is a synergy among these personality traits that enhances all aspects of the health and happiness of people. Experimental interventions to cultivate this natural creative potential of people are now just beginning, but available exploratory research has shown that creativity can be enhanced and the changes are associated with widespread and profound benefits, including greater physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. In addition to benefits mediated by choice of diet, physical activity, and health care utilization, the effect of a creative personality on health may be partly mediated by effects on the regulation of heart rate variability. Creativity promotes autonomic balance with parasympathetic dominance leading to a calm alert state that promotes an awakening of plasticities and intelligences that stress inhibits. We suggest that health, happiness, and meaning can be cultivated by a complex adaptive process that enhances healthy functioning
Arroyo, Hiram V
The subject of health promotion professional training has raised a lot of interest in academic spheres, in professional organizations and in the health services sector at global and regional levels. Some of the topics that have stimulated regional dialogue and actions have been the following: developing curriculum and professional competencies for health promotion and health education academic programs; defining competencies and know-how in order to reorient health promotion capacity building initiatives for public health personnel; strengthening and increasing the academic and professional health promotion networks in Latin America; and organizing meetings and academic events and publications around the subject. During the academic years 2006-8, the Inter-American Coalition of Universities and Training Centers for Health Education and Health Promotion Personnel (www.ciueps.org) has been studying the different foci, competencies and characteristics of health promotion and health education professional training programs in the Latin American region. As part of this study, they have observed differences in curriculum foci between undergraduate, postgraduate and other levels of academic training and certifications. The Coalition as well as other Latin American entities has reiterated the challenges in the field of health promotion of professional training in the region. These include: maintaining an active forum to constantly refine professional competencies;expanding offerings at the different levels of health promotion training; developing courses on health-promotion-related disciplines; increasing the networks and academic exchanges between institutions in Latin America; encouraging the development of international courses on health promotion; increasing the production of theory and concepts on health promotion, health education and related practices in the Latin American context; improving dissemination of experiences in publications, at conferences and in
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Agazio, Janice Griffin; Buckley, Kathleen M
In this study, we explored what may determine, or predict, United States military women's health promotion behaviors. Using a descriptive correlational design grounded in Pender's Health Promotion model, 491 military women completed instruments measuring their demographic variables, perception of health, definition of health, self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences to determine the significant factors affecting participation in health promotion activities. The outcome indicated that self-efficacy and interpersonal influences were the most influential in determining health promotion. This research illuminates some of the challenges working women face in meeting health promotion activities and how best to support their ability to participate in healthy behaviors.
The World Health Organization 9th Global Conference on Health Promotion presented us with the Shanghai Declaration for promoting health in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the same time, the participants of the conference symposium, 'How can youth become future leaders in delivering on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development?' produced the 'Message from Youth Delegates on Health Promotion and Sustainable Development' as its complement. This 'Message from Youth Delegates' outlined pledges of young leaders in health promotion and proposed the necessary steps to ensure the future of health promotion includes more meaningful participation by young people. In order to fulfil the newest promises of the Shanghai Declaration and the past promises of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, we must think to close the divides between generations of health promoters and move forward on actions designed to develop the best possible future leaders for the field of global health. (Global Health Promotion, 2017; 24(1): 62-65).
Croxson, L J; Purdell-Lewis, D
Community and individual involvement are essential needs in preventive programmes for periodontal health. Campaigns should be directed towards a better individual understanding of the importance of healthy gum tissues if a functional healthy dentition is to be retained over a lifetime. Effective awareness campaigns require not only participation and education of the general public, but also all levels of health care professionals. Awareness programmes need to be carefully planned and their messages clear, non-conflicting and regularly reinforced. The complete programme should be based on, and include, specific aims, goals, strategies, monitoring and evaluation. Oral health and hygiene promotion campaigns need careful coordination between the relevant agencies or institutions involved in their implementation, such as government agencies, professional associations, industry, aid groups and education organisations.
Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A
The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.
Atkins, Marc S.; Graczyk, Patricia A.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel
A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability. The first study in this series responded to the urgent need to engage more families in mental health services, and…
Zhang, Yuan; Flum, Marian; West, Cheryl; Punnett, Laura
The long-term care sector is characterized by high morbidity and employee turnover, along with associated costs. Effective health protection and health promotion are important to improve physical and psychosocial well-being of caregivers. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is an essential precursor to the successful implementation of workplace programs addressing work climate, structure of tasks and relationships, and other issues that may be perceived as challenging by some within the institution. This study qualitatively assessed readiness of five skilled nursing facilities for a participatory occupational health/health promotion intervention. Selection criteria were developed to screen for program feasibility and ability to conduct prospective evaluations, and information was collected from managers and employees (interviews and focus groups). Three centers were selected for the program, and the first year of formative evaluation and intervention experience was then reviewed to evaluate and modify our selection criteria after the fact. Lessons learned include adding assessment of communication and the structure of problem solving to our selection criteria, improving methods to assess management support in a concrete (potentially nonverbal) form, and obtaining a stated financial commitment and resources to enable the team to function. Assessment of organizational readiness for change is challenging, although necessary to implement effective and sustainable health promotion programs in specific organizations.
Yan, Zi; Finn, Kevin; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Bent, Lauren
Background: Peer education has the potential to promote health behaviors and cultural competence for both international and domestic college students. Purpose: The present study examined a peer education program aimed at promoting cultural competence and health behaviors among international and American students in a university setting. Methods:…
World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).
This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…
Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Chang, Fong-Ching; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Shih, Shu-Fang; Chang, Tzu-Chau; Chou, Hsin-Pei
In 2011, the Taiwan government expanded its support of school-district/university partnership programs that promote the implementation of the evidenced-based Health Promoting Schools (HPS) program. This study examined whether expanding the support for this initiative was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived…
Shah, Smita; Kearey, Phoebe; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Grootjans, John; Armour, Carol
Objective To develop, implement, and evaluate a new interprofessional learning module that focused on asthma health promotion called Taking Action Together for Asthma. Design Faculty members in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy courses recruited 10 students each to participate in a 3-day interprofessional learning module. Students received extensive materials including a workbook to document their expectations and experience; completed a 1-day interprofessional workshop; received training in the Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) program; and went into high schools and taught the Triple A program to students in interprofessional teams. Assessment Before and after participating in the module, students completed a questionnaire consisting of 3 previously validated instruments: the Asthma Knowledge for Health Professionals Scale, Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale, and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Seventeen students completed both the pre- and post-module scales and significant changes were seen only in means scores for the Attitude Toward Healthcare Teams (81.0 ± 4.7 to 85.2 ± 5.9) and the Teamwork and Collaboration subscale of the RIPLS (41.4 ± 2.7 to 43.2 ± 2.7). Conclusion Health promotion activities offer a viable mechanism for fostering interprofessional learning among health professions students. PMID:21519420
Garbin, Daniela; Mattevi, Gianina Salton; Carcereri, Daniela Lemos; Caetano, João Carlos
Based on the regulatory framework and an overview of dentistry in supplementary health, this paper discusses the specifics of the dental sector with respect to health promotion policies and quality of health care services proposed by the National Supplementary Health Agency (ANS). The State's activities in supplementary health are based on law 9.656/98, which defines the relations between operators, products and their beneficiaries, and law 9.961/2000, which created the ANS. Concomitantly there was a great increase in dentistry in the private health plan market, because of changes in the practices of the profession. This required the need to know the logic of the organization of the services regarding the assistance provided and the model of care. The ANS develops measures to encourage operators to implement health promotion programs, striving for an integral care model. At the same time, it promotes the qualification policy of supplementary health care, with emphasis on the scope of care, though in dentistry the focus of evaluation is still individual and fragmented care. Indeed, the great challenge of dentistry is making it a public health policy, accessible to all, and the qualification of dental care in supplementary health.
Araújo, Maria Rizoneide Negreiros; Assunção, Raquel Silva
This article discusses practices developed by the community health agency in the Family Health Program of Divinópolis--MG reporting on practices in the fields of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, taking as main reference the principles established at the 1st International Health Promotion Conference, which took place in Canada in 1986. Field research was carried out by questionnaire, direct observation of work and open interviews with community health agencies. A qualitative approach was chosen in which the concepts and statements of the subjects were dealt with in the light of historical and dialectical materialism, and the organization and analysis of the discourses according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject. We conclude that the community health agency performs actions recommended by the Ministry of Health, and that its health promoting actions are confined to the creation of environments favorable to health, actions in the home. It works more widely in disease prevention, in individual actions, health education for the community and for groups at risk, and controlling infectious disease and parasites such as dengue and worms. Its focus of attention is predominantly the individual and not the family.
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Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone
Lactobacillus helveticus is an important industrial thermophilic starter that is predominantly employed in the fermentation of milk for the manufacture of several cheeses. In addition to its technological importance, a growing body of scientific evidence shows that strains belonging to the L. helveticus species have health-promoting properties. In this review, we synthesize the results of numerous primary literature papers concerning the ability of L. helveticus strains to positively influence human health. Several in vitro studies showed that L. helveticus possesses many common probiotic properties, such as the ability to survive gastrointestinal transit, adhere to epithelial cells, and antagonize pathogens. In vivo studies in murine models showed that L. helveticus could prevent gastrointestinal infections, enhance protection against pathogens, modulate host immune responses, and affect the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Interventional studies and clinical trials have also demonstrated a number of health-promoting properties of L. helveticus. Finally, several studies suggested that specific enzymatic activities of L. helveticus could indirectly benefit the human host by enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients, removing allergens and other undesired molecules from food, and producing bioactive peptides through the digestion of food proteins. In conclusion, this review demonstrates that in light of the scientific literature presented, L. helveticus can be included among the bacterial species that are generally considered to be probiotic. PMID:23181058
The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion defined the term Health Promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health". It also specifies that "to reach a state of complete physical mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment". Three main strategies for promoting health were stated: advocacy, enabling, and mediating. A great emphasis was put on policy. The Jakarta Declaration at the 4th International Conference on Health Promotion in 1997 reconfirmed the Ottawa Charter and added to it that "Health Promotion is carried out by and with people, not on or to people". The learning objectives of health promotion should refer to the values and strategies of 'Health 21', to the strategies and areas of action in health promotion as specified in the Ottawa Charter, and it should be relevant to the needs of the society that the participants are going to serve. The main goal of a training program in health promotion should be to develop competence in health promotion. "Competence" refers to the combination of three domains: attitudes, knowledge, and skills. Each school of public health or planners of an MPH course should decide upon the right mix of these three domains, according to their institute's mission and goals.
Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco
Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Cornerstone Care, Inc. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will be...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health... Center, Inc. for provision of services in Gwinnett County, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Health Resources...
Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob
Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…
Semenza, Jan C; Krishnasamy, Prasanna V
Design and implementation of health-promoting community interventions can advance public health and community well-being; however, realization of such programs is often challenging. Even more challenging is the implementation of ecologic interventions to revitalize built urban environments. A structured intervention entitled ;Intersection Repair; was devised in Portland, Oregon, by a non-profit organization, to implement urban gathering places in the public right of way; specific steps included situation analysis, community outreach, asset mapping, design workshops, construction permitting, building workshops, and process evaluation. The community created human-scale urban landscapes with interactive art installations to encourage social interactions. Such aesthetic improvements, which included painted street murals, information kiosks, hanging gardens, water fountains, benches, and so on, were intended to strengthen social networks and social capital by providing places for residents to engage in conversation. Community engagement in neighborhood design benefits the public at multiple levels, by promoting a healthier lifestyle, over and above urban landscape improvements.
Reis, Deise Moreira; Pitta, Daniela Rocha; Ferreira, Helena Maria Barbosa; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; Soares, Milton Gonçalves
This literature revision is intended to discuss the importance of health education as a strategy to oral health promotion in the pregnancy period. The most common mouth manifestations during pregnancy have been studied, and the conclusion is that, although pregnancy itself is not responsible for such manifestations in the mouth, e.g. dental decay and periodontal diseases, a dentistry follow-up during prenatal care is necessary, considering that hormonal alterations in pregnancy may aggravate the diseases contracted. The oral health promotion for pregnant women has been focused on mouth health education, considering it an important part of the Program of Attention to Women's Health, as recommended by the current National Politics' Mouth Health Policy. It is considered that, by means of mouth health education activities, implemented during prenatal care by a multiprofessional team, under an oral surgeon, women may be aware of the importance of their role in the attainment and maintenance of positive mouth health habits in family environment and act as an agent to multiply preventive and mouth-health-promotion information.
Williams, Malcolm V.; Haas, Ann; Griffin, Beth Ann; Fulton, Brad; Kanouse, David E.; Bogart, Laura M.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin
Purpose Identify and compare predictors of the existence of congregational HIV and other health programs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting United States. Participants A nationally-representative sample of 1,506 U.S. congregations surveyed in the National Congregations Study (2006-07). Measures Key informants at each congregation completed in-person and telephone interviews on congregational HIV and other health programs and various congregation characteristics (response rate = 78%). County-level HIV prevalence and population health data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2007 County Health Rankings were linked to the congregational data. Analysis Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors that predict congregational health programs relative to no health programs; and of HIV programs relative to other health activities. Results Most congregations (57.5%) had at least one health-related program; many fewer (5.7%) had an HIV program. Predictors of health vs. HIV programs differed. The number of adults in the congregation was a key predictor of health programs, while having an official statement welcoming gay persons was a significant predictor of HIV programs (p<.05). Other significant characteristics varied by size of congregation and type of program (HIV vs. other health). Conclusion Organizations interested in partnering with congregations to promote health or prevent HIV should consider congregational size as well as other factors that predict involvement. Results of this study can inform policy interventions to increase the capacity of religious congregations to address HIV and health. PMID:25162322
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.
Makuch, A; Reschke, K
Oral health behaviour is a result of a life-long learning process, this process can best be achieved by an interdisciplinary collaboration among dentists and professionals in other areas, e.g. psychologists, teachers and kindergarten teachers. The basis of our research is a childhood dental health promotion programme which consists of a tool of games for children in the age of 3-5 years. After development by an interdisciplinary research group, the effectiveness of this teaching and behaviour modification technique should be proved. This study describes a controlled field study, in which two forms of game play activities were compared to a control groups. The results showed that the use of games and shows aimed at a child's developmental level can be more efficacious than the presentation of didactic information alone.
Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be
Ziglio, Erio; Simpson, Sarah; Tsouros, Agis
One of the five action domains in the Ottawa Charter was Reorienting Health Services. In this paper, we reflect on why progress in this domain has been somewhat lethargic, particularly compared with some of the other action domains, and why now it is important to renew our commitment to this domain. Reorienting health services has been largely overlooked and opportunities missed, although good exceptions do exist. The occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Ottawa Charter represents an important opportunity for health promotion to: (i) renew its active voice in current policy debate and action and (ii) enhance achievements made to date by improving our efforts to advocate, enable and mediate for the reorientation of health services and systems. We outline six steps to reactivate and invest more in this action domain so as to be in a better position to promote health equitably and sustainably in today's fast changing world. Though our experience is mainly based in the European context, we hope that our reflections will be of some value to countries outside of this region.
Banks, M J; Banks, M E
Health-oriented television programming occurred only on a sporadic basis until 1982, when a health information project was embodied in the formation of the Cable Health Network (CHN), a 24-hour, advertiser-supported, satellite-delivered cable network. As the network began, however, it ran into difficulties. A series of events led to a metamorphosis, including a merger of CHN with ABC/Hearst's network Daytime into the Lifetime network. A gradual but substantial replacement of health programming with more general entertainment fare took place. The network has enjoyed greater financial success in recent times, but success has come considerably at the expense of the health component, even though health promotion remains an important part of the programming. The study supports the suggestion by some researchers that the impact of mass media health promotion should be studied in the context of lifestyle and audience usage, rather than strictly as a linear message-audience-effect model.
Heward, Sue; Hutchins, Cheryl; Keleher, Helen
Contemporary health promotion is now a well-defined discipline with a strong (albeit diverse) theoretical base, proven technologies (based on program planning) for addressing complex social problems, processes to guide practice and a body of evidence of efficacy and increasingly, effectiveness. Health promotion has evolved principally within the health sector where it is frequently considered optional rather than core business. To maximize effectiveness, quality health promotion technologies and practices need to be adopted as core business by the health sector and by organizations in other sectors. It has proven difficult to develop the infrastructure, workforce and resource base needed to ensure the routine introduction of high-quality health promotion into organizations. Recognizing these problems, this paper explores the use of organizational theory and practice in building the capacity of organizations to design, deliver and evaluate health promotion effectively and efficiently. The paper argues that organizational change is an essential but under-recognized function for the sustainability of health promotion practice and a necessary component of capacity-building frameworks. The interdependence of quality health promotion with organizational change is discussed in this paper through three case studies. While each focused on different aspects of health promotion development, the centrality of organizational change in each of them was striking. This paper draws out elements of organizational change to demonstrate that health promotion specialists and practitioners, wherever they are located, should be building organizational change into both their practice and capacity-building frameworks because without it, effectiveness and sustainability are at risk.
Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Berretin-Felix, Giédre
Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which is commonly underdiagnosed, has a high occurrence in the world population. Health education concerning sleep disorders and OSAS should be implemented. Objectives The objective was to identify studies related to preventive actions on sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education,” and “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromes.” Initially, 1,055 papers, from 1968 to 2013, were located, with the majority from the Scopus database. The inclusion criteria were applied, and four articles published between 2006 and 2012 were included in the present study. Conclusions The studies on preventive actions in sleep disorders, with emphasis on OSAS, involved the general population and professionals and students in the health field and led to increased knowledge on sleep disorders and more appropriate practices. PMID:25992174
Marks, Beth A; Heller, Tamar
Health is influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioral and biological conditions--either positively or negatively. Health promotion aims to make these factors more favorable through health advocacy. Advocating for physical, mental, and social health requires that individuals with I/DD have opportunities to identify and realize their aspirations, develop the capacity to satisfy their needs, and possess the ability to adapt and/or cope with the environment. Because health is both an individual and a social responsibility, effective health promotion strategies must incorporate linkages between health and development, particularly for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups where deprivation in health and economic resources exist simultaneously and reinforce each other . Incorporating health and development at the core of health promotion activities addresses issues of poverty, poor health, and unemployment, while accounting for social, cultural and economic differences. Health promotion enables people with I/DD to achieve their health goals by ensuring equal opportunities and resources. This includes having supportive environments, access to information, and life skills and opportunities to make healthy choices. People cannot achieve their health goals unless they can control health determinants. Health promotion efforts require coordinated action from all interested groups (e.g., government entities, health and other social and economic sectors, nongovernmental and voluntary organizations, local authorities, industry and media), including individuals, families and communities. Community-based health promotion emphasizes community participation, along with empowerment of community members to address inequities and increase control over their health . Individual satisfaction and participation are critical components in community coalitions that are providing health promotion programs. Moreover, community leadership, shared decision
Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng
Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Robinson, Kerry L; Driedger, Michelle S; Elliott, Susan J; Eyles, John
The health promotion best practices literature is imbued with hope for knowledge mobilization, enhanced practice, and improved population health. Given constrained medical care systems, health promotion is key to reducing the significant burden of chronic disease. However, we have seen little evidence of change. This article investigates facilitators of, and barriers to, three stages of health promotion practice in public health organizations, interagency coalitions, and volunteer committees. The article focuses not on what works but why it does or does not, drawing on five case studies within the Canadian Heart Health Initiative. Results indicate that the presence or absence of appropriately committed and/or skilled people, funds and/or resources, and priority and/or interest are the most common factors affecting all stages of health promotion practice. The article extends the literature on internal and external factors affecting health promotion and highlights strategic influences to consider in support of effective health promotion practice.
Cwikel, J G
The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological
Cambon, Linda; Ferron, Christine
In 2009, the Center for Strategic Analysis initiated a study, entitled Neurosciences and Public Policies, to assess the use of neurosciences in prevention policy. Subsequently, a report highlighted the inefficiency of the "traditional" prevention programs and the potential contribution of neurosciences to defining a new prevention approach. For the French National Federation for Health Education and Promotion, health promotion cannot be limited to a "counter-manipulation" of consumers confronted with marketing strategies from the food and tobacco industries. Promoting health helps people increase control over the determinants of their health, by means of educational empowering strategies.
Rychetnik, Lucie; Dietetics, PGradDip; Lloyd, Beverley; Kerridge, Ian H.; Baur, Louise; Bauman, Adrian; Hooker, Claire; Zask, Avigdor
We propose a new approach to guide health promotion practice. Health promotion should draw on 2 related systems of reasoning: an evidential system and an ethical system. Further, there are concepts, values, and procedures inherent in both health promotion evidence and ethics, and these should be made explicit. We illustrate our approach with the exemplar of intervention in weight, and use a specific mass-media campaign to show the real-world dangers of intervening with insufficient attention to ethics and evidence. Both researchers and health promotion practitioners should work to build the capacities required for evidential and ethical deliberation in the health promotion profession. PMID:21233436
Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Glasman, Laura R.
This meta-analysis examines whether exposure to HIV-prevention interventions follows self-validation or risk-reduction motives. The dependent measures used in the study were enrolling in an HIV-prevention program and completing the program. Results indicated that first samples with low prior condom use were less likely to enroll than samples with…
The author traces the development of the concept of health promotion from 1980s policies of the World Health Organization. Two approaches that signify the modernization of public health are outlined in detail: the European Health for All targets and the settings approach. Both aim to reorient health policy priorities from a risk factor approach to strategies that address the determinants of health and empower people to participate in improving the health of their communities. These approaches combine classic public health dictums with “new” strategies, some setting explicit goals to integrate public health with general welfare policy. Health for All, health promotion, and population health have contributed to this reorientation in thinking and strategy, but the focus of health policy remains expenditure rather than investment. PMID:12604477
Dunne, Cathy; Somerset, Maggie
This qualitative research was designed to investigate students' health needs and their views on health promotion in a University. A total of 31 students participated in focus group discussions. Inductive analysis revealed two central themes: student health concerns and health promotion in a University setting. The former included issues associated…
A Health Occupations Program designed as an integrated science course offers students at Evanston Township High School (Illinois) an opportunity to master science skills, content, and laboratory techniques while working and studying within local hospitals (the Evanston Hospital and St. Francis Hospital) as well as within their high school…
Leurs, Mariken T W; Schaalma, Herman P; Jansen, Maria W J; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid M; St Leger, Lawrence H; de Vries, Nanne
In recent decades, school health promotion programs have been developing into whole-school health approaches. This has been accompanied by a greater understanding among health promoters of the core-business of schools, namely education, and how health promotion objectives can be integrated into this task. Evidence of the positive impact of school health promotion on health risk behavior of students is increasing. This article focuses on the processes and initial results of developing a collaborative model tailored for whole-school health in the Netherlands, named schoolBeat. The Dutch situation is characterized by fragmentation, a variety of health and welfare groups supporting schools, and a lack of sound integrated youth policies. A literature review, observations, and stakeholder consultation provided a clear picture of the current situation in school health promotion, and factors limiting a comprehensive and needs-based approach to school health. This revealed that a health promotion team within a school is fundamental to an effective approach to tailored school health promotion. A respected member of school staff should chair this team. To strengthen the link with the school care team, the school care coordinator should be a member of both teams. To provide coordinated support to all schools in a region, participating organizations decided to share advisory tasks. These tasks are included in the regular health promotion work of their staff. This means working with one advisor representing all school-health organizations per school, and using a comprehensive overview of possible support and projects promoting health. Empowering schools in needs assessments and comprehensive school health promotion is an important element of the developed approach. This article concludes with an examination of emerging issues in evaluating collaborative school health support during the first 18 months of development, and implementation and future perspectives regarding
Effect of a 4-year workplace-based physical activity intervention program on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees: the high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study.
Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, Katsuyuki; Yanagita, Masahiko; Fujieda, Yoshiharu; Kinoshita, Fujihisa; Naito, Yoshihiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tanaka, Taichiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu
Individuals who are physically fit or engage in regular physical activity have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and risk of mortality. We conducted a large-scale controlled trial of interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors, during which we assessed the effect of a workplace-based intervention program, which was part of a population strategy for promoting long-term increases in physical activity, on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees. Data were collected from 2929 participants and this report presents the results of a survey conducted in five factories for the intervention group and five factories for the control group at baseline and year 5. The absolute/proportional changes in HDL-cholesterol were 2.7 mg/dL (4.8%) in the intervention group and -0.6 mg/dL (-1.0%) in the control group. The differences between the two groups in the change in serum levels of HDL-cholesterol were highly significant (p<0.001) in each analysis of covariance, in which the number of cigarettes smoked was included or excluded. In the intervention group, the daily walking time increased significantly (p<0.001) when compared between baseline and year 5, whereas no significant difference was observed in daily walking time in the control group over the identical period. Our results show that an intervention program promoting physical activity raises serum HDL-cholesterol levels of middle-aged employees. Increased awareness of the benefits of physical activity, using environmental rearrangement and health promotion campaigns, which especially target walking, may have contributed to a beneficial change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in the participants.
Ives, D G; Traven, N D; Kuller, L H; Schulz, R
Some epidemiologic studies have compared the characteristics of individuals who participate, refuse, and are unreachable in population studies, but results have been inconsistent. The Rural Health Promotion Project attempted to recruit all Medicare Part B noninstitutionalized individuals age 65-79 years in a rural community for a trial of preventive health services. Of 962 potential subjects, 360 (37.4%) participated, 253 (26.3%) refused, 176 (18.3%) were ineligible, and 152 (15.8%) were never reached by phone or mail. Approximately 3 years later, we reinterviewed the participants, refusals, and as many of the unreachables as possible. The 3-year mortality was similar for both refusals and participants (approximately 9%) but was much higher for ineligibles (29.0%) and unreachables (23.7%). Participants were more likely to have disease history, to have behavioral risk factors for disease, and to use health screening services. Refusals were the healthiest and possibly chose not to participate because they did not have risk factors targeted by the program. The unreachables had the highest prevalence of disability and health care inpatient reimbursement and may have been ineligible for the demonstration had they volunteered. We conclude that failure to reach potential participants for health promotion services may be a warning of "high risk."
Girvan, James T.
This paper presents an evaluation of the Seaside Health Education Conference (SHEC) that, for ten years, has been held yearly for the purpose of promoting health education in Oregon schools by providing in-service programs for teachers. Each school district attending the SHEC comes as a team composed of health educators, other teachers,…
Schopp, Laura H.; Bike, Denise H.; Clark, Mary J.; Minor, Marian A.
Chronic health conditions and multiple health risk factors afflict Americans and burden employers, but effective, affordable, workplace-based health promotion interventions have not been widely implemented. This is the first study to adapt the empirically validated Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for a general employee population in a…
Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.
In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279
Percival, Nikki; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers.
Percival, Nikki; O’Donoghue, Lynette; Lin, Vivian; Tsey, Komla; Bailie, Ross Stewart
Although some areas of clinical health care are becoming adept at implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects, there has been limited experimentation of CQI in health promotion. In this study, we examined the impact of a CQI intervention on health promotion in four Australian Indigenous primary health care centers. Our study objectives were to (a) describe the scope and quality of health promotion activities, (b) describe the status of health center system support for health promotion activities, and (c) introduce a CQI intervention and examine the impact on health promotion activities and health centers systems over 2 years. Baseline assessments showed suboptimal health center systems support for health promotion and significant evidence-practice gaps. After two annual CQI cycles, there were improvements in staff understanding of health promotion and systems for planning and documenting health promotion activities had been introduced. Actions to improve best practice health promotion, such as community engagement and intersectoral partnerships, were inhibited by the way health center systems were organized, predominately to support clinical and curative services. These findings suggest that CQI can improve the delivery of evidence-based health promotion by engaging front line health practitioners in decision-making processes about the design/redesign of health center systems to support the delivery of best practice health promotion. However, further and sustained improvements in health promotion will require broader engagement of management, senior staff, and members of the local community to address organizational and policy level barriers. PMID:27066470
Health-care parameters for Natives living in isolated northern areas of Canada show rates of life expectancy, morbidity, and infant mortality far worse than the Canadian average. Improving access to medical facilities has not affected these statistics. Socioeconomic factors such as inadequate housing and lack of sewage systems are likely contributors to poor health, as is an attitude of hopelessness and impotence on the part of Native people. Health-care providers have recognized the need for health promotion as well as treatment, but have often instituted programs that blame the victim. An approach to health education that embodies community development, participation, and the fostering of a positive self-image is discussed. The implication of this approach is that when Native Canadian groups can identify their own health problems, have access to the information needed for their solution, and develop the confidence and assertiveness to act, change may occur at a community, as well as an individual, level. PMID:21253037
Povlsen, Lene; Borup, Ina
In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as 'Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion', 'Salutogenesis--from theory to practice' and 'Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 with bi-annual meetings at NHV.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Careers Opportunity Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive...
Aqtash, Salah; Van Servellen, Gwen
Arab immigrants in the United States are at risk for heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. We explored health-promoting lifestyle behaviors among Arab immigrants to the United States from the Middle Eastern region of the Levant. In 218 male and female Arab adults surveyed with the revised Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II), the mean for the HPLP-II was 2.73 (range 1-4), with spiritual growth and interpersonal relations the most frequently reported practices and physical activity the least frequently practiced dimension of health-promoting behaviors. Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted four determinants of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors: health insurance, acculturation, self-efficacy, and social support. Health promotion programs serving Arab immigrants should take these determinants into consideration.
Simpson, R.; Albert, W.; Wilson, D. M. C.; Ciliska, D.; Evans, C. E.
In the Region of Halton, a health promotion data base was developed to assist with planning for local services and programs. Three data sources were used: preventable mortality, preventable morbidity, and the prevalence of modifiable risk among community members. Existing information was used for the first two sources, and the community was surveyed for the last. A survey version of the FANTASTIC Lifestyle Checklist was mailed to a random sample of 1,200 households. FANTASTIC showed itself to be a reliable lifestyle construct with two major factors: a group of psychosocial behaviors, and a set of “bad habits”.
Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
The Indian Health Service program has enabled large numbers of American Indians to play a significant role in the design and delivery of health services to their communities. The Indian Health Service provides training programs in various health-related areas. These programs have provided many Indians their first opportunity for employment, while…
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of February 4, 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States...
Taguchi, Atsuko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Sachiyo
volunteers were associated with the three core health promotion activities. In bivariate analyses, active participation in the core activities was more prevalent among older volunteers (p<0.001 for all three activities). Self-rated health condition was associated with both outreach to family (p = 0.018) and community (p = 0.046). Years of experience as volunteer and perception of being recognized in the community also had statistically significant association with outreach to the community (p<0.001). In multiple logistic regression, those with higher level of health literacy were more likely than others to actively engage in outreach to family (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.80; OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 to 3.00 for medium and high, respectively) and outreach to community (OR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.34 to 3.83; OR = 2.61 95%CI 1.49 to 4.58 for medium and high, respectively). Perception of being recognized in the community also had a statistically significant and positive impact on outreach to the community (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.17 to 1.99). Conclusions Volunteers with higher health literacy were more likely to actively engage in outreach to family and outreach to community. Providing educational programs to improve volunteers’ health literacy may facilitate their work. PMID:27736942
Polak, Rani; Constantini, Naama W; Verbov, Gina; Edelstein, Naomi; Hasson, Ronnie; Lahmi, Michele; Cohen, Rivka; Maoz, Shuli; Daoud, Nihaya; Bentov, Nathalie; Aharony, Hannah Soltz; Stein-Zamir, Chen
Mother and Child Health Clinics have provided preventive health services in Israel for nearly a century. The Public Health Nurses Promote Healthy Lifestyles Program was developed to assist families in adopting healthy behaviors. The program ran in the Jerusalem District from 2009 to 2011. After piloting, 175 public health nurses received training and interventions took place in 45 clinics serving parents of 167 213 infant and toddlers per year. When evaluation is completed, our hope is to incorporate the program into Mother and Child Health Clinic services regularly provided nationwide, thereby becoming an integral part of the initiative, Healthy Israel 2020.
Mulé, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick
In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH) perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.
Montañez, Evelyn; Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rodriguez, James; McCord, Mary; Meyer, Dodi
Many school-age children in the United States with social, emotional, and behavioral problems do not receive mental health services. These problems negatively affect their social and behavioral functioning and academic achievement. This is particularly a problem for Latino youths, who represent the largest ethnic minority group in the United…
Mehri, Ali; Solhi, Mahnaz; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Nadrian, Haidar; Sighaldeh, Shirin Shahbazi
Background: Healthy lifestyle is a major strategy to promote current and subsequent health status. The aim of this study was to assess the status of health-promoting the lifestyle and its determinants among students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 500 students in a university in the city of Sabzevar, Iran participated in this cross-sectional study. Health-promoting lifestyle was measured using Walker's health-promoting lifestyle profile II. Results: There was a significant correlation between all domains of health-promoting the lifestyle. The highest score among the domains was for an interpersonal relationship (70.8%), and the lowest score was for nutrition (53.6%), and physical activity (53.4%). Significant differences were found in physical activity by gender (P ≤ 0.05). There were significant differences in health responsibility, spiritual growth and body mass index by marital status (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Since one out of five students in this study were overweight/obese, health program planning to promote lifestyle, especially physical activity and nutrition among students is recommended. Our findings may be helpful for faculty administrators, curriculum planners, and health educators in designing guidelines to structuralize a healthier campus and to develop health promotion programs supporting healthy choices among students. PMID:27141284
Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl Lemay; Ellison, Calvin
Churches serve vital roles in African American communities, where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited. Although church leadership often must approve programs and activities conducted within churches, little is known about their perception of churches as health promotion organizations, or the impact of church-based health promotion on their own health. This exploratory study assessed perceptions of church capacity to promote health among 27 rural, African American clergy leaders and report the relationship between their own health and that of their congregation. Results indicate a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Most common were conducting health programs, displaying health information, kitchen committee working with the health ministry, partnerships outside of the church, and funding. Findings lay the foundation for the development of future studies of key factors associated with organizational change and health promotion in these rural church settings.
Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Ahmad, Nihal
Abstract Significance: Diet-derived antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects, including their role in the chemoprevention of cancer. In general, botanical antioxidants have received much attention, as they can be consumed for longer periods of time without any adverse effects. Flavonoids are a broadly distributed class of plant pigments that are regularly consumed in the human diet due to their abundance. One such flavonoid, fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), is found in various fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber. Recent Advances: Several studies have demonstrated the effects of fisetin against numerous diseases. It is reported to have neurotrophic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and other health beneficial effects. Critical Issues: Although fisetin has been reported as an anticarcinogenic agent, further in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies are required to delineate the mechanistic basis of its observed effects. In this review article, we describe the multiple effects of fisetin with special emphasis on its anticancer activity as investigated in cell culture and animal models. Future Directions: Additional research focused toward the identification of molecular targets could lead to the development of fisetin as a chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent against cancer and other diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 151–162. PMID:23121441
Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.
This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893
Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A
This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures.
Noguchi, Kenji; Albarracín, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Glasman, Laura R.
This meta-analysis examines whether exposure to HIV-prevention interventions follows self-validation or risk-reduction motives. The dependent measures used in the study were enrolling in an HIV-prevention program and completing the program. Results indicated that first samples with low prior condom use were less likely to enroll than samples with high prior condom use. Second, samples with high knowledge were less likely to stay in an intervention than were those with low knowledge. Third, samples with medium levels of motivation to use condoms and condom use were more likely to complete an intervention than were those with low or high levels. Importantly, those patterns were sensitive to the interventions' inclusions of information-, motivation-, and behavioral-skills strategies. The influence of characteristics of participants, the intervention, and the recruit procedure are reported. PMID:17967090
Chang, Li-Chun; Huang, Song-Yuan; Wu, Fei-Lin
In the wake of the WHO's health promotion campaign health promotion schools have gained currency in Europe and the United States. The Department of Education in Taiwan has proposed a "school health promotion program" and the Department of Health a "program to build healthy schools" The goal of these programs was to create a holistic environment for school health and put the concepts of "school-family-community partnership" into practice. Although difficulties, such as school-centered perspectives, ambiguous definitions of "community" and shortage of funding, human resources and long-term planning impeded the program, this article, based on literature and practical experience, presents the "school-community model" and the strategies that it applied to organize the school-community health promotion committee to plan long-term programs and to assess the needs and resources of schools and communities on a collaborative basis. It contends, furthermore, that integrating community services into curriculums in order to enable students to appreciate the meaning of partnership, and involving the community in the planning process, can achieve the goal of effectively promoting the health of both the school and the community.
Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.
The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…
Harris, Patrick; Ritchie, Jan; Tabi, Graham; Abel, Myriam; Lower, Tony
Community based health promotion initiatives are recognised as important strategies to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how such initiatives work in practice. One innovative health promotion program of work, the Pacific Action for Health Project, is working with young people and communities in the Pacific country of Vanuatu to offset the future effects of risk factors for these diseases, through optimising broad lifestyle and living conditions for the positive promotion of health. Recognising the established link between non-communicable diseases and their social determinants, the Pacific Action for Health Project works with young people to address these determinants at the community level including, but not limited to, unemployment. This paper appraises the program based on a constructivist approach to data gathering and analysis, with observations made in the field subsequently interpreted through the health promotion literature on community empowerment. From the data collected, six themes emerged as key attributes through which the program achieved its planned outcomes. Subsequent analysis through the community empowerment literature, specifically 'dynamic continuum' models of community development, provided deeper analysis of the program's strategies and offered insight into how the literature on community empowerment may work in practice in a resource poor context. In addition to the development of locally specific empowerment measures as indicators for future program evaluation, further ethnographic work and participatory-action research approaches are encouraged to assist the future development of the program.
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830
Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek
Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.
O'Donnell, Michael P
A recent systematic review of the literature on the financial impact of workplace health promotion found that 46 of 47 programs saved money, 41 saved more than they cost, and that the returns on investment varied greatly based on the quality of the study methodology, year of publication, sample size, scope of the program, direct or indirect measurement of savings and costs, and several other factors. A close examination of the methodology of the single study that reported net financial loss illustrates the complexity of drawing conclusions from summaries of the literature without also examining the details. Next steps in advancing studies of the financial impact of workplace health promotion programs include developing a scale to measure methodology quality that is appropriate for workplace health promotion programs, and engaging independent third parties to evaluate programs.
Vu, Michelle; White, Annesha; Kelley, Virginia P.; Hopper, Jennifer Kuca; Liu, Cathy
programs have varying components, but all include monetary incentives and documented outcomes. Conclusion The concurrent growth of hospital health plans (especially those emerging from vertical mergers and partnerships) and wellness programs in the United States provides a unique opportunity for employees and patient populations to promote wellness and achieve the Triple Aim goals as initiated by CMS. PMID:27625744
Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ortega, Diana Patricia
In Latin America, comprehensive health promotion programmes and activities are being implemented in the school setting, which take into account the conceptual framework of the Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional office of the World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). These programmes help to strengthen the working relationships between the health and education sectors. The Health-Promoting Schools Regional Initiative, officially launched by PAHO/WHO in 1995, aims to form future generations to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills necessary for promoting and caring for their health and that of their family and community, as well as to create and maintain healthy environments and communities. The Initiative focuses on three main components: comprehensive health education, the creation and maintenance of healthy physical and psychosocial environments, and the access to health and nutrition services, mental health, and active life. In 2001, PAHO conducted a survey in 19 Latin American countries to assess the status and trends of Health-Promoting Schools in the Region, for the appropriate regional, subregional, and national planning of pertinent health promotion and health education programmes and activities. The results of this survey provided information about policies and national plans, multisectoral coordination mechanisms for the support of health promotion in the school settings, the formation and participation in national and international networks of Health-Promoting Schools and about the level of dissemination of the strategy. For the successful development of Health-Promoting Schools is essential to involve the society as a whole, in order to mobilise human resources and materials necessary for implementing health promotion in the school settings. Thus, the constitution and consolidation of networks has been a facilitating mechanism for the exchange of ideas, resources and experiences to strengthen
Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Díaz-Romero, Ricardo; Castillo-Jayme, Jackeline; Jerí-de-Pinho, María; Benites-Zapata, Vicente; Marquez-Bobadilla, Edith; López-Dávalos, César; Philipps-Cuba, Flor de María
In Peru, The National Health Authority (SUSALUD) is granted the responsibility to promote, protect and defend the health rights of every citizen. However, in the Peruvian Health System (PHS) there exists an insufficient culture of health rights, a low level of knowledge of health rights by the population, and a limited degree of cooperation between users, providers and funders. In light of this limited popular participation in the health rights of the citizenry, it has been necessary for SUSALUD to pursue various activities in order to promote the exercise of health rights by Peruvians. Among the strategies implemented are the development of Organized Boards of Users (OBU) and a Program of Integrated Actions for the Promotion of Health Rights (PIAPHI). The aim of both interventions is to increase the level of trust between citizens and government, which fosters and strengthens the capacity of citizens to pursue their health rights. In this article we begin with a brief presentation on the state of knowledge, attitudes and practices of users of the health system regarding their rights. Then we explain both programs, their goals and procedures, and a general description of their activities. Also, some indicators of process and some results are presented along with discussion and future prospects. We believe that the gradual implementation of the OBU and PIAPHI programs will enhance the participation of Peruvians in their health system, and will contribute positively to their empowerment and the pursuit of their health rights.
The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.
This is the second in a two-part unit on health promotion in sexual health. Part 1 outlined various theories and models on the issue. This part examines the factors that contribute towards successful health promotion, such as an effective communication style. It outlines how nurses can put health-promotion theory, competencies and guidance into practice.
Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen
This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.
Casemiro, Juliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Alexandre Brasil Carvalho; Secco, Fabio Vellozo Martins
This paper presents a bibliographic review on the topic of school health in Latin America based on papers published between 1995 and 2012 and reflects the potential of its implementation as public policy. It was possible to identify the persistence of initiatives centered on disease with a focus on screening and preventive actions. However, the selection of health promotion as the strategic axis of school health has resulted in changes. In this context, the challenges include the definition of roles in the planning and execution of programs and the experience of the broader concept of health. Creating and strengthening spaces for participation with students, teachers, health professionals and the community is indispensable for the creation of fairer and healthier realities.
Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P
Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.
This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.
Roden, Janet; Jarvis, Lynda
Researchers were involved in an evaluative approach to examine the health promotion activities of paediatric nurses from a paediatric tertiary hospital centre (N = 83) and five paediatric non-tertiary hospital centres (N = 48) from Sydney, Australia. The aims of this study were to understand the nature of heath promotion in paediatric nursing practice by examining nurses' attitudes, investigating paediatric nurses' involvement in the five action area of the Ottawa Charter, and identifying barriers to the implementation of health promotion in practice. The researchers developed a health promotion survey based around the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (World Health Organisation, 1986a), and a literature review of nurses' involvement in health promotion. Results showed that tertiary paediatric nurses undertook more varied health promotion activities such as creating supportive environments (CSE), reorienting health services (RHS) and building healthy public policy (BHPP) than did non-tertiary paediatric nurses who were involved in only one action area of the Charter, that of developing personal skills (DPS). This research revealed that within paediatric nursing practice the action areas of the Ottawa Charter of BHPP and CSE were important; and that there is support for the advocacy role of paediatric nurses. There is also evidence that paediatric nurses may have health promotion knowledge deficits associated with the Ottawa Charter, and that the environment of multidisciplinary allied health professionals in a tertiary paediatric centre may positively influence senior paediatric nurses and their capacity to be involved in varied health promotion activities associated with the Ottawa Charter.
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Castaño, Paula M; Martínez, Raquel Andrés
Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely impact the teen, her child, and their community. Cell-phone use is becoming widespread, and teen cell-phone users frequently use text messaging. We describe a study in which we use cell-phone text-messaging technology in a novel way: we provide daily oral contraceptive dosing reminders and educational messages and evaluate oral contraceptive continuation at 6 months. We will use the information we obtain to develop specific, practice-based interventions to improve reproductive health programs and policies.
Marks, Beth; Sisirak, Jasmina; Chang, Yen-Ching
Background: This study examines the efficacy of a staff-led, health promotion intervention entitled "HealthMatters Program: Train-the-Trainer" Model to improve health among adults with intellectual disabilities. While data support the benefits of health promotion for adults with intellectual disabilities in controlled settings, little…
Ioannou, Soula; Kouta, Christiana; Charalambous, Neofytos
Purpose: This paper seeks to discuss the rationale of the newly reformed health education curriculum in Cyprus, which aspires to enable not only teachers, but also all the school personnel, to work from the perspective of health promotion. It is a curriculum which moves from the traditional approach of health education focusing on individual…
Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill
Health promotion programs provide information, education for health and opportunity for the development of the skills that people need to make healthy choices. The current climate of health care practice also directs its focus to the needs and wants of the health care consumers. This entails active input from the target group. The present study used focus groups in an attempt to ensure input from women in early postpartum into the development of a postpartum continence promotion program. The focus groups revealed anomalies in women's perceived susceptibility to, and knowledge about, urinary incontinence and pelvic floor exercises, while highlighting other areas of need. Focus groups proved an invaluable tool in the development of a more effective physiotherapy continence promotion program.
Kesztyüs, Tibor; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M
Aim To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program “Join the Healthy Boat” in primary schools in Germany. Methods Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years) were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables. Incidence of abdominal obesity, defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5, was determined. Generalized linear models were applied to account for the clustering of data within schools, and to adjust for baseline-values. Losses to follow-up and missing data were analysed. From a societal perspective, the overall costs, costs per pupil, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to identify the costs per case of averted abdominal obesity were calculated. Results The final regression model for the incidence of abdominal obesity shows lower odds for the intervention group after an adjustment for grade, gender, baseline WHtR, and breakfast habits (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25; 0.94]). The intervention costs per child/year were €25.04. The costs per incidental case of averted abdominal obesity varied between €1515 and €1993, depending on the different dimensions of the target group. Conclusion This study demonstrates the positive effects of state-wide, school-based health promotion on incidental abdominal obesity, at affordable costs and with proven cost-effectiveness. These results should support allocative decisions of policymakers. An early start to the prevention of abdominal obesity is of particular importance because of its close relationship to non-communicable diseases. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), Freiburg University, Germany
The world has changed dramatically since the Ottawa Charter was developed in 1986. Contemporary health promotion responses continue to evolve and become more sophisticated in response to the multiple challenges created by an ever-changing world. This commentary discusses some of the challenges facing health promotion professionals today and some of the responses that are being developed to address them. The importance of contextual considerations for both the worker and the work of health promotion are emphasised. The author then suggests ways that organisations and individuals can meet modern-day health promotion challenges through specific courses of action.
Madsen, Wendy; Bell, Tanya
Health promotion core competencies are used for a variety of reasons. Recently there have been moves to gain international consensus regarding core competencies within health promotion. One of the main reasons put forward for having core competencies is to guide curriculum development within higher education institutions. This article outlines the endeavours of one institution to develop undergraduate and postgraduate curricula around the Australian core competencies for health promotion practitioners. It argues that until core competencies have been agreed upon internationally, basing curricula on these carries a risk associated with change. However, delaying curricula until such risks are ameliorated decreases opportunities to deliver dynamic and current health promotion education within higher institutions.
Douglas, John G.
Rapid change and the interdisciplinary nature of health promotion and disease prevention necessitate constant curricular updating. This requires knowledge of curriculum development, curricular models, and faculty development. (CH)
Frazier, Stacy L; Cappella, Elise; Atkins, Marc S
The current mental health system is failing to meet the extensive needs of children living in urban poverty. After school programs, whose mission includes children's socialization, peer relations, and adaptive functioning, are uniquely positioned to support and promote children's healthy development. We propose that public sector mental health resources can be reallocated to support after school settings, and we offer specific examples and recommendations from an ongoing federally funded program of research to illustrate how mental health consultation can support publicly funded after school programs. In light of the increasing needs and depleting [corrected] resources of urban, poor communities, consultation to publicly funded after school programs can contribute to the mental health goals of keeping children safe and supervised, promoting their healthy development through academically and socially enriching activities, and identifying children in need of more intensive mental health services.
Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver.
During 1985 the Colorado Migrant Education Program and the Colorado Migrant Health Program provided a comprehensive health program for students enrolled in migrant summer schools. A total of 1,889 migrant children through age 21 (60% between 5 and 10 years of age) received health screening and physical assessment, referral for diagnosis and…
Volker, Deborah L.; Becker, Heather; Kang, Sook Jung; Kullberg, Vicki
Purpose/Objectives To explore the experience of living with a cancer diagnosis within the context of a pre-existing functional disability and to identify strategies to promote health in this growing population of cancer survivors. Research Approach Qualitative descriptive Setting Four sites in the United States Participants 19 female cancer survivors with pre-existing disabling conditions Methodologic Approach Four focus groups were conducted. The audiotapes were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis techniques. Main Research Variables cancer survivor, disability, health promotion Findings Analytic categories included living with a cancer diagnosis, health promotion strategies, and wellness program development for survivors with pre-existing functional limitations. Participants described many challenges associated with managing a cancer diagnosis on top of living with a chronic disabling functional limitation. They identified strategies they used to maintain their health and topics to be included in health promotion programs tailored for this unique group of cancer survivors. Conclusions The “double whammy” of a cancer diagnosis for persons with pre-existing functional limitations requires modification of health promotion strategies and programs to promote wellness in this group of cancer survivors. Interpretation Nurses and other health care providers must attend to patients’ pre-existing conditions as well as the challenges of the physical, emotional, social, and economic sequelae of a cancer diagnosis. PMID:23269771